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VENUE: - GLADNI (NARWAL) SUBMITTED TO: SUBMITTED BY:-
RASLEEN K SUDAN
ROLL NO:- 146/06 ELECTRICAL- 7th SEM
LIST OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 1.2 1.3
Location of Gladni Grid Station Description of single line diagram Substations 1.3.1 1.3.2 Design of substations Location of Substations
EQUIPMENTS&SWITCH GEAR INSTALLATIONS IN GLADNI GRID STATIONS
Incoming lines Busbars 2.2.1 2.2.2 Single bus bar Double bus bar
Insulator 2.3.1 Pin type insulator
2.3.2 Suspension type insulator 2.3.3 Post type insulator 2.4 2.5 Isolating switches Circuit breaker 2.5.1 Classification of circuit breaker 184.108.40.206 MOCB 220.127.116.11 . Sulphur Hexafluoride
2.5.1. Vacuum Circuit breaker 2.5.2 2.6 Applications
CHAPTER 3 RELAY
Protective relay Types of relay 3.2.1 3.2.2 IDMTL Buchol‟z relay
Earthing 3.3.1 Neutral grounding
Power transformer Instrument transformer 4.2.1 4.2.2 Current transformer Potential transformer
Metering and indicating instruments Power line carrier communication system
Introduction Main circuits in transformers 5.2.1 Magnetic Circuit
5.2.2 Electric Circuit
5.2.3 5.2.4 5.2.5
Dielectric Circuit Thermal Circuit Structural Circuits
Transformer Cooling 5.4 5.4.1 5.4.2 5.4.3 5.4.4 5.4.5 5.4.6 Structural Circuits Conservator Breather Temperature Indicator Buchholz‟s Relay Bushings Tap Changes
5. ABBERVIATIONS FULL NAME 1. 7.LIST OF ABBERVIATIONS S. 2. 6.No. ac dc kV PT CT HT MOCB Alternating current Direct current Kilo Volts Potential transformer Current transformer High terminal Minimum Oil Circuit Breaker . 3. 4.
The electrical power is produced at power stations which are located at favorable places quite away from consumers. For the further distribution of electrical supply grid station plays an important role. transmitted and distributed in the form of direct current and voltages were low. ac can be converted to dc by the use of rectifiers. Sometimes it becomes necessary to use dc. .INTRODUCTION In the beginning of the electrical age. electricity was generated. ac system has become predominant. at the time. It delivers to consumers through large network of transmission and distribution. The present day large power systems has been possible only due to adoption of ac system. The present day electrical power generator system is ac. In the short ac is of utmost importance. With the development of transfer.
Trikuta-Nagar and Railway complex 33KV G-3.INTRODUCTION (GLANDI .JAMMU) Location:.Bahu fort … 33KV G-6.It is used by power station itself 33KV G-2.33MVA = 400MVA 1 x 160 MVA = 160MVA Total = 560MVA Again there are two transformers banks 132/33KV with capacity.Old city and panjthrithe 33 KV G-5.Ghandi-Nagar and shastri-Nagar 33 KV G-4.Jammu (J&k) In Gladni Grid Station there is provision for three incoming transmission lines:1) 220KV Salal-1 2) 220KV Salal-2 3) 220KV Hiranagar-1 The outgoing/incoming line is one that is: 1) 22Okv Jammu-Hiranagar/saran/Hiranagar-2 There are two numbers 220/132KV two transformer banks with capacity:3 x 133. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 33KV G-1. channi . 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 132 KV Miran Sahib Line 132 KV Kalakote Line 132 KV Hiranagar-1 132 KV Hiranagar-2 132 KV Sidhra-1 132 KV Sidhra-2 132 KV Bari-Brahamana There is also provision for following 33 KV lines. Gladni .Narwal. 2 x 50MVA = 100MVA There is provision following 132 KV line outgoing feeders.
T is right on the point where the line is terminated. The diagram of this grid station is explained as under:1) There are three 220 KV in coming lines connected to the bus bars. the lines first off and then earthed. 2) The grid station has double bus bar system.SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION ABOUT SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM Figure attached shows key diagram of a typical 220/132/33 KV Gladni Grid Station. one main bus bar and the other spare bus bar. the supply need not to be interrupted as the entire load can be transferred to the other bus. 5) The P. Whenever repair is to be carried over the line towers. local supply connections.C supply connections. In case there is a break down of one incoming line. 7) Against there is provision for further step down 132 KV supply to 33 KV by two transformers with capacity: 2 x 50 MVA = 100 MVA 8) There are other auxiliary components in the grid station such as wave trapper. each connections. 3 x 133. The advantage of double bus bar system is that if repair is to be carried on one bus bar. . The incoming can be connected either bus bar with the help of an arrangement of circuit breaker and isolators.T are suitably located for supply to metering and indicated instruments and relay circuit. 6) The lighting arresters are connected near the transformers terminals to protect those lighting strokes. the continuity of supply can be maintain by the other line. The C. Each incoming lines is capable of suppling the sub station load. 3) There is an arrangement in gladni grid station to step down the incoming 220 KV supply to 132 KV by two transformer banks with capacity.33 MVA = 400 MVA 1 x 160 MVA = 160 MVA Total = 560 MVA 4) All the three incoming and out going lines are connected through circuit breaker having isolators on there either ends. All these lines can be loaded simultaneously to share the grid station load the three lines arrangement increases the reliability of the system. capacitor bank for power factor improvement. and D. The P.T are connected at the terminals of each circuit breaker.T and C.
