# 78

SCATTERING

PROBLEMS
(1) Scattering in the Born Approximation. Consider the scattering of a particle by an inﬁnitely massive target that presents a spherically symmetric potential V (r) to the projectile. V (r) is given by V (r) = V0 for r < a and V (r) = 0 for r > a. Use the Born approximation in your calculations. (a) Calculate the scattering amplitude f (θ , φ ) where θ , φ are the scattering angles. (b) Calculate the cross section differential in the scattering angles. (c) Derive the condition for the Born approximation to be valid. (d) How does the validity of the Born approximation depend upon the energy of the incident particle and the magnitude of V0 ? (e) Study the limiting case where the potential is a δ -function by taking the limit a → 0 while keeping the product aV0 constant. (2) Neutron Scattering. Low energy neutron scattering is an important tool of research in condensed matter. Consider the scattering of a very low energy neutron of an electron. The electron resides in an atom that is embedded in the lattice of a crystal. The energy of the neutron is so low that it may be assumed that the electron is undisturbed by the scatter. The vector potential at the position re of the electron, due to the magnetic moment µ of the neutron at position r, is given by A=µ× (re − r) (re − r)3 (2.110)

This vector potential leads to an interaction term in the Hamiltonian of the form e e V (x) = − p · A(x) + A(x) · p − σ · ∇ × A(x) (2.111) 2m 2m with e and m the electron’s charge and mass respectively, p the electron’s momentum, σ its Pauli spin operator, and x = re − r. (a) Derive the equation for V (x). (b) Prove that 4π i (2.112) d3 x e−iq·x A(x) = − 2 µ × q q (c) Show that f V (x) i = (σ · q)(µ · q) iq·re 4π e 4π ie 1 σ ·µ− µ × q · (eiq·re p) − e 2 m q 2m q2 (2.113)