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Quantum

69

line of Equation (2.77) comes from the fact that the contributions from the two terms discussed above are equal. Because the system A cannot change in elastic scattering we have B A = δBA . The energies EA and EB are the eigenvalues of H0 , the Hamiltonian for the systems A and B.The expression is of order e2 . We now consider the second order contribution of the A · p term. We start with the equation for c ˙ (2) Equation (1.92) f ˙ f (t) = −i λ2 c

m (2) i(Ef −Em )t λc(1) m f λH1 m e

(2.78)

(1)

This second order equation requires a ﬁrst order expression for cm for which we use Equation (1.91) where we substitute m for f λc ˙ (1) m (t) = −i

n i(Em −En )t c(0) n m λH1 n e

(2.79)

As in Section 1.3 we assume that the system is in the state i at some time t1 (0) (0) in the past. Then all cn (t1 ) = 0 except for ci (t1 ) = 1, see the discussion below Equation (1.93) in Section 1.3. We get from Equation (2.79)

i(Em −Ei )t λc ˙ (1) m (t) = −i m λH1 i e

(2.80)

**We integrate Equation (2.80) from t1 to t to get λc(1) m (t) = −i
**

t t1

dt m λH1 i ei(Em −Ei )t

(2.81)

**where we have introduced a new integration variable t . Of course t1 ≤ t ≤ t. Substitution of Equation (2.81) in Equation (2.78) gives λ2 c ˙ f (t) = (−i)2
**

(2) t

dt

t1 m

**f λH1 m m λH1 i ei(Ef −Em )t ei(Em −Ei )t
**

2 t

= (−i)2 −

e m

dt

t1 I

B; k , λ A(x, t) · p I (2.82)

I A(x , t ) · p A; k, λ ei(EB −EI )t ei(EI −EA )t

We have replaced m by I where ‘I’ stands for intermediate. The name is appropriate because the operator product A(x , t ) · p converts the state A; k, λ to the state I which in turn is converted by the operator product A(x, t) · p to the state B; k , λ . Thus the state I is truly intermediate; it is only reached in passing from A; k, λ to B; k , λ .

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