Harmonic Perturbation is given by the last two terms of the Hamiltonian Equation (1.77) e 2 2 e H1 (t) = − A · p + A (2.58) m m with A given by Equation (1.30) A(x, t) = 4π V 1


[aλ (k) eikx ελ (k) + aλ (k) e−ikx ε∗ λ (k)]


We closely follow the procedure used in Section 1.4 to obtain the transition probability. The ket in Equation (2.57) has a photon that is not there in the bra, so we need to select terms in Equation (2.58) that annihilate a single photon. Such terms are present only in the first term of Equation (2.58), while the second term changes the number of photons by 0 and ±2. The term proportional to aλ (k) in A · p is summed over k but only the term whose values of k and λ are equal to the ones of the initial photon, listed in the ket, survives. That term has a time dependence exp(−iωt) leading to a −ω in the δ -function in Equation (2.57). We obtain dwfi = 2π B; p 4π e − V m

1 2ωk

aλ (k) eik·x ελ (k) · p A; k, λ

×δ (EB + Ee − EA − ω) δ (EB + Ee − EA − ω) (2.60) Compare this expression with Equation (1.114) for (spontaneous) emission. The only differences are the sign in the exponent of the exponential, the absence of complex conjugation of ε λ (k), and the sign of ω in the δ -function. The reader should follow the arguments leading to opposite signs for ω in Equation (1.110) and Equation (2.60) to see that conservation of energy comes out automatically. We want to let the operator p work backward on the bra B; p . This can be done because ελ (k) · p commutes with exp(ik · x). This can be seen as follows (ψ is a test function) ε · p eik·x ψ = εi pi eik·x ψ 1 ∂ ik·x e ψ = εi i ∂ xi 1 1 ∂ = εi (iki )eik·x ψ + εi eik·x ψ i i ∂ xi = ε · k eik·x ψ + eik·x ε · p ψ = eik·x ε · p ψ (2.61) = 2π 4π V e m 1 B; p eik·x ε λ (k) · p A 2ωk

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