Their main functions are to receive energy transmitted at high voltage from generating stations.g. thus a substation may be called as link between the generating stations and consumer. others are converting substations which convert AC into DC or vise-versa or convert frequency from higher to lower or vise-versa. DESIGN OF GRIDSTATION When a station is to be designed. reliability. from AC to DC or to the voltages from 66kv. 110kv. The layout should be such that it should be possible to isolate any section during fault. safety. A substation is convenient place for installing synchronous condensers at the end of the transmission line for purpose of improving power factor and make measurements to check the operation of the various part of the power system . serve as a source of energy supply for the local areas of distribution in which these are located. . which transfer energy to another. The consumer do not use such high voltage and so they must be transformed to low voltage levels by means of substations. without affecting the service of the healthy section. or 220kv. Some substation are simply switching where different connections between various transmission lines are made. An arrangement should be made to extinguish fire. e. It should be possible to have an easy and safe access for maintenance and inspection for different equipments. Thus gridstations may be defined as the assembly of apparatus.however 500kv will used for the national grid system in future. Decide the layout of the switchgear keeping views capacity of substations. methods of control and number of feeders. the following procedure should be adapted: Prepare a single line diagram of main electrical connections showing bus bar arrangements. A proper and sufficient automotive electrical protective gear should be used. Allow reasonable amount of expansions for substation. They provide points where safety devices may installed to disconnect equipment or circuit in the event of faulty. substation have some additional functions. Voltage on the out going feeder can be regulated at the substation.GRID STATION Gridstation are the important part of power system. The earth conductor should of sufficient cross-sectional area to carry the fault current in severe conditions. flexibility. circuit breaker and transformers. space needed and construction. Power cables should be separate from control cable. reduce the voltage to a value appropriate for local distribution and provide facilities for switching.
Allow access to the incoming transmission line and outgoing distribution line. to step up generations voltage to transmission voltage.LOCATION OF GRIDSTATION The following points should be taken mainly into consideration in choosing the location of gridstation:- Location stations as close to the load center as possible. The location of station should be indoor. Choose the site where municipal restriction of property laws should permit the type of building necessary for substation. In case of stations at the generating stations. Keep load on substations with in such limits that an undue large area or number of consumers will not be affected in case the station shut down occurs. The advantage of outdoor type is that they do not need any buildings. outdoor. all the equipments. all the equipments are arranged outdoors and should with stand weather conditions. which is common used. . The indoor type of station. which is common used. In case of outdoor the cost of transformers and switchgear equipments is less than that indoor type. The last two are for small size of distributions stations and the rural electrification may be considered only in large crowded cities. So in the transmission stations also control and protective equipments are located inside the buildings near the station yard. and underground or pole mounted. with space limitations. they are located in the outstation yard. Locate stations at such points that all the perspective loads may be conveniently reached without under voltage regulation. In case of outdoor types of station.
Maintenance should be possible without interruption of supply or danger to the operating personal. 2) BUS BARS When a number of lines operate at the same voltage have to be directly connected electrically. . There are numerous variations of bus bars arrangements. The incoming and outgoing lines in a substation are connected to the bus bars. The strain type bus bars are the overhead system of wires string between the two supporting structures and supported by the strain type insulators. The installation should be as economical as possible keeping in view the requirements and continuity of supply. system voltage and position of the substation in the system flexibility. The choice of a particular arrangement depends on various factors. In rigid type pipes are used for bus bars and also for making the connections among the various equipments wherever required. These are: 1) INCOMING LINES These lines supply powers to the substations from source of generations or from transmission lines at high voltages. Alternative arrangements should be available in the event of an outage of any of the apparatus. bus bars are used as the common electrical components. Bus bars copper or aluminum bars (generally rectangular x – section) and operate at constant voltage.EQUIPMENTS AND SWITCH GEAR INSTALLATION IN THE GLADNI GRID STATION There are the various electrical equipments installed at the substations. The outdoor bus bars is either of the rigid type or the strain type. reliability of supply and cost: Simplicity is the keynote of dependable system.
