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DIFFERENTAIL GEOMETRY
CONTENTS
GENERAL INTRODUCTION
SYLLABUS
REFERENCE
UNIT I : CURVES IN SPACE. 0143
UNIT II : CURVES ON SURFACE 4464
UNIT III: LOCAL INTRINSIC PROPERTIES OF SURFACE 6591
UNIT IV: LOCAL NON – INTRINSIC PROPERTIES OF
SURFACE – GEODESICS 92121
UNIT V: GEODESIC CURVATURE 122147
UNIT VI: GEODESIC MAPPING, ASYMPTOTIC LINES,
RULED SURFACES AND DEVELOPABLE 148175
UNIT VII: REGRESSION AND FURTHER THEORY OF SURFACE 176196
UNIT VIII: DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY OF SURFACES IN LARGE 197218
GENERAL INTRODUCTION
‘ Differential Geometry is that part of geometry dealing with the study
of curves in space and curves on surfaces. It is a subject for its own sake.
But it has some applications too. For example, there is a special type of
geometrical curve called ‘Geodesic’ , . Its properties are analyzed in
variational calculus ( or ) calculus of variations, dealing with maximization
or minimization of functional. By studying the curves and surfaces in the
neighbourhood of a point on them, we analyse the local property. On the
other hand, we analyse global property of the same, while we study them as
a whole. Actually, we apply the methods of calculus and vectors to study the
curves in space and of surfaces.
Most of our theorems are expressed by systems of Differential
Equations. They tell us how a curve or a surface will be generated from
suitable initial conditions. Like ‘ Differential Geometry’, there are different
distinguishshable geometries , such as ‘ Metric Geometry’ (which preserves
straight lines, distances and angles), ‘ Projective Geometry’ ( which
preserves straight lines), ‘Topology’ (which preserves continuity ) . A very
deep study of invariance in geometry was made by Ricci and his pupil Levi
– Civita. This is the Tensor calculus, which Albert Einstein found to be the
most suitable tool for his general theory of relativity.
DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY
SYLLABUS
UNIT – I :
The theory of space curves – Arc length tangent  Normal binormal 
definition of space curve  Geometrical interpretation of
dr
ds
r
 Equation of the
tangent line to a curve at a point  Tangent line in cartesian form  Osculating plane 
Principal normal and binormal  Curvature of the curve in Space  Serret – Frenet
Formulae  Expression for torsion.
UNIT – II :
Different of a surface  Curves on a surface  Contact between curves and
surfaces  Osculating circle  Osculating sphere  Locus of the centre of spherical
curvature  Tangent Surfaces, Involutes and Evolutes  Intrinsic equation of space
curves  Fundamentals existence theorem for space curves  Helices  the spherical
indicarices ( or) spherical images.
UNIT – III :
Surface representation, regular and singular points  Change of parameters 
Curvilinear equations of the curve on the surface  Tangent plane and normal 
Surfaces of revolution  Anchor ring  Helicoids  Metric on a surface  the first
fundamental form  Invariance of the metric  Element of area  Direction
coefficients on a surface.
UNIT – IV :
Family of curves  Differential equation of the family of curves  Orthogonal
Trajectories  Double family of curves  Isometric correspondence  Intrinsic
properties  Geodesics and their differential equation  Canonical geodesic equations 
Second fundamental form  Fundamental equations of surface theory  Geodesics on a
surface of revolution  Curvature of normal section of the surface  Mennier’s theorem
 Clairaut’s theorem.
UNIT – V :
Normal property of a geodesic  Existence theorem  Geodesic parallels 
Geodesic polars  Geodesic curvature components of geodesic curvature  Geodesic
curvature of the parametric curve  Liouville’s formula gauss  Bonnet theorem 
Gaussian curvature  Minding’s theorem  Conformal mapping  Corollary.
UNIT – VI :
Geodesic mapping  Ruled surface ( Developable and Skew )  Equation of the
ruled surfaces  Necessary condition  Lines of curvature  Differential equation of
lines of curvature  Property of lines of curvatures on developable  Conjugate
directions  Asymptotic lines  Asymptotic lines on a ruled surface  Parameter of
distribution of a ruled surface  Properties of parameter of distribution  Central point
and the equation of the line of Striction .
UNIT – VII :
Joachimsthal’s theorem  Dupin’s indicatrix  Types of point (Elliptic,
Hyperbolic and Parabolic)  Third fundamental form  Family of surfaces  Envelope
 The edge of regression  Definition of edge of regression  Characteristic touches the
edge of regression  Minimal surfaces  Gauss characteristic equation  Mainardi –
Codazzi equations.
UNIT VIII :
Compact Surfaces  Points are umbilics  Hilbert’s lemma  Compact surfaces
of constant gaussian or mean curvature  Complete surfaces  Characterization .
BOOK REFERENCES
1. ‘Differential Geometry’ by Dr. S.C Mittal & D.C Agarwal, Krishna prakashan
Mandir, Meerut.
2. ‘Lectures on classical differential Geometry’ by D.T.Struik, Addison – Wesley
Mass 1950.
3. ‘An introduction to Differential Geometry ‘ by T. Willmore, clarendan Press,
Oxford, 1959.
4. ‘Differential Geometry’ by D. Somasundaram, Narosha Publishing House
Chennai, 2005.
5. ‘Elementary Topics in Differential Geometry’ by J.A.Thorpe, Springer – verlag,
New York , 1979.
1
UNITI
CURVES IN SPACE
STRUCTURE :
Learning Objectives
1.0. Introduction
1.1. Definitions of Curves in space and examples
1.2. Tangent line to curve
1.3. Osculating Plane
1.4. Principal normal and binormal.
1.5. Curvature of the curve and torsion .
1.6. Serret – Frenet Formulae.
1.7. Expression for torsion
1.8. Summary
1.9. Key Words.
1.10. Answer to Check Your Progress
1.11. Terminal Questions.
1.12. Further Readings.
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
After going through this unit, you should be able to
 define curve in space, tangent line, unit tangent vector, osculating plane, principal
normal and binormal, curvature and torsion
 give examples of curves, equations of tangent line,
 derive expressions for curvature and torsion
 derive serret – Frenet formulae.
1.0 INTRODUCTION:
Differential Geometry is that branch of mathematics dealing with the curves in
space and curves on surfaces. It is that part of geometry which is treated with the help of
Differential calculus. We know that the geometric character of curves and surfaces varies
continuously and it is achieved by the use of differential calculus. There are two branches
2
of differential geometry: one in which we study the properties of these curves and
surfaces in the neighbourhood of a point is called ‘local differential geometry’ and
second in which we study the properties of these curves and surfaces as a whole is called
‘Global Differential Geometry’.
Preliminaries:
Important results on vectors:
1. Any vector r
r
can be expressed as a linear combination of 3 given non copalanar
vectors , , a b c
r
r r
i.e., r xa yb zc = + +
r
r r r
. In terms of unit vectors , , i j k
r
r r
along three
mutually perpendialar axes called , , x y z  axes, we haver xi yj zk = + +
r r r
r
,
2
2 2 2
r x y z = + +
r
. The direction ratios of r
r
, being , , x y z .
2. (i)
( )
cos , a b b a a b a b × = × =
r r r r
r r r r
(ii)
( ) ( )
0, 0 0 a b if a or b or a b × = = = ^
r r r
r r r
(iii) 1 0 i i j j k k and i j j k k i × = × = × = × = × = × =
r r r r
r r r r r r r r
3.
( )
a b c a b a c × + = × + ×
r r
r r r r r
4. (i) a b a b ´ =
r r
r r
sin
( )
, a b n
r
r r
, where 1 n =
r
and n
r
is perperdialar to both a
r
and b
r
.
(ii) 0 a b ´ = Þ
r r
r
Either
( ) ( )
0 0 a or b or a b = =
r r
r r
P
(iii) a b b a ´ =  ´
r r
r r
(iv) 0 a a ´ =
r
r r
(v) 0 i i j j k k ´ = ´ = ´ =
r r r r r r r
or , , i j k j k i k i j ´ = ´ = ´ =
r r r r r r r r r
5.
( )
a b c a b a c ´ + = ´ + ´
r r
r r r r r
&
( )
a b c a c b c + ´ = ´ + ´
r r
r r r r r
3
6. if
1 1 1
a x i y j z k = + +
r r r
r
and
2 2 2
b x i y j z k = + +
r r r r
, then
(i)
1 2 1 2 1 2
a b x x y y z z × = + +
r
r
(ii)
1 1 1
2 2 2
i j k
a b x y z
x y z
´ =
r
r r
r
r
7. (i) ab c a b c b c a c a b
é ù
ê ú
ë û
= × ´ = × ´ = × ´
r r r r
r r r r r r r r
And each is numerically equal to the volume of a parallelopiped having , , a b c
r
r r
as
coterminus edges
(ii) If , ,
1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3
a x i y j z k b x i y j z k c x i y j z k = + + = + + = + +
r r r r r r r r r r
r r
Then
1 1 1
2 2 2
3 3 3
x y z
a b c x y z
x y z
é ù
ê ú
ë û
=
r
r r
(iii) 0 a b c
é ù
ê ú
ë û
= Þ
r
r r
Either
( ) ( ) ( )
0, 0, 0 , , a or b or c or a b c = = =
r r
r r r r
are
coplanar (or) two of them are either equal or parallel.
8. (i)
( )
( )
( )
a b c a c b a b c ´ ´ = ×  ×
r r r
r r r r r r
(ii)
( ) ( )
a b c a b c ´ ´ =/ ´ ´
r r
r r r r
9. (i) vector equation of a straight line through the point, whose position vector
is a
r
and parallel to b
r
is r a t b = +
r
r r
(t being scalar parameter)
(ii) Vector equation of a straight line through the points, whose position vectors are a
r
and b
r
is ( )
1 r t a tb =  +
r
r r
10. Vector equation of a plane (i) through the point, whose position vector is a
r
and
parallel to b
r
and c
r
is r a sb t c = + +
r
r r r
4
(ii) Through three given points, whose position vectors are , , a b c
r
r r
is
( )
1 r s t a sb t c =   + +
r
r r r
(iii) Through two points, whose position vector are , a b
r
r
and parallel to c
r
is
( ) 1 r s a sb tc =  + +
r
r r r
(iv) Normal to n
r
isr n q × =
r r
, where
1 1
q
n
r is the length of perpendicular from the
origin to the plane
(v) Through a given point, whose position vector is a
r
, normal to n
r
is
( )
( )
0 r a n or r n a n  × = × = ×
r r r r r r r
UNIT – I
CURVES IN SPACE
1.1. DEFINITIONS OF CURVES IN SPACE AND EXAMPLES:
A curve in space is the locus of a point, whose position vector is r
r
relative to a
fixed origin may be expressed as a function of a single variable parameter,u (say) inside
a certain closed interval. Hence, the rectangular coordinates( ) , , x y z of the point can be
expressed as functions of the same parameter.
The Cartesian form of the equation of a space curve is
( ) ( ) ( )
, , ,
1 2
x x u y y u z z u u u u = = = £ £
If , , ox oy oz represent the rectangular axes along which the respective unit
vectors in the positive directions of the axes are , , i j k
r r r
,then
5
( )
r r u =
r r
,
1 2
u u u £ £ is known as vector form
of the equation to the curve, r
r
, being the position
vector of a point with respect to a fixed origin and
u , being a parameter.
If we represent the rectangular coordinates of the
point in space as
( )
1, 2,3
i
x i = in short, then the
equation of the curve is
( )
, 1, 2,3
i i
x x u i = =
1 2
u u u s s
Another definition of space curve:
A space curve can also be defined as the intersection of two surfaces viz.,
( )
( )
, , 0& , , 0
1 2
F x y z F x y z = = .But such an intersection may split into several
curves.
Note:
When a straight line intersects a surface in k points, we say that the surface is of
degree k. If it is intersected by a plane in a curve of degree k, then also we say that the
surface is of degree k. A space curve is of degree l, if a plane intersects it in l points. The
points of intersection may be real, imaginary, coincident or at infinity. The complete
intersection of an algebraic surface of degree m and an algebraic surface of degree n is a
space curve of degree m n.
Method of obtaining the parametric representation of a curve of intersection of
two surfaces, whose equations are
( ) ( )
, , 0, , , 0 :
1 2
F x y z F x y z = =
Eliminating x from the above equations, we will get the relation between
y andz . Now express
( )
.
3
Similarly y F z = having eliminated y from the above
equations, express
( )
4
x F z = .
If z is a function of a variable parameter u (say) then bothx and y will be
functions of the same parameter.
6
\ The parametric representation of the equation to the above curve can be put as
( ) ( ) ( )
0 , 0 , 0
1 2 3
x u y u z u
/ / /
= = = with
1 2
u u u £ £ . 0 ,0 ,0
1 2 3
/ / /
being real valued
functions of the single variable parameter.
Note:
A parametric representation of the curve gives the sense of description of the
curve also. The positive direction of the description of the curve is that in which the
parameter increases and the opposite direction is the negative direction.
e.g., i) straight line:
If a straight line passes through a point A ,
whose position vector is a
r
and is parallel
to b
r
, then its equation is r a ub = +
r
r r
(r
r
being the position vector of any point
on the line and u, being the scalar
parameter)
If , ,
1 2 3 1 2 3
r xi yj zk a a i a j a k b b i b j b k = + + = + + = + +
r r r r r r r r r r
r r
then ,
1 1 2 2 3 3
x a ub y a ub z a ub = + = + = +
1 2 3
1 2 3
x a y a z a
b b b
\
  
= =
This is Cartesian equation of the same line passing thro’
( )
, ,
1 2 3
a a a whose direction
cosines are proportional to , ,
1 2 3
b b b , where at least one of
i
b s
'
is not zero.
Check Your Progress ( C Y P ) :
1. Define Curve in space
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7
2. Give two examples of space curves
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2). Circle:
The circle is a plane curve. If its plane is
taken as z o = and radius ‘a’ then its
parametric equation is
cos , sin , 0 x a u y a u z = = = with
2 o u t s s , where u is the parameter. In
the fig. xop u =
The corresponding vector equation is
( ) ( )
cos sin , 0 r a u i a u j z = + =
r r
r
with
0 2 , u p £ £ (OR)
( )
cos , sin , 0 r a u a u =
r
3) Circular helix:
Helix is a space curve traced on a cylinder meeting the generators under the same
angle
8
Definition:
A circular helix is a helix traced on the
surface of a circular cylinder.
The axis of the circular cylinder is
defined as the axis of the cylinder.
The equation of the circular helix is
cos , sin , , x a u y a u z bu = = = where a
and b are constants. The curve winds
around the circular cylinder in such a
manner that when u increases by
2 , t then x and y return to their original
value, while z increases by 2 b t which
is called the pitch of the helix.
Note:
When b is + ve, the helix is right handed and when b is  ve, the helix is left
handed.
Arc length, Tangent:
If C is a real curve, then the arc length of a segment of the curve
( )
r r u =
r r
between the points
( )
0
A u and
( )
P u can be given by means of the integral,
( )
2 2 3
0
s
u
u x y z
u
= + +
ò
& & &
du
0
u
r r
u
= ×
ò
r r
& &
du
9
Where
dr
r
du
=
r
r
&
and we assume that
dr
du
r
is nowhere zero in the given interval. This
means the curve has no singular points in the interval and the curve is regular. In terms of
differentials, the length of the arc is given by.
2 2 2 2
ds dx dy dz
du du du du
æ ö æ ö æ ö æ ö
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
ç ç ç ç
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
ç ç ç ç
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ç ç ç ç
è ø è ø è ø è ø
= + +
Where , ,
dx dy dz
x y z
du du du
= = = & & &
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
ds dx dy dz \ = + +
and ds is known as linear element of C
The arc length ‘s ’ increases with the increase inu . The sense of increasing are
length is called + ve sense on the curve. A curve with a sense on it is called an oriented
curve. Most of our reasoning in Differential Geometry is with oriented curves. Our space
has also been oriented by the introduction of a right handed system. Yet our results are
often independent of orientation.
We can write
2 2 2 2
ds dx dy dz dr dr = + + = ×
r r
1
dr dr
ds ds
\ × =
r r
ie., 1
dr
ds
=
r
The vector
dr
ds
r
is a unit vector
Geometrical interpretation of
dr
ds
r
:
The tangent line at a point P on the curve C is
defined to be the limiting position of a straight line
through P and through the neighbouring point Q
on C as Q P ® along the curve.
Let P and Q be two neighbouring points
with position vectors r
r
and r r d +
r r
respectively
on the curveC .
10
Now
r
ds
o
r
has the same direction as r d
r
. If
¼
AP s = (A, being the initial point), then
¼
AQ s s d = + , where
¼
,
0
r dr
lt
PQ s AsQ P
s
s ds
d
d
d
d
= ® =
®
r r
, which is a tangent
vector at P .
But
dr
ds
r
is a unit vector, 1
0 0
r chordPQ
lt lt
s s
s arc PQ
d
d d
d
= =
® ®
r
Q
dr
ds
\
r
denotes the unit tangent vector at P . If we denote this by , t
r
then , t
r
dr
ds
=
r
Note (1):
dr dr ds
du ds du
= ×
r r
dr
du
r
is also a tangent vector. But it need not necessarily be a unit tangent vector, while
dr
ds
r
is a unit tangent vector
(2) Notation: we denote
dr
du
r
by r
r
&
, while
dr
ds
r
by r
¢
r
(3) If ,
dr
r xi yj zk t r x i y j z k
ds
¢ ¢ ¢ ¢
= + + = = = + +
r
r r r r r r r
r r
Where , ,
dx dy dz
x y z
ds ds ds
¢ ¢ ¢
= = =
Since, t
r
is unit tangent vector, , , x y z
¢ ¢ ¢
denote the direction cosines of the tangent atP .
(4) As t
r
is a unit vector,
( ) ( ) ( )
cos cos cos
1 2 3
t i j k a a a = + +
r
r r r
Where
2
2 2
cos cos cos 1
1
3
a a a + + =
11
Equation of the tangent line to a curve at a point:
Let P be the point of contact of the
tangent with the curve
( )
r r u =
r r
We know that r
r
&
is parallel to the
tangent line at
P
.
If r
r
is the position vector of P and
R
r
is the position vector of any point
Q on the tangent at P , then the
equation of the tangent is
R r wr = +
r
r r
&
, w being a scalar
parameter.
If instead of the parameter u, we use the parameter (arc length), then since t
r
is unit
vector along the tangent atP , the equation of the tangent line is given by
( )
R r t or R r r l l
¢
= + = +
r r r
r r r
(l , being scalar parameter)
1.2. TANGENT LINE IN CARTESIAN FORM:
Corollary 1: if
1 1 1
r x i y j z k = + +
r
r r
r
and R xi yj zk = + +
r r
r r
Then the equation of the tangent is R r wr = +
r
r r
&
i.e.,
( )
1 1 1
xi yj zk x i y j z k w xi yj zk + + = + + + + +
r
r r
r r r r r r
& & &
i.e.,
1 1 1
x x y y z z
x y z
  
= =
& & &
Which is the Cartesian equation of the tangent thro’
( )
, ,
1 1 1
x y z having the direction
cosines proportional to
, , x y z &&&
If we use the parameter s, we have the Cartesian equation of the tangent as
1 1 1
x x y y z z
x y z
  
= =
¢ ¢ ¢
12
Corollary 2: If the equation of the curve is given as the intersection of the surfaces
( ) , , 0
1
F x y z = and ( ) , , 0
2
F x y z =
We have
1 1 1
0
F F F
dx dy dz
x du y du z du
¶ ¶ ¶
× + × + × =
¶ ¶ ¶
And
2 2 2
0
F F F
dx dy dz
x du y du z du
¶ ¶ ¶
× + × + × =
¶ ¶ ¶
i.e,
1 1 1
0
F F F
x y z
x y z
¶ ¶ ¶
+ + =
¶ ¶ ¶
& & &
And
2 2 2
0
F F F
x y z
x y z
¶ ¶ ¶
+ + =
¶ ¶ ¶
& & &
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
x y z
F F F F F F F F F F F F
y z z y z x x z x y y x
= =
¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶
×  × ×  × ×  ×
¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶
& & &
from which we obtain the d. c’s of the tangent. Substituting the values of , , x y z
&&&
in the
equation R r wr = +
r
r r
,we get the equation of the tangent line at a point of the curve of
intersection of the surfaces
( ) ( )
1 2
, , 0& , , 0 F x y z F x y z = =
e.g; (1) find the equation of the tangent to the circle
cos , sin , x a u y a u z o = = =
sin , cos , x a u y a u z o =  = =
& & &
2 2 2 2 2
s x y z a = + + =
& & & &
s a s au = \ =
&
\ The equation of the curve can also be written as,
cos , sin , 0
s s
x a y a z
a a
æ ö æ ö
÷ ÷
ç ç
÷ ÷
ç ç
÷ ÷ ç ç
è ø è ø
= = =
13
o
P
y
u
a
The unit tangent vector
d r d r
ds
t
ds du du
= =
r r
r
dr dx dy dz ds
i j k
du du du du du
æ ö
÷
ç
÷
ç
÷÷
ç
è ø
= + +
r
r
r r
( )
( )
( )
1
sin cos a u i a u j ok
a
=  + +
r
r r
( )
( )
sin cos u i u j =  +
r r
\ Equation of the tangent line at
P is
cos sin
sin cos
x a u y a u
u u
 
=

i.e.
cos sin x u y u a + =
e.g; (2) Circular helix:
cos , sin , x a u y a u z cu = = =
sin , cos , x a u y a u z c \ =  = =
& & &
2
2 2 2
ds
s a c
du
æ ö
÷
ç
÷
ç
÷
÷ ç
è ø
= = +
&
2 2
s a c k \ = + =
&
(Say)
s k \ =
&
integrating . . . , wr t u s ku =
sin , cos ,
k k k
a a c
t u u
æ ö
÷
ç
÷
ç ÷
è ø

\ =
r
Hence, the equation of the tangent at P on the circular
helix is
cos sin
c
sin cos
x a u y a u
z u
a u a u c
 

= =

e.g., (3) show that the tangent at any point of the curve whose equations are
2 3
3, 3 , 2 x t y t z t = = = makes a constant angle with the line 0 y z x =  =
Solution:
The position vector r
r
of any point on the curve is
( )
2 3
3 ,3 ,2 r t t t =
r
14
( )
2
3,6 ,6
dr
r t t
dt
= =
r
r
&
( )
1
2 4
2
1 1 9 36 36 s r t t \ = = + +
r
&
& =
( )
{ }
( )
1
2 2
2 2 2
3 6 3 6 3 1 2 t t t + = + = +
\ The direction cosines of the tangent are given by
( )
( )
2
3,6 ,6
2
3 1 2
t t
t +
i.e..
( )
2
1,2 ,2
2
1 2
t t
t +
i.e.,
2
1 2 2
, ,
2 2 2
1 2 1 2 1 2
t t
t t t + + +
The equation of the given line in symmetrical form is
1 0 1
x y z
= =
The direction cosines of this line are
1 1
, 0,
2 2
If u is the angle between the tangent
and the line,
Then cosq
( )
2
1 1 2 2 1
0
2 2 2
2 2
1 2 1 2 1 2
t t
t t t
æ ö
æ ö æ ö
æ ö æ ö
÷ ç
÷ ÷ ç ç
÷ ÷ ÷
ç ç ç
÷ ÷
ç ç
÷ ÷ ÷
ç ç
÷ ÷ ç
ç ç ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ç ç
ç ÷ ÷
ç ç
÷ ç ç
÷ ÷ ç ç è ø è ø
÷ ç è ø è ø
è ø
= + +
+ + +
( )
( )
( ) ( )
2
2
11 2 0 2 1
1 2 1
2 2
2
2 1 2 2 1 2
t t
t
t t
×+ +
+
= = =
+ +
Hence u is constant
3. Check Your Progress ( C Y P ) :
Define tangent line at a point on the curve C and write down its vector equation
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
15
1.3. OSCULATING PLANE:
Definition:
A space curve does not lie on a plane. However a very small arc of the curve may
be thought of as almost a plane curve. The plane which should almost contain a small arc
about a point P is called the osculating plane at P . Clearly for a plane curve, the
tangent at P is contained in the plane. By analogy, we conclude that the osculating plane
at P should contain the tangent at P . But there are infinitely many planes through the
tangent. To fix osculating plane we must have a small arc about P or at least a
neighbouring point Q of P , besides the tangent.
Thus the osculating plane formally can be defined as the limiting position of the
plane through the tangent at P and a neighbouring point Q on the curve, as Q P ® .
To find the equation of the osculating plane:
For a function
( )
f x of real variable, we have the Tailor’s (or) Maclaurine’s
expansion:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 3
2! 3!
x x
f x f o xf o f o f o
¢ ¢¢ ¢¢¢
= + + + + ××××××
In the same manner, we can expand ( ) r r s =
r r
by Taylor expansion in the form:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 3
2! 3!
s s
r s r o sr o r o r o
¢ ¢¢ ¢¢¢
= + + + + ×××××××
r r r r r
This is because
( )
r s
r
is a simple combination of three functions
( ) ( ) ( )
, , x s y s z s for
each of which the Taylor’s expansion holds.
Now, if R
r
is position vector of any point A on the osculating plane at P , then
the tangent at P , the elementary vector PQ
uuur
and the vector PA
uuur
must all be coplanar. If
we measure arc lengths fromP , so that the arc . PQ is small, we find that
( ) ( ) PQ OQ OP r s r o =  = 
uuur uuur uuur
r r
and,
( )
PA OA OP R r o =  = 
uuur uuur uuur r
r
And that tangent at P is represented by
( )
' r o
r
,
16
Since PA
uuur
, the tangent vector at P , PQ
uuur
are all coplanar, we have that the box
product of these three vectors is zero. ie.,
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) 1 , ' , 0 R r o r o r s r o
é ù
ê ú
ë û
  =     
r
r r r r
Using the Taylor’s expansion for
( ) ( )
r s r o 
r r
, we obtain
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2
'' 0
2!
s
r s r o s r o r
¢
 = +
r r r r
nearly. Substituting this expansion, the condition
(1) becomes
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
, ' , 0
2
s
R r o r o sr o r o
é ù
ê ú
ê ú
ê ú
ë û
 + =
r
r r r r
i.e., ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
, ' , ' , ' , ' '
2
s
s R r o r o r o R r o r o r o o
é ù é ù
ê ú ê ú
ë û ë û
 +  =
r r
r r r r r r
Since the first box product is zero, and since two of its components are equal, we
get
( ) ( ) ( )
, ' , ' ' R r o r o r o o
é ù
ê ú
ë û
 =
r
r r r
This is required equation of osculating plane in vector form at
( )
P s o = . Its equation in
scalar form is
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
X x o Y y o Z z o
x o y o z o o
x o y o z o
  
¢ ¢ ¢
=
¢¢ ¢¢ ¢¢
Note: Any plane through a straight line is the osculating plane for the line.
If the curve is given in terms of an arbitrary parameter u , instead of the arc lengths , then
to find the equation of the osculating plane.
If the equation of the curve is
( )
r r u =
r r
, then
.
r dr dr du dr ds
r
ds du ds du du
s
¢
= = = =
r r r r
&
r
&
''
d dr d r d r du
r
ds ds ds s du s ds
æ ö æ ö
æ ö
÷ ÷ ç ç
÷
ç ÷ ÷
ç ç
÷
÷ ÷
ç
ç ç
÷
÷ ÷
ç
÷ ç ç ç
÷ ÷ è ø
÷ ÷ ç ç
è ø è ø
= =
r r r
& &
r
& &
17
1
2
s r r s
ds
s
du

= ×
r r
&& &
& &&
&
3 2 3
s r r s
r s
r
s s s
=

= 
r r
r
&& &
&&
& &&
r
&&
&
& & &
Then the equation , ' , ' ' 0 R r r r
é ù
ê ú
ë û
 =
r r r
becomes
, ,
2 3
n r s
R r r o
s
s s
é ù
ê ú
ê ú
ê ú
ë û
  =
r
&&
r
&
r
r r
&&
&
&
& &
i,e.,
1
, , , ,
3 4
s
R r r r R r r r o
s s
é ù é ù
ê ú ê ú
ë û ë û
   =
&&
r r
r r r r r r
&&& &&
&
Since, the second box product is zero, we get
, , R r r r o
é ù
ê ú
ë û
 =
r
r r r
&&&
Note:(1) The osculating plane is not determined, when r o =
r
&&
or when r
r
&&
is proportional
to r
r
&
(2) (i) if r o =
r
&&
, then r a =
r r
&
a constant vector
r ua b \ = +
r
r r
which is a straight line
(ii)
( )
1
u
r r r c e cf u
l
l = Þ = =
r r r r r
& &
( )
2
r cf u a Þ = +
r r r
, which is also straight line when , , , a b c d
r r
r r
are fixed vectors.
if r o \ =
r
&&
and r r l =
r r
&& &
are valid for all points on the curve, then they
both are satisfied for straight lines and only for those.
Note(3): In the case of plane curve, the osculating plane coincides with the plane of the
curve. When the curve is a straight line, the osculating plane is indeterminate and may be
any plane through the straight line.
E, g.,(1) Find the osculating plane of the circular
helix: ( ) cos , sin , x a u y a u z bu u a a = = =  < <
The vector form of the equation of the helix is
18
( ) ( )
cos sin r a u i a u j buk = + +
r
r r
r
or
( )
cos , sin , r a u a u bu =
r
( ) ( )
sin , cos , & cos , sin , r a u a u b r a u a u o \  =  
r r
& &&
The equation of the osculating plane at any point ' ' u is , , R r r r o
é ù
ê ú
ë û
 =
r
r r r
&&&
, where
( ) , , R X Y Z =
r
is the position vector of any point on the osculating plane.
cos sin
, , sin cos
cos sin
X a u Y a u Z bu
R r r r o a u a u b o
a u a u o
é ù
ê ú
ê ú
é ù
ê ú \
ê ú
ê ú
ë û
ê ú
ê ú
ë û
  
