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SCATTERING

Making the same replacement of p by x in the second and third terms in Equation (2.94) and substitution of Equation (2.98) in Equation (2.94) with ω = ω gives dσ 2 = r2 e m d +

I

(EI − EA ) A ε · x I I ε ∗ · x A

I

(EI − EA ) A ε ∗ · x I I ε · x A (EI − EA )2

I

− −

I

**A ε·x I I ε∗·x A EI − EA + ω A ε∗·x I I ε·x A
**

2

(EI − EA )2

EI − E A − ω

(2.99)

where we have written all energy differences as EI − EA , introducing minus signs as needed. Note the sign of each term. In Rayleigh scattering ω |EA − EI | so we have neglected the ω terms in the denominators of the third and fourth term and they cancel the squares in those terms. Inspection of Equation (2.99) shows that the ﬁrst and third terms as well as the second and fourth terms sum to zero, so the cross section approaches zero in the limt ω → 0. This indicates that we have substantial cancellations among the four terms and we proceed as follows. The ﬁrst and third terms in Equation (2.99) are both proportional to A ε · x I I ε ∗ · x A so we sum their prefactors (taking the common factor m outside the modulus symbols) (EI − EA ) − (EI − EA )2 EI − EA = (EI − EA ) − ω EI − EA + ω 1+ E − E

I

A

= (EI − EA ) − (EI − EA ) 1 − =ω− ω2 +... EI − EA

ω + EI − EA

ω E I − EA

2

+... (2.100)

where we have expanded the denominator in the last term of the ﬁrst line using 1 (2.101) = 1 − x + x2 . . . 1+x The terms with (EI − EA ) in Equation (2.100) cancel, consistent with our earlier observation. The second and fourth terms in Equation (2.99) are both proportional to A ε ∗ · x I I ε · x A so we sum their prefactors and obtain a relation similar to Equation (2.100) but with ω → −ω. Substituting Equation (2.100) and its equivalent for ω → −ω in Equation (2.99) and

Quantum

Quantum

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