It provides facility for carrying out breaker maintenance but does not permit bus maintenance. . In case of fault or maintenance of bus bar the entire bus bar has to be de energized and total shut down results. The main and transfer bus works on other way round. When ever the maintenance is required on any breaker. It is not popular used for 33KV and above. except where the relative importance of the substation is less or the position of the substation does not justified elaborate schemes. b) Double bus bar arrangement The double bus arrangement provides facility to change over to either bus to carry out maintenance on the other but provides no facility to carry over breaker maintenance. the circuit is changed over to the transfer bus and controlled through bus coupler breaker. The equipment connections are very simple and it is very easy to operate.The most commonly used bus bars arrangements in substations are: a) Single line bus bar arrangement It consists of single (three phase) bus bars to which the various feeders are connected. This arrangement is simplest and cheapest. However it suffers from two major defects:.maintenance without interruption of supply is not possible and extension of substation without a shutdown is not possible.
sound free from defects and thoroughly vitrified so that the glaze is not dependent upon insulation. The most usually material for manufacture of insulators is porcelain. The load circuits may be divided into two separate groups if needed from the operational considerations.The scheme used two identical bus bars so that Each load may be fed from either bus. Either bus bar may be taken out for the maintenance and cleaning of insulators This arrangement has been used quite frequently adopted where the load and continuity of supply justify additional cost.free and impervious to the entrance of gases and liquids. and it therefore follows that porcelain for electrical purposes must be both thoroughly air. and glass material are also used. The porcelain should be ivory white. Normally cement is used between metal and porcelain. since the presence of pores or other air. The insulator serves two purposes. Toughened glass is also sometime used for insulators but its use is limited to about 33KV. This type of bus is used in GLADNI are main bus bar(bus 1) & reserve bus bar( bus 2) . although some moulded materials are used for low voltage. This through vitrification of the porcelain is of paramount importance. It is desirable not allow porcelain to come in direct wit a hard metal screw thread. 3) INSULATORS The insulator used in connection with over head systems employing bar conductors are composed almost invariably of glazed porcelain. The design of the insulator is such that the stress due to contraction and expansion in an par of insulator does not to any defect.spaces will lower the dielectric strength. .
each insulator is a single disc shape piece of porcelain grooved on the under surface to increase the leakage path between the metal cap at the top and the metal pin at the bottom of the insulator.type insulator is attached to steel bolt or pin. The design of the shells is such that if upper most shell is wet due to rain the lower shells are dry and provided sufficient leakage resistance. b) Suspension type insulator For high voltage rating these insulators are used. Suspension insulators being free to swing. It is not desirable to use them beyond 50KV as a cost of such insulators then increase much faster then the voltage. These insulators consists of one or more insulator units flexibly connected together and adopted to the hung for the cross on of the supporting structure and to carry a power conductor at its lowest extremity. or other support. This type of insulator consists of single or multiple shells ( petticoats or rain sheds) adopted to be mounted on a spindle to a fixed to the cross arm of the supporting structures. The insulator and its pin.Types of insulators a) Pin type insulator As the name suggests the pin. which is secured to a cross arm on the transmission pole. The pin type insulators are normally used up to 33KV. Multiple shells are provided in order to obtain sufficient length of leakage path so that the flash over voltage between the power conductors and pin of the insulator is increased. the clearance required between the power conductor and the supporting structures are more as compared to pin type insulators. Each insulator is design for 11KV and hence for any operating voltage a string of insulators can be used. should be sufficiently strong mechanically to withstand the resultant force due to the combined effects of wind pressure and weight of span. Such composite units are known as string insulators. .
Many early multipart lines are spotted with line post insulators as replacements. one unit. isolator‟s switches are operated only when the lines in which they are connected carry low current. The hole in the cap is the threaded so that the bus bars can be directly to cap. instead of replacing all insulators. and the insulation for any required line voltage can be obtained by using a „string‟ of a suitable number of such insulators. the grid nature of the attachment results in fatigue and ultimate brittleness of the wire. Most insulators are used for bus bars. In the event of a failure of an insulator.instead of the whole string. as would be necessary with pin-type. The isolating switch or isolator accomplishes this. The mechanical stress are reduced.Several important advantages follow from this system Each insulator is designed for a comparatively low working voltage. this can be met by adding the requisite number of units to each string. There is no hobby numbering system for post insulators yet. An isolator is essentially a knife switch and is designed to open the circuit under no load. c) Post type insulator Post insulators have metal bolt down base as opposed to threads. It may be defined as a device used to open or close a circuit either when negligible current is interrupted or when no significant change in the voltage across the terminals of each pole of the isolator will result from the operation. 4) ISOLATING SWITCHES In substation.000 volts. Also string is free to swing. there is an equalization of the tensions in the conductors of successive spans. since the line is suspended flexibly with pin type insulators. In other words. In the event of an increase in the operating voltage of the line. it is often desired to disconnect part of the system of the general maintenance and repairs. due to the alternating nature of the stresses.has to be replaced. Isolators are not fitted control device and function only . cast iron cap and flanged cast iron base. Post insulators are also used in substations to insulate high voltage switching gear and transformers. usually about 11. Post insulators consist of porcelain body.