 = Þ  + =
 
r
r r r
&&&
i.e.,
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )
2
cos sin sin cos X a u ab u Y a u ab u Z bu a o  +  +  =
i.e.,
( )
sin cos Xb u Yb u Z bu a o  +  =
i.e., sin . Xb u Y bcou Za abu  + =
2) Find the equation of the osculating plane for the curve
2 3
3 , 3 , 2 x t y t z t = = = at
1
t t =
( )
1 1 1
2 3
: 2 2 2 Ans t t y z t  + =
3) Find the equation of the osculating plane for the curve given by
( )
2 3
, , r u u u =
r
at
any point ' ' u
( )
2 3
: 3 3 Ans u x uy z u o  +  =
4. Check Your Progress (C Y P):
In what situations, osculating plane is not determined?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
1.4. PRINCIPAL NORMAL AND BINORMAL:
The plane at P perpendicular to the tangent line at P and therefore also
perpendicular to the osculating plane at P , is called the normal plane at P . It contains
all the straight lines at P perpendicular to the tangent. i.e., all the normals. Among all
19
these normals, there are two important ones. They are the principal normal and the
binormal at P . In a plane curve, we have just one normal line. This is the normal, which
lies in the plane of the curve.
Definition: Principal Normal is the normal lying in the osculating plane and it is the
intersection of the normal plane and the osculating plane. The normal which is
perpendicular to the osculating plane at a point is called the Binormal . Certainly, the
binormal is also perpendicular to the principal normal.
Let
n
r
be the unit vector along
the principal normal. It we take
b
r
as the unit vector at P
perpendicular to the osculating
plane, then b
r
is along the
Binomal
Now , , t n b
r
r
r
are three mutually
r
^ unit vectors forming a right handed system in that
order.
As P moves along the curve, , , t n b
r
r
r
form a moving frame of reference and hence
known as moving trihedron. Thus at each point on the curve we have three unit vectors
, , t n b
r r
r
satisfying the relations: 1 t t n n b b × = × = × =
r r
r r
r r
0 t n n b b t × = × = × =
r r
r r
r r
, , t n b n b t b t n ´ = ´ = ´ =
r r r
r r r
r r r
The plane containing the tangent vector t
r
and the binormal vector b
r
at P is
called rectifying plane.
20
Thus at any point of the curve, we have three planes formed by the moving
trihedron.
They are:
i) The osculating plane (containing t
r
and n
r
)
ii) The normal plane (containing n
r
and b
r
)
iii) The rectifying plane (containing b
r
and t
r
)
1.5. CURVATURE OF THE CURVE AND TORSION:
The curvature at a point on the curve is defined by the rate of change of direction
of the tangent at that point with respect to the arc length s.
In other words, if y is the angle made by the
tangent at a point P on the curve, then the
curvature of the curve at P is defined as the
rate of change of y × w r t. s.
i.e., The curvature at
d
P
ds
y
=
The curvature is also measured from
dt
t
ds
¢
=
r
r
1 t t × = Þ
r r
on differentiation w r t s, we get
0 t t t t
¢ ¢
× = ^
r r r r
But t n ^
r
r
, t n t kn
¢ ¢
\ \ =
r r
r r
P (where k is scalar called kappa )
Now, if we denote kn k =
r
r
, then k
r
is known as the curvature vector and it measures the
rate of change of the tangent, when we proceed along the curve. k is called curvature and
k is called length of the curvature vector..
21
2
2
dt d r
kn r
ds ds
¢¢
= = =
r
r
r r
kn kn r r
¢¢ ¢¢
\ × = ×
r r r r
2
k r r
¢¢ ¢¢
=
r r
Note: t
¢
r
is equal to a + ve or –ve multiple of n t kn k \ = Þ
r
r r
may be +ve or –ve.
Result: A curve is a straight line iff 0 k = at all points.
Proof: The equation of the straight line is , r as b = +
r
r r
where a
r
and b
r
are constant
vectors. Thus t r a
¢
= =
r
r r
and 0 t
¢
=
r r
i.e., 0 r
¢¢
=
r
r
2 2
0 0 k r r k k
¢¢ ¢¢
\ = × Þ = Þ =
r r
Conversely, if 0 k = everywhere, then t r o
¢ ¢¢
= =
r
r r
everywhere, which on integration
gives r a
¢
=
r r
, constant vector and again integrating we get r as b = +
r
r r
, which represents
a straight line. P
Torsion: The rate of change of the direction of the binormal at P on the curve, as P
moves along the curve is defined as the Torsion at P .
(or)
The rate at which the osculating plane turns about the tangent at P as the point
P moves along the curve is called Torsion of the curve at P .
The magnitude of the torsion is denoted by t .
We know that, as b
r
is the binormal unit vector, 1 b b × =
r r
, which gives on
differentiation 0 b b
¢
× =
r r
Hence b b
¢
^
r r
and therefore b
¢
r
lies in the osculating plane. But
0 b t × =
r
r
, which gives on differentiation,
( )
0 . ., 0 b t b t ie b t b t b kn k b n
¢ ¢ ¢
× + × = × =  × =  × =  × =
r r r r r r
r r r r
r r
22
Thus b
¢
r
is also
r
^ to t
r
. Thus b
¢
r
is a vector lying in the osculating plane and
perpendicular to t b
¢
×\
r r
is parallel to n
r
. Thus we writeb n t
¢
=
r
r
, where t is the torsion.
But it is customery to denote b n t
¢
= 
r
r
for the following reason.
Assume , , t n b
r r
r
as the unit vectors , , i j k
r r r
along the three mutually
r
^ coordinate
axes , , OX OY OZ respectively. Then XY plane is the osculating plane, and k
r
is the
binormal. Assume that the origin is moving along the +ve direction of X  axis . ie, the
direction of t
r
, which is the direction of the curve. Thus, as we move along the curve, if
the XY plane turns in the manner of a right handed screw advancing in the direction of
X  axis, then the change b d
r
in b
r
will be to the direction of negative Y axis. Thus
b
s
d
d
r
and therefore b
¢
r
must be in the direction of ( )
n 
r
Check Your Progress ( C Y P ):
5. What are the three types of planes at any point on the curve ?\
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
6. Prove that a curve is a straight live if and only if the curvature k = 0 at all
Points.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
1.6 . SERRETFRENET FORMULAE:
We have obtained ,
dt db
kn n
ds ds
t = = 
r r
r r
We know that , , t n b
r r
r
form a right handed system of unit vectors in that order.
n b t \ = ´
r r
r
differentiating with respect to s both sides
23
dn db dt
t b
ds ds ds
= ´ + ´
r
r
r
r r
n t b kn t =  ´ + ´
r
r
r r
n t b
b kt
b n t
t
æ ö
÷
ç
÷
ç
÷
ç
÷
ç
÷
ç
÷
ç
÷
÷ ç
è ø
´ = 
= 
´ = 
r r
r
r
Q r
r
r
r
dt
t kn
ds
¢
= =
r
r
r
dn
n b kt
ds
t
¢
= = 
r
r r
r
db
b n
ds
t
¢
= = 
r
r
r
are called serret Frenet formulae
These formulae can be put in a matrix equation
t
t
o k o
n k o n
o o
b b
t
t
æ ö æ ö
÷ ÷
ç ç æ ö
÷ ÷
ç ç
÷
ç ÷ ÷
ç ç
÷
ç ÷ ÷
ç ç ÷
÷ ÷ ç
÷
ç ç
÷ ÷
ç
÷
ç ç ÷ ÷
ç
÷
ç ç
÷ ÷
ç ÷
÷ ÷ ç ç
ç ÷
÷ ÷
ç ç
÷ ç
÷ ÷
ç ç ÷
ç
÷ ÷ è ø
ç ç
÷ ÷
ç ç
è ø è ø
¢
¢
= 

¢
r r
r r
r r
Note: if we denote
( ) ( ) ( )
cos cos cos
1 2 3
t i j k a a a = + +
r r r r
( ) ( ) ( )
cos cos cos
1 2 3
n i j k b b b = + +
r
r r
r
( ) ( ) ( )
r r r cos cos cos
1 2 3
b i j k = + +
r r r r
24
,
i i
s s a b
¢ ¢
and
i
r s
¢
are the angles which the oriented tangent, principal normal and
binormal make with the positive directions of coordinate axes , , ox oy oz respectively
Hence, the formulae of Serret Frenet can be written in the following form:
cos cos
i
d
k
i
ds
a b =
cos cos cos
i
d
r k
i i
ds
b t a =  1,2, 3 i =
r cos cos
d
i
i
ds
t b = 
1.7. EXPRESSION FOR TORSION :
We know that .,
dt
kn ie kn r
ds
¢¢
= =
r
r r r
2
k r r
¢¢ ¢¢
\ = × ×
r r
(1)
We know also that
db
n
ds
db
n
ds
t t \ =   =
r
r
r
r
taking dot product with n
r
.,
db db
n n n ie n
ds ds
t t × =  × =  ×
r r
r r r r
i.e..,
( )
d
n t n
ds
t =  × ´
r
r r
( ) ( )
. n t n n t n
¢
=  × ´  ´
r r
r r r r
25
( ) ( )
n t n t n
¢ ¢
=  × ´ \
r r
r r r
P
r r
r
k k
é ù
æ ö
÷
ç
ê ú
÷
ç
÷
ê ú ç
÷
ç
è ø
ê ú
ë û
¢¢ ¢¢¢
¢
=  × ´
r r
r
( )
2
1
r r r
k
¢¢ ¢ ¢¢¢
=  × ´
r r r
( )
2
1
r r r
k
¢ ¢¢¢ ¢¢
=  × ´
r r r
( )
2
1
r r r
k
¢ ¢¢ ¢¢¢
= × ´
r r r
r r r
r r
t
é ù
ê ú
ë û
¢ ¢¢ ¢¢¢
=
¢¢ ¢¢
×
r r r
r r
Which is the expression for t
Aliter:
dr
r t
ds
¢
= =
r
r
r
dt
r kn
ds
¢¢
= =
r
r r
r k n kn
¢¢¢ ¢ ¢
= +
r r r
( )
k n k b kt t
¢
= + 
r
r
r
2
k n k b k t t
¢
= + 
r
r
r
2
r r r t kn k n k b k t t
é ù
é ù
ê ú
ê ú
ë û
ë û
¢ ¢¢ ¢¢¢ ¢
\ = + 
r r r
r r r r r
26
t kn k n
é ù
ê ú
ë û
¢
=
r
r r
2
t kn k b t kn k t t
é ù
é ù
ê ú
ê ú
ë û ë û
+ + 
r r r r
r r
2
k t n b t
é ù
ê ú
ë û
=
r
r
r
2
1 k t n b t n b t
æ ö
é ù
÷
ç
ê ú ÷
ç ÷
è ø
ë û
= \ = × ´ =
r r r r
r r
1
2
r r r
r r r
r r
k
t
é ù
ê ú
ë û
é ù
ê ú
ë û
¢ ¢ ¢¢¢
¢ ¢¢ ¢¢¢
\ = =
¢¢ ¢¢
×
r r r
r r r
r r
Find expressions for k andt ,choosing u as a parameter:
.
dr dr du
r r u
ds du ds
¢
= = =
r r
r r
&
,
dr
ie t r u
ds
¢
= =
r
r
r
&
( )
2
1 t t r r u
¢
\ = × = ×
r r
r r
& &
( )
1/ 2
u r r

¢
\ = ×
r r
& &
Now ( )
2
1 r r u r u
¢¢ ¢ ¢¢
= + × ®
r r r
&& &
3
2 r ru ru u r u u r u
¢¢¢ ¢ ¢ ¢¢ ¢ ¢¢ ¢¢¢
= + + +
r r r r r r
&&& && && &
3
3 ru ru u r u
¢ ¢ ¢¢ ¢¢¢
= + +
r r r
&&& && &
Now
( )
1/ 2
u r r

¢
= ×
r r
& &
( ) ( )
3/ 2
1
2
u r r r r u r r u


¢¢ ¢ ¢
= × × + ×
r r r r r r
& & &&& &&&
27
( ) ( )
3/ 2
r r r r u

¢
=  × ×
r r r r
& & & &&
( )
4
2 u r r
¢
=  × ®
r r
& &&
( )
2
2 4
r r r u r u r r
é ù
ê ú
ê ú
ë û
¢¢ ¢¢ ¢ ¢
\ × =  ×
r r r r r r
&& & & &&
from (1) & (2)
( )
8 2
2
u r u r r r
é ù
ê ú
ê ú
ë û
¢ ¢
=  ×
r r r r
&& &&&&
( ) ( )
8
2
u r r r r r r
é ù
ê ú
ê ú
ë û
¢
= ×  ×
r r r r r r
&& & & &&&&
( )
8
2
u r r r
é ù
ê ú
ê ú
ë û
¢
= ´ ´
r r r
& && &
2
8
u r
é ù
ê ú
ë û
¢
= ´ A
r
r
&
where r r A = ´
r
r r
&& &
( ) ( )
8
u r r
é ù
ê ú
ê ú
ë û
¢
= ´ A ´ A
r r
r r
& &
g
( )( ) ( )
2
8
u r r r
é ù
ê ú
ê ú
ê ú
ë û
¢
= × A×A  ×A
r r r
r r r
& & &
( )
( )
8
u r r
¢
= × A×A
r r
r r
& &
( )
0 r ×A =
r
r
&
Q
( ) ( )
6
u r r r r
¢
= ´ × ´
r r r r
&& & && &
( )
2
r r u

¢
× =
r r
& &
Q
28
( ) ( )
( )
2
3
r r r r
k r r
r r
´ × ´
¢¢ ¢¢
\ = × =
´
r r r r
&& & && &
r r
r r
& &
( ) ( )
( )
3
.
2
. .
r r
r r r r
i e k
´ × ´
=
r r
r r r r
& && & &&
Now
( )
3
r r r r u
¢ ¢¢ ¢
´ = ´
r r r r
& &&
( )
( )
6
r r r r r ru
¢ ¢¢ ¢¢¢ ¢
\ ´ × = ´ ×
r r r r r r
& && &&&
6
, ie r r r r r r u
é ù
é ù
ê ú
ê ú
ë û
ë û
¢ ¢¢ ¢¢¢ ¢
=
r r r r r r
&&&&&&
r r r
r r
t
é ù
ê ú
ë û
¢ ¢¢ ¢¢¢
\ =
¢¢ ¢¢
×
r r r
r r
( ) ( )
6
6
r r r u
r r r r u
é ù
ê ú
ë û
¢
=
¢
´ × ´
r r r
&&&&&&
r r r r
&& & && &
( ) ( )
r r r
r r r r
t
é ù
ê ú
ë û
=
´ × ´
r r r
&&&&&&
r r r r
& && & &&
The necessary and sufficient condition that a curve to be a plane curve is 0 t =
(OR)
A curve is a plane curve if and only if 0 t = at all points of the curve.
Prof: Necessary condition:
Let the curve be a plane curve, since b
r
is normal to the osculating plane, the
plane curve lies in the osculating plane, ie., the plane considered is the osculating plane
and it must be fixed.
29
t
r
and n
r
lies in the osculating plane and hence b t n = ´
r
r
r
a constant vector
0 b
¢
\ =
r
r
But 0 b n t t
¢
=  \ =
r
r
Sufficient condition:
Let 0 t = Hence 0 b
¢
=
r
This implies b
r
is a constant vector.
If the equation of the curve is
( )
r r s =
r r
We have
( )
r b r b r b
¢
¢ ¢
× = × + ×
r r r
r r r
( )
0 0 t b r b t b and b
¢ ¢
= × + × × = =
r r r r r r r
r
Q
= 0
r b \ ×
r
r
is a constant vector, showing that the curve is a plane curve.
Check Your Progress ( C Y P ) :
7. Write down the serret – Frenet formulae for space curve in term of matrix
equation .
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
30
Problems:
1. find the curvature and torsion for the circular helix whose equation is
cos , sin , x a u y a u z bu = = =
( ) cos , sin , r a u a u bu =
r
( )
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
sin cos ds a u a u b du = + +
( )
2 2
1 ds du
a b c say
du ds c
\ + = \ =
sin cos
, ,
a u a u b
r
c c c
æ ö
÷
ç
÷
ç
÷
÷ ç
è ø

¢
=
r
cos sin
, , 0
2 2
a u a u
r
c c
æ ö
÷
ç
÷
ç
÷
ç
÷
ç
è ø
 
¢¢
=
r
sin cos
, , 0
3 3
a u a u
r
c c
æ ö
÷
ç
÷
ç
÷
ç
÷
ç
è ø
+ 
¢¢¢
=
r
( )
2 2
2 2
cos sin
5
6
b a a b
r r r u u
c
c
c
é ù
ê ú
ë û
¢ ¢¢ ¢¢¢
\ = × + =
r r r
2 2 2
2 2
cos sin
4 4 4
a a a
r r u u
c c c
¢¢ ¢¢
× = + =
r r
2 2 2
a a
k r r
c a b
¢¢ ¢¢
= × = =
+
r r
Q
2 4
6 2 2 2 2
r r r
a b c b b
and
r r
c a c a b
t
é ù
ê ú
ë û
¢ ¢¢ ¢¢¢
= = × = =
¢¢ ¢¢
×
+
r r r
r r
________________________________________________________________________
2. Find the curvature and torsion for the curve
( ) ( )
3 2 3
3 , 3 , 3 x a u u y au z a u u =  = = +
31
( ) ( )
3 2 3
3 , 3 , 3 r a u u au a u u
æ ö
÷
ç
÷
ç
÷ ç
è ø
=  +
r
( )
( )
2
2
3 1 , 6 , 3 1 r a u au a u
æ ö
÷ ç
÷
ç
÷
ç
è ø
=  +
r
&
( )
6 , 6 , 6 r au a au = 
r
&&
( )
6 , 0 6 r a a = 
r
&&&
( ) ( )
2 2
3 1 6 3 1
6 , 6 6
i j k
r r a u au a u
au a au
´ =  +

r
r r
r r
& &&
2 2 2
18 1 2 1
1
i j k
a u u u
u u
=  +
 
r r r
( ) ( ) { }
2 2 2
18 1 2 1 a u i uj u k =   + +
r
r r
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2 2 2 2
18 1 4 1 r r r r a u u u
é ù
ê ú
ê ú
ê ú
ë û
\ ´ × ´ =  + + +
r r r r
& && & &&
( )
2
2 4 2
18 2 2 4 a u u
æ ö
é ù
÷ ç
ê ú
÷
ç
÷
ç
è ø
ë û
= + +
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
18 2 1 a u = +
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2 2 2
9 1 4 1 r r a u u u
é ù
ê ú
ê ú
ê ú
ë û
× =  + + +
r r
& &
( )
2
2 2
18 1 a u = +
32
( ) ( )
( )
2
3
r r r r
k
r r
× × ×
\ =
×
r r r r
&&& &&&
r r
& &
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2
1
2
2 2
2 18
2
3 6 4
2 2 2 2
18 1 18 1
u a
a u a u
+
= =
+ +
( )
1
2
2
3 1
k
a u
\ =
+
( ) ( )
{ }
( )
2 2 2
18 1 2 1 6 r r r a u i uj u k bai oj ak
é ù
ê ú
ë û
=   + + × + +
r r r r r r
r r r
&&&&&&
( ) ( )
{ }
3 2 2 3
108 1 1 216 a u u a =   + + =
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
3
216
2 2
2 2
2 18 1
r r r
a
r r r r
a u
t
é ù
ê ú
ë û
\ = =
´ × ´
+
r r r
&&&&&&
r r r r
& && & &&
Here k t =
________________________________________________________________________
3. Find the equation of the osculating plane at the point
( )
1 t = of the curve
( )
2 3
3 , 3 r at bt ct =
r
(OR)
If the parametric equation of the curve is
2 3
3 , 3 , x at y bt z ct = = =
prove that the osculating plane at the point 1 t = is 1
X Y Z
a b c
 + =
Solution:
2 3
3 , 3 , x at y bt z ct = = =
33
2
3 , 6 , 3 x a y bt z ct Þ = = =
& & &
0, 6 , 6 x y b z ct = = =
&& && &&
The equation of the osculating plane at any point ‘t’ is
2 3
3 3
2
3 6 3 0
0 6 6
X at Y bt Z ct
a bt ct
b ct
  
=
Expanding the determinant, we get
( )
( )
[ ]
2 2 2
3 36 18 3 18 0 X at bct bct Y bt act
é ù
ê ú
ë û
    
( )
3
18 0 0 Z ct ab
é ù
ë û
+   =
i.e. ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
2 2 3
3 18 3 18 18 0 X at bct Y bt act Z ct ab    +  =
i.e.
2 3 3 3
18 54 18 54 18 18 0 bct abct Y act abct Zab abct ´   × + +  =
1, At t \ = the equation is
18 18 18 18 0 bc acy Z ab abc ´  + ×  =
18 1 0
X Y Z
abc
a b c
æ ö
÷
ç
÷
ç
÷
÷
ç
è ø
 +  =
0, 1
X Y Z
abc
a b c
¹  + = Q
________________________________________________________________________
4. prove that
k
t
= constant is a necessary and sufficient condition for a space curve
to be a cylindrical helix
(OR)
Show that a space curve is a cylindrical helix if and only if, its curvature and torsion
are in a constant ratio.
34
t
r
Solution:
Given:
The curve is a cylindrical helix, To prove that
k
t
= constant.
Let a
r
denote a unit vector along the axis of the cylindrical helix. (a
r
is a constant
vector).
Let t
r
be the unit tangent vector
Since, the cylindrical helix intersects the generators at a constant angle , a we
have ( )
cos 1 t a a × = 
r
r
Differentiating (1) with respect to s, we get
t a t o o
¢
× + × =
r r
r r
i.e., ( ) 2 kn a o × = 
r r
Sincek o =/ , for helix, from (2) we have n a o × =
r r
i.e., a n ^
r r
This implies a
r
lies in the rectifying plane
(Rectifying plane means, the plane contains t
r
and b
r
)
Since, a
r
makes angleo with t
r
so it must make angle 90
o
o with b
r
. Thus a
r
expressed as linear Combination of
t
r
and b
r
is given by
(cos ) (sin ) a t b o o = +
r
r
r
Differentiating (3) w.r.t ‘s’, we get
0 =(cos ) ' (sin ) ' ( ' 0) t b a o o + =
r
r
r
r
Q
0 cos ( ) sin ) ( ' ) & ' ) kn n t kn b n o t o t = + ÷ = =÷
r
r
r r r r
Q
0 ( cos sin ) k n o t o = ÷
r
Since n
r
0, =
r
we have cos sin 0 k o t o ÷ =
35
sin
tan co tan
cos
k
ns t
t
o
o
o
¬ = = =
Conversely, let tan tan ( )
k
cons t say o
t
= =
Then we have cos sin 0 k o t o ÷ =
( cos sin ) 0 k n o t o ÷ =
r
'cos 'sin 0 t b o o + =
r
r
( cos sin ) 0
d
t b
ds
o o + =
r
r
Integrating w.r.t.s, we get cos sin t b a o o + =
r
r
r
Where a
r
is a constant unit vector.
Taking dot product with t
r
both sides,
( sin ) . t t cos b t a o o + =
r
r r r
r
cos . ( . 0) t a t b o= =
r
r r
r
Q
Hence, the curve makes constant angle with the direction of fixed vector a
r
.
Thus, it is helix.
Exercise:
Find the curvature and torsion of the following curves
1)
2 3
( , , ) r au bu cu =
r
2)
2
) ( (1 cos ), sin ,2 sin / r a u a u a u = +
r
Answer: 1)
2
2 2 2
( 4 )
6 .
3
2 2 2 2 4
2
( 4 9 )
b u a a
k cu
a b u c u
+ +
=
+ +
12
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
3 [ ( 4 ) ]
abc
bc u b u a a
t=
+ +
2)
( )
1/2
13 3cos
6cos / 2
,
3/2
(13 3cos )
(3 cos )
u
u
k
a u
as u
t
+
= =
+
+
36
APPENDIX: ( Problem) :
5. Prove that [ ] 0 r r r
' '' '''
=
r r
is a necessary and sufficient condition for the
curve ( ) r r s =
r r
to be a plane curve.
Proof: If the curve is a plane curve, then we know that its torsion 0 t =
Since[ ] r r r
' '' '''
=
r r r
2
k t , it follows that [ ] 0 r r r
' '' '''
=
r r r
. Thus the condition is
necessary.
Conversely, if[ ] 0 r r r ' '' ''' =
r r r
, then [ ] r r r ' '' ''' =
r r r
2
k t ¬ 0 t = or k=0. We shall
now show that 0 t = always. For suppose k=0, but 0 t = at some point. Then there is a
neighbourhood of this pint, where 0 t = . But in this neighbourhood, since k=o, it follows
that the arc of the curve must be a straight line and hence 0 t = on this line, contrary to
the hypothesis. t must be zero at all points of the curve, which shows that the curve is
a plane curve. Thus the condition is sufficient also.
Curvature and torsion of a curve given as the intersection of two surfaces:
When the curve is specified by two Cartesian equations of the form
( )
, , 0 f x y z = and
( )
, , 0 g x y z = , the curvature and torsion can be obtained by a
suitable procedure .
e.g. Obtain the curvature and torsion of the curve of intersection of the two surfaces
2 2
2
1 ax by cz + + = and
2 2
2
1 a x b y c z
' ' '
+ + =
Let
2 2 2
1 f ax by cz = + + ÷ and
2 2 2
1 g a x b y c z
' ' '
= + + ÷ . We know that the
vector VC is normal to the surface C =constant. Thus (2 ,2 ,2 ) f ax by cz V = is
normal to the surface f=o. similarly (2 ,2 ,2 ) g a x b y c z
' ' '
V = is normal to the surface
g=0 the unit tangent vector t
r
at any point of the curve of intersection of the two surfaces
is perpendicular to both the normals f V and g V at that point, to the two surfaces and
is therefore parallel to their cross product
f V x g V =4
( )
( ) , ( ) , ( ) bc b c yz ca c a zx ab a b xy
' ' ' ' ' '
÷ ÷ ÷
37
4 , ,
4 , ,
bc b c ca c a ab a b
xyz
x x x
A B c
xyz
x y z
 

\ .
 

\ .
' ' ' ' ' '
÷ ÷ ÷
=
=
Provided x, y, z are different from zero,
where . , , A bc b c B ca c a C ab a b
' ' ' ' ' '
= ÷ = ÷ = ÷
Since t
r
is parable to f X g V V ,we can write
, , (1)
A B c
t
x y z
ì
 

\ .
= ÷
r
2
2 2
2
(2)
2 2 2
A B c
Hence
x y z
ì = + + ÷
Also from (1) , ,
A B c
t r
x y z
ì ì
 

\ .
' = =
r
r
, ,
dx dy dz
ds ds ds
ì
 

\ .
=
And therefore , , (3)
dx A dy B dz c
ds x ds y ds z
ì ì ì = = = ÷
Now if F be any scalar or vector field,
. .
F
y
dF F dx dy F dz
ds x ds ds z ds
c
·
c
c c
= + +
c c
. . .
F dF dx F dy dz F
ds ds x ds y ds z
ì ì ì ì
c c c
= + +
c c c
sin (3)
A F b F c F
u g
x x y y z z
c c c
= + +
c c c
A B c
F
x x y y z z
 
c c c

\ .
= + +
c c c
Then (4)
d A B c
ds x x y y z z
ì
o
 
c c c

\ .
= + + ÷
c c
38
Then formula (4) converts the derivatives w.r.t. arc length s into derivatives w.r.t. space
coordinates, operating (1) by (4), we get
( ) , ,
d A B c A B c
t
ds x x y y z z x y z
ì ì
   
c c c
 
\ . \ .
= + +
c c c
r
,
,
2
,
2 2 2
A A B B c c
t t
x y z
x y z
ì ìì
 


\ .
÷ ÷ ÷
'
+ =
r r
2 2 2
2
, , (5)
3 3 3
A B C
kn t
x y z
ì ìì
 


\ .
'
+ = ÷ ÷
r
r
Taking cross product of (1) with (5), we get
2 2 2
2
( ) , , , ,
3 3 3
A B c A B C
tX kn t X
x y z
x y z
ì ì ìì
 
 



\ .
\ .
' + = ÷
r r
r
2 2 2 2 2 2
3
. , ,
3 3 3 3 3 3
BC B C CA C A AB A B
i e kb
yz y z zx y x xy x y
ì
 


\ .
= ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
r
2 2 2 2 2 2
( ), ( ), ( )
3 3 3 3 3 3
BC CA AB
Bz Cy Cx Az Ay Bx
y z z x x y
 


\ .
= ÷ ÷ ÷
But
( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
Bz cy ca c a z ab a b y
' ' ' '
÷ = ÷ ÷ ÷
( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
a cz by a c z b y
' ' '
= + ÷ +
( ) ( )
2 2
1 1 a ax a a x a a
' ' '
= ÷ ÷ ÷ = ÷
2 2
Similarly Cx Az b b
'
÷ = ÷ And
2 2
Ay Bx c c
'
÷ = ÷
Thus
( ) ( ) ( )
3
, ,
5 3 3 3 3
3
C C
kb a a b b c c
y z z x x y
ì
 


\ .
B A AB
' ' '
= ÷ ÷ ÷
r
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
3 3 3
, , 6
3 3 3
ABC x y z
a a b b c c
A B C
x y z
 


\ .
' ' ' = ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
39
Squaring (6), we get
( ) ( )
2 2 2 6
2
6 2
7
6 6 6 2
A B C x
k a a
x y z A
ì
'
= · ÷ ÷
¯
( )
( )
6
2
2 2 2
2
2
6 6 6 2 2
/
x
a a
A B C
A
k
x y z
A x
' ÷
¯
= ·
¯
Using (2)
This gives the value of k.
Now (6) may be written as
( ) ( ) ( )
3 3 3 3 3 3 3
, ,
k x y z x y z
b a a b b c c
ABC A B C
ì
 


\ .
' ' '
= ÷ ÷ ÷
r
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
. , , 8
x y z
ie b a a b b c c
A B C
u
 


\ .
' ' '
= ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
r
Where
3 3 3 3
k x y z
ABC
ì
u =
Again, operating (8) by (4) we obtain
( )
d A B C
b
ds x y y y z z
l m
æ ö
¶ ¶ ¶
÷
ç
= + +
÷
ç
÷
÷ ç
¶ ¶ ¶
è ø
r
( ) ( ) ( )
3 3 3
, ,
x y z
a a b b c c
A B C
 


