# PHOTON SCATTERING 73

Equation (2.91) in Equation (2.93) and integrating over dω

using the
δ-function we get

d
= r
2
e
_
ω

ω
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
δ
AB
ε
λ
(k) · ε

λ

(k

) −
1
m

I
_
B
¸
¸
ε
λ
(k) · p
¸
¸
I
__
I
¸
¸
ε

λ

(k

) · p
¸
¸
A
_
E
I
−E
A
+ ω

1
m

I
_
B
¸
¸
ε

λ

(k

) · p
¸
¸
I
__
I
¸
¸
ε
λ
(k) · p
¸
¸
A
_
E
I
− E
A
− ω
¸
¸
¸
¸
2
(2.94)
We are now in a position to discuss two (Rayleigh, Thomson) of the three
types of scattering mentioned in the beginning of this section because they
lend themselves to further development of Equation (2.94).
2.4.3 Rayleigh Scattering
In Rayleigh scattering we are dealing with elastic scattering with photon
energies much less than typical energy differences between levels of the
target. Thus we have ω

= ω,
¸
¸
B
_
=
¸
¸
A
_
, and ω = ω

|E
i
− E
A
|. The δ
AB
term in Equation (2.94) can be evaluated as follows (set ε
λ
(k) = ε and
ε

λ

(k

) = ε

)
δ
AB
ε · ε

= ε
i
δ
ij
ε

j
= iε
i
[p
i
, x
j
] ε

j
= (ε · p) (ε

· x) −(ε

· x) (ε · p) (2.95)
where we have used Equation (1.7). Sandwiching this between
_
A
¸
¸
and
¸
¸
A
_
we get
_
A
¸
¸
ε · ε

¸
¸
A
_
= i
_
A
¸
¸
(ε · p) (ε

· x) − (ε

· x) (ε · p)
¸
¸
A
_
= i

I
__
A
¸
¸
ε · p
¸
¸
I
__
I
¸
¸
ε

· x
¸
¸
A
_

_
A
¸
¸
ε

· x
¸
¸
I
__
I
¸
¸
ε · p
¸
¸
A
__
(2.96)
where we have twice inserted the completeness relation

I
¸
¸
I
__
I
¸
¸
= 1. We
now use Equation (1.115) to relate the matrix elements of the operators p
and x and replace the two occurrances of p in Equation (2.96) by x.
_
A
¸
¸
ε · p
¸
¸
I
_
= mi(E
A
− E
I
)
_
I
¸
¸
ε · x
¸
¸
A
_
(2.97)
Thus we get from Equation (2.96)
_
A
¸
¸
ε · ε

¸
¸
A
_
= i

I
im(E
A
−E
I
)
_
A
¸
¸
ε · x
¸
¸
I
__
I
¸
¸
ε

· x
¸
¸
A
_
−i

I
im(E
I
− E
A
)
_
A
¸
¸
ε

· x
¸
¸
I
__
I
¸
¸
ε · x
¸
¸
A
_
(2.98)