called electrodes. when serves two function:- It extinguishes the arc drawn between the contacts when the circuit breaker open.for instantaneous changes of switching circuit‟s arrangements and for providing a visible break in a circuit. The insulating fluids commonly used are :Air at atmospheric pressure Compressed air Ultra high vacuum Oil which produces hydrogen for arc extinction Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) In GLADNI grid station there different types of circuit breakers are used. Under normal operating condition. Many insulating fluids are used for arc extinction and the fluid chosen depend upon the rating and type of the circuit breaker. So as to make certain operation that can be performed on an isolated section without running a risk. For the latter operation a relay is used in the circuit breaker. A circuit breaker essentially consists of fixed and moving contacts. Isolators are handling manually as well as automatic. It is so desired that it can be operated manually or by remote control under normal condition and automatically under fault condition. The contacts can be opened manually or by remote control whenever desired. When a fault occurs on any part of the system. 5) CIRCUIT BREAKER A circuit breaker is equipment which can be open are closed a circuit under a normal as well as fault condition. . the trip coils of the circuit breaker get energized and moving contacts are pulled apart by some mechanism. In 220 KV line minimum oil circuit breaker (MOCB) is used where as in 132KV line MOCB and SF6 are used and for 33KV line MOCB and vacuum circuit breaker is used. the basic construction of any circuit breaker requires the separation of the contacts in any insulating fluid. these contacts remain closed and will not open automatically until and unless the system becomes fault. thus opening the circuit. It provides adequate insulation between the contacts and from each contacts to earth.
the arc extinguishing can be further facilitated in low circuit breaker.By using suitable arc control devices. venting.The SF6 circuit breaker has been found to be very effect able for high power and high voltage services.TYPES OF CIRCUIT BREAKER :- 1. It used minimum amount of oil and is only used for arc extinguishing the current conducting parts are insulated by porcelain or organic insulated material. reduction in total weight and reduction in cost . the electrons is absorbed by the neutral gas molecules may occur in two ways SF6 + e -> SF6 SF6 + e -> SF5 + F . The conducting free electrons in arc are rapidly captured by the gas to form relatively immobile negative ions .SF6 has excellent insulating strength because of its affinity for electrons i. The other advantages are reduction in tank size . SULPHUR HEXAFLURIOD(SF6 ) In such circuit breaker sulphur hexafluoride gas is used as arc quenching medium. This loss of conduction electrons in the arc quickly builds up enough insulating strength.e whenever a free electrons collides with the neutral gas molecules to form negatives ions. MINIMUM OIL BREAKER (MOCB) CIRCUIT One of the important development in the design of oil circuit breaker has been to reduce the amount of oil needed. 2. Low oil circuit breaker employees solid materials for insulations purpose and uses a small qty. The contacts of the breaker an opened in a high pressure flow of SF6 gas and an arc is struck between them. The SF6 is electronegative gas and has a strong tendency to absorb free electrons.of oil which is just sufficient for arc extinguishing .
after the breaker operates. (SF6 CIRCUIT TYPE FXT14F BREAKER RATED VOLTAGE-245KV NORMAL CURRENT-2500A FREQUENCY-50HZ DURATION OF SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT-3SEC) WORKING In closed position of the breaker. medium between the contacts quickly built up high dielectric strength and cause the extinction of the arc. . the contacts remains surrounded by SF6 gas at a pressure of about 6KG/sq. The high.cm pressures from the reservoir to the arc interruption chamber.pressure flow of SF6 rapidly absorbs the electrons in the arc path to form immobile negative ions.cm. Thus. the moving contact is pulled apart and arc is structure between the contacts. which ineffective as charge carriers. The movement of the moving contacts is synchronized with the opening of the valve. When the breaker operates.The negative ion formed are relatively heavier as compared to free electrons and therefore under a given electric field the ions do not attain sufficient energy to lead cumulative ionization in the gas. which permits SF6 gas at 15Kg/sq.
ions and electrons do not come from the medium in which the arc is drawn but they are obtained from the electrodes themselves by evaporating its surface material . VACCUM C IRCUIT BREAKER: In such breakers (degree f vacuum being from 10-7 to 10-5 tore) is used as arc quenching medium. because of the large mean free path for the electrons . the interruption occurred first current zero with dielectric strength between the contacts building at a rate of 1000th of times higher then that obtained with other circuit breaker . .III. it has superior quenching properties then any other medium e. In the vacuum arc the neutral atoms. the dielectric strength of the vacuum is a 1000 times more than when the gas is used as the interrupting medium . Since vacuum offers the high insulating strength. Thus a vacuum arc is different from the general class of low & high pressure arc .g when contacts of the breaker are opened n vacuum .