\ .
' ' '
÷ ÷ ÷
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
3 ,3 ' ,3 ' 10 b n x a a y b b z c c ìu ìu t
' '
+ ÷ = ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷÷ ÷÷÷
r
r
Taking scalar product of (5) and (10) and noting that 0 t n n b b t · = · = · =
r r
r r
r r
and 1 n n · =
r r
, we get
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
3 3 3
2
2 2 2
A B C
k a a b b c c
x y z
ì ìut
' ' '
÷ = ÷ ÷ + ÷ + ÷
40
( )
2
3
. 3
2
A
i e k a a
x
ì ut
'
= ÷
¯
Substituting the value of u from (9), we get
( )
3
3
3 3 3 2
3
2
k x y z A
k a a
ABC
x
ì
ì t
'
· = ÷
¯
( )
2
3
6 2
3 3 3 2
ABC A
k a a
x y z x
ì t ' = ÷
¯
and substituting the value of
6 2
k ì from (7) we get
( ) ( )
2
2 2 2 6 2
3
6 6 6 2 3 3 3 2
A B C x ABC A
a a a a
x y z A x y z x
t
' '
÷ = ÷
¯ ¯
Hence
( )
( )
2
2
2 3 3 3
3
6
2
A
a a
x
x y z
ABC
x
a a
A
t
'
÷
¯
=
' ÷
¯
This gives the value oft .
Check Your Progress ( C Y P ) :
8. What are the expressions for curvature k and torsion t where u is the
parameter.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
1.8. SUMMARY :
As given in the general introduction, the definition of curve in space and of curve
as the curve of intersection of two surfaces are presented first. Following this some
examples of space curves are given. For the curve
( )
,
dr
r r s
ds
=
r
r r
is geometrically
interpreted. Next, the method of obtaining the tangent line at a point on the curve is
explained. Osculating plane at a point on the curve is explained. Osculating plane at a
point on the space curve is defined and the equation for the same is derived. Definition of
curvature of the curve at a point is defined and the expression for the same is obtained.
Based on the relationship between unit tangent vector, the principal normal and binormal,
Serret – Frenet formulae are obtained. Torsion at a point on the curve is defined and
expression for the same is derived. The condition for the curve to be a plane curve is
obtained. Some problems using the above results are solved.
41
1.9. KEY WORDS :
1. Circular Helix :
It is a space curve traced on a cylinder meeting the generator under the same
(constant) angle.
2. Unit Tangent Vector :
If ( ) P r
r
and ( ) Q r r +
r r
V are neighbouring points on the curve ( ) r r s =
r r
and s V is
are length P Q, then,
0
lim
s
r dr
s ds
÷
=
V
r r
V
V
is the unit tangent vector at P on the curve.
3. Osculating Plane :
It is the limiting position of the plane through the tangent at P and a neighbouring
point Q on the curve as Q ÷ P.
4. Principal Normal :
It is the normal lying in the osculating plane and it is the intersection of the
normal plane and the osculating plane.
5. Binormal :
The normal, which is perpendicular to osculating plane at a point is called the
Binormal.
6. Curvature:
Curvature at a point on the curve is the rate of change of direction of the tangent
at that point with respect to the arc length s.
7. Torsion :
The rate at which the osculating plane at P turns about the tangent at P as the
point moves along the curve is the torsion of the curve at P.
1.10. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS :
1. A Curve in space is the locus of a point, whose position vector r
r
relative
to a fixed origin may be expressed as a function of a single variable parameter
( )
u say inside a certain closed interval.
2. (i) A straight line r a ub = +
r
r r
passing through a point with position vector a
r
and
parallel to b
r
, u, being parameter.
(ii), A Circle, whose equation is,
( ) ( ) cos sin r a u i a u j = +
r r
r
with 2 o u t s s u, being a parameter.
3. It is the limiting position of the chord PQ of the curve as Q÷P.
Vector equation of the tangent line is
( )
R r t or R r r ì ì ' = + = +
r r
r
r r r
, if we take the
parameter as s or u.
42
4. The osculating plane is not determined , when ,
( ) ( )
2
2
0
r
r or r r where r r u
u
ì
c
= = = =
c
r
r r r r r
&& && &
is the equation of curve
5. (i) The osculating plane containing t and n
r
r
.
(ii) The normal plane containing n and b
r
r
.
(iii) the rectifying plane containing b and t
r
r
.
6. The equation of the straight line is r as b = +
r
r r
where a and b
r
r
are constant
vectors.
Thus ' ' 0 0 t r a and t is r
''
= = = =
r r
r r
r r r
2 2
. 0 0 k r n k k '' '' = ¬ = ¬ =
r r
conversely, if k=0, every where, then 0 t r
' ''
= =
r
r
r
everywhere, which on integration
twice give , r as b = +
r
r r
which represents a straight line. P
7.
0 0
0
0 0
t k t
n k n
b b
t
t
    '
 
 

' = ÷
 


 
÷
'
\ .
\ . \ .
r r
r r
r r
where k and t arc curvature and torsion.
, ' ,
dt dn db
t n b
ds ds ds
' '
= = =
r
r
r
r
r
r
8.
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
1
2
3
.
.
.
r r r r
k
r r
r r r
r r r r
t
¦ ¹
× ×
¦ ¦
=
´ `
¦ ¦
¹ )
=
× ×
r r r r
& && & &&
r r
r r r
&&&&&&
r r r r
& && & &&
1.11. TERMINAL QUESTIONS :
1. Explain the method of obtaining the parametric representation of a curve of
intersection of two surfaces, whose equations are
( ) ( )
1 2
, , 0, , , 0 F x y z F x y z = =
2. Show that the tangent at any point of the curve, whose equations are x =3t ,
2 3
3 , 2 y t z t = = makes a constant angle with the line by y = z –x = 0
43
3. Derive the equation of the osculating plane at a point on the curve
( )
r r u =
r r
4. Obtain the expression for curvature of the curve
( )
r r s =
r r
5. Derive the Serret – Frenet formulae for the space curve
( )
r r s =
r r
1.12. FURTHER READINGS:
1. ‘ Differential Geometry ‘ by D. Somasundaram, Narosa Publishing House,
Chennai, 2005.
2. ‘Elementary Topics in Differential Geometry ’ by J.A.Thorpe, Springs –
Verlag, New York , 1979.
44
UNIT II
CURVES ON SURFACE
STRUCTURE:
Learning Objectives
2.0. Introduction
2.1. Contact between curves and surfaces
2.2. Osculating circle
2.3. Osculating sphere
2.4. Locus of centre of spherical curvature
2.5. Tangent surfaces, Involutes and evolutes
2.6. Intrinsic equation of space curves
2.7. Fundamental Existence Theorem for space curves
2.8. Summary
2.9. Key words
2.10. Answer to Check Your Progress
2.11. Terminal Questions.
2.12. Further Readings
LEARNING OBJECTIVES :
After going through this unit, you should be able to
 Define n  point contact between curves and surfaces, osculating circle,
osculating sphere, evolutes involutes, spherical indicatrix.
 Derive the centre and radius of circle of curvature of a curve and that of
osculating sphere, equation of evolute from that of involute, curvature and
torsion for the evolute.
2.0. INTRODUCTION:
We know that a single equation f(x,y)=0 (or)
( )
y x m = in the plane represents a
curve. Similarly, in space, a single equation g(x,y,z)=0 or
( )
, z x y v = represents a
surface. We can also have a surface specified by parametric equations, where however
we need two parameters, say u and u unlike for a curve, where we need only one
parameter. The parametric equations for a surface would then be of the
formx =f(u, ), y =g(u, ), z =h(u, ) v v v .To see that this represent a surface, we take a
45
separate plane which we shall call the uv plane (like xy plane). We consider a region
R in the uu plane. For each point
( )
u,v P in the region R, we form the three numbers
f(u,v) , g(u,v) and h(u,v) and plot the point Q(x,y,z) in space
with x=f(u,v), y=g(u,v), z =h(u,v) .Thus, we obtain one point in space corresponding to
each point of the region R. These points would together form a surface.
2.1. CONTACT BETWEEN CURVES AND SURFACES:
We know that tangent passes through at least two consecutive points of a curve.
In this case, we say that a tangent has a contact (at least) of order one with the curve.
Instead of stating in common, we can also state that they have contact of certain order.
Let ( ) r r u =
r r
be a curve C and S be a surface given by the equation F(x,y,z)=o .
Then the points of intersection of the curve and the surface are given by the parametric
values of u, which are the roots of the equation F(x(u), y(u), z(u))= 0 i.e F(u)=0.If
o
u is
such a root of F(u)=0, then F(u) can be expanded by Taylor’s theorem about
o
u u = in the
form
2 3
( ) ( )
0 0
F(u) = F(u ) + (u u ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ...........
0 0 0 0 0
2! 3!
u u u u
F u F u F u
÷ ÷
' '' ''' + + +
=
3 2
( ) ( ) ( ) .......
0 0 0
2! 3!
F u F u F u
e e
' '' '''
e + + +
( 0
0)
F u = Q and putting
0
u u e= ÷
Now, if
( )
0
0 u F = , then u
0
is a simple zero of F(u),and C and S have simple intersection
at the point
0
( ) r u
r
. If ( ) 0
0
F u
'
= , but ( )
0
0 F u
''
= , then
0
u is a double zero of ( ) F u ,
and we say that C and S have a two point contact at
0
( ). ( ) ( ) ( ) 0
0 0 0
r u If F u F u o and F u
' '' '''
= = =
r
then
0
u is triple zero of ( ) F u ,
and we say that C and S have three point contact at the point ( )
0
r u
r
In general, if
1
F(u )= ( ) ( ) ........ ( ) 0
0 0 0 0
n
F u F u F u but
÷
' ''
= = =
( ) 0
0
n
F u = then C and S are said to have npoint contact of ( ).
0
r u
r
Example:
Show that the osculating plane at P has, in general three point contact with the
curve at P.
46
Measuring the length from P, let Q be a neighbouring point, where the small arc PQ=S .
then r(s)
r
can be separated by Taylor’s series as
2 3
( ) (0) (0) (0) (0) ..............
2! 3!
s s
r s r r s r r
' '' '''
= + + + +
r r r r r
(or)
2 3
( ) (0) (0) (0) (0)
2! 3!
s s
r s r sr r r
' '' '''
= + + +
r r r r
Neglecting higher power of s.
From the equation of osculating plane, we have
( ) [ ( ) (0), (0), (0)] F s r s r r r
' ''
= ÷
r r r r
=
2 3
[ (0) (0) (0), (0), (0)]
2! 3!
s s
sr r r r r
' '' ''' ' ''
+ +
r r r
2 3
[ (0), (0), (0)] [ (0), (0), (0)] [ (0), (0), (0)]
2 3
s s
s r r r r r r r r r
' ' '' '' ' '' ''' ' ''
= + +
r r r r r r r r r
=
3
0 0 [ (0), (0), (0)]
6
s
r r r
' '' '''
+ +
r r r
1
3 2
6
s k t = , where k andt are the curvature and torsion at the point P. Thus, we have
3
2
(0) (0) 0 (0) 0
3!
s
F F but F coefficient of k t
' '' '''
= = = = = , provided k and t do
not vanish at P. Hence, in general, the osculating plane at P has three point contact with
the curve at P.
1.Check your Progress ( C Y P ) :
What is three – Point contact’ of a curve ( ) r r u =
r r
and the surface F(x,y,z)=o, where
x=x(u), y=y(u), z=z(u)?.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
47
2.2. OSCULATING CIRCLE:
We know that the osculating plane of P on the curves has three point contact with
the curve at P. If P,Q,R are three points on a curve, the circle through P,Q,R in its
limiting position, where Q,R tend to P is called the circle of curvature at P and radius of
circle is the radius of curvature and is denoted by p .
Definition:
The circle, which has three point contacts with the curve at P is called the
osculating circle at a point P on a curve. It obviously lies in the osculating plane at P.
Infact, such a circle is the intersection of the osculating plane with a sphere through
which also has a three point contact with the curve at P.
To find the centre and radius of circle of curvature at P on a curve:
Let a circle in the osculating plane be given as the intersection of the sphere
2 2
( ) r c p ÷ =
r r
with the plane where r
r
is the position vector of any point P on the
sphere. c
r
and p are the position vectors of the centre C and P is radius of the sphere.
Sphere:
Let the centre C of the circle is at a distance p from P. clearly C lies on the
principal normal at P.
Pc =
uur
, , oc n op r c p = =
uur uur
r r r
From the figure ( ) po oc pc r c n or c r n p p + = ÷ + = ÷ =
uuur uur uuur
r r r r r r
The osculating circle is then the intersection of the osculating plane with the
sphere
2
2
( ) c r p ÷ =
r r
The points of intersection of this sphere with the curve ( ) r r s =
r r
are given by
2
2
( ) ( ) 0 F s c r p ÷ ÷ ÷ =
r r
, where r
r
is a function of parameter s, the arc length of the
curve.
The condition for three point contact is:
48
( ) 0, ( ) 0, ( ) 0 F s F s F s
' ''
= = =
( ) 0 2( ) ( ) 0 F s c r r ' ' = ¬ ÷ · ÷ =
r r r
( ) 0 c r t ¬ ÷ · =
r
r r
( ) 0 ( ) . ( ) 0 F s c r t t r '' ' ' = ¬ ÷ · + ÷ =
r r
r r r
( ) 0 c r t t t
'
¬ ÷ · ÷ · =
r r r
r r
( ) 1 (1) c r kn ¬ ÷ · = ÷
r r r
But ( ) ( ) c r n c r n n n p p ÷ = ¬ ÷ · = ·
r r r r r r r r
( ) (2) c r n p ¬ ÷ · = ÷
r r r
Comparing (1) and (2) ,
1
k
p =
Thus the radius of the osculating circle at P is
1
,
k
p p = is called radius of
curvature of the curve at P.C is called center of curvature of the curve at P and is given by
. c r n p = +
r r r
2.Check you Progress ( C Y P ) :
1. What does the result c r n p = +
r r r
give?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
2.3. OSCULATING SPHERE:
Definition: The osculating sphere, at P on the curve is defined as the limiting position of
the sphere through the points P,Q,R,S on the curve as Q, R, S tend to P
(Or)
The osculating sphere at P on the curve is defined to be the sphere, which has four
– point contact with the curve at P. It is also called spherical curvature at P.
To find the centre and radius of osculating sphere:
It c
r
is the position vector of the centre C and R is the radius of the osculating
sphere, then its equation is
2 2
( ) , C R R ÷ =
r r
where R
r
is the position vector of any
point on the sphere. The points of intersection of the sphere with the curve ( ) r r s =
r r
are
given by F(s)
2 2
( ) 0 c r R ÷ ÷ ÷ =
r r
. The condition for four point contacts are
49
( )
(
)
.
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 0
( ) 0 ( ) ( ) 0
( ) 0
( ) 0 ( ) ( ) 0 . 0
( ) 1
( ) 0 ( ) ( ) 0
2
( ) ( )
c r kn
F s F s F s F s
F s c r t
c r t
F s c r kn t r t t
c r kn
F s c r k n k kt b t kn
k c r n k c r
t
÷
' '' '''
= = = =
'
= ¬ ÷ · ÷ =
¬ ÷ · =
'' ' = ¬ ÷ · + ÷ = ¬ ÷ =
¬ ÷ · =
''' ' = ¬ ÷ · + ÷ + + ÷ · =
'
¬ ÷ · ÷ ÷
r r r
r
r r
r
r r
r r r
r r r r
r r r
r
r r
r r r r
r r r r r
. ( ). 0
1
( ) 0, sin ( ) 0
( )
2
t k c r b
k k c r b ce c r t
k
k
c r b
k
t
t
p o
t
+ ÷ =
' ¬ + ÷ · = ÷ · =
'
÷
'
¬ ÷ · = =
r
r
r r
r
r
r r r r
r
r r
Where
1
o
t
= and
1
k
p = Hence
1
2
k
k
p
' '
= ÷
Thus, we have ( ) 0 c r t ÷ · =
r
r r
1
( ) c r n
k
p ÷ · = =
r r r
& ( ) c r b p o
'
÷ · =
r
r r
From the fig PO OC PC + =
uuuur uuuur uuuur
r c PC ÷ + =
uuuur
r r
c r ÷
r r
lies in the normal plane at P
But PC PS SC = +
uuuur uuur uuur
(s, being centre of curvature
of curve at P)
n b p p o
'
= +
r
r
Thus c r n b
c r b n
p p o
p o p
'
÷ = +
'
= + +
r
r r r
r
r r r
This gives the centre of osculating sphere called the centre of spherical curvature. We
denote R PC n b p p o
'
= = +
uuuur
r r
r
The radius R of the spherical curvature or osculating sphere and the center is given by
R R n b p p o
'
= = +
r r
r
2 2 2
( ) R p p o
'
= +
If k is constant, then p
'
=0. Hence R= p . Thus, when k is constant, the centre of
curvature or centre of * osculating circle and the centre of spherical curvature coincide.
50
Now, the osculating sphere has a contact of order three with the curve. Its
intersection with the osculating plane is the osculating circle. Its centre lies on the
normal plane on a line parallel to the binomial.
2.4. LOCUS OF THE CENTRE OF SPHERICAL CURVATURE:
As P moves along a curve, the corresponding centre of spherical curvature moves
along another curve C
1
, whose curvature and torsion have a simple relation to those of C.
Using suffix 1 for quantities pertaining to C
1
, we note that its length of arc must be
represented by
( )
1 1
1 s and r r n b p op
'
= + + ÷÷÷ ÷÷ ÷÷÷ ÷÷ ÷
r
r r r
Differentiate (1) w.r.t.s,
1 1 1
( )
1
( ) ( )
dr dr ds
t n kt b
ds ds ds
b n
p p t
o p op op t
'
= · = + + ÷ +
' ' '' ' + + + ÷
r r
r
r r
r
r
r
1 1
t s t n p
' '
= +
r r
r
( ) t b b n
p
o p op p
o
' ' '' '
÷ + + + ÷
r r
r
r
b
p
o p op
o
 

\ .
' ' ''
= + +
r
Clearly s
1
should increase as s increases and hence
0
1
s
'
>
. From the above equation, we
find that (2)
1
s e
p
o p op
o
 

\ .
' ' ' ''
= + + ÷ Where 1 e = ± , for the vectors
1
t
r
and
b
r
are of unit length and hence their coefficients must be numerically equal. We then find
,
1
t eb =
r
r
which on differentiation gives
1
dt
db
e
ds ds
=
r
r
1 1
1
dt ds
e n
ds ds
t · = ÷
r
r
1 1 1
k n s e n t
'
=
r r
Thus, we may write
1
1
n n p =
r r
when 1
1
e = ±
Then we have
(3)
1 1 1
k s e p t ' = ÷ ÷
1
Again ( )
1 1 1 1 1
1
b t n eb e n t eband n
ee t
p = × = × = =
= ÷
r r r
r r
r r r
Q
r
51
Thus, we find the unit vectors are
1 1 1
, , t n b
r
r
r
are respectively parallel to the unit
vectors , , b n t
r
r
r
.
Again
1
1 1 1
db
dt
b ee t ee
ds ds
= ÷ ¬ = ÷
r
r
r
r
. .,
1 1
1
1
i e k
db ds
ee n
ds ds
· = ÷
r
r
i.e.
1 1 1 1
n s ee kn t
'
÷ = ÷
r r
i.e.
1 1 1 1 1 1
( )
1
e n s ee kn n n p t =
'
= +
r r r r
Q
i.e. (4)
1 1
so that s ek t ' = ÷
From (3) and (4) we find that
1 1 1
e kk tt = ÷ thus if
1 1 1
1, e kk tt = ÷ = i.e. product of the
torsions at corresponding points is equal to the product of curvatures.
Example:
If the radius of spherical curvature is constant, prove that the curve either lies on a
sphere or has constant curvature.
The radius of spherical curvature is given by
2 2 2
( ) R p p o
'
= + . If R is
constant, differentiating w.r.t. s,
0= 0 2 2( ) ( ) . .,2 ( )
d d
i e
ds ds
pp p o p p p o p o
=
' ' ' ' ' + +
Which give either ( ) 0
d
o or
ds
p p o p o ' ' = + =
o p p
' '
= = Constant ¬k is constant
Now suppose ( ) 0 (1)
d
ds
p o p o
'
+ = ÷
If c
r
is the centre of spherical curvature then we know
, c r n b p op
'
= + +
r
r r r
which on differentiation gives
( ) ( ) ( )
dc d
t n kt b b n
ds ds
p p t op op t
' ' '
= + + ÷ + + + ÷
r
r r
r r
r r
( )
d
t n k t b b n
ds
p p pt op op t ' ' ' = + ÷ + + ÷
r r
r r
r r
( )
1, 1
d
t n t b b n k
ds
p
p op p p to
o
' ' ' = + ÷ + + ÷ = =
r r
r r
r r
Q
( ) ( )
0 1
d
b by condition
ds
p
op
o
' = + =
r
. , 0 ,
dc
i e Then c is a
ds
=
r
r
constant vector
52
Hence, the centre of osculating sphere is independent of the point on the curve.
i.e. the centre of the osculating sphere is a fixed point and its radius is also constant by
data. Hence, the osculating sphere is a fixed sphere and the given curve lies on this
sphere.
Example:
Show that the necessary and sufficient condition that a curve lies on a sphere is that
( )
0
d
ds
p
op
o
'
+ = at every point on the curve.
Solution:
If the curve lies on a sphere, then the sphere will be the osculating sphere for
every point on the curve, so that the radius R of the osculating sphere is constant.
But
( )
2
2 2
r p op
'
= + , which on differentiation gives
( ) ( )
0 2 2
d
ds
pp op op
' ' '
= +
If
( ) ( )
0, 2 , ( ) 0
d d
cancelling we get or
ds ds
p
p p p o op op
o
' ' ' '
= + + = .
Thus the condition is necessary.
Conversely, let the condition be satisfied at every point on curve.
( )
. 0
d
i e
ds
p
op
o
' + = is true.
Multiplying by
( )
2 , 2 2 0
d
ds
p o pp op op ' ' ' ' + =
Which on integration gives
( )
2
2
p op
'
+ =constant
2
. ., i e R = constant. Then the radius
of osculating sphere is constant at every point of the curve.
Also, if c
r
is the centre of osculating sphere:
c r n b p op
'
= + +
r
r r r
, which on differentiation gives
( )
( )
( )
dc d
t n kt b b n
ds ds
p p t op op t ' ' = + + ÷ + + + ÷
r
r r
r r
r r
( )
d
t n t b b n
ds
p
p op p
o
' ' ' = + ÷ + + ÷
r r
r r
r r
( )
,sin 1 1
d
b ce k and
ds
p
op p to
o
'
= + = =
r
=0, by the given condition.
Thus c
r
is a constant vector. i.e., the centre of the osculating sphere is a fixed
point. Therefore the given curve must lie on a sphere. Hence, the condition is sufficient.
53
2.5. TANGENT SURFACES, INVOLUTES AND EVOLUTES:
If we take a circle in a plane the all its
tangents together cover the entire part of the
plane outside the circle.
111
ly
all tangents to a space curve generate a
surface in space called the tangent surface of
the curve.
Any point P on the tangent surface can be located by two quantities. First, we must locate
the tangent on which it lies. If Q is the point of the contact of the tangent to the curve,
then the tangent itself is determined by the parameters of the point Q. Next, on the
tangent, the position of P is given by its algebraic distance u from Q. thus s and u
determine P. Hence, for each point P, its position vector R
r
has the form
( ) ( ) ( )
, , sin OP QP R s u r s ur s ce OQ+
'
= + =
uuuur uuur uuur
r
r r
and
( )
OQ r s and QP =
r r
r
being
tangential to the curve at Q is a multiple of
( )
t s
r
, s and u being the parameters of P.
A surface, being two dimensional, a point can be specified only by a pair of
numbers, just as points on the xy plane are determined by such a pair (x,y) . Any relation
between s and u of the form f(u,s)=0 or u= ( ) s C , will determine a curve on the tangent
surface, the parameters, pairs of whose points will satisty this relation.
If the tangents to a curve C are
normals to another curve C
1
, then
C
1
is called
Involute of C and C is called an
Evolute’ Of C
1
.
In other words, an involute of a
space curve C is a curve, which lies
on the tangent surface of c and cuts
the generators i.e., the tangents give
generating surface orthogonally.
Since the involute is a curve lying on the tangent surface, there must be a relation
between u and s and let this be u= ( ) s C , when ( ) s C is to be determined.
The position vector of a point on the involute is given by ( ) R r s t = +C
r
r
r
. This is the
equation of the involute, with s as the parameter. ( ) ( ) R s r s =
r
r
( ) ( ) s t s +C
r
. However
54
s is not the arc length for this curve. We can only say that
dR
ds
r
is tangential to the
involute, but is not the unit tangent vector.
Thus, differentiating on both sides of ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ). R s r s s t s = +C
r
r
r
with respect to s
we get
( )
( ) ( )
1 ( ) ( )
dR
t s t s t
ds
s t s kn
' '
= +C +C
'
= +C +C
r
r r r
r
r
Now by definition
dR
ds
r
is perpendicular to t
r
’
( )
( )
( )
1 ( )
0 1 ( )
s k
dR
t S t t n t
ds
S
o ' · = +C · + ·
' = +C
r
r r r r
r
( ) 1 s
'
C = ÷ , which on integration w.r.t.s gives ( ) s k s C = ÷ where k is a constant.
Hence, any involute is of the from ( ) R r k S t = + ÷
r
r
r
Different choice of k Gives different involutes.
In the figure total length of the curve A B is k. The string is originally wound
round the curve with its end points at A and B. Keeping the string in contact with the
curve, the end point B is lifted away from the curve, so that the lifted part of the string is
always taut. This is the Part PB . It is clearly tangential to the curve at P. If the arc length
from A to P is s, then clearly PB PB k s
'
= = ÷ and the position vector R OB B
'
'
= ·
uuur r
at
this stage is clearly
( ) ., OP PB r K S t ' + = + ÷
uuuur
uuur r
r
when t
r
is the unit tangent at P. The path
traced by B
'
is the involute, since its equation at any position B
'
is
( ) OB R r k S t ' = = + ÷
uuuur r
r
r
.
It ¸ is an involute of a given curve C, then we say that C is an evolute of ¸ .
55
Check you Progress.
3. What is the tangent surface of a curve?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
4. Define evolute and involute
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
To find the equation of the evolute C from the equation of the involute ¸ :
Let P be the point on C
corresponding to the point Q on ¸ .
By definition the involute ¸ is at
right angle to the tangent PQ(at P)
to the curve C. Hence tangent at Q
to the involute ¸ is at right angle to
the tangent PQ to the curve C.
Thus, PQ lies in the normal plane to ¸ at Q . If R
r
and r
r
denote the position
vectors of P and Q respectively, then R OP OQ QP r n b ì u + = = = + +
uuur uuuur uuur
r
r
r r
since QP
uuur
which lies in the normal plane to ¸ at Q can be written as the linear combination of n
r
and
b
r
clearly the coefficient
ì
and u change from point to point on ¸ and therefore are
function of s on ¸ .
Differentiating both sides of R r n b ì u = + +
r r
r r
with respect to s, we obtain.
( ) ( )
(1 ) ( ) ( )
dR
t n kt b b n
ds
k t n b
ì ì t u u t
ì ì ut ìt u
'
= + + ÷ + + + ÷
' ' = ÷ + ÷ + +
r
r r
r r
r r
r
r
r
Now,
dR
ds
r
is a tangent vector at P to the curve C. Note that
dR
ds
r
is not unit tangent
vector on C, since the arc length is on ¸ but not on C.
56
dR
ds
r
is in the normal plane to ¸ at Q and hence must be parallel to n b ì u +
r
r
Hence 1 0 k ì ÷ = and
ì ut ìt u
ì u
' '
÷ +
=
( )
( )
1
2 2
2 2
2 2
1
tan
2
1
and
k
d
ds
d
ds
d
ds
ì p t ì u uì ìu
ì u
uì ìu ì
t
u
u u
ì
u
ì
t
u
ì
u
 

\ .
 

 
 
\ .


\ .
\ .
 

\ .
' '
= = + = ÷
+
' '
÷
= =
÷
= =
+
which on integration gives
1
tan ds c
ì
t
u
 

\ .
÷
+ =
í
where C is constant.
Putting ds t = +
í
, we obtain tan( ) co ( ), c or t c ì u u p = + + = ++ since ì p = .
Hence the equation of evolute of ¸ becomes
co ( ) , R r n t c b where ds p p t = + + ++ + =
í
r r
r r
2.6. INTRINSIC EQUATION OF SPACE CURVES:
So far, we have been considering the vector equation of a curve using external
objects, like a coordinate system. It is possible to specify a curve without using such
external means. This is by the method of intrinsic equations. These are two scalar
equations, which give the curvature and torsion at any point on a curve in terms of the arc
length parameter measured from some fixed point on it. Such equations are there fore of
the form k=f(s) and t =g(s). than the two curves C and
Now the question arises: can the shape and dimensions of a curve be completely
given by these two equations?. In other words, can there be two different curves, which
arc not congruent, but having the same intrinsic equation? We shall show that two curves
with the same intrinsic equations are necessarily congruent.
A question then arises: Can we construct a curve with given values for curvature
and torsion as functions of s. In general, we may not be able to have such curves, unless
some suitable conditions are satisfied by f(s) and g(s). These are the contents of the
following the Orem.
57
2.7. FUNDAMENTAL EXISTENCE THEOREM FOR SPACE CURVES:
If f(s) and g(s) are continuous functions of s for all nonnegative values of s, then
there exists one and only one space curve, determined but for its position in space for
which k=f(s) and ( ) g s t = , being arc length measured from some base point.
Proof: we shall now actually show that there are four vector functions
( ), ( ), ( ) ( ) r r s t t s n n s andb b s = = = =
r r
r r
r r r r
such that , , t n b
r
r
r
are mutually perpendicular
vectors satisfying the serret – Frenet formulae involving the given functions f(s) and g(s)
as k and . ( ) r r s t =
r r
must therefore be the required curve.
Consider the system of differential equations
,
d d dr
k k r
ds ds ds
 o
 o t t = = ÷ + = ÷
Where , , o  ¸ are unknown functions of s and k and t are the given function f(s)
and g(s). From the theory of differential equations, it is known that the above system has
a unique solution ( ), ( ), ( ) s s s o  ¸ which takes prescribed values at s=0. In particular,
there is a unique solution
( ) ( ) ( )
1 1 1
, , s s s o  ¸ for which
(0) 0, (0) , (0) 0
1 1 1
o o  ¸ = = = . Similarly, we have anther set of solutions
( ), ( ), ( )
2 2 2
s s s o  ¸ taking initial vales (i.e. at s=0 ) 0,1,0 respectively and another set
( ), ( ), ( )
2 2 2
s s s o  ¸ with initial values 0,0,1 respectively.
We first show that
2 2 2
1 1 1
1 o  ¸ + + =
2 2 2
1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
( ) 2 2 2
2 ( ) 2 ( ) 2 ( )
0
d
now
ds
d d
d
ds ds ds
k k
o
 ¸
o  ¸ o  ¸
o   o t¸ ¸ t
+ + = + +
= + ÷ + + ÷
=
Thus
2 2 2
1 1 1
o  ¸ + + = constant, which must be equal to 1 considering the initial values
similarly, we have
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 3 3 3
1 1 r and r o  o  + + = + + =
Again consider
( )
2 1 2 1
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
d d d d d
r r
ds ds ds ds ds
o o  
o o   o o   + + = + + + +
2 1
1 2
d d
ds ds
¸ ¸
¸ ¸ +
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 1
k k k k o  o   o t¸  o t¸ ¸ t ¸ t = + + ÷ + + ÷ + + ÷ + ÷
0 =
Hence,
1 2 1 2 1 2
r r o o   + + = constant=0, given by the initial values 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 · + · + · =
Similarly, we have
2 3 2 3 2 3 3 1 3 1 3 1
0 & 0 r r r r o o   o o   + + = + + =
The above six relation which we have proved show that the matrix
58
1 1 1
2 2 2
3 3 3
A
o  ¸
o  ¸
o  ¸
 

=


\ .
is orthogonal.
This means that AA I
'
= , where A
'
is the transpose of A. From this we
have AA I ' = which implies
2 2 2
1 2 3
1, o o o + + =
2 2 2
1 2 3
1,    + + =
2 2 2
1 2 3
1 ¸ ¸ ¸ + + = and
0, , 0
1 1 2 2 3 3 1 1 2 2 3 3 1 1 2 2 3 3
o ¸ ¸ ¸  o  o     ¸ o ¸ o ¸ o + + = + + + + =
Thus, the three mutually perpendicular unit vectors
( , , ), ( , , ), ( , , )
1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3
t n and b o o o    ¸ ¸ ¸ = = =
r
r
r
are defined for each value of s
Now putting
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 3
0 0
s s
r tds s i s j s b ds o o o = = + +
í í
r
r r
r
r
We have
1 2 3
0
( ) ( ) ( )
s s s
o o
dr d d d
i s ds j s ds k s ds
ds ds ds ds
o o o = + +
í í í
r
r
r r
1 2 3
( ) ( ) ( ) i s j s k s t o o o = + + =
r
r r r
Since, n
r
and b
r
together with t
r
satisfy Sernet – Frenet formulae (which are the given
differential equations) with given functions as curvature and torsion, it follows that
( ) r r s =
r r
is the required curve, with s as its arc length . This proves the existence.
To prove the uniqueness, we shall show that if the curves have the same intrinsic
equations then they are congruent. Let C and C
1
be two such curves. Let the point s=0 on
both the curves be A and A
1
respectively. For any are length s, let the corresponding points
be P and P
1
. Denoting the corresponding unit triads for the two curves C and C
1
by
1 1 1
, , , , t n b and t n b
r r
r r
r r
. Let us bring A
1
to coincide with A and
1 1 1
, , t n b
r
r
r
at A
1
to coincide with
, , t n b
r
r
r
at A by suitably turning C
1
above A= A
1 .
Now consider.
1
1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1
( )
dt dn dn db d dt db
t t n n b b t t n n b b
ds ds ds ds ds ds ds
· + · + · = · + · + · + · + · + ·
r r
r r
r r
r r r r
r r r r
r r r r
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
.
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) t kn kn t n kt b kt b n b n n b t t t t · + · + · ÷ + + ÷ + · + ÷ + ÷ ·
r r r r
r r r r
r r r r r r
Thus
1
1 1
t t n n b b · + · + ·
r r
r r
r r
=constant =3(using initial values it takes at s=0)
Since, this is the sum of three cosines and 1 cos 1, u ÷ s s we see that the only possible values
for the three angles between
1
n and n
r r
been
1
n and n
r r
and between
1
b and b
r r
, are all zero so that
59
their cosines are equal to 1. Hence,
1 1 1
, t t n n and b b = = =
r r
r r
r r
. Again
1
t t =
r r
gives
1
1 1
. , ( ) 0 . ,
dr dr d
i e r r i e r r a
ds ds ds
= ÷ = ÷ =
r r
r r r r r
, a constant vector and its value when s=0 is
zero. Hence
1
r r =
r r
for all s. Thus, the two curves C and C
1
coincide. This establishes the
uniqueness.
Helices:
A cylindrical helix is a space curve which lies on a cylinder (whose cross–section
may be a circle or any closed curve). And cuts the generators of the cylinder at a constant
angle. The axis of the helix is a fixed line which is parallel to the generators of the cylinder.
The characteristic property of helices i.e., a property possessed by helices and not by
other curves, is the constancy of the ratio of curvature to the torsion.
For, let a
r
be the unit vector, parallel to axis.
Then cos t a o · =
r
r
Differentiating this, we have 0 t a t a
' '
· + · =
r r
r r
i.e. 0sin 0 kn a ce a
'
· = =
r
r r r
Hence, a n ±
r r
and therefore lies in the rectifying plane. Thus, a
r
is a linear combination
of t and b
r
r
, since cos t a o · =
r
r
,if follows that cos sin a t b o o = +
r
r
r
.
Differentiating . . . wr t s , we obtain
0 cos sin
dt db
ds ds
o o = +
r
r
0 cos sin kn n o t o = ÷
r r
( )
0 cos sin k n o t o = ÷
r
Thus
sin
tan
cos
k o
o
t o
= = = constant
Conversely, if constant=tan
k
o
t
= , say (since for any number ì , we can findo , such
that tan ì o = )we have
( ) ( )
cos sin cos sin 0 or n k o t o k o t o = ÷ =
r
i.e.
( )
cos sin 0
d
t b
ds
· + · =
r
r
cos sin t b o o + =
r
r
constant unit vector a =
r
Thus cos a t o · =
r
r
and the curve is therefore a helix.
We have already considered the properties of circular
helix
( )
, sin , 0 x acosu y a u z bu a = = = > which is helix lying on a circular cylinder. Here, the
axis of the helix is such that and k t are constants and thus, in particular the ratio
k
t
is a
constant.
Let C be any helix (circular or not). We project C on a plane throughOperpendicular to the
axis of the cylinder. This is clearly normal crosssection of the cylinder, which is a plane
curve
1
C (say).
60
Using suffix 1 for related to
1
C , we have
r OP =
r
op =
uur
1 1 1 1
op p p r p p = + = +
uuur uuur
r r
. But
1
p p
uuur
is parallel to a
r
and has length cos , op u u = being
the angle between oP and
1
pp .
Thus
1
PP a r = ·
r r
. Thus
( )
1
r r a r a = + ·
r r r r r
.
Differentiating . . . wr t s , we have
( ) ( )
1
dr dr da d
a r a a r
ds ds ds ds
= + · + ·
r r r
r r r r r
Now,
1 1 1 1
1
1
, , 0
dr dr ds ds dr da
t t
ds ds ds ds ds ds
= = · = =
r r r r
r r
and
( )
0 cos
d da dr
a r r a a t
ds ds ds
o · = · + · = + · =
r r
r
r r r r r
Thus, ( )
1
1
cos
ds
t t a
ds
o = +
r r
r
.
Taking dot product with
( )
1
1 1 1
, cos
ds
t t t t a
ds
o · = + ·
r r r r
r
.
1
sin , ce t and a
r
r
are mutually perpendicular, and cos , a t o · =
r
r
we have
1
sin t t o · =
r r
.
Thus
1
sin
ds
ds
o = . Hence
( ) ( )
1
cos sin t a t o o = +
r r
r
.
1 1
1
sin
dt ds dt
ds ds ds
o = ·
r r
2
1 1
sin n n k ok =
r r
1
Since n and n
r r
are unit vectors, we have
2
1
sin k k o = . Also , we see that normal to the
plane curve
1 1
C at P is parallel to the principal normal of the helix Cat P.
If the helix C has constant curvature k, then
1
k is also a constant. Thus
1
C is a
plane curve with constant curvature and is therefore a circle. Hence, we conclude that if a
helix has constant curvature, it must be a circular helix.
Check you progress:
5. What is the characteristic property of the helix?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
1. Show that the involutes of a circular helix are plane curve:
Solution:
The parametric equation of circular helix is
( ) ( ) cos , sin , _____ 1 r a u a u bu =
r
Changing the parameter uto s ,
61
2 2
u u
o o
s r du a b du cu = = + =
í í
r
, s cu = where
2 2
c a b = +
Equation (1) ( ) cos , sin , r a s c a s c b s c ¬ =
r
The equation of involute is
( )
R r k s t = + ÷
r
r
r
sin , cos ,
a
t r s c a c s c b c
c
÷
 
' = =

\ .
r
r
( )
R r k s t = + ÷
r
r
r
( ) ( )
cos , sin , sin , cos ,
a
a s c a s c bs c k s s c a c s c b c
c
÷
 
= + ÷

\ .
( ) ( )
cos sin , sin cos ,
a a b
a s c k s s c a s c k s s c K
c c c
= ÷ ÷ + ÷
z coordinate of any point
kb
z
c
¬ = =constant
The involute lies on the plane
2. Find the intrinsic equation of a spherical helix.
Solution:
For all curves lying on a sphere, the centre
of the osculating sphere coincides with the
centre of the sphere itself.
We know R n b p op
'
= +
r r
r
( )
R s r = ÷
r
r r
2
2 2 2 1
R p o p = + is true for any curve
lying on a sphere.
For helix,
k
t
=constant tano =
tan o p o =
2
2 2 2 2 1
tan R p p op = +
2 2
tan tan
d
R
ds
p
p p op p o
'
÷ = =
2 2
cot
d
ds
R
p p
o
p
=
÷
Integrate . . . wr t s , ( )
2 2
cot s R o p = ÷ ÷
(choosing constant of integration as zero)
( )
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
cot cot s R R s o p p o = ÷ = +
This is the intrinsic equation of spherical helix.
62
Check Your Progress (C Y P ) :
6. State Fundamental Existence Theorem for space curves.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
7. What about the helix of constant curvature ?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
2.8. SUMMARY:
In this unit first, the contact of certain order between a given curve and given
surface is explained. Then the centre and radius of circle of curvature at a point P on a
curve is derived. Further the centre and radius of osculating sphere is also derived. Locus
of the centre of osculating sphere is obtained. The equations of involute and evolute are
derived. Fundamental existence theorem for space curves is proved. Finally, the
characteristic property viz; ‘the ratio of curvature to torsion is constant’ is obtained.
2.9. KEYWORDS:
1. nPoint contact of a curve :
( )
r r u =
r r
and the surface given by the equation
( )
, , 0 F x y z = . Then the points of intersection of the curve and the surface are
given by the parametric values of u, which are the roots of
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
0 . ., 0 F x u y u z u i e F u = = . If
0
u is such a root of F(u)=0 then F(u) can
be expanded by Taylor’s theorem about
0
u u =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
2
0
0 0 0 0
........
2!
u u
F u F u u u F u F u
÷
' '' = + ÷ + + IfF(u.)=0=F’(u.)=
F”(u.)=…….
0
1
( )
n
u
F
÷
= but
( )
0
0
n
u
F = , then C and S are said to have n – point
contact at
( )
0
. r u
r
2. Osculating Circle: The circle, which has three point contact with the curve at P is
called osculating circle at a point P on a curve. Such a circle is the intersection of
the osculating plane with a sphere through which also has a three point contact
with the curve at p.
3. Osculating Sphere (or) Spherical Curvature: The osculating sphere at P on the
curve is defined to be the sphere, which has four – point contact with the curve at
P.
4. Involutes and evolutes: If the tangents to a curve C are normals to another curve
1 1
C then C is called the involute of C and C is called an evolute of
1
C .
63
5. Helix: A cylindrical helix is a space curve which lies on a cylinder ( whose cross
section may be a circle or any closed curve) and cuts the generators of the
cylinder at a constant angle.
2.10. ANSWER TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS:
1. .let
( )
r r u =
r r
and
( )
, , 0 F x y z = be the given curve and given surface. The points
of intersection of the curve and the surface are given by the
equation
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
, , 0 . , 0 F x u y u z u i e F u = = . If
o
u is such a root of
( ) ( )
0, F u then F u = can be expanded about
o
u u = in the form
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2
2 3
2!
2! 3!
o
o o o o
o o o
u u
F u F u u u F u F u
F u F u F u
÷
' ''
= + ÷ + +
e e
' '' '''
=e + + +
L L
L L
( )
0
o o
F u and putting u u = e= ÷ Q
Now, if
( )
0
o
F u = , then
o
u is a simple zero of
( )
F u and the curve & surface have
simple intersection at the point ( )
o
r u
r
. If ( ) ( ) 0
o o
F u F u
' ''
= = and ( ) 0
o
F u
'''
= ,
then
o
u is a triple zero of
( )
F u and we say that the curve and the surface have a
three point contact at the point ( )
o
r u
r
.
2. c r n p = +
r r r
, gives the centre of curvature of the curve at P, where p is called
radius of curvature of the curve at P and
1
k
p = , k being the curvature of the
curve at P. r
r
is the position vector of P and r
r
is the principal normal unit vector.
3. All tangents to a space curve generate a surface in space called the tangent surface
of the curve.
4. If the tangent to a curve C are normals to another curve
1
C , then
1
C is called
involute of C, and C is called evaluate of
1
C .
5. The characteristic property possessed by helices and not by other curves, is the
constancy of the ratio of curvature to the torsion.
6. If
( ) ( )
f s and g s are continuous functions of S, for all non – negative values of
s, then there exists one and only one space curve, determined but for its position
in space for which
( )
k f s = and
( )
g s t = , being arc length measured from some
base point
7. Let C be any helix (circular or not ). We project C on a plane through O
perpendicular to the axis of the cylinder. This is clearly normal cross – section of
the cylinder, which is a plane curve
1
c (say). If the helix C has constant curvature
k, then
1
k is also a constant. Thus
1
C is a plane curve with constant curvature and
is therefore a circle. Hence, we conclude that, if a helix has constant curvature, it
must be a circular helix.
64
2.11. TERMINAL QUESTIONS:
1. Find the locus of centre of curvature and show that the unit tangent at C, the
centre of curvature, is parallel to the normal plane to the original curve at P.
2. Find the curvature and torsion of the locus of the centre of curvature, when the
curvature of the original curve is given (i.e., p is constant).
3. Show that the locus of the centre of curvature is an evolutes, only when the curve
is plane.
2.12. FURTHER READINGS :
1. ‘Differential Geometry’ by struik
2. ‘Differential Geometry’ by Dr. Mittal & Agarwal
3. ‘Differential Geometry’ by D. Somasundaram
4. ‘An introduction to Differential Geometry’ by T. Willmore.
65
UNIT III
LOCAL INTRINSIC PROPERTIES OF SURFACE
STRUCTURE:
Learning Objectives
3.0. Introduction
3.1. Surface representation, regular and singular points
3.2. Change of Parameters
3.3. Curvilinear equations of the curve on the surface
3.4. Tangent plane and normal
3.5. Surfaces of Revolution
3.6. Metric on a surface – the first fundamental form
3.7. Elemental Area
3.8. Direction coefficients on a surface
3.9. Summary
3.10. Key words
3.11. Answers to check up your progress
3.12. Terminal Questions
3.13. Further Readings
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
1. Two parameter family of surface – regular and singular points on the
surface and implicit and constraint equation.
2. Change of parameters in the equation of a surface by means of
transformation.
3. Curvilinear equations of the curve on the surface.
4. Tangent plane and normal
5. Surfaces of revolution.
6. Metric on a surface – First Fundamental from
7. Element of Area
8. Direction coefficients on a surface.
66
3.0. INTRODUCTION:
Any property or formula of a surface which can be deduced from the
metric of the surface alone without knowing the vector function
( )
, r u v
r
(i.e.,
without knowing the equation of the surface) is called an intrinsic property In
other words all properties of a surface which can be obtained using the
metric
2 2
2 Edu Fdudv Gdv + + alone and without using the vector
equation
( )
, r r u v =
r r
are called intrinsic properties.
3.1.. SURFACE REPRESENTATION, REGULAR AND SINGULAR POINTS :
We have defined the curve as a locus of a point, whose Cartesian
coordinates
( )
, , x y z are functions of a single parameter. Similarly, a surface is the
locus of a point, whose Cartesian coordinates
( )
, , x y z are functions of two
independent parameters (or) vectorially, a surface is defined as the locus of a
point, whose position vector r
r
can be expressed in terms of two parameters, in
the form ( ) , r r u v =
r r
( u andv being the two independent parameters) for
1
u u u
o
s s , &
1
v v v
o
s s .
The representations of the surface as given above are due to Gauss and
therefore named as Gaussian form of the surface. The parametersu and v are
called curvilinear coordinates or surface coordinates of the current point on the
surface.
A point determined by the pair , u v is called as the point
( )
, u v . A
point
( )
, u v is said to be regular point on the surface, if the condition
u v
r r o × =
/
r r r
is
satisfied at this point. Otherwise, the point is said to be singular. The relation of
the form
( )
, , F x y z o = between the coordinates , , x y z of a point is called an
implicit or constraint equation of the surface.
The parameters
, u v
can be eliminated between the parametric equations
( ) ( ) ( )
, , , , , x f u v y g u v z h u v = = = and thus the constraint equation
( )
, , 0 F x y z = can be obtained.
Check you progress ( C Y P ) :
1. What is regular point and singular point on a surface
( )
, ? r r u v =
r r
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67
Example:
1) Sphere:
consider a sphere with radius ‘a’.
Taking the rectangular Cartesian
coordinate axes through the centre of
the sphere, the coordinates of any
point on the sphere can be given in
the following form:
sin cos , sin sin , cos x a o y a o z a u u u = = =
/ /
, 2 o o o u t t s s s s
/
Here
( )
, , a o u
/
is a point, whose
coordinates are called spherical polar
coordinates of that point on the
surface of the sphere (u ando
/
being
the parameters)
( )
sin cos , sin sin , cos r a o a o a u u u =
/ /
r
( )
cos cos , cos sin , sin r a o a o a
u
u u u = ÷
/ /
r
( )
sin , sin s , 0 r a sino a co o
o
u u = ÷
/ /
r
cos cos cos sin sin
sin sin sin cos
i j k
r r a o a o a
o
a o a o o
u
u u u
u u
× = ÷
/ /
/
÷
/ /
r
r r
r r
( )
2 2 2 2 2
sin cos , sin sin , sin cos a o a o a u u u u =
/ /
, r r o
o
u
× =
/
r r r
When & o u u t = =
, o =
/
r
At all other points.
All other points except the poles
o u =
and
o t =
are regular points and those
two poles are singular points. It is evident that the singularity of two poles in this
case is due to the choice of the coordinate system and that is not an intrinsic
property of the two points.
68
e.g. 2) Right circular cane:
Consider a right circular cone of semi
vertical angleo . Taking ox y z with
oz axis along the axis of the cone and
O
at the vertex. The Cartesian
coordinates of any point on the cone is
cos , sin , cot x u y u z u u u o = = =
Here , , u z u are called cylindrical coordinates. The parameters are u and u .
( )
cos , sin , cot r u u u u u o =
r
( )
cos , sin , cot r
u
u u o =
r
( )
sin , cos , r u u o
u
u u = ÷
r
( )
cos cot , sin cot , r r u u u
u
u
u o u o × = ÷ ÷
r r
0 r r
u
u
× =
r
r r
, iff u = 0 so that the only singular point of the cone is the vertex.
3.2. CHANGE OF PARAMETERS:
We shall allow only those transformations, which transforms regular
points into regular points. Let ( , ) r r u v =
r r
be the equation to a surface in terms of
the parameter
( )
, u v and let a new set of parameters U,V be introduced by means
of the transformation
( ) ( ) ( )
, & , 1 u u U V v v U V = = ÷
Then
r r u r v
rU
U u U v U
c c c c c
= = · + ·
c c c c c
r r r
r
v
r
r r u r v
u v v v v
c c c c c
= = · + ·
c c c c c
r
r r r
69
U V
r u r v r u r v
r r
u U v U u v v v
   
 
\ . \ .
c c c c c c c c
× = · + · × · + ·
c c c c c c c c
r r r r
r r
( ) ( )
u v u v
r r r r
u v u v
U V V U
c c c c
= × · ÷ × ·
c c c c
r r r r
( )
u u
U V r r
u v
v v
U V
c c
c c = ×
c c
c c
r r
( )
( )
( )
( )
,
2
,
u v
r r
u v
U V
c
= × ÷
c
r r
Now, if 0
U V
r r × =
r r
, then the Jacobian
( )
( )
( )
,
0 3
,
u v
U V
c
= ÷
c
( 0 r r
u v
× =
r r
Q for regular point in parameter , ) u v
The transformation (1) under the condition (3) is called proper
transformation.
If
( )
( )
,
0,
,
u v
U V
c
=
c
at a point P of the surface, then P will be regular.
Also, denote that for proper transformation,
( )
( )
,
0
,
u v
U V
c
=
c
and hence from (2),
0
U V
r r × =
r r
, iff 0
v
r r
u
× =
r r
i.e., In proper transformation, regular point is
transformed into regular point.
Pwill be regular or singular in the first parametric system according as
P is regular (or) singular in the second parametric system.
Check you progress ( C Y P ) :
2. What is proper transformation under the change of variable and what is its
effect?
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70
3.3. CURVILINEAR EQUATIONS OF THE CURVE ON THE SURFACE:
We know that a curve is the locus of a point whose position vector r
r
can
be expressed as a function of a single parameter. Let us consider a surface
( )
, r r u v =
r r
defined on a domainD and if u and v are functions of a single
parameter
t
, then the position vector
r
r
becomes a function of a single parameter
t , and hence its locus is a curve lying on the surface
( )
, r r u v =
r r
Let
( ) ( )
, u u t v v t = = , then
( ) ( ) ( )
, r r u t v t =
r r
is a curve lying on the surface
( )
, r r u v =
r r
in
D
. The equations
( ) ( )
, u u t v v t = = are called curvilinear
equations of the curve on the surface.
Parametric curves:
When we keep v = constant in
( )
, , r r u v =
r r
then r
r
depends on only one
parameter u and thus determines a curve on the surface, a parametric curve
v =constant. Similarly u = constant represents another parametric curve. As the
constants vary, the surface is covered with a net of parametric curves, two of
which pass through every point P, forming the family of curves v =constant
and the family of curves u =constant.
At P, the vector r
u
r
is tangent to the curve v = constant, and
v
r
r
is tangent
at that point to the curve
u =
constant.
71
If v =constant (say) c , then as u varies, the point
( )
, r r u c =
r r
describes a
parametric curve called the u ÷curve or the parametric curve v c = . Similarly, if
u = constant, say c , then v varies, the point
( )
, r r c v =
r r
traces a parametric
curve called the v curve or the parametric curve u c = . Thus, we have two
systems of parametric curves viz., u ÷curve and v ÷ curve and since we know
that 0
1 2
r r × =
r r
therefore the parametric curves of different systems cannot touch
each other.
If 0
1 2
r r · =
r r
at a point P , the two parametric curves through the point P
are orthogonal. If this condition is satisfied at every point, i.e., for all values of
u and v in the domain D, the two systems of parametric curves are orthogonal.
e.g., If u and O are the parameters of the equation of a surface of a sphere, then
u =constant are small circles and the curves O = constant are great circles.
Check you progress ( C Y P ) :
3. Explain briefly the parametric curves on a surface.
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3.4. TANGENT PLANE AND NORMAL:
Tangent plane:
Let the equation of the curve be
( ) ( )
, u u t v v t = = , then the tangent is
parallel to the vector , r
r
&
where
dr r du r dv
r
dt u dt v dt
c c
= = · + ·
c c
r r r
r
&
i.e.
1 2
dr du dv
r r
dt dt dt
= +
r
r r
(or)
1 2
dr r du r dv = +
r r r
But
1
r
r
and
2
r
r
are nonzero and independent vectors, therefore the tangents to a
curve (on the surface) through a point P lie in the plane which contains the two
vectors
1
r
r
and
2
r
r
. This plane is called the tangent plane at
P
. Hence,
1 2
r r ×
r r
gives
the direction of the normal to the tangent plane. Thus, the equation to the
tangent plane is
( )
( )
1 2
R r r r o ÷ · × =
r r r
, wherer
r
is the position vector of Pand R
r
,
that of a current point an the plane.
Check you progress ( C Y P ) :
4. What is a tangent plane at a point P on a curve lying on a surface?
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72
Normal:
The normal to the surface at the point P is a line passing throughP and
perpendicular to the tangent plane at P . Thus, if ( ) , , r r u v =
r r
is the equation of the
surface, then the normal to the tangent plane at P is perpendicular to
both
1
r
r
and
2
r
r
and hence parallel to
1 2
r r ×
r r
and therefore the equation of the normal
line at Pto the surface is
( )
1 2
R r r r ì = + ×
r
r r r
, where R
r
is the position vector of a
current point on the normal.
The normal to the surface at P is same as the normal to the tangent plane
at Pand therefore the unit surface normal vector N
r
is given
by
1 2 1 2
1 2
r r r r
N
r r
H
× ×
= =
×
r r r r
r
r r
where
1 2
r r o H = × =
r r
Note:
The sense of unit surface normal vector N
r
is fixed by considering
that
1 2
, , r r N
r
r r
in this order form a right handed system.
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To show that a proper parametric transformation either leavers every
normal unchanged or reverses every normal.
Proof: Let
( )
, r r u v =
r r
be the equation of a surface and the relations
( ) ( )
, , , u o u v v u v v ' ' = =
/
give a proper parametric transformation. From
differential calculus, we have
r r u r v
u u u v u
' ' c c c c c
= · + ·
' '
c c c c c
r r r
&
r r u r v
v u v v v
' '
c c c c c
= · + ·
' '
c c c c c
r r r
r r u v u v r r
u v u v v u u v
 

\ .
' ' ' '
c c c c c c c c
× = · ÷ · ×
' '
c c c c c c c c
r r r r
Or
( )
( )
( )
,
___ 1
,
u v
u v
' '
c
' '
HN = H N
c
r r r r
73
Where the symbols , ; ,
' '
H N H N
r r r
have usual meaning in the two systems of
parameters
, u v
and , u v ' 'respectively.
Since, the parametric transformation is proper, hence we have
( )
( )
,
,
u v
o
u v
' '
c
=
c
i.e. J o = where
( )
( )
,
,
u v
J
u v
' '
c
=
c
We know that
H
and '
H
are always positive. Therefore the relation (1)
implies that the unit vectors N
r
and ' N
r
are in the same directions, if J o > and are
in opposite directions if J< 0. But the Jacobian J is continuous over the
domain Dof parameters , v u and does not vanish and hence J is of invariable sign
throughout D. Therefore, throughout D the vector N
r
and
'
N
r
are either the same
vectors or are opposite vectors. Hence, a proper parametric transformation either
leaves every normal unchanged or reverses every normal.
3.5. SURFACES OF REVOLUTION:
(i) Sphere:
For the sphere with centre at
Oand radius' ' a we take the
spherical coordinates o
/
andu as
parameters, since r remains
constant a = .
The vector equation is then
( )
, r r u v =
r r
( )
sin cos , sin sin , cos a u v a u v a u =
Where u o ÷
/
and v u ÷ and
u and v have ranges
( ) , o t and
( )
,2 o t . The
parametric curves v = constant
are the meridians on the sphere
andu =constant are the parallels of latitudes, which are small circles, whose
planes are parallel to the xy plane.
Now
( )
cos cos , cos sin , sin
1
r
r a u v u v u
u
c
= = ÷
c
r
r
&
( )
sin sin , sin cos ,
2
r
r a u v u v o
v
c
= = ÷
c
r
r
And thus
1 2
r r o · =
r r
. Hence, the parametric curves are orthogonal.
74
We see that
( )
2 2 2
sin cos , sin sin , sin cos
1 2
r r a u v u v u u × =
r r
And
2
sin
1 2
r r a u H= × =
r r
Thus the point u o = andu t = are singularities. The
unit normal
( )
1
1 2
sin cos , sin sin , cos r
a
r r
u v u v u = =
×
N =
H
r
r r
r
Check your progress ( C Y P ) :
5. Show that parametric curves u =constant &v =constant on the sphere
( )
sin cos , sin sin , cos r a u v a u v a u =
r
are orthogonal.
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(ii) The general surface of revolution:
Consider a curve in the xz plane, given by the parametric equations
( ) ( )
, z f u x g u = = . We wish to obtain the equation for the surface obtained by
revolving this curve about the
z
axis. Consider any intermediate position of this
curve during the revolution. It will lie in a plane passing through the z axis. This
plane makes some angle, say
v
, with xzplane. Thus the line of intersection of this
plane with the xy plane makes the same angle v with x ÷axis. If Pis any point on
the original curve on the xzplane and
1
P , the corresponding point in the new
position of the curve, then the distance of
1
P from the z axis =distance of P from
the z axis x = coordinate P x = (say). The coordinates of
1
P are then
( )
cos , sin , x v x v z , since the z coordinate of
1
P does not change during the
revolution. Thus any point on the surface of revolution has
coordinates
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
cos , sin , g u v g u v f u . Thus the parametric equation for this
surface of revolution is
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
cos , sin , r g u v g u v f u =
r
.
75
As in the case of the sphere, the curvesv =constant are the meridians which are
just the various positions of the generating curve during its revolution
andu =constant are the parallels viz, the circles described by the various
points Pon the generating curve during the revolution.
Here
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
cos , sin ,
1
r
r g u v g u v f u
u
c
' ' = =
c
r
r
and
( ) ( )
( )
2
sin , cos ,
r
r g u v g u v o
v
c
= = ÷
c
r
r
Thus
1 2
0 r r · =
r r
, so that the parametric curves are again orthogonal.
The right circular cone of semivertical angle o and axis along z ÷ axis
obtained by taking
( ) ( )
cot g u u and f u u o = =
(iii) Anchor ring:
This is the surface obtained by revolving a circle with centre at
( )
, , b o o and
radius a b = < in the xz ÷plane, about the z ÷axis. The parametric equation for the
circle in the xz ÷plane are easily seen to be cos , sin x b a u z a u = + = .
Hence, the equation for the anchor ring is
( ) ( )
( )
cos cos , cos sin , sin r b a u v b a u v a u = + +
r
76
The meridians and parallels are all circles and the normal N
r
is directed towards
the centre of the meridian circle.
Helicoids:
If we revolve the +ve x ÷ axis about the z ÷axis we just obtain
xy ÷
plane.
But while revolving the +ve x  axis, if we also give a parallel motion upwards in
the +vez direction, then we obtain a surface which is called a right helicoid. It
will resemble a winding staircase or a screw surface.
A helicoid is a surface generated by screw motion of a curve i.e, a forward
motion together with a rotation about a fixed line, called the axis of the helicoid.
The angle v through which a curve has turned should be proportional to the
distance ì moved in the forward direction parallel to the axis. Thus
v
ì
is a
constant say ' ' a . The pitch of the helicoid is then 2 a t . It is the distance translated
for one complete revolution. It is ve + for a right handed screw motion, zero for a
surface of revolution (since there is no forward motion) and negative for a left
handed screw motion.
We see that the parametric equation for the right helicoid (obtained by
revolving the positive x ÷ axis about the z ÷ axis with a simultaneous traslation)
is ( ) cos , sin , r u v u v av =
r
where u is the distance from the axis and v is the angle of
rotation. The curves v = constant are the generators andu =constant are circular
helices. These are respectively obtained by intersecting the helicoid by planes
through the z ÷ axis making angle v with the xzplane and right circular cylinders
of radius u with axis along z ÷axis. Clearly
( ) ( )
1 2
cos ,sin , sin , cos , r v v o and r u v u v a = = ÷
r r
and thus
1 2
0 r r · =
r r
, so that the
parametric curves are orthogonal.
The general helicoid with axis along z ÷axis can be generated by the curve
of intersection of the helicoid with any plane containing z ÷axis and thus in
particular the xz plane. Thus, we may assume that the generating curve has the
equation
( ) ( )
, 0, x g u y z f u = = = . The surface therefore has the equation
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
cos , sin , r g u v g u v f u av = +
r
Then
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1
cos , sin , r g u v g u v f u ' ' ' =
r
( ) ( )
( )
2
& sin , cos , r g u v g u v a = ÷
r
Thus
( )
1 2
r r af u
'
· =
r r
.Hence the parametric curves are orthogonal, if
either ( ) ( ) 0 0 f u or a
'
= = . In the first case ( ) f u is a constant and hence, the surface
is a right helicoid. In the second case, the surface is a surface of revolution.
77
( )
Q r dr +
r r
( )
P r
r
3.6. METRIC ON A SURFACE THE FIRST FUNDAMENTAL FORM:
Let ( ) , r r u v =
r r
be the equation of a surface. The quadratic differential
form
2 2
2 Edu Fdudv Gdv + + in , du dv is called metric or first fundamental form,
where
2 2
1 1 2 2
, , E r F r r G r = = · =
r r r r
.
The quantities
, , E F G
are called first order fundamental magnitudes on
first fundamental coefficients and are of great importance. The values
of , , E F G will generally vary from point to point on the surface as these quantities
are function of , u v .
Geometrical Interpretation of metric:
Consider a curve
( )
u u t = ,
( )
v v t = on the surface
( )
, r r u v =
r r
.
Let r
r
and r dr +
r r
corresponding to the parameter
values , u v and , u du v dv + + respectively be the position
vectors of two neighboring points P andQon the surface.
We have
r r
dr du dv
u v
c c
= +
c c
r r
r
1 2
r du r dv = +
r r
Let the arc PQ be ds. Since the points PandQ are neighbouring points,
thereforeds dr =
r
ds dr
dt dt
=
r
2 2
ds dr
dt dt
 