It consists of two assemblies: Series spark gaps and non-linear resistor discs. It should not only protect the equipment for which it is used but should discharge the surge current without damaging it self. These voltages may result from switching disturbance in the electrical installation circuit or from lightning stroke. On the occurrence over voltage.LIGHTENING ARRESTERS : It is protective device which conducts the high voltage surges on the power system to the ground. . These both are connected in series under normal conditions. Surge voltages are abnormal voltage that may cause break down of insulation of electrical equipment. the normal system voltage is insufficient to cause the break down of air gap assembly. They provide effective protection. Requirement of lightning Arrester It should not pass any current at normal or at abnormal (normally 5% more than normal voltage) power frequency voltage. In Gladni grid station valve type arrester is used. It should interrupt the power frequency follow current after the surge is discharged to ground. the break down of series spark gap take place and the surge current is conducted to earth via the non-linear resistor. It should break down as quickly as possible after abnormal high frequency voltage is arrived.
when ever there is a fault in the main bus couple the load of the main bus bars to there serve bus bar and vice versa. They provide the coupling between the two bus bars of the zone e.g. .BUS COUPLER Breakers are used as bus couplers. the provide the coupling between the zone A and B. CONTROL CABLES The control cables and conduit system is required for affecting automatic controls. For laying these cables generally ducts are run from control room basement to centrally located junction box from where the conduits are run to be required.
resistance. Oil level Indicators Pressure Relief device Marshalling Box/ Control Cubicle Oil preservation systems : Conservators and Breathers TRANSFORMER OIL One of the most important factors. OTI. to emulsion viscosity. To provide a cooling medium capable of extracting quantities of heat without deterioration as an insulating medium. although 3 single phase bank of transformer can also be used. which determine the life. . strength. only one 3 phase load tap changing mechanism can be used. In gladni sub station two rating of transformers are installed 220/132/33 KV. satisfactory operations of the transformer are the oil in which it is immersed The transformer oil has two prime functions: To create the acceptable level of insulation in conjunction with insulated conductors and coils. ACCESSORIES AND AUXILIARIES USED IN TRANSFORMER Tank Radiators Cooling fans. Secondly its installation is much similar then single phase transformer. The use of three phase transformer (instead of 3 phase bank of transformer) permits two advantages. purity. Some of the important characteristics necessary in transformer oil are its dielectric. The modern practice is to used 3 phase transformer in the sub station. The power transformers are generally installed upon length of rails fixed on concrete slabs having foundation 1 to 1. and flash point and sludge formations. all the subsequent sub station used step down transformer to gradually reduce the voltage of electrical supply and finally delivered it at the utilization voltage.5 m deep.POWER TRANSFORMERS : A power transformer is used in a sub station for step down the voltage. Expect at the power station. oil to water heat exchangers Bushings Buchholz Relay/ Oil surge Relay Temperature Indicator – WTI . Firstly. Vegetables and animal oils are not used in transformers. Transformers oil is a mineral oil obtained by fractional distillation of crude petroleum. oil pump.
immersed transformers are: Oil Natural (ON) The cooling by air is not so effective and proves insufficient for transformers of medium sizes. Air Base (AB) Air blast is employed in order to keep the temperature rise within the limits. the heat is transferred from the tank walls of the surrounding air by radiation and convection. Finally. the heat produced inside the core and the windings are connected across them to their surfaces. The forced air circulation improves the heat dissipation. The coolants used in the transformers arre: Air OIL The transformers using air as coolant are called dry type transformers while transformers using oil as coolant are known as oil immersed transformers. This heat is dissipated to the surroundings. Oil coolant has two advantages: It is better conductor of heat then air. During this process of energy transfer. . These losses appeared as heat. It has high coefficient of volume expansion with temperature. Method of cooling The cooling methods used for dry type transformers are Air natural (AN) The natural circulation of surrounding air is utilized to carry the heat generated by natural convection.TRANSFORMER COOLING Transformer is a static device that converts energy at one level to another voltage level. In dry type transformers the heat generated is conducted across the core and windings to be dissipated from the Outer surface of the windings to the surrounding air through convection. In case of oil immersed transformers. The cooling method used for oil. The heat is transferred from oil to the walls of the tank through convection. losses occur in the windings and core of the transformer.