=

\ .
r
2
1 2
du dv
r r
dt dt
 
= +

\ .
r r
2 2
2 2
1 1 2 2
2
du du dv dv
r r r r
dt dt dt dt
       
= + · +
   
\ . \ . \ . \ .
r r r r
2 2
2
du du dv dv
F G
dt dt dt dt
      
= E + +
   
\ . \ .\ . \ .
where
2 2
1 1 2 2
, , E r F r r G r = = · =
r r r r
Alternately we can write this equation in the
form: ( )
2 2 2
2 _______ 1 ds Edu Fdudv Gdv = + +
78
This gives the distance between the two neighboring points
( )
, u v and
( )
, u du v dv + + on the curve.
The name metric is assigned to the first fundamental form as mainly it is used to
calculate the arc length of the curves on the surface.
Check you progress ( C Y P ) :
6. What is the meaning of a metric on the surface ( ) , ? r r u v =
r r
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Special cases:
On the parametric curve u = constant, 0 du = and hence the metric (1)
reduces to
2 2
ds Gdv = and on the parametric curve v = constant, 0 dv = and
therefore the metric (1) reduces to
2 2
ds Edu =
We have
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
1 2 1 2 1 2
r r r r r r × = ÷ ·
r r r r r r
2
0 EG F = ÷ >
Since
1 2
0, 0, 0 r r E G × = > >
r r
Thus the metric (1) is a positive definite quadratic form.
Invariance of the metric:
When the parameters are transformed by
( ) ( )
0 , , , , u u v v u v v ' ' = / = the
metric takes the form
2 2 2
2 ds E du F du dv G dv
' ' ' ' ' ' '
= + +
( )
2
2
r du r dv
' ' ' '
= +
r r
Where
1
r r u r v
r
u u u v u
c c c c c
'
= = · + ·
' ' '
c c c c c
r r r
r
1 2
'
u v
r r
u u
c c
= +
' c c
r r
&
2 1 2
'
r u v
r r r
v v v
c c c
' = = +
' ' c c c
r
r r r
2
2
1 2 1 2
u v u v
Thus ds r r du r r dv
u u v v
c c c c    
' '
= + + +
 
' ' ' '
c c c c
\ . \ .
r r r r
2
1 2
u u v v
r du dv r du dv
u v u v
c c c c    
' ' ' '
= + + +
 
' ' ' '
c c c c
\ . \ .
r r
( )
2
1 2
r du r dv = +
r r
=
2 2
2 Edu F du dv Gdv + +
79
Thus the metric is invariant under a parametric transformation, but the
coefficients E, F, G are not invariant.
3.7. ELEMENT OF AREA:
Consider the figure ABCD, whose vertices A, B, C, D have parameter values
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
, , , , , , , u v u du v u du v dv u v dv + + + + respectively. If du and dv are small
and positive, then the figure ABCD is approximately a parallelogram. Let r
r
denote the position vector of any point on the figure, then
AD
uuur
= position vector of
D÷
position vector of
A
=
( ) ( )
, , r u v dv r u v + ÷
r r
=
( ) ( )
, ,
r
r u v dv r u v
v
c
+ ÷
c
r
r r
=
2
r
dv r dv
v
c
=
c
r
r
1
similarly AB r du =
uuur
r
Hence, the area ds of’ the parallelogramABCD is given
by
1 2
ds r du r dv = ×
r r
1 2
r r du dv H du dv = × =
r r
Where
2
H EG F = ÷
Hence, the element of area on the surface at the point
( )
, u v is taken to be
2
EG F du dv ÷
Check you progress ( C Y P ) :
7. Find element of area on the surface
( )
, , r r u v =
r r
_______________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
80
3.8. DIRECTION COEFFICIENTS ON A SURFACE:
At each point P , we have the vectors
1 2
, , r r N
r
r r
which are linearly
independent. Thus any vector a
r
drawn fromPhas the unique
form
1 2 n
a a N r r ì u = + +
r
r r r
, where , ,
n
a ì u are scalars,
n
a is called the normal
component of a
r
and is equal toa · N
r
r
. The vector
1 2
r r ì u +
r r
is called the tangential
part of a
r
and ì and u , the tangential components of a
r
. If a
r
is tangential to the
surface, then 0
n
a = and the quantities
ì
and
u
determine
a
r
uniquely. Now, we
consider such tangential vectors at points on the surface.
If a
r
is the vector
( )
, ì u i.e. the tangential vector with componentsì and u ,
then
1 2
a r r ì u = +
r r r
( )
2
1 2 1 2
a r r r r ì u ì u = + = +
r r r r r
2 2
2 E F G ì ìu u = + + _________ (1)
A direction in the tangent plane at P is usually described by the components of
the unit vector in that direction. These components are called the direction
coefficients of that direction.
(OR)
If
( )
, m l are the components of unit vector e
r
in the direction of tangent
vectorT
r
at Pon the surface, such that
1 2
e r mr = +
r r r
l , then
( )
, m l are termed as the
direction coefficients of the direction specified byT
r
.
Thus if a
r
has unit length, then the direction coefficients may be denoted by
( )
, m l
instead of
( )
, ì u and from (1), we have
2 2
2 1 E F m Gm + + = l l
At each point on the surface, we defined the positive sense of rotation to
be from
1
r
r
to
2
r
r
through the smaller angle. If ( ) , m l and( ) , m
' '
l are the direction
coefficients of two directions at the same point, then the angleu between these
two directions is given by
( ) ( )
1 2 1 2
cos a a r mr r m r u ' ' ' = · = + · +
r r r r r r
l l
( )
E F m m Gmm
' ' ' '
= + + + l l l l ____________(2)
and
( ) ( )
1 2 1 2
sin , sin ce N a a r mr r m r u
' ' '
= × = + × +
r
r r r r r r
l l
( ) ( )
1 2
r r m m
' '
= × ÷
r r
l l
( )
HN m m
' '
= ÷
r
l l
We have
( )
sin , H m m u ' ' = ÷ l l where
2
H EG F = ÷
81
Thus from( 2), we see that the condition for orthogonality of the two
directions
( ) ( )
, , m and m ' ' l l is
( )
0 E F m m Gmm
' ' '
+ + + = l l l l
If
( )
, ì u are proportional to the direction coefficients
( )
, m l , then
( )
, ì u are called
the direction ratios of the direction. Thus, if , k
m
u
ì
= =
l
we have
2 2
2 2
1 2 2 E F m Gm E F G
k k k k
ì ì u u
       
= + + = + +
   
\ . \ . \ . \ .
l l
Thus
2 2 2
k E F G ì ìu u = + + from which we get
( )
( )
,
, m
k
ì u
= l
( )
2 2
,
2 E F G
ì u
ì ìu u
=
+ +
Check you progress ( C Y P ) :
8. If
( )
, ì u are direction ratios of a direction specified then find the direction
coefficients
( )
,m l .
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
In terms of the direction ratios, the condition for the orthogonality of two
directions
( )
, ì u and
( )
, ì u
' '
is
( ) 0 E F G ìì ìu uì uu
' ' ' '
+ + + =
The vectors
1
r
r
and
2
r
r
have the respective components
( )
1,0 and
( )
0,1 . The
corresponding direction coefficients are thus
( )
2 2
1,0
1 2 1 0 0 E F G · + · · + ·
And
( )
2 2
0,1
0 2 0 1 1 E F G · + · · + ·
1
, 0
F
 

\ .
And
1
0,
G
 

\ .
Let
( ) ( )
, u u t v v t = = be a curve lying on the surface
( )
, r r u v =
r r
. Then the tangent
vector is given by
2 2
, ,
dr
r u r v
dt
= +
r
r r
& &where ,
du dv
u v
dt dt
= = & &
The direction ration of
r
r
&
are therefore
( )
, u v && ,
r s =
r
&
can be obtained from the metric.
Hence, the unit tangent vector is
1 2
/
dr dr ds du dv
r r
ds dt dt ds ds
= = · + ·
r r
r r
82
And thus its direction coefficients are ,
du dv
ds ds
 

\ .
. Thus the increments , du dv along
the curve are the direction ratios for the tangent vector.
If the curve is given by an implicit equation, 0 ( ) , 0 u v = , then since 0 0 d / = .
We have 0
1
0 du +
2
0 dv = 0 where
1
0 c
÷
2
0
0 and
u
c
/ =
c v
 

c
\ .
so that : 0 du dv = ÷
2
: 0
1
.
These are the direction ratios for the tangent.
Problems:
1. calculate the fundamental magnitudes of the conicoide
( )
cos , sin , x u v y u v z f u = = =
Solution: the given surface is
( ) ( )
cos , sin , r u v u v f u =
r
( ) ( )
1
cos ,sin , r v v f u
'
=
r
( )
2
sin , cos , 0 r u v u v = ÷
r
( )
( )
( )
( )
2 2
2 2 2
1
cos sin 1 E r v v f u f u
' '
= = + + = +
r
1 2
cos sin sin cos 0 0 F r r u v v u v v = · = ÷ + + =
r r
2 2 2 2 2 2
2
sin cos 0 G r u v u v u = = + + =
r
. The fundamental magnitudes are
( )
2
2
1 , 0, E f F G u ' = + = =
2. Find the metric of the surface
2 2
, , x u y v z u v = = = ÷
Solution: Let
( )
2 2
, , r u v u v = ÷
r
( )
1
1,0, 2
dr
r u
du
= =
r
r
( )
2
0,1, 2
dr
r v
dv
= = ÷
r
r
( )
( ) (
)
2
2
2
2 2 2 2
1
1 0 2 1 4 1 4 E r u u u
2
= = + + = + = +
r
1 2
0 0 4 4 F r r uv uv = · = + ÷ = ÷
r r
2
2
1 4 G r v = = +
r
Hence
2
H EG F = ÷
( ) ( )
( )
2
2 2
1 4 1 4 4 u v uv = + + ÷ ÷
( )( )
2 2 2 2
1 4 1 4 16 u v u v = + + ÷
2 2
1 4 4 u v = + +
83
The quadratic differential form is
2 2 2
2 ds Edu Fdudv Gdv = + +
Where
2 2
1 4 , 4 , 1 4 E u F uv G v = + = ÷ = +
3. Find the metric (or) first fundamental form of the surface, whose equation
is
2
cosh , sinh , x u v y u v z u = = =
Solution:
( )
2
cosh , sinh , r u v u v u =
r
( )
1
cosh , sin , 2
dr
r v v u
du
= =
r
r
( )
2
sinh , cosh , 0
dr
r u v u v
dv
= =
r
r
( )
2
2 2 2
1
cosh sinh 2 E r v v u = = + +
r
2 2
1 2sinh 4 v u = + +
( )( )
1 2
cosh sinh , 2 sinh , cosh , 0 F r r v v u u v u v = · =
r r
( )
sinh cosh , cosh sinh ,0 u v v u v v =
2 2 2 2 2
2
sinh cosh 0 G r u v u v = = + +
r
( )
2 2
1 2si nh u v = +
The quadratic differential from is
2 2 2
2 ds Edu Fdudv Gdv = + +
Where
2 2
1 2sinh 4 E v u = + +
( )
cosh sinh , cosh sinh , 0 F u v v u v v =
( )
2 2
1 2sinh G u v = +
4. Prove that the curves bisecting the angle between the parametric curves
are given by the equation
2 2
0 Edu Gdv ÷ =
Solution:
We know that the direction coefficients of the parametric curves
v = constant andu =constant are respectively
1 1
, 0 0, and
E G
   
 
\ . \ .
Let ,
du dv
ds ds
 

\ .
be coefficient of direction which bisects the angle between
the parametric curves. Let, , w be the angle which this direction makes
with
1
, 0
E
 

\ .
and
2
w be the angle which this direction makes with
1
0,
G
 

\ .
.
84
1
1 1
cos
du dv
w E F
ds ds
E E
= · + ·
&
2
1 1
cos
du dv
w F G
ds ds
G G
= · + ·
Since the direction ,
du dv
ds ds
 

\ .
bisects the angle between the parametric
curves, we have
1 2
cos cos w w = ± (Q positive sign taken for internal bisector,
negative sign taker for external bisector )
i.e.
1 1 du dv du dv
E F F G
ds ds ds ds
E G
   
+ = ± +
 
\ . \ .
E Gdu F Gdv F Edu G Edv
+ = ± +
Squaring both sides
2 2
E Gdu F Gdv F Edu G Edv
+ = +
i.e.,
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
E Gdu F Gdv F Edu G Edv + = +
i.e..
( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
E EG F du G EG F dv ÷ = ÷
i.e.,
2 2
Edu Gdv =
i.e.,
2 2
0 Edu Gdv ÷ = . Hence, the result.
5. Find the area of the surface
( )
, z f x y =
Solution: Let
( )
, , r x y z =
r
Here, the parameters are x and y
( )
1,0, ,
x
z
r p where p
x
c
= =
c
r
( )
0,1, ,
y
z
r q whereq
y
c
= =
c
r
( ) ( ) 1, 0, 1, 0,
x x
E r r p p = · = ·
r r
( )
2
1 p = +
( ) ( ) 1,0, 0,1,
x y
F r r p q = · = ·
r r
pq =
( ) ( ) 0,1, 0,1,
y y
G r r q q = · = ·
r r
2
1 q = +
Area of the surface
2
EG F dxdy = ÷
íí
(Q Elemental area)
2
EG F dxdy = ÷
Q Area or surface
( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
1 1 p q p q dxdy = + + ÷
íí
2 2
1 p q dxdy = + +
íí
This form is known as Monge’s form.
85
6. Find the first fundamental form of the surface of a sphere of radius ‘a’.
Solution: The equation of the surface of a sphere of radius ‘a’ is
sin cos 0 x a u =
sin sin y a u o =
cos z a u =
The parameters are u and 0 .
If r
r
is the position vector of the point on the surface of the sphere, then
sin cos 0 r a u =
r
, sin sin 0 a u
( )
, cos a u
cos cos , cos sin 0 r a a
u
u o u =
r
( )
, sin a u ÷
0
r
r
sin sin 0 a u = ÷ , sin cos 0 a u
( )
, 0
2 2 2
cos cos 0 E r r a
u u
u = · =
r r
2 2 2
cos sin 0 a u +
2 2
sin a u +
2 2 2
cos cos 0 a u =
2
sin 0 +
( )
2
sin u
+
( )
2 2 2 2
cos sin a a u u = + =
0
F r r
u
= ·
r r
2
sin cos sin 0 a u u = ÷ cos 0
2
sin cos sin 0 a u u + cos 0 0 +
0 =
0
G r =
r
0
r ·
r
2 2 2
sin sin 0 a u =
2 2 2
sin cos 0 a u +
2 2
sin a u =
Q
The first fundamental form is
( )
2
2 0 E d Fd d u u + 0 G d +
( )
2
( )
2
2 2 2
sin 0 a d a d u u = +
( )
2
7. Find the angle between two tangential directions on a surface at a point . P
Solution: Let the direction coefficients of two directions at a point P be ( ) , m l
and
( )
, , m
' '
l then the corresponding unit vectors e and e are givenby '
r r
1 2 1 2
& e r mr e r mr
' ' '
= + = +
r r r r r r
l l
If u is angle between these two given directions, then
cos e e u
'
= ·
r r
( ) ( )
1 2 1 2
r mr r m r ' ' = + · +
r r r r
l l
( )
2 2
1 1 2 2
r m m r r mm r
' ' ' '
= + + · +
r r r r
l l l l
( )
. ., cos i e E F m m Gmm u
' ' ' '
= + + + l l l l
86
sin e e u
'
= ×
r r
( ) ( )
1 2 1 2
r mr r m r ' ' = + × +
r r r r
l l
( ) ( )
1 2
m m r r
' '
= ÷ ×
r r
l l
Also tan
( )
( )
sin
cos
m m H
E F m m Gmm
u
u
u
' '
÷
= =
' ' ' ' + + +
l l
l l l l
_____________________________________________________________________
8. Find the direction coefficients making angle
2
t
with the direction
coefficients
( )
, m l .
Solution: let
( )
, m
' '
l be the required direction coefficients.
We know that
( )
cos E F m m Gmm u
' ' ' '
= + + + l l l l
sin m m H u
' '
= ÷ l l
If
( )
, 0
2
E F m m Gmm
t
u
' ' ' '
= + + + = l l l l _________ (1)
& 1 m m H ' ' ÷ = l l _________ (2)
From (1),
( ) ( )
0 E Fm m F Gm
' '
+ + + = l l l
( )
m
a say
F Gm E Fm
' '
÷
= =
+ +
l
l l
( ) ( ) , a F Gm m a E Fm
' '
= + = ÷ + l l l _____ (3)
Using (3) in (2),
( ) ( )
1 Ha E Fm Ham F Gm + + + = l l l
( )
2 2
1
2 H E F m Gm H
a
= + + = l l
(or)
1
a
H
=
,
F Gm E Fm
m
H H
+ ÷ +
' '
= =
l l
l
Check Your Progress ( C Y P ) :
9. What is the condition for the orthogonality of two directions
( ) ( )
, , and ì u ì u
' '
?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
10. Prove that the metric is invariant under a parametric transformation
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
87
3.9 . SUMMARY:
It has been said that in the parametric equation of a surface, the
parameters were the curvilinear coordinates or surface coordinates. Then
Regular and singular points on the surface are defined. The nature of proper
transformation through change of parameters and that of the parametric curves
on a surface are explained. Method of obtaining tangent plane and unit normal at
a point on the surface is given. Result regarding the property of proper
parametric transformation is proved. Properties of parametric curves on certain
surfaces of revolution are mentioned. Metric, its invariance property and the
geometrical interpretation are proved. Elemental area on a surface using metric
elements is found. Direction coefficients and direction ratios of tangent vector at
a point on the surface are explained.
3.10. KEYWORDS:
1) Parameter:
In the case of circular curve cos , sin , x a y a u u u = = is called a
parameter.
Whereas in the case of spherical surface, whose equation is
sin cos , sin sin , cos , x a y a z a u o u o u u = = = and o are called parameters.
For the conical surface: cos , sin , cot , x u y u z u u u u = = = · and u
parameters.
2) Regular point:
Regular point on a surface, whose equation is
( )
, r r u v =
r r
. If r r o
u v
× =
r r r
at
a point
( )
, u v on the surface, then the point is called regular point.
3) Singular point:
If r r o
u v
× =
r r r
at
( )
, u v on the surface, then point is called singular.
4) Metric:
It is an expression for measuring the length of an arc of a curve between
two neighbouring points.
5) Direction coefficients :
They are the numbers to specify the direction of a tangent vector at a
point on the curve lying on a surface.
88
3.11. ANSWERS TO CHECK UP YOUR PROGRESS:
1. A point ( ) , u v is said to be a regular point on the surface ( ) , r r u v =
r r
, if the
condition 0
u v
r r × =
r
r r
is satisfied at this point. Otherwise, the point is called
singular.
2. let ( ) , r r u v =
r r
be the equation to a surface in terms of the
parameters
( )
, u v and let a new set of parameters (U,V) be, introduced by
means of the transformation ( ) , u u U V = & ( ) , v v U V = ______(1)
U
r r u r v
r
U u U v U
c c c c c
= = · + ·
c c c c c
r r r
r
V
r r u r v
r
V u V v V
c c c c c
= = · + ·
c c c c c
r r r
r
( ) ( )
( )
( )
,
,
U V u v u v
u u
u v
U V
r r r r r r
v v U V
U V
c c
c
c c
× = × = ×
c c c
c c
r r r r r r
If 0,
U V
r r × =
r r
then Jacobian
( )
( )
,
0
,
u v
U V
c
=
c
________ (2) then
the transformation (1) under the condition (2) is called proper
transformation. The effect
of a proper transformation is that regular point is transformed into regular
point.
3. It we keep v = constant in the equation of the surface ( ) , r r u v =
r r
, thenr
r
depends on only one parametersu and thus determines a curve (on the
surface), whose equation is v =constant. Similarly, u =constant is another
parametric curve on the surface. As the constants vary the surface is
covered with a net of parametric curves two of which pass through every
point P, forming the family of curves v = constant and the family of curves
u = constant.
4. Let the equation of the curve be
( )
u u t = ,
( )
, v v t = then the tangent is
parallel to the vector r
r
&
, where
dr r du r dv
r
dt u dt v dt
c c
= = · + ·
c c
r r r
r
&
i.e.
1 2
dr du dv
r r
dt dt dt
= +
r
r r
(or)
1 2
dr r du r dv = +
r r r
but
1
r
r
and
2
r
r
are non zero and independent vectors. Therefore the tangents
89
to a curve (on the surface) through a point P lie in the plane which
contains the two vectors
1
r
r
and
2
r
r
. This plane is called the tangent plane
at P . Hence,
1 2
r r ×
r r
gives the direction of the normal to tangent plane. Thus,
the equations to the tangent plane at
P
, is
( )
( )
1 2
0 R r r r ÷ · × =
r
r r r
, where
r
r
is the
position vector of P and R
r
, that of a current point on the plane.
5. The parametric curves v = constant are the meridians on the sphere
andu =constant are the parallels of latitudes, which are small circles,
whose planes are parallel to the xy ÷plane.
Now
( )
1
cos cos , cos sin , sin
r
r a u v u v u
u
c
= = ÷
c
r
r
( )
2
sin sin , sin cos , 0
r
r a u v u v
v
c
= = ÷
c
r
r
and
thus
1 2
0 r r · =
r r
. Hence, the parametric curves are orthogonal.
6. From the equation of a curve
( ) ( )
, u u t v v t = = on the surface
( )
, r r u v =
r r
, we
have
1 2
dr r du r dv = +
r r r
where r
r
and r dr +
r r
corresponding to the parameter
values , u v and u du + , v dv + respectively are the position vectors of two
neighbouring points P andQon the surface.
Let the arc
PQ
be
ds
. Since, the points
P
and
Q
are neighbouring points,
therefore ds dr =
r
ds dr
dt dt
=
r
2 2
ds dr
dt dt
 
=

\ .
r
2
1 2
du dv
r r
dt dt
 
= +

\ .
r r
2 2
2 2
1 1 2 2
2
du du dv dv
r r r r
dt dt dt dt
       
= + · +
   
\ . \ . \ . \ .
r r r r
2 2
2
du du dv dv
E F G
dt dt dt dt
      
= + +
   
\ . \ .\ . \ .
Where
2 2
1 1 2 2
, , E r F r r G r = = · =
r r r r
2 2 2
ds Edu Fdudv Gdv = + +
Thus the metric gives the distance between two neighboring
points
( )
, u v and
( )
, u du v dv + + on the curve.
90
7. Consider the figure ABCD ,whose vertices , , , A B C D have parameter
values ( ) ( ) , , , , u v u du dv +
( ) ( )
, , , u du v dv u v dv + + + respectively. If
du and dvare small and positive, then
the figure ABCDis approximately a
parallelogram.
Let r
r
denote the position vector of any point on the figure, then
AD position vector of D position vector of A = ÷
uuur
( ) ( )
, , r u v dv r u v = + ÷
r r
( ) ( )
, ,
r
r u v dv r u v
v
c
= + ÷
c
r
r r
2
r
dv r dv
v
c
= =
c
r
r
1
111
y
AB r du =
l
r
r
Hence, the area
dS
of the parallelogram
ABCD
is given by
1 2
dS r du r dv = +
r r
1 2
r r dudv = ×
r r
2
EG F dudv = ÷
8. If
( )
, ì u are proportional to the direction coefficients
( )
.m l , then
( )
, ì u are
called the direction ratios of the direction. Thus, if k
m
ì u
= =
l
We have
2 2
1 2
m
E Fl Gm = + + l
( )
2
2
2 E F G
k
k k k
ì u u
ì
    
= + +
  
\ .\ . \ .
Thus
2 2 2
2 k E F G ì ìu u = + + , from which, we get
( )
( ) ( )
2 2
, ,
,
2
m
k
E F G
ì u ì u
ì ìu u
= =
+ +
l
9. The condition for the orthogonality of two directions
( ) ( )
, , and ì u ì u
' '
is
( )
0 E F G ìì ìu uì uu ' ' ' ' + + + =
10. Under the parametric transformation
( ) ( )
, , , , u u u o u u m u
' '
= = the metric takes
the form
91
( )
2 2 2
2
1 2
1
2
. .
ds E du F du d G d
r du r d
r r u r
where r
u u u u
u u
u
u
u
' ' ' ' ' ' '
= + +
' ' ' ' = +
c c c c c
' = = +
' ' '
c c c c c
r r
r r r
r
1 2
u
r r
u u
u c c
= +
' '
c c
r r
2 1 2
&
r u
r r r
u
u u u
c c c
'
= = +
' ' '
c c c
r
r r r
Thus
2
2
1 2 1 2
u u
ds r r du r r d
u u
u u
u
u u
c c c c
   
' '
= + + +
 
' ' ' ' c c c c
\ . \ .
r r r r
( )
2
1 2
2
2 2
1 2
2
u u
r du d r du d
u u
r du r d Edu Fdud Gd
u u
u u
u u
u u u
c c c c
   
' ' ' '
= + + +
 
' ' ' '
c c c c
\ . \ .
= + = + +
r r
r r
3.12. TERMINAL QUESTIONS:
1. Find the surface area of
a) The sphere
( )
sin cos , sin sin , cos r a u v u v v =
r
b) the anchor
ring
( ) ( )
( )
cos cos , cos sin , sin r b a u v b a u v a u = + +
r
2. Show that the parametric curves on the sphere given
by sin cos , sin sin , cos x a u v y a u v z a u = = = form an orthogonal system.
3. On the paraboloi
2 2
; x y z ÷ = find the orthogonal trajectories of the section
by the planes z c = .
4. The metric of a surface is
2 2 2 2
v du u dv + . Find the equation of the family of
curves orthogonal to the curve uv = constant.
3.13. FURTHER READINGS:
i) ‘Differential Geometry’ by D. Somasundaram, Narosa publishing House,
Chennai, 2005.
ii) ‘Elementary Topics in Differential Geometry’ by J.A.Thorpe, Springes –
Verlag, New York, 1979.
92
UNIT IV
LOCAL NON INTRINSIC PROPERTIES OF SURFACE GEODESICS:
STRUCTURE:
Learning Objectives
4.0. Introduction
4.1. Family of Curves
4.2. Orthogonal Trajectories
4.3. Double family of curves
4.4. Isometric Correspondence
4.5. Geodesics and their Differential Equations
4.6. Canonical Geodesic Equations
4.7. Second Fundamental Form
4.8. Fundamental Equations of Surface Theory
4.9. Geodesics on a Surface of Revolution
4.10. Curvature of normal section of the surface.
4.11. Summary
4.12. Key Words
4.13. Answers to Check Your Progress
4.15. Terminal Questions
4.16. Further Readings
LEARNING OBJECTIVES :
After going through this unit, you should be able to,
 define family of curves, isometric correspondence, Geodesics, normal section
& oblique section, normal curvature.
 derive the differential equations of the family of curves, of Geodesics,
canonical Geodesic equations.
93
4.0 INTRODUCTION:
In the previous unit, we have given the meaning of surface, the nature of points on
it, properties of curves on surface, the tangent plane and surface normal, the general
surface of revolution, MetricFirst fundamental form and the direction coefficients on the
surface. In this unit we are going to present family of curves, double family of curves a
special type of curve called Geodesic and their Differential Equations and that on a
surface of revolution, fundamental equations of surface and about normal section of the
surface.
4.1 FAMILY OF CURVES:
Let the equation
( )
, ___(1) r r u v =
r r
represent a surface. Consider an implicit
relation of the form
o
( )
, _____(2) u v c =
, where c is a parameter and
o
( )
, u v
is a single
valued function of , u v . The relation (2) gives a family of curves lying on the surface (1).
Note that for different values of c, we have different members of the family (2). If c is a
constant equation (2) gives one member of the family (2).
Proposition:
Through every point of the surface , there passes one and only one member of the
family of curves.
Proof:
Let
( )
,
o o
u v be any point on surface
( ) ( )
, . ,
o o
r r u v u v =
r r
swill also lie on (2) for
some value of c, say
1
C . Thus giving ( )
1
,
o o
u v C o = .
o
( )
1
, u v c = is a member of family of curves (2) passing through the
point ( ) ,
o o
u v . Therefore, it follows that through every point ( ) , u v of the surface there
passes one and only one member of the family of curves,
Differential equation of the family of curves:
Suppose o
( )
, u v c = _____(3) is the equation of the family of curves.
Differentiating (3), we have
o c o
du
u
c
+
c
0 dv
v
=
c
1
. , i e o du o +
2
0 _____(4) dv =
Thus, the integral of (4) is (3)
Let o ( )
1
, , P u v o = ( )
2
, Q u v =
Where Pand Qare functions of , u v and do not vanish together.
Equation (4) may be written as 0 _____(5) Pdu Q dv + = .
The equation (5) is called the differential equation of the family of curves(3).
94
The equation (4) may be written as
du o
dv
÷
=
2
o
1
. .,
du
i e
o ÷
2
dv
o
=
1
. Thus if
( )
, u v is a
point, the direction ratios of the tangent to the curve [a member of family (3)] through the
point
( )
, u v are o ÷
2
, o
( )
1
. If at any point, o
1
and o
2
both vanish together, the directions
are indeterminate and hence we do not have a definite tangent at that point. Thus the
restriction that’ o
1
and o
2
should not vanish together at any point’ on o is desirable.
Note:
From the equation (5), it follows that at any point
( )
, u v , the tangent to the curve
through the point has direction ratios ( ) , Q P ÷ .
Consider any point
( )
, P u v on the surface o is a scalar field defined on the
surface. We show that o increase most repidly in the direction orthogonal to the curve of
the family passing through P . . ,
d o
i e
ds
has the greatest value in such a direction.
Let
( )
, m l be any direction at P and u , the magnitude of the vector o ÷
2
, o
( )
1
at
P . Let u be the angle between( )
, m l
and
o ÷
2
, o
( )
1
.
i.e, between
1 2
a r mr and b o ÷ + = ÷
r
r r r
l
2 1
r o +
r
1 2
r
r
Since 1 a and b u = =
r
r
we have
sin a b o u = × = H
r
r
l
1
mo +
( )
2
du
o
ds
= H
1
dv
o
ds
+
2
d o
 

\ .
= H
ds
Now and u H are positive and do not depend on ( )
, m l
. Hence
d o
ds
has the
maximum value
u
H
, when sinu has the maximum value when
2
t
u = and has the
minimum value
u ÷
H
when
2
t
u
÷
= .
The differential equation o
1
du o +
2
0 dv = has the solution curves, o =constant.
Here
o
1
and
o
2
are u and v derivatives of the function
o
. If
( ) ( )
, , 0 P u v du Q u v dv + = is a
given differential equation, if is not in general possible to find a single function of , u v ,
such that o
1
P and o =
2
Q = . However, we can find an integrating factor ( ) , u v ì such
that P o ì =
1
and Q o ì =
2
. Hence writing the equation in the form 0 Pdu Qdv ì ì + =
. , i e o
1
du o +
2
0 dv = , we have the solution curves o =constant.
95
Check Your Progress (CYP):
1. How many members of the family of curves pass thro’ every point of the surface?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
4.2. ORTHOGONAL TRAJECTORIES:
Let 0 Pdu Qdv + = be the differential equation of a family i.e., solution curve at
the point
( )
, u v has its tangent in the direction
( )
, Q P ÷ , since 0
du dv
Pdu Qdv
Q P
+ = ¬ =
÷
.
If
( )
, du dv are the differentials in an orthogonal direction, then we have
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
0
. , 0
E Q du F Q dv Pdu G P dv
i e FP EQ du GP FQ dv
÷ + ÷ + + =
÷ + ÷ =
since
( )
, Q P ÷ and
( )
, du dv have orthogonality directions. This is the differential equation
to the orthogonal trajectories of the given family 0 Pdu Qdv + = .
If
( )
, u v + =constant is the family of orthogonal trajectories, then
1 2
FP EQ and GP FQ u u ÷ = + ÷ = + , where u is an integrating factor. Also, if
o ( ) , u v = constant is the given family of curves, then P o ì =
1
and Q o ì =
2
.
Thus
o c
( )
( )
( )
2 2
,
1 1
2 0
,
P Q
EQ FPQ GP
FP EQ GP FQ u v ìu ìu
+
= = ÷ + =
÷ ÷ c
,if we
assume that P and Q do not vanish together. Hence,
puttingu o ' =
( ) ( )
, , u v and v u v ' = + , we get new parameters
( )
, u v ' ' for the surface,
giving rise to orthogonal system of parametric curves. Hence, the parameters can always
be chosen so that the curves of a given family and their orthogonal trajectories becomes
parametric curves.
4.3 DOUBLE FAMILY OF CURVES:
The quadratic differential equation of the form
2 2
2 0 Pdu Qdudv Rdv + + = __(1) ,
where , , P Q R are continuous functions of u and v and do not vanish together, represents
two families of curves on the surface provided
2
0 Q PR ÷ > .
The equation (1) may be written as
2
2 0
du du
P Q R
dv dv
   
+ + =
 
\ . \ .
.
96
This is a quadratic equation in
du
dv
and by solving this equation as a quadratic
in
du
dv
, the separate differential equations for the two families are determined.
If the two curves specified by the equation
2 2
2 Pdu Qdudv Rdv + + at a point have
direction coefficients
( )
, m l and
( )
, l m
' '
, then
m
l
and
m
'
'
l
are the two values of
du
dv
obtained from the quadratic equation.
2
2 0
du du
P Q R
dv dv
   
+ + =
 
\ . \ .
Thus
2Q R
and
m m P mm P
' '
÷
+ = =
' '
l l l l
2 m m Q
R
and
P
mm P mm
' ' '
+ ÷
= =
' '
l l l l
2
mm m m
R P Q
' ' ' ' +
= =
÷
l l l l
The condition
( )
0 E F m m Gmm
' ' ' '
+ + + = l l l l for orthogonallity of the two families is
therefore
( ) ( ) ( )
2 0
. , 2 0 ______(2)
E R F Q G P
i e ER FQ GP
+ ÷ + =
÷ + =
If 0 P R = = , the given differential equation (1) reduces to 0 . , 0, 0 dudv i e du dv = = = ,
which determine the parametric curves.
The orthogonal condition (2) becomes 0 F =
Check Your Progress (CYP) :
2. What is double family of curves ?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
4.4. ISOMETRIC CORRESPONDENCE:
Let S and S' be two surfaces with respective parameters
( ) ( )
, , u v and u v ' ' .
Assume that there is a correspondence between the points of S andS
'
, such that to each
point ( )
, u v
in
S
, there corresponds a point ( )
, u v ' '
in
S'
given
byu o
'
= ( ) ( ) , , u v and v u v
'
= + with
( )
( )
,
0
,
J
u v
o c +
= =
c
.
97
Let C be a curve on the surfaceS with the parametric equation
( )
u u t and =
( )
v v t =
. Then the correspondence betweenS and S
'
maps C into a curveC
'
on S
'
. The
parametric equation for C
'
are.
u o
'
=
( )
, u v o =
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
,
, ,
u t v t
and v u v u t v t ' = + = +
Let Pbe a point on Cand P
'
, the corresponding point on c
'
. The direction ratios
for the tangent at P to C are( )
, u v &&
and that at P
'
to
C'
are ( )
, u v ' ' & &
,
where , ,
du dv du o
u v u
dt dt dt
' c
'
= = = =
& & &
o
u
u
c
+
c
&
&
dv
v v u v
v dt u v
' c+ c+
'
· = = + ·
c c c
& & & &
Solving these two equations for u and v & &, we have
o
u u v
v
c+ c
' '
= ÷
c
& & &
J
v
o
v v
 

c
\ .
c
'
=
& &
u J
u u
 
c+
'
÷

c c
\ .
&
Since 0 J = , if follows that to each direction at P, there is a corresponding direction at P
'
and vice versa.
It is now seen that the surface S
'
can be reparametrized with
( )
, u v as the
parameters. To the point P
'
on S
'
, we take the corresponding point P on S and assign the
parameters
( )
, u v of Pto P' . Then P and P' carry the same parametric values. The
parametric transformation from
( ) ( )
, , u v to u v
' '
is proper, since the Jacobian is not zero.
After this transformation, the corresponding points will have the same parameters.
The surface S and S
'
are said to be isometric, if there is a correspondence
between them, such that corresponding arcs of curves have the same length. For example,
if a plane sheet of paper is slightly bent, the length of any curve drawn on it is not altered.
Thus, the original plane sheet and the bent sheet are isometric.
Let us find a surface of revolution which is isometric with a region of the right
helicoid.
Now
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
cos , sin , r g u v g u v f u =
r
is a surface of revolution for which
2 2
1 1
, E g f = + where
1
df
f
du
÷ and
2
1
, 0, ,
dg
g F G g
du
÷ = = so that its metric is
2 2 2 2 2 2
1 1
. ds g f du g dv = + +
Again the equation to a right helicoid can be taken as ( )
cos , sin , r u v u v av ' ' ' ' ' =
r
and E=1, F=0,
2 2
, G u a
'
= + so that its metric is
( )
2 2 2 2 2
ds du u a dv
' ' ' '
= + + . Now, we
have to find transformation from(u,v) to
( )
, u v ' ' which makes these two metrics
98
identical. Taking v v
'
= and 0 u
'
=
( )
u for simplicity, we have then
0 du' =
1
du and dv dv ' = . The two metrics will be identical
if
2
0 g =
2
2 2 2
1 1
0 a and g f + + =
2
1
. Thus, we have two equations to determine the three
unknown functions , , 0 f g . If 0 is eliminated between these two equations, we will get a
differential equation for f as a function of g. If we try 0
( ) ( )
sinh u a u and g u = =
cosh a u so as to satisfy the first equation, the second equation will then
give
2 2
1
f a or f au = = . Hence the right helicoid is isometric with the surface obtained
by revolving the curve cosh , 0, x a u y z au = = = about z axis. This is the catenary
( )
cosh x a z a = and the surface of revolution is called a catenoid of parameter ‘a’.
The correspondence sinh , u a u v v ' ' = = shows that the generatorsv' =constant on
the helicoid correspond to the meridians v= constant on the catenoid and the
helices u
'
= constant correspond to the parallels u= constant of the catenoid. Also, we note
that on the helicoid u and v ' ' can take all real values, whereas on the catenoid
2 o v t s < . The correspondence is therefore an isometry only for that region of the
helicoid for which 2 o v t
'
s < . Thus one period of a right helicoid of pitch 2 a t ,
corresponds isometrically to the whole catenoid of parameter a.
Check Your Progress (C Y P) :
3. What is isometric correspondence between two surfaces?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
Intrinsic properties:
All properties of a surface, which can be obtained using the
metric
2 2
2 Edu Fdudv Gdv + + alone and without using the vector equation
( )
, r r u v =
r r
are
called intrinsic properties. Thus isometric surfaces have the same intrinsic properties,
even though they may differ in shape.
4.5. GEODESICS AND THEIR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS:
Geodesics definition: Geodesic in a surface is defined as the curve of the shortest
length (rather than strictly shortest distance) on a surface between any two points on it.
On any surface, we have special curves called Geodesics viz., curves of the
shortest distance. Given any two points A and B on the surface, the problem is to find
the shortest among the curves lying on the surface and joining A and B. If the surface is a
plane, then the geodesic is the straight line segment. If the surfaces is a sphere, it is the
small arc of the great circle passing through A and B. For a general surface, it does not
immediately follow that there exists an arc of the shortest length joining the two points.
99
However, we can obtain a set of differential equations for such a curve. Here, we make
use of the method of calculus of variation.
Let A and B be two points on the surface
( )
, r r u v =
r r
. Consider the arcs joining A
and B and let them be given by equations of the form
( ) ( )
, u u t v v t = = . Assume that for
all arcs t=0 at A and t=1 at B. let o be one such arc and let
( )
s o be the arc length joining
A and B measured along o .Since
2 2 2
2
ds du du dv dv
E F G
dt dt dt dt dt
         
= + +
    
\ . \ . \ . \ . \ .
,
2 2 2
. ., 2 i e s Eu Fuv Gv = + +
& & && &
We have
( )
2 2
0 0
2 s s dt Eu Fuv Gv dt o
' '
= í = í + + & & && &
Now, let the arc, o be deformed slightly keeping end points A and B fixed. Let
o
'
be the new arc and let its equation be
( ) ( ) ( )
u u t u t t ì
'
= = +e
( ) ( ) ( )
v v t v t t u ' = = +e
Where e is small and
( ) ( )
, t t ì u are such that
( ) ( )
0 0 0, ì u = = and
( ) ( )
1 1 0 ì u = = .
The arc length ( ) s o
'
measured along o
'
is obtained from ( ) s o by putting
u and v ' ' in place of u and v. The variation in
( )
S v is then
( ) ( )
S S o o
'
÷ and in general
it is of order e. If however o is such that this variation is at most of order
2
e , for all
small variations in o (i.e., for all
( ) ( ) ( )
t and t then s ì u o is said to be stationary and
the curve o is a geodesic.
Now putting,
( )
( )
2 2
2
1
, , , 2
2
1
2
T u v u v Eu Fuv Gv
s
= + +
=
&& & && &
&
We have
( ) ( )
1 1 1
0 0 0
2 s sdt Tdt f dt say o = = =
í í í
&
Where 2 f T =
Thus
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1
0
, , , , , , s s f u v u v f u v u v dt o o ì u ì u
'
÷ = +e +e +e +e ÷
í
&
& & & &&
( )
1
2
0
0
f f f f
dt
u v u v
ì u ì u
c c c c
 
=e + + + + e
í

c c c c
\ .
&
&
& &
Now,
100
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
f f
dt d
u u
f d f
dt
u dt u
d f
dt
dt u
ì ì
ì ì
ì
c c
   
'
= í
í
 
c c
\ . \ .
c c
¦ ¹  
= ÷
í ´ `

c c
¹ ) \ .
c
 
= ÷
í

c
\ .
&
& &
& &
&
The first term being zero, since
( ) ( )
1 0 o ì ì = =
Similarly
1 1
0 0
f d f
dt dt
v dt v
u u
c c
   
= ÷
í í
 
c c
\ . \ .
&
& &
Thus
( ) ( )
s s o o
'
÷
( )
1
2
0
0
f f d f d f
dt
u v dt u dt v
ì u ì u
c c c c
   
=e + ÷ ÷ + e
í
 
c c c c
\ . \ .
& &
( )
1
2
0
0
f d f f d f
dt
u dt u v dt v
ì u
¦c c ¹ ¦c c ¹
   
=e ÷ + ÷ + e
í ´ ` ´ `
 
c c c c
\ . \ .
¹ ) ¹ )
& &
( ) ( )
1
2
0
L M dt o ì u =e + + e
í
Where &
f d f f d f
L M
u dt u v dt v
c c c c
   
= ÷ = ÷
 
c c c c
\ . \ .
& &
By definition ( )
s o
is stationary, if ( ) ( )
s s o o ' ÷
is at most of order
2
e . Thus, o is a
geodesic iff for all
( )
t ì and
( )
t u .
( )
1
0
0 L M dt ì u + =
í
And this implies L=0 and M=0
. ., 0& 0 _________(1)
f d f f d f
i e
u dt u v dt v
c c c c
   
÷ = ÷ =
 
c c c c
\ . \ .
& &
These are then the required differential equations for a geodesic. As these equations do
not involve the points A and B explicitly, they are the same for all geodesics on the
surface.
Now, since 2 f T = , we can write these differential equations involving T rather
than f. The first equation of (1), thus becomes
1 1
0
2 2
T d T
u dt u
T T
c c  
÷ · =

c c
\ .
&
( )
3
2
1 1 1
. ., 0
2 2
2
T d T dT T
i e
u dt u dt u
T T
T
c c c
 
÷ ÷ ÷ =

c c c
\ .
& &
and cancelling
1
2T
, we have
1
2
d T T dT T
dt u u T dt u
c c c
 
÷ = ÷

c c c
\ .
& &
And similarly, from the second equation of (1), we have
101
1
2
d T T dT T
dt v v T dt dv
c c c
 
÷ = ·

c c
\ .
& &
The geodesic equations are thus
( )
1
.
2
___________ 2
1
2
d T T dT T
U
dt u u T dt u
d T T dT T
V
dt v v T dt dv
c c c ¹
 
÷ ÷ =
 ¦
c c c
\ . ¦
`
c c c  
¦
÷ ÷ = ·

¦
c c
\ .
)
& &
& &
Now for any curve (whether geodesic or not) U and V as defined in (2) satisfy the
relation
( )
__________ 3
dT
uU vV
dt
+ =
& &
Since
d T T d T T
uU vV u v
dt u u dt v v
c c c c
   
+ = ÷ ÷ + ÷
 
c c c c
\ . \ .
& & & &
& &
( )
2
d T T T
u u u
dt u u u
d T T T
v v v
dt v v v
d T T dT
u v
dt u v dt
d dT dT
T
dt dt dt
c c c
 
= ÷ ÷

c c c
\ .
c c c  
+ ÷ ÷

c c c
\ .
c c
 
= + ÷

c c
\ .
= ÷ =
& && &
& &
& && &
& &
& &
& &
(Q T is a homogenous function of degree 2 in u and v
& &
)
Due to this fixed relation between u and v, we observe that the two equations in (2) are
not independent.
Eliminating
dT
dt
between the two equations of (2), we obtain
( )
0 _____________ 4
T T
U V
v u
c c
÷ =
c c & &
Thus the geodesic satisfies this relation (4).
We now show that a curve satisfying (4) is a geodesic. Suppose u(t) and v(t) satisfy (4)
and assume that u& and v&are not both zero for same valve of t. Then
T
u
c
c &
and
T
v
c
c&
cannot vanish together, since in that case 0
T
Eu Fv
u
c
+ = =
c
& &
&
and 0
T
Fu Gv
v
c
+ = =
c
& &
&
implying that 0 u =
&
and 0 v =
&
, which is against our assumption. Thus from (4), we get
( )
. .,
T T U V
U V i e say
T T
v u
u v
u
c c
= · = =
c c
c c
c c
& &
& &
102
Thus ,
T
U
u
u
c
=
c
&
and
( )
_____________ 5
T
V
v
u
c
=
c
&
Substituting these in (3), we get
dT
uU vV
dt
T T
u v
u v
u
= +
c c
= +
c c
& &
& &
& &
2T u = · since T is a homogeneous function of degree 2 in u
&
s and v
&
( )
1
0, 5
2
dT T T
U from
T dt u u
c c
· = =
c c
& &
Similarly
1
0,
2
dT T T
V
T dt v v
c c
· = =
c c
& &
These are the geodesic equations (2) and hence the given curve is geodesic. Thus
(4) is a necessary and sufficient condition for a curve
( ) ( )
, u u t v v t = = on the surface
( )
, r r u v =
r r
to be a geodesic.
Check Your Progress (C Y P ) :
4. Explain intrinsic properties of a surface?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
4.6. CANONICAL GEODESIC EQUATIONS:
If the arc length s is taken as the parameter for a curve, then we write u' and v'
instead of u&and v&and
( )
( )
2 2
1
2 ________________ 6
2
T Fu Eu v Gv
' ' ' '
= + +
But
du dv
u and v
ds ds
' '
= = are the direction coefficients.
Hence,
2 2 2
2 2
1 2 1
1
2
2 2
Edu Fdu dv Gdv ds
T
ds ds
+ +
= · = · =
0
dT
ds
=
The Geodesic equations
1
2
1
2
d T T dT T
U
dt u u T dt u
d T T dT T
V
dt v v T dt v
c c c
 
÷ ÷ = ·

c c c
\ .
c c c
 
÷ ÷ = ·

c c c
\ .
& &
& &
now becomes the canonical equations for geodesics
103
. ., 0
0
d T T
i e U
ds u u
d T T
V
ds v v
c c ¹
 
÷ ÷ =

¦
'
c c
\ . ¦
`
c c
 
¦
÷ ÷ =

¦
'
c c
\ .
)
( )
________________ 7
0
dT
ds
 
=

\ .
Q
Again, the identity
dT
uU vV
dt
+ =
& &
becomes ( ) 0 ____________ 8 u U v V
' '
+ =
showing that the equations (7) are not independent. If the curve is not parametric curve,
we have 0, 0 u v
' '
= = and hence 0 0 U V = · = . Thus in this case 0 0 U or V = = is a
sufficient condition for the geodesic. For the paremetric curve u= constant,
0 0 u and v
' '
= = . Thus (8) gives V=0 for alls, so that one of the equations of (7) is
automatically satisfied. Hence, the condition for u= constant to be geodesic is U=0.
similarly V=0 is the condition for v= constant to be a geodesic.
4.7. SECOND FUNDAMENTAL FORM:
` let ( ) , r r u v =
r r
be the equation of a surface. The quadratic differential form
2 2
2 , Ldu Mdudv Ndv in du dv + + is called the second fundamental form. The quantities
L,M,N are called second order fundamental magnitudes or second fundamental
coefficients and explained as follows.
2 2 2
11 12 21 2
2
22
2
1 2 1 2
1 2
,
r r r
we know r r r
u u v v u
r
r
v
r r r r
N
r r H
c c c
= = = =
c c c c c
c
=
c
× ×
= =
×
r r r
uur uur uuuur
r
uur
r r r r
uur
r r
where N
r
is the unit normal vector to the surface at the point
( )
, r u v
r
. We denote the
resolved parts of the vectors
11 12 22
, , r r r
r r r
along the surface normal N
r
by L,M,N
respectively; Thus
11 12 22
; ; L N r M N r N N r = · = · = ·
r r r
r r r
and
2 2
LN M T ÷ = (say), where
2
T is not necessarily positive.
4.8. FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS OF SURFACE THEORY:
We shall obtain relations between the fundamental coefficients, E,F,G and L,M,N.
The Gauss’s formulae giving relations in between these coefficients and their partial
derivatives w r t u and v · · play an important part in the theory of surfaces.
Gauss’s Formulae: The equations of Gauss are given by following partial differential
equations:
104
( )
11 1 2
12 1 2
22 1 2
______________ 1
r LN lr r
r MN mr r
r NN nr r
ì
u
v
¹
= + +
¦
¦
= + +
`
¦
= + +
¦
)
r
r r r
r
r r r
r
r r r
where , , ; , , l m n r ì u are called christoffel symbols and are suitable functions of
E,F,G and their partial derivatives with respect to u and v.
Proof: we know that L,M,N are the resolved parts of
11 12 22
, , r r r
r r r
along the normal
to the surface and therefore, we may write
( )
( )
( )
11 1 2
12 1 2
22 1 2
___________ 2
__________ 3
___________ 4
r LN lr r
r MN mr r
r NN nr r
ì
u
v
= + +
= + +
= + +
r
r r r
r
r r r
r
r r r
s
Where the symbols , , ; , , l m n ì u v are calculated as follows:
(or)
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
2
1 1 1 11
1
1 1 2
1
2
1 11 2 1 12 1 2 2 12
1
2
2 1 1 12
2
2 1 2 12 2 1 22
2
2
2 2 2 22
2
2
; 2
__________ 5
2
2
E E r r r
u
F F r r
u
F r r r r G r r r
E E r r r
v
F F r r r r r r
v
G r r r
c
¹
= = = ·
¦
c
¦
c
¦
= = ·
¦
c
¦
= · + · = = ·
¦
`
c
¦
= = = ·
¦
c
¦
c
¦
= = · = · + ·
c
¦
¦
= = ·
)
r r r
r r
r r r r r r r
r r r
r r r r r r
r r r
Solving equations (5) for
1 22 2 12
, r r r r · ·
r r r r
etc., we get
( )
1 11 1 2 11 1 2
1 12 2 2 12 1
1 22 2 1 2 22 2
1 1
;
2 2
1 1
; __________ 6
2 2
1 1
;
2 2
r r E r r F E
r r E r r G
r r F G r r G
¹
· = · = ÷
¦
¦
¦
· = · =
`
¦
¦
· = ÷ · =
¦
)
r r r r
r r r r
r r r r
On multiplying scalarly each side of equation (2) with
1 2
r and r
r r
successively, we get
( )
( )
( )
2
1 11 1 1 2 1
2
2 11 1 2 2 2
0
__________ 7
0
r r lr r r r N
r r lr r r r N
ì
ì
¹
· = + · · =
¦
`
· = · + · =
¦
)
r
r r r r r r
Q
r
r r r r r r
Q
using equations (6) in (7) , we get from (7)
105
1 1 2
1 1
;
2 2
E lE F F E lF G ì ì = + ÷ = +
Thus,
( )
( )
( )
1 1 2
2
1 2 1
2
1
2
2
_____________ 8
1
2
2
l GE FF FE
H
EF EE FE
H
ì
¹
= ÷ +
¦
¦
`
¦
= ÷ ÷
¦
)
Similarly on multiplying scalarly on each side of (3), by
1 2
r and r
r r
successively and using
(6), we get
2 1
1 1
;
2 2
E mE F G mF G u u = + = +
Thus, solving for m and u , we get
( )
( )
( )
2 1
2
1 2
2
1
2
_____________ 9
1
2
m GE FG
H
EG FE
H
u
¹
= ÷
¦
¦
`
¦
= ÷
¦
)
Similarly on performing scalar product of each sides of (4) with
1 2
r and r
r r
and
using (6), we get
2 1 2
1 1
;
2 2
F G nE F G nF G v v ÷ = + = +
And hence, solving for n and v , we get
( )
( )
( )
2 1 2
2
2 2 1
2
1
2
2
____________ 10
1
2
2
n GF GG FG
H
v EG FF FG
H
¹
= ÷ ÷
¦
¦
`
¦
= ÷ +
¦
)
Corollary 1:
If the parametric curves are orthogonal, then
2
0 F and H EG = = and therefore
the Gauss’s formulae reduce to
( )
1 2
11 1 2
2 1
12 1 2
1 2
22 1 2
1
2 2
______________ 11
2 2
2 2
E E
r LN r r
E G
E G
r M N r r
E G
G G
r N N r r
E G
¹
= + · ÷
¦
¦
¦
= + +
`
¦
¦
= ÷ +
¦
)
uur uur ur ur
uur uur ur ur
uur uur ur ur
Since the value of , , , , , m n ì u v l reduce to
106
( )
1 2 1
2 1 2
1
, ,
2 2 2
___________ 12
, ,
2 2 2
E E G
m n
E E E
E G G
G G G
ì u v
¹
= · = = ÷
¦
¦
`
¦
= ÷ = =
¦
)
l
Corollary 2:
The Gauss’s formulae may be written in matrix form as follows:
11
1
12
2
22
N
r
L
M m r
r
N n
r
r
ì
u
v
 
 
 



= 



 


\ .
\ .
\ .
uur
uur
l
ur
uur
ur
uur
Check Your Progress (C Y P ) :
5. What is second fundamental form of a surface ?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
4.9. GEODESICS ON A SURFACE OF REVOLUTION:
The equation of surface of revolution is given by
( ) ( )
cos , sin , r u v u v f u =
r
.
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
1 2
11 12
22
2
1 1 1 2
2 2 2 2 2
2 2
cos ,sin , , sin , cos , 0 ,
0, 0, ; sin , cos , 0
cos , sin , 0
1 , 0,
, 1
df
r v v f r u v u v f
du
r f r v v
r u v u v
E r r f F r r
G r r u H EG F u f
' '
÷ = ÷ =
''
= = ÷
= ÷ ÷
'
= · = + = · =
'
= · = = ÷ = +
ur ur
uur uur
uur
ur ur ur ur
ur ur
Christoffel coefficients in the formulae of Gauss are
1
0, , 0 v
u
ì u = = =
We know that the geodesic equations are
2 2
2 0& u u mu v nv '' ' ' ' ' + + + = l
2 2
2 0 v u uv v ì u v
'' ' ' ' '
+ + + = __________ (2)
(While obtaining the D. E. of geodesic via normal property, we had
1 2
, r ru r v ' ' ' = +
ur ur
r
2 2
1 2 11 12 22
2 r ru r v r u r u v r v
'' '' '' ' ' ' '
= + + + +
ur ur uur uur uur
r
and hence
2 2
1 1 2 2 1
1 1
0 0
2 2
r r Eu Fv E u E u v F G v
 
'' '' '' ' ' ' '
· = ¬ + + + + ÷ =

\ .
ur
r
2 2
2 1 2 1 2
1 1
0 0
2 2
r r Fu Gv F E u Gu v G v
 
'' '' '' ' ' ' '
· = ¬ + + ÷ + + =

\ .
ur
r
)
Substituting values of , , ì u v in equation (2), we get
107
( )
2
2
0 2 0
u v
v or u v u v u
u
' '
'' '' ' '
+ = + =
Which is an exact differential equation and its solution is given by
2
u v h
'
= (say) ____ (3)
(h, being arbitrary constant)
The geodesics on surface of revolution are given by equation (3).
Let 0 h = , then (3) gives
2
0 0 u v v v c
' '
= ¬ = ¬ = . Thus v = c is a geodesic.
Hence, every meridian is a geodesic on a surface of revolution.
Now to find the complete integral of (3), we proceed as follows.
The metric
2 2 2
2 ds Edu Fdudv Gdv = + + in this case is given by
( )
( )
2 2 2 2 2
1 ______ 4 ds f du u dv ' = + +
Equation (3) may be written as
( )
2 2
dv
u h or u dv hds
ds
= =
squaring
( ) ( )
2 2
4 2
u dv h ds =
( )
( )
( )
2
4 2 2 2 2 2
. ., 1 4 i e u dv h f du u dv by
'
= + +
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
1 _____ 5 or u u h dv h f du
'
÷ = +
1
2
2
2 2
1 h f
dv du
u u h
'  
+
= ±

÷
\ .
Integrating, we get
( )
1
2
2
2 2
2 2
1
, ______ 6
f du
v g h if u h
u h u
'   +
= ± =
í

÷
\ .
where g and h are
arbitrary constants. Equation (6) is the complete solution of the equation of the geodesic
on a surface of revolution (or) in other words geodesic on a surface of revolution are
given by equation (6).
If
2 2
u h = , then from equation (5), we get 0 du u c = ¬ = . Also 0 F = . Hence the
curve u c = (parallel) is a geodesic if and only if G is a function of v only
1
. , 0 i e G = .(Q If
the parametric curves are orthogonal i.e, 0 F = , the curvesv = constant will be geodesics,
provided E is a function of u only and the curves u =constant will be geodesics if G is a
function of v only).
But
2
1
0 G u G = = iff u is constant (or stationary) where constant value of u is
the radius of the parallel u c = and this constant value of u is not zero.
Hence a parallel is a geodesic on a surface of revolution if and only if the radius
of that parallel has stationary value.
Note:
Equation (3) can also be obtained as follows:
108
( )
( )
2 2
2 2 2 2
2
2
2 2
1
0,
,
T Eu Fu v Gv
f u u v
T T
u v
v v
d T T d
Hence V u v
ds v v ds
' ' ' ' = + +
' ' ' = + +
c c
'
= =
'
c c
c c
 
' = ÷ =

'
c c
\ .
Thus canonical geodesic equation 0 V = provides
( )
2 2
0 . ,
d
u v i e u v h
ds
' '
= =
Corollary:
If 0 is the angle at which the geodesic cuts the meridian, equation (3) may be
written as
sin 0 u h =
This is known as clairaut’s theorem.
4.10. CURVATURE OF NORMAL SECTION OF THE SURFACE:
A plane drawn through a point on a surface, cuts it in a curve, called the section of
the surface. If the plane is so drawn that it contains the normal to the surface, then the
curve is called normal section, otherwise it is called an oblique section. Obviously the
principal normal to the normal section is parallel to the normal to the surface. We assume
the convention that the sense of n
r
(the unit principal normal to the curve) and N
r
(the unit
surface normal) are same.
Formula for curvature of normal section in terms of fundamental magnitudes:
Let
n
k denote the curvature of the normal section, then
n
k is positive, when the
curve is concave on the side towards which N
r
points out. Then, we know
n n
dt
r k n k N
ds
''
= = =
r
r
r r
(since here n N =
r
r
)
( )
_______ 1
n
k N r
''
= ·
r
r
But we know
1 2
r ru r v ' ' ' = +
r r r
Differentiating this . . . wr t s ,
1 2
1 2
dr dr
r ru u r v v
ds ds
'' '' ' '' '
= + + +
r r
r r r
( ) ( )
( )
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 11 12 2 12 22
2 2
1 2 11 12 22
. ,
2 _______ 2
r r r r du dv du dv
i e r ru u r v v
u ds v ds u ds v ds
ru r u r v u r v r u r v v
ru r v r u r u v r v
c c c c
   