The cold oil enters the transformer at the bottom of the tank. In this method the pressure of oil is kept higher than that of water and therefore leakage occurs in from oil to water. Oil forced water forced(OFWF) The heated oil is cooled in a water heat exchanger. . Oil is circulated by a motor driven pump from the top of a tank to a external cooling plant (heat exchanger) where the oil cooled. Oil natural water forced (ONWF) In this method copper cooling coils are mounted on the transformers core but below the surface of the oil. This method is not commonly used. The arrangement results in higher efficiency for the system. Oil forced air forced(OFAF) The oil is cooled by external heat exchangers using air blast produced by fans. The transformer tank is made hollow and air is blown through the hollow space to cool the transformer. Forced circulation of oil In large transformer the natural circulation of oil is insufficient for cooling the transformer and forced circulation is employed. The methods of cooling oil in the heat transformers by forced circulation of oil areas classified accordingly as: Oil forced air natural (OFAN) In this method oil is circulated to the transformer with the help of a pump and cooled in heat exchanger by natural circulation of air. Water is circulated through the cooling coils to cool the transformer. The heat is removed from the inner tank walls can be increased to five or six times that dissipated by natural means. Oil natural air forced (ONAF) In this method the oil circulating under natural head transformer heat to the tank walls.
then secondary of C. CURRENT TRANSFORMERS : C.T under consideration will step down the line current by a factor of 20 .Similarly .T will be 5 A . they not work satisfactory if mounted directly on the lines this difficulty is overcomes by installing instrument transformers on the power lines. then secondary of C. POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER : It is essentially a step down transformer & step downs the voltage to known ratio. then the voltage across secondary will be 110 kv. The primary winding of this transformer consists of one or more turns of thick wire connected in series with the line.3 A .INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS : The lines I sub station operate at high voltage and carry current of 1000 of amperes. Suppose current transformer rated at 100/5 A is connected in the line to measure current in primary the current in primary the current in the line 100 A .T is essentially a transformer which steps down current to a known ratio.Therefore. The secondary consists of large number of turns of fine wire and provides for the measuring instruments & relays a current which is a constant fraction of the current in the line .If line voltage is 66kv.Thus C. .T will have current of 2. Suppose a potential transformer rated at 66kv/ 110v is connected to a power line . The function of his instrument transformers is to transfer voltage or current in the power lines to values which are convenient for the operation of measuring instrument and relays. The measuring instruments and protective devices are designed for low voltages ( for generally 110 volts ) and currents ( about 5 A ) . if current in the line is 50 A . There are two types of instrument transformers viz . The primary of this transformer consists of large number of turns of fine wire connected across the line instrument relays a voltage a known fraction of the line voltage.
The ordinary telephone network cannot be used as it already overloads and remains engaged.g ammeter. Quickness is the first priority . which carry energy. the same power lines. Therefore. POWER LINE CARRIER COMMUNICATION SYSTEM Whenever some breakdown occurs in the transmission network at any place. . The signal is modulated by HF carrier and is send as radio waves through the power lines. voltmeter. This system is known as power line carrier communication system.The instrument transformer are invariably used with them for satisfactory operation. energy meter etc) installed in a sub station to maintain watch over the ckt quantities .METERING & INDICATING INSTRUMENTS There are several metering & indicating (e. are used for this purpose. the message to rectify the fault must be sent to all sub station.
It has two types:- ( a ) Non – directional relay ( b ) Directional relay ( a ) Non directional ( over current or earth leakage ) relay :This types of relay will not be able to discriminate when used on transmission lines.The relay ensures the safety of the ckt equipment from any damage which might be otherwise caused by the fault.PROTECTIVE RELAY AND EARTHING PROTECTIVE RELAYS : It is a device that defect the faults and initiates the operation of the ckt breaker to isolate the defective element from the rest of the system . This is achieved by using a core of the electromagnet which gets saturated for currents slightly greater than pick up current. IDMTL (INVERSE DEFINITE MINIMUM TIME OVER CURRENT RELAY) : IDMTL is one in which the operating time approx inversely proportional to the fault current near pick up value and becomes substantially constant slightly above the pick up value of the relay. . THE TYPES OF RELAYS INSTALLED AT GLADNI IDMLT type relay (Directional & non directional) Primary relays such as buchhol’z Restricted earth fault etc. whether the fault has been taken place in the section where the relay is located or it has taken place in the adjoining section. the impedance seen by relay is a very low or even negative. under the condition of high power factor or leading power factor .
2. 3.2 BUCHHOL’Z RELAY :Buchhol‟z relay is a gas actuated relay used for protecting oil immersed transformer against all types of internal fault and makes use of the fact that fault decompose oil thus generating gases. and if the fault current is high enough by a surge of oil from the tank to the conservator. In order to achieve operation for the fault flowing in a specific direction. The device relies on the fact that an electrical fault inside the transformer tank is accompanied by generation of gas .( b ) Directional (Over current or earth fault ) relay :.The non directional relay can operate for fault flow in either direction. . it is necessary to add a directional element to the non directional element. Such a relay which responds to fault flow in a particular directional is called a directional relay .
It ensures nearly constant voltage of healthy phases because neutral point is not shifted. In an electric installation. NEUTRAL GROUNDING: In practice. . This difference of potential results in voltage gradients. Now if any person comes in contact with this charged metal part. the impedance of the path of the current is low. (1 ) SYSTEM EARTHING :- It is required to provide low fault impedance to the ground fault currents for proper operation of the protective relays and for meeting the system requirement by effectively earthed system.EARTHING Connecting of an electrical equipment or apparatus to the earth with the help of a connecting wire of negligible resistance is known as “ear thing” or “grounding”. the charge will be given to earth immediately as the metallic part comes in direct contact with a bare or live wire or breakdown occurs. he will get a severe shock. the neutral of a three.phase system is earthed at sub station. ( 2) SAFETY EARTHING :- It is required to provide protection to the operating staff working in the yard and sub station from any injury during fault condition by keeping the voltage gradient with in safe limits. the instant the current exceeds the limiting value the protective device (usually a fuse) operates and isolates the appliance or equipment form the supply. The above two parts have common earth mat from which flat iron risers are taken out to connect all the non-current carrying metal parts of the equipment. the neutral being a good conductor of electricity is charged static charge on it will accumulate. which is equal to the resistance of the earth mat multiplied by ground fault current. At the same time the earth mat conductor rise to voltage. heavy current flows to earth. if a metallic part of an electric appliance comes in direct contact with a bare or livewire. This is known as neutral earthling or grounding .An earthed neutral system has the following advantages :A) B) It provides a better protection against earth faults. And as the discharge takes place to the earth. Thus to provide safety to the users as well as for the operating and maintenance personals it is essential to provide ear thing. But if the metallic parts of the equipment or apparatus are earthed.
compressor units in case of air blast circuit breakers. In large substation it is wide practice to connect two transformers to the main bars supply of the auxiliaries.The protective element of the fuse is a fuse-link inserted in series with the circuit being protected . air blast fans of power transformers. The most generally material used for fuse element is a low melting point material such as tin. maintenance and repair is required. SUBSTATION AUXILIARY SUPPLY : In small –unattended substations only small amount of power for electric lightening during regular periods of inspection. The earth may be utilized to operate protective relays to isolate the fault. Ground fault relaying is simple .the lightening circuits. . there are following equipments in a sub station :A) B) C) Fuses Carrier-current Equipment Substation Auxiliary Supplies.enclosed rewire able fuse and the cartridge type fuse. ventilating fans of the substation buildings etc. In regional substation the electric power is required for the auxiliaries.Fuses may be low voltage type or high voltage type : low voltage can be further divided into two classes namely semi. FUSES : Fuse is a essentially a short piece of metal ( or a fusible material ) inserted in a circuit which melts when a predetermined value of current flows through it and thus breaks the circuits .C) D) E) This system provides a better reliability of service . lead or zinc . In the system. transient voltages produced are very small. battery changing sets. It is safer for personal and equipment. It requires lesser maintenance expense as compared to the unearthed neural (isolated system. Persistent arcing ground can be eliminated by employing protective gear. F) G) H) In addition to above.
TRANSFORMERS INTRODUCTION :- As in well known transformers is a piece of apparatus without continuously moving parts. MAGNETIC CIRCUITS : Cold rolled grain oriented silicon (CRGOS) Steel (with lower specific losses to the folw of magnetic flux along the diection of grain orientation. With the advent of computer controlled machines for cutting the laminations precisely .load losses.step lap lamination joints are economically used to achieve low no. MAIN CIRCUITS IN TRANSFORMERS 1.It is estimated that one MW of additional power earning capacity requires about 7 to 8 MVA transformers‟ capacity . Transformers is heart of power system and is most important and costliest in power system .s is universally utilized.thermal are situated geographically for a part from load centers and since these are linked by transformer. . since the the generating station conventionally Hydroelectric . which by electromagnetic induction transformers alternating voltage and current in one or move windings usually of different values of voltage and current and at same frequency.The diamond for transformer is expected to grow at a lipid pace.
Oil serves as an insulation as well as coolant paper oil combination has been established as effective insulation system even up to HV transformers. continuously transposed conductor (CTC) are used type of winding normally include Helical.ELECTRIC CIRCUIT : It consists of primary and secondary winding which are costliest and which have to meet stringent requirement of Dielectric . In order to minimize the stay losses in the winding. continuous Disc.THERMAL CIRCUIT : The losses produced in transformer should be dissipated in order to limit the temperature rise of oil and winding working at 98mof winding temperature. over weighted ambient of 32 . 4 .By providing additional cooling through radiators . transformers have continuous healthy life during its entire service span and every 6 rise ova 98 reduces the life to half . ANNEALED rectangular shaped copes conductor s most commonly used and for Distribution transformer and high voltage testing transformers and conductor are also used.fans . 3 . .2 . Multilayer and inter laved Disc winding.etc heat can be dissipated and capacity of transformer can be updated. Major insulation between winding and between winding earth.DIELECTRIC CIRCUIT : It comprises of insulation: Minor insulation between lure to lure on within the layers o same winding. thermal and mechanical stresses expected during testing as well as service conditions.
Paper being more . In smaller transformers this vessel is open to atmosphere breathers in through large dehydrating transformer. ( b ) BRAETHER . an air bag is mounted inside the conservator with inside bag open atmosphere through breathers and outside surface of bag in contact with oil surface. ( a ) CONSERVATOR : Conservator with valiation of temperature there is corresponding variation in oil volume. The structural design should also withstand seismic forces. an expansion vessel called conservator is added to hemp with a connecting pipe to main tank. Breather. flitting and accessories such as terminal arrangements. conservator.STRUCTURAL CIRCUITS : This is essential to house the transformer oil. safety device etc. To account for this.5 . Both transformer oil and celluloses‟ paper are highly hygroscopic .
Transformers tank is a pressure vessel as the inside pressure can group steeply whenever there is a fault in the windings and the surrounding oil is suddenly vaporized.35 kg /cm.which absorb the moisture in air before it enters the conservator air surface.hygroscopic than mineral oil . TANKS as such are tested for a pressure with stand capacity of 0. these tanks are in addition provide with expansion vents with a thin diaphragm made of Bakelite /Copper / glass at the end .The moisture. BUSHINGS : Transformer are connected to HV lines and therefore care is to taken to prevent flash-over from high voltage connections to earthed tank .Connections from cables are made in cable boxes . In present day transformer. PREASURE RELIEF DEVICE / EXPANSION VENT. this will find its way finally into paper insulation and causes reduction insulation strength of transformer to minimize this the conservator is allowed to breath only through silica gel colomin . These are similar to safety valves on boilers.To prevent bursting of the tank . . but overhead connections are to be brought through bushing specially designed for different classes of voltages. pressure relief device are replacing expansion vents. if not excluded from oil surface in conservator .
TAP CHANGER It is very essential to maintain system voltage within prescribed limits for better health of electrical equipments voltage of system can be varied by changing the true ration of transformer . operating efficiency of electrical system has considerably improved. It is essential to de-energise the transformer before changing tap.Off-Circuit tap changer 2 .On-Load tap changer (OLTC ) OFF-CIRCUIT TAP CHANGER The cheapest method of changing turn ratio of transformer is use of off-circuit tap changer.It is of basically two types : 1 . . ON – LOAD TAPCHANGE On-load tap changers are employed to change the turn ratio of the transformer to regulate system voltage while transformer is delivering normal load. With the introduction of on-load tap changer.The device tap changer is used for adding a cutting out turns of primary or secondary winding of transformer .
3 MVA TRANSFORMER (SINGLE PHASE) .133.
94 419.5 .42 ONAN 96 32 220 132 11 251.27 ONAF 128 42.67 220 132 11 335.33 220 132 11 419.91 559.8 1679.8 2239.160 MVA POWER Transformer (3 Phase) TYPE OF COOLING Rating HV&IV(MVA) Rating LV (MVA) No load HV(KV) No load IV(IV) No load LV(KV) Line current HV(A) IV(A) LV(A) OFAF 160 53.8 2799.8 699.
50MVA EMCO Transformer TYPE OF COOLING Rated power HV KVA LV IV Rated voltage at no load HV(KV) IV LV Rated line current HV(A) LV ONAN 40000 40000 132 33 174.7 .69 874.95 699.8 ONAM 50000 50000 132 33 218.
8 33 218.50 MVA CGL Transformer TYPE OF COOLING No load voltage HV(KV) LV Current HV ONAN 132.7 ONAF .
160 MVA Transformer Control panel .
V.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I avail this opportunity to express my profound sense of sincere and deep gratitude to Mr. K. I am blissful to express my deep sense of gratitude to employees. but not the least. chief executive engineer. . GLADNI Narwal who helped me a lot in giving minute details of Design and Constructional Features of Grid Station and enlightened me with the knowledge of Grid Station and Its working. I must express my immense gratitude to all the members of the GLADNI NARWAL JAMMU . Suri. Last. GLADNI Narwal Jammu for giving me the opportunity to carry out my one month training in this organization. from whom I got all necessary help whenever required.
. Though the period of one month was not that much to have explored such a wonderful sight. I am sure that the technical knowledge which I have gained at GLADNI Narwal Jammu would serve great in future. Still I am pleased to have learnt a lot about the work culture and the ethics of industries.CONCLUSION It is itself is a feeling of gratitude to have visited one of the chief Electrical installation of the Jammu.
CAPACITOR BANK .
COM ii)WWW.WEKIPIDIA.REFRENCE WEBSITE:i)WWW.COM BOOKS: NAME OF THE BOOK : PRINCIPLE OF POWER SYSTEM AUTHOR PUBLISHER CHAPTER :V.CHAND :i)CIRCUIT BREAKERS ii)SUBSTATIONS iii)PROTECTIVE RELAY`S .GOOGLE.K.Mehta & Rohit Mehta :S.