'' '' ' '' '
= + · + · + + · + ·
 
c c c c
\ . \ .
'' ' ' ' '' ' ' '
= + + + + +
'' '' ' ' ' ' = + + + +
r r r r
r r r
r r r r r r
r r r r r
Substituting this value of r
''
r
in (1) and using
11 12 22
, , , N r L N r M N r N · = · = · =
r r r
r r r
1 2
0, 0 N r N r · = · =
r r
r r
We get
2 2
2
n
k N r Lu Mu v Nv
'' ' ' ' '
= · = + +
uur
r
109
(Or)
2 2
2
2
n
Ldu Mdudv N dv
k
ds
+ +
=
2 2
2 2
2
_____(3)
2
n
Ldu Mdudv N dv
k
Edu Fdudv Gdv
+ +
=
+ +
(using first fundamental form).
This gives the curvature of the normal section (usually called normal curvature) parallel
to the direction
( )
, du dv . Its reciprocal is called the radius of normal curvature and may
be denoted by
n
p .
Normal curvature definition:
Let a point P with position vector
( )
, r u v
r
be on the surface
( )
, r r u v =
r r
. The
normal curvature at P in the direction ( )
, du dv
is equal to the curvature at P of the normal
section at P parallel to the direction
( )
, du dv .
Alternative definition:
Let a point P with position vector
( )
, r u v
r
be on the surface
( )
, r r u v =
r r
. Consider
a curve ( ) r r s =
r r
through the point P lying on the surface. The component of curvature
vector r
''
r
along the normal to the surface is defined to be normal curvature of the curve at
the point P.
n
k N r
''
= ·
uur
r
Show that the definition of normal curvature given above are equivalent.
Proof:
Let N
uur
be the unit normal vector of the surface at P, then from second definition,
the normal curvature
n
k is given by
n
k N r'' = ·
uur
r
__ (4) where r''
r
is the curvature vector
at P.
Again let k be the curvature at P of the normal section at P which contains the
direction
( )
, du dv
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
1 _____(5)
sin 4 5
n
r kn KN n N
N r k N N
k k u g and
'' = = =
''
· = · =
=
uur uur
r r r
Q
uur uur uur
r
Q
Hence, curvature at P of normal section at P which contains the direction ( ) , du dv is
equal to the normal curvature at P in the same direction. Thus, in future the terms
‘normal curvature’ and ‘curvature of normal’ section will represent the same thing.
110
Note:
We have seen
2
2
2
I
n
Ldu Mdudv Ndv
N r k
ds
+ +
'' · = =
uur
r
2 2
. , 2
du du dv dv
i e N r L M N
ds ds ds ds
      
'' · = + +
   
\ . \ .\ . \ .
uur
r
Now, we know that the curves, which have the same direction at the point P, have the
same value of their direction coefficients ,
du dv
ds ds
 

\ .
at P. Also, the values of second order
fundamental magnitudes , , L M N are fixed at P. Hence, all curves which have the same
direction at P, have a fixed value of N r
''
·
uur
r
which is equal to the normal curvature at P of
any one of these curves.
Hence, we also conclude that normal curvature at a point P on the surface is a
property of a surface and a direction at the point P. The following theorem gives the
relation between the curvatures of normal section and oblique section.
Check Your Progress ( C Y P ) :
6. Define normal curvature at a point on the curve.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
Mensnier’s Theorem:
If
n
k and k are the curvature of the normal and oblique sections through the same
tangent line, and u is the angle between these sections then the relation between
n
k , k
and u is given by cos
n
k k u = .
Proof:
Let the section be oblique and its curvature be denoted by k. Since, section is
oblique its n
r
is not parallel to N
uur
but will be parallel to unit vector ( )
r
r kn
k
''
''
=
r
r r
Q . If u
is the angle of inclination of the oblique section with the normal section touching the
curve at the point under consideration, the u is the angle between the normals of the two
sections i.e., it is the angle between the unit vector
r
k
''
r
and N
uur
. Thus
( )
2 2
2 2
cos
2
1
2
cos
n
n
r
N
k
Ldu Mdudv Ndv
k
Edu Fdudv Gdv
k
k k
k
u
u
''
= ·
+ +
= ·
+ +
= =
uur r
The mensnier’s theorem can also be defined as follows:
111
Ifu is the angle between the principal normal to a curve on the surface and the
surface normal at a point P, then cos
n
k k u = where k is the curvature of the curve at P
and
n
k , the normal curvature at P in the direction of the curve.
Proof:
Let P be a point ( ) , u v on the surface ( ) , r r u v =
r r
. Suppose n and N
uur
r
denote the
principal normal to the curve on the surface and surface normal at P respectively. Since
u is the angle between
n and N
uur
r
, therefore
cos . _____(1) n N u = ·
uur
r
Now, suppose r
''
r
is the curvature vector of the given curve at P. then,
. ______(2) r kn
''
=
r r
Taking scalar product of both sides of (2) with N
uur
,
( ) ( ) cos _______ 3 r N kn N or r N k u
'' ''
· = · · =
uur uur uur
r r r
(by (1))
The value of r N
''
·
uur
r
is fixed for all curves having the same direction at P and by
definition this value of r N '' ·
uur
r
is equal to the normal curvature
n
k in that direction. Hence,
we have from equation (3), cos
n
k k u = .
Note:
We have
n
k k =
if 0 u = . Thus the necessary and sufficient condition for the
curvature of a curve at P to be equal to the normal curvature at P in the direction of that
curve is that the principal normal to the curve is along the surface normal at that point.
n
k may be positive, zero, or negative. If
2
0 LN M ÷ > at P, then
n
k have the same
sign for all direction at P (since the denominator is always positive definite). In this case
P is called an elliptic point. If
2
0 LN M ÷ = then the numerator has one of the
forms ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
du dv or xdu dv o   + ÷ + . Thus
n
k has the same sign for all directions thro
P except for
du
dv

o
= ÷ , when it is zero P is called parabolic point. If
2
0 LN M ÷ < , then
the
n
k is positive for certain directions lying inside an angular region, negative for
direction outside it and zero along the directions bounding the angle .P is then called a
hyperbolic point and the two special directions bounding the angle are called the
asymptotic directions.
Let
( )
, P u v and
( )
, Q u du v dv + + be
neighbouring points of the surface
( )
, r r u v =
r r
and d, the perperdicular distance
from Q to the tangent plane at P .Then.
( ) ( ) ( )
, , d PQ N r u du v dv r u v N = · = + + ÷ ·
uuur uur uur
r r
112
( )
( )
2 2
1 2 11 12 22
1
. ; 2
2
i e d r du r dv r du r dudv r dv N
= + + + + ·
uur
r r r r r
by Taylor’s theorem, omitting
higher order infinitesimals
( )
2 2
1
2
2
Ldu Mdudv Ndv = + +
Since
1 2
0 N r N r · = = ·
uur uur
r r
Thus the second fundamental form
( )
2 2
2 Ldu Mdudv Ndv + + at any
point ( ) , P u v is equal to twice the length of the perpendicular from the neighbouring point
( )
, Q u du v dv + + on the tangent plane at P. At an elliptic point, d has the same sign and
thus the surface rear P lies entirely on one side of the tangent plane at P. At a hyperbolic
point, the surface crosses the tangent plane, where d is zero. We thus see that all points on
an ellipsoid are elliptic, points on a circular cylinder are parabolic and that points on a
hyperbolic paraboloid is hyperbolic.
Clairaut’s Theorem:
If a geodesic on a surface of revolution cuts the meridian at any point at an
angle 0 , u sin 0 is constant where u is the distance of the point from the axis.
Solution:
Let P be a point on the geodesic and suppose this geodesic cuts the meridian
v c = through P at an angle 0 . Let the projection of arc s o of geodesic on circular section
through P be PM.
. , i e PM u v = c
Also cos 90 0 PM = ÷
( )
s o
sin 0
( )
s u v o = c s
We know
2 1
u v h = (Refer Geodesics on surface of revolution)
2
. ,
sin 0
i e u dv hds
u
=
sin 0
ds hds
u
=
( tan ) h cons t =
113
Second method:
Let P be a point on a geodesic and suppose this geodesic cut the meridian
v c = thro P at an angle 0 . The direction coefficients of the geodesic are ,
du dv
ds ds
 

\ .
and
that of meridian v c = are
1
, 0
E
 

\ .
.
Now, we know that if
0
is the angle between the directions, whose direction
coefficients are
( )
, m l and
( )
, , sin 0 m then
' '
l H m m
' '
= ÷ l l
Hence, in this case sin 0
1
0
du dv
H
ds ds
E
= · ÷
_________(1)
H dv
ds
E
= ·
Again
2
u v h
'
=
2
_____(2) u dv hds =
From (1), sin 0
H dv
ds
E
= ·
( ) sin 0 or
( )
{ }
2
sin
. , sin 0
EG
dv
ds
E
dv dv
G u ce G u
ds ds
i e udv
=
= = =
=
( )
ds
114
Using this relation in equation (2), we get
sin 0 u
( )
sin 0
ds hds
u
=
( ) tan h cons t =
________________________________________________________________________
Check Your Progress (C Y P ) :
7. Prove that the second fundamental form
2 2
2 Ldu Mdud Nd u u + + at any point
( )
, P u u
is equal to twice the length of the perpendicular from the neighbouring point
( )
, Q u du d u u + + on the tangent plane at P.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
8) Define normal curvature at a point on the surface
( )
, r r u u =
r r
.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
4.11. SUMMARY:
We derived the differential equations of the family of curves and its solution
curves. Next, the orthogonal trajectories of the family of curves is studied. Double family
of curves is also studied. Then Isometric correspondence between surfaces is well
studied. Differential equation of Geodesic and its canonical form is derived. Second
fundamental form and Geodesic on surface of revolution are derived. Normal section of
the surface and its curvature are studied.
4.12. KEY WORDS:
1. Isometric correspondence :
The surface S and S’ arc said to be isometric, if there is a correspondence between
them, such that corresponding arcs of curves have the same length. For example,
if a plane sheet of paper is slightly bent, the length of any curve drawn on it is not
altered. Thus, the original plane sheet and the bent sheet arc isometric.
2. Catenoid:
The surface of revolution of the catenary
( )
cosh
z
x a
a
= is called catenoid of
parameter ‘a.’.
115
3. Geodesic:
Geodesic in a surface is defined as the curve of stationary length on the surface
between any two points on it. These are the curves of shortest distance on a
surface.
4. Normal section of surface:
A plane drawn through a point on a surface, cuts it in a curve, called the section of
the surface. If the plane is so drawn that it contains the normal to the surface, then
the curve is called normal section of the surface.
5. Oblique section:
If a plane drawn through a point on a surface cuts it in a curve and if the plane so
drawn that it does not contain the normal to the surface, then the curve is called an
oblique section
4.13. ANSWER TO CHECK YOUR PROGRAMS:
1. Let the equation
( ) ( )
, ___ 1 r r u v =
r r
represent a surface. Consider an implicit
relation of the form 0
( ) ( )
, _____ 2 u v c = where c is a parameter. Let
( )
0 0
, u v be
any point on the surface (1). ( )
0 0
, u v will also lie on (2) for some value of c, say
1
c . Thus, giving
( )
1
,
o o
u v c o =
0 ( )
1
, u v c = is a member of family of curves (2) passing thro’ the point ( )
0 0
, u v .
Therefore, if follows that through every point (u, v) of the surface, there passes
one and only one member of the family of curves.
2. The quadratic differential equation of the form
2 2
2 0 Pdu Qdudv Rdv + + = ,
where P,Q,R are continuous functions of u and v and do not vanish together,
represents two families of curves on the surface, provided
2
0 Q PR ÷ > .
3. Let S and S' be twos surfaces with respective parameters
( ) ( )
, , u v and u v ' ' .
Assume that there is a correspondence between the points of S and S
'
, such
that to each point
( )
, u v in S , the corresponds a point
( )
, u v in S ' ' ' given by
( ) ( ) , , u u v and v u v o v
' '
= = with
0
J
c
=
( )
( )
,
0
, u v
+
=
c
. Such a correspondence is
called isometric correspondence between S and S
'
.
4. All properties of a surface, which can be obtained using the
metric
2 2
2 Edu Fdudv Gdv + + alone and without using the vector
equation
( )
, r r u v =
r r
are called intrinsic properties. Thus isometric surface have the
same intrinsic properties, even though they may differ in shape.
116
5. let
( )
, r r u v =
r r
be the equation of a surface. The quadratic differential form
2 2
2 Ldu Mdudv Ndv + + in , du dv is called the second fundamental form. The
quantities , , L M N are called second order fundamental magnitudes or second
fundamental coefficients and are explained as follows.
We know
2 2 2
11 12 21
2
,
r r r
r r r
u u v v u
c c c
= = = =
c c c c c
r r r
r r r
2
22
2
1 2 1 2
1 2
r
r
v
r r r r
N
r r H
c
=
c
× ×
= =
×
r
r
r r r r
uur
r r
where N
uur
is the unit normal vector to the surface at the point
( )
, r u v
r
. We denote
the resolved parts of the vectors
11 12 22
, , r r r
r r r
along the surface normal N
uur
by , , L M N
respectively. Thus,
11 12 22
, , L N r M N r N N r = · = · = ·
uur uur uur
r r r
and
2 2
LN M T ÷ = (say), where
2
T is not necessarily positive.
6. Let a point P with position vector
( )
, r u v
r
be on the surface
( )
, r r u v =
r r
. The
normal curvature at P in the direction ( ) , du dv is equal to the curvature at P of the
normal section at P parallel to the direction
( )
, du dv .
Alternately, let a point P with position vector ( ) , r u v
r
be on the surface
( )
, r r u v =
r r
. Consider a curve
( )
r r s =
r r
through the point P lying on the surface.
The component of curvature vector r''
r
along the normal to the surface is defined
to be normal curvature of the curve at the point P.
7.
Let
( )
, P u v and
( )
, Q u du v dv + + be
neighbouring points of the surface
( )
, r r u v =
r r
and d, the perperdicular
distance from Q to the tangent plane at P
.
Then.
( ) ( )
( )
, , d PQ N r u du v dv r u v N = · = + + ÷ ·
uuur uur uur
r r
117
( )
( )
2 2
1 2 11 12 22
1
. ; 2
2
i e d r du r dv r du r dudv r dv N
= + + + + ·
uur
r r r r r
by Taylor’s theorem, omitting
higher order infinitesimals
( )
2 2
1
2
2
Ldu Mdudv Ndv = + +
Since
1 2
0 N r N r · = = ·
uur uur
r r
8. Let a point P with position vector
( )
, r u u
r
be on the surface
( )
, r r u u =
r r
. The
normal curvature at P in the direction
( )
, du du is equal to the curvature at P of the
normal section at P parallel to the direction
( )
, du du .
Problems:
1. Prove that the curves of the family
3
2
v
u
= constant are geodesics on a surface
with metric
( )
2 2 2 2
2 2 0, 0 v du uvdudv u dv u v ÷ + > >
Consider the curve
( )
3
2
0
v
c c
u
= >
The parametric equation of the curve can be taken as
3 2
, u ct v ct = =
Thus
2
3 , 2 u ct v ct = = & &
Again
( )
2 2
1
2
2
T Eu Fuv Gv = + +
& && &
( )
2 2 2 2
1
2 2
2
v u uvvu u v = ÷ +
& & &
since by data
2 2
, , 2 E v F uv G u = = ÷ =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
2
2 2 3
3 5 3 5
3 5
2
3 2 2 2
6 8
2
T
vuv uv
u
ct ct ct ct ct
c t c t
c t
c
= ÷ +
c
= ÷ +
= ÷ +
= +
&& &
Similarly,
2 3 6
3
T
vu uuv c t
v
c
= ÷ =
c
& &&
2 3 6
T
v u uvv c t
u
c
= ÷ =
c
& &
&
118
And
2 3 7
2
T
uvu u v c t
v
c
= ÷ + =
c
& &
&
Hence,
d T T
dt u u
c c
 
= ÷

c c
\ .
U
&
( )
3 6 3 5
3 5 3 5 3 5
2
6 2 4
d
c t c t
dt
c t c t c t
= ÷
= ÷ =
And
d T T
V
dt v v
c c
 
= ÷

c c
\ .
&
( )
3 7 3 6
3 6 3 6 3 6
3
7 3 4
d
c t c t
dt
c t c t c t
= ÷
= ÷ =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
3 5 3 7 3 6 3 6
6 12 6 12
4 4
4 4 0
T T
Now U V c t c t c t c t
v u
c t c t
c c
÷ = ÷
c c
= ÷ =
& &
Hence, the curve is a geodesic for all values of c.
________________________________________________________________________
2. Prove that on a general surface, a necessary and sufficient condition for the
parametric curve
v =
constant to be a geodesic is
2 1 1
2 0 EE FE EF + ÷ =
Solution: On the curve v=c, u can be taken as the parameter. Hence, u=t,
r
c u =
Thus
1, 0 u v = = & &
( )
( )
( )
2 2
2 2
1 1 1 1
1
2 2
2 2 2 2
2
1
2
2
1
2 , , .
2
1
2
1
2 , , .
2
1
2
Now T Eu Fuv Gv
T E
E u Fuv Gv where E etc
u u
E
T E
E u F uv G v where E etc
v v
E
T
Eu Fv E
u
T
Fu Gv F
v
= + +
c c
= + + ÷
c c
=
c c
= + + ÷
c c
=
c
= + =
c
c
= + =
c
& && &
& && &
& && &
& &
&
& &
&
119
1
1 1 1
1
2
1 1
2 2
d T T dE
HenceU E
dt u u dt
E E E
c c
 
= ÷ = ÷

c c
\ .
= ÷ =
&
since
2
1 2
1
2
1
2
d T T dF
t u andV E
dt v v dt
F E
c c
 
= = ÷ = ÷

c c
\ .
= ÷
&
We know that a necessary and sufficient condition for a curve to be a geodesic
is 0
T T
U V
v u
c c
÷ =
c c & &
Thus the necessary and sufficient condition for the curve v=c to be geodesic is
( ) ( )
1 1 2
2 1 1
1 1
0
2 2
. ., 2 0
E F F E E
i e EE FE EF
   
÷ ÷ =
 
\ . \ .
+ ÷ =
________________________________________________________________________
3. Show that the curves
( )
2 2 2 2
0 du u a dv ÷ + = form an orthogonal system on the
right helicoid
( )
cos , sin , r u v u v av =
r
Solution: The equation of the given right helicoid is
( )
cos , sin , r u v u v av =
r
2 2
1, 0, E F G u a = = = +
We know that the two families of curves given by the quadratic differential equation
( )
2 2
2 0 ___________ 1 Pdu Qdudv Rdv + + =
form an orthogonal system if and only if
( )
2 0 ___________ 2 ER FQ GP ÷ + =
comparing (1) with the given family of curves
( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
0___________ 3 du u a dv ÷ + =
We have
( )
2 2
1, 0, P Q R u a = = = ÷ +
( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
2 1 2 0 0 1 0 ER FQ GP u a u a
÷ + = · ÷ + ÷ · · + + · =
Hence, the condition (2) is satisfied for family (3) Therefore, the curves given by (3)
form an orthogonal system on the given surface.
________________________________________________________________________
120
4. If a geodesic on a surface of revolution cuts the meridians at a constant angle, the
surface is right cylinder.
Solution: The equation of the surface of revolution is given by
( ) cos , sin , x u v y u v z f u = = = . From clainaut’s theorem, we know sin 0 u h =
(constant) where 0 is the angle at which a geodesic on a surface of revolution cuts the
meridian through any point P on it and
2 2
u x y = +
is the distance of P from the axis.
Here 0 is constant, since a geodesic cut all the meridians at a constant angle (given).
Hence (1) gives
sin 0
h
u = a = (constant)
( )
2 2 2 2 2
, u x y a or x y a = + = + = which representsQright cylinder.
________________________________________________________________________
5. Prove that geodesics on right circular cylinders are helices.
Solution: We know from clairaut’s theorem that, if a geodesic cuts the meridian at any
point at an angle 0 , sin 0 u h = (constant) ( ) ____________ 1 where u is the distance of
the point from the axis.
Here, the surface of revolution is a right circular cylinder and we know that the meridians
of the surface of revolution are the generators of the right cylinder. The distance of every
point on the generator from the axis is constant i.e., u is constant.
Let u=a (constant)
Hence (1) gives sin 0
h
a
= (constant). Hence, a geodesic on the cylinder cuts all the
generators at a constant angle. Thus the geodesic is an helix. The geodesics on a right
circular cylinder are helices.
________________________________________________________________________
4.14. TERMINAL QUESTIONS:
1. Obtain the differential Equation of the family of curves and their solution curves.
2. Write short notes on Isometric correspondence
3. Derive the differential equations of a geodesic on the given surface
121
4. Obtain the necessary and sufficient condition for a curve u=u(t), v=v(t) on the
surface
( )
, r r u v =
r r
to be a geodesic.
5. Find the equation to the geodesics on the helicoid cos , sin , x u v y u v z cv = = =
6. Prove that the necessary and sufficient condition for a curve on a sphere to be
geodesic is that the curve is a great circle.
7. Derive the formula for curvature of normal section in terms of fundamental
magnitudes
8. State and prove mensnier’s theorem
9. State and prove clairaut’s theorem.
4.15. FURTHER READINGS :
1) ‘Elementary Topics in Differential Geometry’ by J.A. Thorpe, Springer – Verlag,
New York, 1979.
2) ‘Differential Geometry’ by D. Somasundaram , Narosa Publications, Chennai,
2005.
122
UNIT V
GEODESIC CURVATURE
STRUCTURE:
Learning Objectives
5.0. Introduction
5.1. Normal Property of Geodesics
5.2. Existence Theorem
5.3. Geodesic Parallels
5.4. Geodesic Polars
5.5. Geodesic Curvature
5.6. Liouville’s Formula for
g
k
5.7. Gauss Bonnet Theorem
5.8. Gaussian Curvature
5.9. Minding’s Theorem
5.10. Conformal mapping
5.11. Summary
5.12. Key Words
5.13. Answers to Check Your Progress
5.14. Terminal Questions
5.15. Further Readings
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
After going through this unit, you should be able to,
 define normal property, Geodesic parallel, Geodesic curvature and vector,
Geodesic polars, Gaussian curvature, Conformal mapping.

derive the formula for Geodesic curvature and vector, Liouville’s formula for
g
k , and that for Gaussian curvature.
 prove the theorem of Gauss Bonnet, Minding, and theorem regarding
conformal mapping.
123
5.0 . INTRODUCTION:
In this unit, we first characterize geodesics in terms of their normal property.
Existence theorem regarding geodesic arc is to be proved. Types of geodesics viz.,
geodesic parallels, geodesic polars, geodesic curvatures are to be studied. Next
Liouville’s formula for geodesic curvature is to be derived. Gauss Bonnet’s theorem
regarding geodesic curvature is to be proved. Then comes Gaussian curvature and the
proof of Minding theorem related to Gaussian curvature. Conformal mapping plays an
important role in Differential Geometry.
5.1. NORMAL PROPERTY OF A GEODESIC:
Consider a curve u=u (t), v=v (t) lying on the surface ( ) , r r u v =
r r
We have
( )
2 2 2 2
1 1 1
2
2 2 2
T Eu Fuv Gv s r
'
= + + = =
r
& && &
Where
1 2
d r
r ru r v
dt
= = +
r
r r r
&
& &
Thus
( )
1 2 1
. . .
T r
r r ru r v r r
u u u
c c c
= = + =
c c c
r
&
r r r r r r
& & &
& &
& & &
And
( )
( ) ( )
11 21
1 1 1
. .
. , since ,
T r
r r r u r v
u u
d
r r r r u v
dt
c c
= = +
c c
= =
r
&
r r r r
& &
& &
r r r r
&
Hence
d T T
dt u u
c c  
= ÷

c c
\ .
&
( )
( )
1 1
. .
d d
r r r r
dt dt
= ÷
r r r r
& &
( )
( ) ( )
1 1 1
1
. . .
.
d d d
r r r r r r
dt dt dt
r r
= + ÷
=
r r r r r r
& &
r r
&&
Similarly
2
. V r r =
r r
&&
If the arc length is the parameter, the geodesic equations are
( ) ( )
0 0 U s and V s = = .Hence replacing t by s and dots by dashes, we have,
( )
1
. 0 U s r r '' = =
r r
and
( )
2
. 0. V s r r '' = =
r r
This shows that r''
r
is perpendicular to both
1
r
r
and
2
r
r
and therefore to the tangent plane at the point under consideration. But r
''
r
is along the
principal normal. Hence the principal normal of a geodesic at any point is in the
direction of the normal to the surface at that point and every curve having this property is
a geodesic. This property is called the normal property of geodesics.
124
Now, in terms of the general parameter t, the condition 0
T T
U V
v u
c c
÷ =
c c
& &
becomes
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 2 1
. . . . 0 r r r r r r r r ÷ =
r r r r r r r r
&& & && &
i.e.,
( )
( )
1 2
. 0 r r r r × × =
r r r r
& &&
which shows that the binormal is perpendicular to the surface normal which again proves
the same property. Also, the above normal property is equivalent to the following
property viz., at every point of a geodesic the rectifying plane is the tangent plane to the
surface.
Using the above normal property of geodesics, we can find out whether a given
curve on a surface is a geodesic or not. For example, every great circle on a sphere is a
geodesic, since the principal normal to the great circle is a normal to the sphere. Similarly
every meridian on a surface of revolution is a geodesic, because it has the above normal
property.
Example: 5.1
A particle is constrained to move on a smooth surface under no force except the
normal reaction. Prove that its path is a geodesic.
Solution: It r
r
is the position vector of a moving point, and the parameter t is the
time, then its velocity vector is r
r
&
and the acceleration vector isr
r
&&
. Since the only force
acting on the particle, the normal reactionr
r
&&
must be along the normal to the surface.
Again, since r
r
&
is tangential to the path of the particle, it must be also tangential to the
surface.
( )
2 2
1
. 0 0
2
d
r r r r
dt
= ¬ = ¬ =
r r r r
&&& & &
Constant
The speed
s r =
r
&
= constant = c (say)
Now . ,
d r dr ds dr
r ct where t
dt ds ddt ds
= = = =
r r r
r r
r
&
is the unit tangent to the path of the particle.
2 2
r c t c kn = =
r
r r
&
&&
, where n
r
is the unit principal normal to the path of the particle.
This shows that the principal normal to the path of the particle has the same direction as
r
r
&&
, which is along the surface normal. Thus by the normal property, the path of the
particle is a geodesic.
Example: 5.2
Prove that every helix on a cylinder is a geodesic.
Solution: Let C be a helix on a cylinder, whose generators are parallel to a constant
vector a
r
. Let P be any point on C. Let t
r
and n
r
be the unit tangent and unit principal
normal to C at P. Let N
r
be the unit surface normal at P. (to the cylinder)
Now, since C is a helix, we havet
r
. a
r
=constant
. . 0
dt da
a t
ds ds
+ =
r
r
r
r
i.e., k . 0 0, n a + =
r r
since a
r
is a constant vector.
i.e., . 0 n a =
r r
. Clearlyt
r
. n
r
=0. Thus n
r
is perpendicular to both a
r
and t
r
and is therefore
along a t ×
r
r
125
But both vectors a
r
and t
r
are tangential to the surface of the cylinder at P, and
hence a t ×
r
r
is along the surface normal N
r
at P.
Thus, the principal normal n
r
at any point P on the helix is parallel to the surface
normal N
r
at P. Hence, by the normal property, it follows C is a geodesic on the cylinder.
Now, we shall derive the differential equations for a geodesic using the normal
property.
We have
1 2
. r ru r v ' ' ' = +
r r s
Differentiating w.r.t s, we get
( )
2 2
1 2 11 12 22
2 r ru r v r u r u v r v
'' '' '' ' '
= + + + +
r r r r r r
. The geodesic equations are
( )
1
. 0 U s r r
''
= =
r r
and
( )
2
. 0 V s r r '' = =
r r
which now become (taking dot product of r
''
r
with
1
r
r
and then with
2
r
r
)
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
1 1 2 1 11 1 12 2 22
. . 2 . . 0 r u r r v r r u r r u v r r u '' '' ' ' ' ' + + + + =
r r r r r r r r r
and
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
1 2 2 2 11 2 12 2 22
. . 2 . . 0 r r u r v r r u r r u v r r u
'' '' ' ' ' '
+ + + + =
r r r r r r r r r
Now, we shall evaluate the various scalar products appearing in the above
equations
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
2
1 11 1 1
2
1 12 1 2
2
2 12 2 1
2
2 22 2 2
1 1 1
.
2 2 2
1 1 1
.
2 2 2
1 1 1
.
2 2 2
1 1 1
.
2 2 2
r r r E E
u u
r r r E E
v v
r r r G G
u u
r r r G G
u u
c c
= = =
c c
c c
= = =
c c
c c
= = =
c c
c c
= = =
c c
r r r
r r r
r r r
r r r
Again
( )
( )
21 1 12 11 2
2 11 2 1 2
. . .
1 1
.
2 2
r r r r r r
u
r r F E F E
u
c
= +
c
c
= ÷ = ÷
c
r r r r r r
r r
Similarly
( )
1 12 1 22 12 2
. . . r r r r r r
v
c
= +
c
r r r r r r
( )
1 22 1 2 1
1 1
.
2 2
r r F G F G
v
c
= ÷ = ÷
c
r r
Substituting these values, the geodesic equations become
( )
2 2
1 2 2 1
2 2
1 1 1 2
1 1
0
2 2
1
1 1
0
2 2
Eu Fv E u E u v F G v
Fu Gv F E u Gu v G v
¹
 
'' '' ' ' ' '
+ + + + ÷ =

¦
\ . ¦
`
 
¦
'' '' ' ' ' '
+ + ÷ + + =

¦
\ .
)
These equations are the general differential equations of geodesics on a surface.
Since
2
0 EG F ÷ = , these equations can be solved for u
''
and v
''
and we get equations of
the form
126
( )
( )
( )
, , ,
2
, , ,
u f u v u v
v g u v u v
'' ' '
= ¹
¦
÷
`
'' ' '
=
¦
)
where f and g will be quadratic functions of u
'
and v
'
If we solve equations (1) for u
''
, v
''
, we get another form of equations of
geodesics, viz.,
( )
2 2
2 2
2, 0
3
2 0
u lu mu v nv
v u uv v ì u v
'' ' ' ' '
¹ + + + =
¦
÷
`
'' ' ' ' '
+ + + =
¦
)
Where , , , , , l m n ì u v are the Christoffel symbols in the formulae of Gauss.
Usually the equation of a curve on a surface is given as a single relation between
the parameters. Therefore, we can combine equations (2) in a single equation. Since we
have
( )
2
2 2
/
/
4
dv dv ds v
du du ds u
d v u v v u
du u
'
= =
'
' '' ' ''
÷
= ÷
'
Multiplying second of (3) by u' and first of (2) by v' and subtracting, we get
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
2 0 u v v u u u l v u v u mv v u nv ì u v
' '' ' '' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' '
÷ + ÷ + ÷ + ÷ =
Putting values from equations (3), we get
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
2
2
2 2 5
d v dv dv dv
n m v l
du du du du
u ì
     
= + ÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷
  
\ . \ . \ .
From the theory of differential equations if follows that there exists a unique solution of
this differential equation.
Thus, through each point of the surface, there passes a single geodesic in each
direction, Furthermore although geodesics are a system of lines associated with a surface
like so many other systems (e.y., lines of curvature etc.), they are unlike them that
through any point an infinite number of them passes.
Check Your Progress ( C Y P ) :
1. What is the normal property of geodesic?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
5.2. EXISTENCE THEOREMS:
The differential equations (2) for the geodesics are simultaneous second order
differential equations for the two functions u and v of s and from the theory of such
equations, we know that there is just one solution taking prescribed values, for u,v, ', ' u v
when t=
0.
t Thus we have the following theorem:
A geodesic can be found to pass through any given point and have any given
direction at that point. The geodesic is determined uniquely by these initial conditions.
We have also another theorem:
127
Every point P of the surface has a neighbourhood N with the property that every
point of N can be joined to P by a unique geodesic arc which lies wholly in N.
Definition: A region R of a surface is said to be convex if any two points of it can be
joined by at least one geodesic lying wholly in R.
The region is simple if there is at most one such geodesic. Thus, the surface of a
sphere as a whole is convex but not simple, for the smaller arc as well as greater arc of
the great circle through two points are both geodesics.
Definition: The geodesic disc with centre P and radius ‘r’ is the set of all points Q on
the surface, such that there is a geodesic curve PQ of length not greater than r.
Check Your Progress ( C Y P ) :
2. What are convex and simple regions? Give example
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
5.3. GEODESIC PARALLELS:
Suppose for the curves v=constant, we choose a family of geodesics on a surface,
their orthogonal trajectories being taken as u= constant. Then we find using the condition
F=0 for orthogonality of parametric curves, that E E
2
=0 i.e.,
2
0
E
E
v
c
= =
c
. Hence, E now
depends only on u, so that the metric has the form
( ) ( )
2 2 2
, ds E u du G u v dv = +
Let u=a and u=b be any two parametric curves of orthogonal family. Let any geodesic
v=c intersects them at A and B. Then
»
AB along the geodesic has the length given by
,
b
a
AB
ds
ds du
du
=
í í
since along the curve v=constant, u alone varies, so that u can be taken
as the parameter
b
a
Edu =
í
, since
( )
2 2
ds E u du = , dv being zero.
The important fact to be noticed here is that we obtain the same length for
»
AB
whatever be the curve v=constant is used. This is similar to the case of two parallel
straight lives in the plane for which the intercept is the same for any perpendicular line
Hence, the orthogonal trajectories are called geodesic parallels.
In a plane for a family of geodesics we may take
straight lines enveloping a given curve C. For example, the
tangents to an ellipse sweep the whole region of the plane
exterior to the ellipse. The geodesic parallels are then the
involutes of the curve c. As a special case, if we take all
straight lines passing through a point as geodesics, then the
geodesic parallels arc concentric circles.
Let us fix one geodesic parallel and specify any
other parallel u=constant by u=s, where s is the distance of
this parallel from the fixed parallel (which now can be
128
relabelled as u=0) measured along any geodesic v=const. Then the distance ds' between
two neighbouring parallels becomes ds = du. Thus formula
2 2 2
d s Edu Gdv = + given
2 2 2
du ds Edu = = (since dv=0). Thus E=1. This shows that for a given family of
geodesics, the parameters can be so chosen that the metric takes the form
2 2 2
ds du Gdv = + . The given geodesics are the parametric curves v=constant and their
orthogonal trajectories are u=constant, u being the distance measured along a geodesic
from some fixed parallel u, v are then called geodesic coordinates.
5.4. GEODESIC POLARS:
In the plane, u = constant constitute geodesics through the origin and r=constant
are concentric circles which give the geodesic parallels. Similarly, on a surface we
choose all geodesic passing through a fixed point O and their orthogonal trajectories
would be the curves u=constant, u being the distance of the orthogonal trajectory
measured from O along any geodesic. Thus ‘u’ behaves like ‘r’ in the plane.
For v, we take the angle between the tangent to a geodesic and the tangent to a
fixed geodesic at O (just like u in the plane). The metric then becomes
2 2 2
ds du Gdv = + . A small neighbourhood of O is almost a plane and the metric must
reduce to the form
2 2 2 2 2 2
. ., dr r d i e du u dv u + + . Hence for points near 0, G is
approximately =u
2
. Thus
0
lim 1
u
G
u
÷
= . The parametric system u and v introduced here is
called Geodesic polar coordinate system and the curves u= constant are called Geodesic
circle.
5.5. GEODESIC CURVATURE:
For any curve on a surface curvature vector at P is r kn '' =
r r
, where k is the
curvature and n
r
is the unit principal normal. Clearly
( )
1 2
1
n
r r r k N ì u
''
= + + ÷
r
r r r
, since any
vector at P is a linear combination of
1 2
, r r
r r
and N
r
. The quantity
n
k is called the normal
curvature at P. For a geodesic by the normal property, r
''
r
is normal to the surface and
hence
n
t k N '' =
r
r
, so that 0 ì u = = . Thus the vector
( )
, ì u i.e.,
1 2
r r ì u +
r r
gives a measure
of the deviation of the curve from a geodesic.
Now, for any curve, we have
1
. U r r '' =
r r
and
2
. V r r '' =
r r
(the parameter being s). Thus,
by taking dot product on both sides of (1) with
1
r
r
and
2
r
r
, we obtain U E F ì u = + and
(2) V F G ì u = + ÷
Therefore ì and u can be obtained by solving these two linear equations and we
find that
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
1 1
3 GU FV and EV FU
H H
ì u = ÷ = ÷ ÷
Thus ì and u are intrinsic quantities. The vector
( )
, ì u is called the geodesic curvature
vector of the curve.
129
Since, the tangent vector r
r
is orthogonal to the curvature vector r
''
r
and also to the
surface normal N
r
, we have from (1)
( )
1 2
. . .
n
o r r r r r k N r ì u
'' ' ' '
= = + +
r
r r r r r r
i.e,
( )
( )
1 2
. 0 sin . 0 r r r ce N r ì u ' ' + = =
r
r r r r
Thus the geodesic curvature vector is orthogonal to the curve.
Check Your Progress ( C Y P ) :
3. What are Geodesic parallels on the plane and on the surface?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
Components of geodesic curvature:
We know that one of the components ì of the geodesic curvature is given by
( )
2
1
GU FV
H
ì = ÷
2
2
1
1
FV
U G
H U
u
U G F
H v
 
= ÷

\ .
'
 
= +

'
\ .
Q from the identity
dT
uU vV
dt
+ =
& &
, if we take arc length ‘s’ is taken as the
parameter for a curve replacing u
'
and v
'
instead of u and v & &, we get 0
dT
ds
= from
( )
2 2
1
2
2
T Eu Fu v Gv ' ' ' ' = + + , where , 0
du dv
u v u U v V
ds ds
' ' ' ' = = + =
( )
2
2
1
.
1
.
U
Fu Gv
H v
U T
H v v
ì ' ' = +
'
c
=
' ' c
ly
lll , we can prove the other component
2
1
.
U T
H u u
u
c
=
' '
c
Also
2
1 V T
H u v
ì
c
= ÷
' ' c
and
2
1
.
U T
H v u
u
÷ c
=
' ' c
The magnitude of the geodesic curvature vector
( )
, ì u is called the geodesic
curvature
g
k . This is positive or negative according as the angle between the tangent
( ) ( )
, , u v and ì u
' '
is
2 2
or
t t ÷
i.e., according as the tangent vector
( )
, u v
' '
, the geodesic
130
curvature vector
( )
, ì u and the surface normal N
r
form a right handed or a left handed
system.
Hence, from the sine formula, we have
( )
g
k H u v u ì
' '
= ÷ . For a geodesic, by the
normal property, the geodesic curvature is zero. Conversely , a curve with zero geodesic
curvature at each of its points has the normal property and therefore is a geodesic.
Now, the unit tangent vector r
'
r
is orthogonal to N
r
. Hence, , , r N r N
' '
×
r r
r r
form a
right handed system of unit vectors. Thus, geodesic curvature vector is
( )
g
k N r
'
×
r
r
s.
Hence, we can write
( )
( )
5
n g
r k N k N r
'' '
= + × ÷
r r
r r
Taking dot product with N r' ×
r
r
, we obtain
( )
, , 6
g
k N r r
' ''
= ÷
r
r r
We can write this formula in terms so that of a general parameter ‘t’
Since,
2
,
r sr rs
r and r
s s
÷
' ''
= =
r r r
& && &
& r r
& &
2
r r
r r
s
×
' ''
× =
r r
& &&
r r
&
Now (6) becomes
( )
( )
2
1
, , 7
g
k N r r
s
= ÷
r
r r
&&&
&
Since
( )
1 2
1
N r r
H
= ×
r
r r
, we have from (7),
( )
2
1
.
g
k N r r
s
= ×
r
r r
& &&
&
i.e.,
( )
( )
1 2
2
1
.
g
k r r r r
Hs
= × ×
r r r r
& &&
&
1
2
2 2
. 1
. .
r r r r
Hs
r r r r
×
=
r r r r
& &&
r r r r
& &&
&
Since
1 2
. , . .
T T
r r r r
u v
c c
= =
c c
r r r r
& &
& &
( ) ( )
1 2
. , . U t r r V t r r = =
r r r r
&& &&
We obtain
( )
( )
2
1
g
T
U t
u
k
T
Hs
V t
v
c
c
=
c
c
&
&
&
( ) ( ) ( )
2
1
8
T T
V t U t
Hs u v
c c
= ÷ ÷
c c
& & &
Geodesic curvature of the parametric curve v=constant.
Taking ‘u’ as the parameter i.e., u=t, v=c, so that 1, 0 u v = =
& &
, we have as shown
already
1 1 2
1 1
, , ,
2 2
T T
E F U E V F E
u v
c c
= = = = ÷
c c & &
and
131
2 2 2
2 s Eu Fuv Gv E = + + =
& & && &
Hence
( ) ( )
2
1
g
T T
k V t U t
Hs u v
c c
= ÷
c c
& & &
1 2 1
3
2
1 1 1
2 2
E F E F E
HE
   
= ÷ ÷
 
\ . \ .
( )
1 2 1
3
2
1
2
2
E F EE FE
HE
= ÷ ÷
Geodesic curvature of the parametric curve u=constant is
2 1 2
3 3
2 2
1 2
2 2
GF GG FG
HG HG
÷ +

Formula for geodesic curvature, when the arc length ‘s’ is chosen as the parameter, using
the relation
( ) ( )
0 u U s v V s ' ' + =
The formula (8) for
g
k in this case is
( ) ( )
1
g
T T
k V s U s
H u v
c c
= ÷
' '
c c
( )
( )
( )
1
.
U s T T
V s
H u v V s
c c
= ÷
' '
c c
( )
( ) ( )
1
.
1 1
. .1
T T v
V s
H u v u
V s V s
T T
u v
H u u v H u
'
c c
= +
' ' '
c c
c c
' ' = + =
' ' ' ' c c
Since
2 2
1
1
2
2
2
T Eu Fu v Gv
' ' ' '
= + + =
A homogeneous function of second degree in u’ and v
'
so that
1
2 2 1
2
T T
u v T
u v
c c
' '
+ = = =
' ' c c
In a similar manner, we can also prove that
( ) ( ) ( ) 1 1 1
. . .
g g
U s V s U s
k Thus k
H v H u H v
= ÷ = = ÷
' '
If
( )
, ì u is the geodesic curvature vector, then
g
H H
k
Fu Gv Eu Fv
ì u ÷
= =
' ' ' ' + +
132
From (3),
( )
2
1
GU FV
H
ì = ÷
( )
2 2 2
U V U u U
c F G F Fu Gv
H U H v H v
ì
' ÷
   
' '
= ÷ = + = +
 
' '
\ . \ .
Since, 0 u U v V ' ' + = (s, being the parameter )
Now
( )
1
, sin
g
g
k
U
Fu Gv cek
H H v
ì
÷
÷
' '
= + =
'
Thus
g
H
k
Fu Gv
ì ÷
=
' '
+
The other result can be proved similarly
Check Your Progress (C Y P ) :
4. Find Geodesic curvature of the parametric curve v= constant.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
5.6. LIOUVILLE’S FORMULA FOR
g
k :
At each point of a curve C, we also have the parametric curve = constant cutting
C at an angle u which varies from point to point. Thus u becomes a function of s along
the curve. Now, the direction coefficients for v= constant are
1
,0
E
 

\ .
and for the given
curve, they are ( ) , u v
' '
. Since ( ) cos Ell F lm l m Gmm u
' ' ' '
= + + + and
( )
sin H lm l m u
' '
= ÷
We have
( )
1 1
cos 0 0 E u F v G
E E
u
 
' '
= + + +

\ .
F
E u v
E
' ' = +
and
1
sin 0
H
H v v
E E
u
 
' ' = ÷ =

\ .
Since
( )
2 2
1
2
2
T Eu Fu v Gv ' ' ' ' = + +
( )
2 2
1 1 1
2
T
E u Tu v G v
u
c
' ' ' '
= + +
c
T
Eu Fv
u
c
' '
= +
'
c
Thus
1
cos
F Eu Fv T
E u v
u
E E E
u
' '
+ c
' '
= + = =
'
c
133
Differentiating w. r. t s,
3
2
1 1
sin
2
d d T dE T
ds ds u ds u
E
E
u
u
c c
 
÷ = ÷

' '
c c
\ .
( )
1 2 3
2
1 1
2
H d d T T
v E u E v
ds ds u u
E E
E
u ÷ c c
 
' ' '
= ÷ +

' '
c c
\ .
(since
1 2
. .
dE E du E dv
E u E v
ds u ds v ds
c c
' '
= + = +
c c
and using the value of sin
H
v
E
u
'
= )
Multiplying by E , we have
( )
1 2
1
2
d d T T
Hv E u E v
ds ds u E u
u c c  
' ' '
÷ = ÷ +

' '
c c
\ .
i. e,
( )( )
1 2
1
2
d T
Hv U E u E v Eu Fv
ds u E
u c  
' ' ' ' '
÷ = + ÷ + +

c
\ .
since
T d T T
u E Fv and U
u ds u u
c c c  
' '
= + = ÷

' c c c
\ .
( )
( )
( )
2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1 2 1 2
1 1
2
2 2
U E u Fu v Gv FEu EE FE u v FE v
E
' ' ' ' ' ' ' '
= + + + ÷ + + +
( ) ( )
2
1 1 2 1 2
1 1
2
2 2
U EF FE EE u v EG FE v
E E
' ' ' = + ÷ ÷ + ÷
Thus ( ) ( )
1 1 2 1
1 1
2
2 2
d U
EF FE EE u EG FE v
ds Hv EH EH
u ÷
' '
= + ÷ ÷ + ÷
'
( )
sin
g g
U
k Pu Qv ce k or
Hv
÷
' '
= ÷ + + =
'
g
d
k Pu Qv
ds
u
' '
= + +
where
( )
1 1 2
1
2
2
P EF FE EE
HE
= ÷ ÷
( )
1 2
1
2
Q EG FE
HE
= ÷
This is called Liouville’s formula for
g
k .
________________________________________________________________________
If the orthogonal trajectories of the parametric curves v= constant are geodesics, then
2
H
E
is independent of u.
Sol: if u in angle made by the given curve with v= constant, then its geodesics are
given by the Liouville’s formula
g
d
k Pu Qv
ds
u
' '
= + + ,
where P and Q are given by
134
( )
( )
1 1 2
1 2
1
2
2
1
2
P EF FE EE
HE
Q EG FE
HE
= ÷ ÷
= ÷
Thus, if an orthogonal trajectory of v= constant is taken as the given curve, then
2
t
u = and since this curve, by data, is a geodesic, we have 0
g
k = .
Thus Liouville’s formula becomes 0 0 pu Qv
' '
= + + (or)
Q
u
v P
'
= ÷
'
. Now, the direction
coefficients for u= constant are
1
,0
E
 

\ .
and for the given curve they are
( )
, u v
' '
. If u is
the angle between these two directions, then ( )
cos Ell F lm l m Gmm u ' ' ' ' = + + +
and
since
2
t
u = , we have
( )
1 1
0 0 0 E u F v G
E E
 
' '
= + + +

\ .
i.e.,
( )
0
F u
Q
Eu Fv or
P
E v
'
÷
' '
= + = = ÷
'
Thus 0 EQ FP ÷ =
since
( ) ( )
1 1 2 1 2
1 1
2
2 2
P EF FE EE and Q EG FE
HE HE
= ÷ ÷ = ÷
We have
( ) ( )
1 2 1 1 2
1
2 0
2 2
F
EG FE EF FE EE
H HE
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ =
(or)
( ) ( )
1 2 1 1 2
2 0 E EG FE F EF FE EE ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ =
2 2
1 1 1
. . 2 0 i e E G EFF F E ÷ + =
2
1 1
2
2
0
EFF F E
G
E
  ÷
÷ =

\ .
( )
2
0
F
G
u u E
 
c c
÷ =

c c
\ .
2
0
F
G
u E
  c
÷ =

c
\ .
i.e.,
2
F
G is independent of u
E
÷
2 2
EG F H
E E
÷
= is independent of u
Check Your Progress ( C Y P ) :
5. Write down the Liouville’s formula for geodesic curvature
g
k .
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
135
5.7. GAUSS BONNET THEOREM:
A region R in a surface is said to be simply connected if every closed curve lying
in the region can be shrunk to a point, the shrinking curve always remaining in the region.
In the plane interior of a circle is simply connected but the region between two
concentric circles is not, for a concentric circle between these two cannot be shrunk into a
point without passing out of the region.
Let C be a closed curve on the surface and let it consists of arcs
1 1 2 2 3 1
. , , ,....., .
n n
A A A A A A A A
÷
(where
n o
A A = ). bounding simply connected region R of
the surface. Let C be described in the positive sense (i.e. in such a way that the region R
lies to the left as the vertices are taken in the order
0 1 2
, , .....
n
A A A A ). Let
r
o be the exterior
angle at the vertex .
r
A i.e., the angle between the tangent to the arcs
1 r r
A A
÷
and
1 r r
A A
+
at
r
A (taking
r o
A A = ).
Regarding C as the curvilinear polygon
1 2, 3
, .....
n
o o o o are thus the exterior angles
at the vertices
1 2 3
, , .....,
n
A A A A . At each point of C, excepting perhaps the vertices, we
have the geodesic curvature
g
k (A vertex being the junction of the two curves, the value
of
g
k
may differ for both curves at that point and thus a unique
g
k
may not exist. This is
similar to the non  existence of a unique tangent at such a vertex)
The line integral
g
c
k ds
í
, therefore can be calculated by adding the integrals along
the separate arcs. The excess of C is defined as
1
2
n
r g
r
c
e C k ds t o
=
× = ÷ ÷
¯
í
which is
clearly an invariant, not depending on the particular parameter used for the representation
of the surface.
For a plane curve
g
k is the curvature
d
ds
v
and
1
n
g r
r
k ds o
=
+
¯
í
is the total angle
through which the tangent turns in describing curve once. This is 2t for a plane closed
curve and in particular for a closed polygon. Thus e C × is zero for a closed plane curve.
Since excess is defined using intrinsic quantities we deduce that on any surface isometric
with the plane, the excess of a simple closed curve is zero. This gives us the idea that the
excess of a curve may be used to define the departure of a surface from a plane i.e., the
curvature of a surface.
Through each point of the curve C, there passes a member v=constant. Starting
from a point A on C as we complete the circuit C, we come back to the original member
at A. Therefore if the tangent to C at A make some angle o with the member v= constant
at A then as c is described, the tangent changes direction and finally comes back at A to
make the same angle o , increased by 2t , with the member v=constant at A.
Thus
1
2
n
r
r
c
du o t
=
+ =
¯
í
, where u is the angle in Liouville’s formula. Thus, using
this formula, we have ,
g
d
k Pu Qv
ds
u
' '
= + + so that ,
136
( )
g
C C C
k ds d Pdu Qdv u = + +
í í í
Hence ,
( )
1
2
n
r
r
C C
ex C d pdu Qdv t o u
=
= ÷ ÷ ÷ +
¯
í í
( )
1
, sin 2
n
r
r
C
Pdu Qdv ce du o t
=
= ÷ + + =
¯
í í
Now by Green’s theorem,
C R
Q P
Pdu Qdv du dv
u v
c c
 
+ = ÷

c c
\ .
í íí
for a simply connected region R bounded by C.
Thus, putting ds H du dv = for the surface elements. We get
1
R
Q P
e C Hdu dv
H u v
÷ c c
 
× = ÷

c c
\ .
íí
( )
1
1
R R
Q P
ds Kds
H u v
÷ c c  
= ÷ = ÷

c c
\ .
íí íí
Where
( )
1
2
Q P
K
H u v
c c
 
= ÷ ÷ ÷

c c
\ .
We now show that K is unique. Assume that
.
R
ex C Kds =
íí
for every curve C. Then
( )
0
R
K k ds ÷ =
íí
If K k = for at least one point P, then let K k > , for definiteness. Since K and k are
continuous throughout a small region R, containing P, 0 K k ÷ > . Hence
( )
1
0
R
K k ds ÷ >
íí
. Similar result holds if K k < at P. These contradictions show that K
must be equal to k at every point.
Thus K is independent of the parametric system and intrinsic i.e., it is an intrinsic
geometrical invariant. K is called the Gaussian curvature of the surface. For any region R,
whether simply connected or not,
R
Kds
íí
is called the total curvature of R. The result (1)
is called Gauss Bonnet theorem, which states that “for any curve C enclosing a simply
connected region R, the excess of Cis equal to the total curvature of R”.
Check Your Progress ( C Y P ) :
6. What is simply connected region?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
137
Example 5.3:
If AB, BC, CA are geodesic arcs, then ABC is called geodesic triangle. If this
encloses a simply connected region R, the excess is
( ) ( ) ( )
2 A B c A B C t t t t t ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = + + ÷ where A, B, C are the interior angles of
the triangle. Thus the excess of ABC A is the excess of A+B+C over the Euclidean value
t .
For, example, let B and C be two points on the equator differing in longitude by
2
t
and A, the north pole. Then the excess of the spherical triangle ABC is
3 .
2 2
t t
t ÷ =
Similarly for a geodesic polygon the total
curvature = 2t ( sum of the exterior angle )
2 n t t = ÷ + (sum of the interior angles)
=excess of sum of the interior over ( ) 2 n t ÷ ,
n being the number of sides of the polygon
5.8 . GAUSSIAN CURVATURE:
If P is a given point and Athe area of a geodesic triangle ABC containing P, then
clearly at P, the Gaussian curvature
, ,
lim
A B C P
A B C
K
t
÷
+ + ÷
=
A
as seem from (1)
On a sphere of radius ‘a’ the geodesics are great circles and the area of a geodesic AABC
is known to be
( )
2
a A B C t + + ÷ . Thus the Gaussian curvature K must be the same at
all points of a sphere and
2
1
a
= . We also see that the dimension of K are ( )
2
length
÷
, for
the total curvature
R
Kds
íí
for a region R has zero dimensions and ds having dimensions
(length)
2
. Thus, the total curvature of a sphere of radius ‘a’ is clearly
2
2
1
4 4 a
a
t t × =
Now from (2) ,
1
,
Q P
K
H u v
÷ c c
 
= ÷

c c
\ .
where P and Q are given by
( ) ( )
1 1 2 1 2
1 1
2
2 2
P EF FE EE and Q EG FE
HE HE
= ÷ ÷ = ÷
When the parametric curves are orthogonal, F=0 and thus
2 1
2 2
E G
P and Q
H H
= ÷ =
Hence,
1 2
1
,
2
G E
K
H u H v H
c c
   
= ÷ +
 
c c
\ . \ .
where now H EG =
________________________________________________________________________
138
Surfaces of constant curvature:
A surface of constant curvature is one for which every point has same Gaussian
curvature.
Check Your Progress ( C Y P ) :
7. What is a surface of constant curvature?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
5.9. MINDING’S THEOREM:
Two surfaces of the same constant curvature are locally isometric.
Proof: we are concerned with local properties of surfaces i.e., while discussing
correspondence between two surfaces (say) S and S
'
, we shall consider correspondence
between parts of the surface only and not the whole of the surfaces. We assume that each
part has a parametric system. Let the point (u, v) on S and ( ) , u v
' '
on S
'
correspond, then
( )
, u v
' '
are single valued functions of parameters u and v, so that
( ) ( ) , , , u u u v v v u v
' ' ' '
= =
Two surfaces S and S' are said to be isometric if there exists a correspondence
( ) ( )
, , , u u u v v v u v
' ' ' '
= = between their parameters, where u
'
and v
'
are single valued
functions of u and v and
( )
( )
,
0
,
u v
u v
' '
c
=
c
, such that the metric of S transforms into the metric
of S
'
To prove the Minding’s theorem, we show that if S is a surface with the constant
curvature
0
K then
0
i) 0, if K = S is isometric with a plane
0
2
1
ii)if K
a
=
S is isometric with a sphere of radius ‘ a’ .
0
2
1
iii) if K
a
÷
= S is isometric with a certain surface of revolution called pseudo sphere.
Then the theorem for two surfaces s and s follows by mapping each surface
isometrically onto the same plane (or) sphere (or) pseudo sphere, such that point P on S
and P on S correspond to the same point.
Let P be a given point of S of constant curvature k
0
and let C be a geodesic
through P. Let v= constant be the geodesic orthogonal to C and let u= constant be their
orthogonal trajectories. Thus u= constant include C, which can be taken as u=0.
Then in the neighbourhood of P, the metric has the form
2 2 2 2
ds du g dv = + .
Since, now u=0 is the geodesic C, we have
( )
1 1
0, G g
u
c
= =
c
when u=0 (
Q
on a general
139
surface, the necessary and sufficient condition for the curve u=constant to be a geodesic
is
1 2 2
2 0 GG FG G F + ÷ =
)
Also, since for u=0, ds=dv, we have g=1 when u=0
Thus from the result
11
g
K
g
÷
= , we see that g satisfies the second order partial
differential equation
11 0
0 g k g + =
with boundary conditions
0
1
u
g
=
=
and ( )
1
0
0
u
g
=
=
Case (i): k
0
=0.
Then the differential equation gives
11
0 g = which implies that
1
g is independent
of u. But
1
0 g = when u=0
1
0 g = . This implies that g is independent of u But g=1 when
u=0 1 g =
Thus the metric becomes
2 2 2
ds du dv = + , which is the metric of a plane region
with u and v as Cartesian coordinates. Hence, a neighbourhood of P on the surface is
isometric with a plane region.
Case (ii):
0
2
1
k
a
=
The differential equation is then
11
2
1
0 g g
a
+ =
i.e.,
2
2 2
1
0
g
g
u a
c
+ =
c
which on integration gives
( ) ( ) ( )
, cos sin
u u
g u v A v B v
a a
   
= +
 
\ . \ .
Now,
1
g =0 when 0 0 u B = ¬ =
and 1, g = when 0 1 u A = ¬ =
Hence
( )
cos
u
g
a
= and the metric becomes
( )
2 2 2 2
cos
u
ds du du
a
= +
Applying the transformation
( )
,
2
u a u v av
t
= ÷ = this metric becomes
2 2 2 2
ds a du a = +
2 2
sin udv , which is the metric of a sphere of radius ‘a’. Hence, a
neighbourhood of P in isometric with a spherical region
Case (iii):
0
2
1
k
a
= ÷
The differential equation is
11
2
1
0 g g
a
÷ = , whose solution is
( ) ( )
, cosh sinh
u u
g u v A v B
a a
   
= +
 
\ . \ .
1
1
0 0 0
0 0 1
g when u B
g when u A
= = ¬ =
= = ¬ =
Thus cosh
u
g
a
 
=

\ .
and the metric becomes
2 2 2 2
cosh
u
ds du dv
a
 
= +

\ .
Applying the transformation u au = and v v = , we get
140
( )
2 2 2 2 2
cosh 1
u
ds a du dv
a
= + ÷÷÷
Now, the metric of the surface of revolution of the curve
( ) ( )
, 0, x g u y z f u = = =
about the zaxis
i.e.,
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
cos , sin , r g u v g u v f u = and the metric is given by
( )
( )
2 2 2 2 2 2
1 1
2 ds g f du g dv = + + ÷÷÷
comparing
( ) ( )
1 2 and , we find that
( )
cosh g u a u = and
( )
( )
2 2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1
1 sinh g f a or f a u + = = ÷ (or)
( )
2
0
1 sin h
u
f u a u du = ÷
í
Thus a small neighbourhood of P on the surface is isometric with the surface of
revolution of the curve x=a cosh , u y=0,
2
0
1 sinh
u
z a udu = ÷
í
about the zaxis (called
the pseudo sphere)
________________________________________________________________________
The surface generated by the tangents to any space curve is a surface of constant
zero curvature:
Sol: If
( )
r s
r
is the position vector of any point on the curve in terms of the arc
length, then the position vector R
r
of any point on the surface is given by
( ) ( ) ( )
, R s v t s vt s = +
r
r r
, where s and v are the parameters.
Thus
( )
2
2
2 2
1
R
E t vkn k v
s
 
c
= = + = +

c
\ .
r
r
r
Where
( )
k k s = is the curvature of the curve.
( )
. . 1
R R
F t vkn t
s v
c c
= = + =
c c
r r
r r
r
( )
2
2
1
R
G t
s
 
c
= = =

c
\ .
r
r
So that
2 2 2 2 2
1 k v EG F K v + = ÷ =
Then
( )
1 1 2
2 2
1
2
2 1
k v
P EF FE EE k
HE k v
'
= ÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷
+
and
( )
2 1
2
0
1
2 1
K
Q FE GE
HE K v
= ÷ = ÷
+
so that
( )
( )
2 2
2
2 2
1
1
K K v
dQ P
ds v
K v
'
÷
c
= =
c
+
Hence,
1
0
Q P
K
H s v
c c
 
= ÷ ÷ =

c c
\ .
141
Thus the Gaussian curvature at every point of the surface generated by the tangents is
zero.
5.10. CONFORMAL MAPPING:
A homeomorphism is a one – one onto continuous mapping, whose inverses is
also continuous.
Where a oneone onto mapping exists between the points of two surfaces either
surface is said to be mapped onto the other, e.g., earth’s surface can be mapped onto a
plane paper, such that each point of the paper corresponds to one and only one point on
the earth’s surface. Similarly the surface of cylinder is mapped on that portion of a plane
into which it can be developed. In these examples, there is similarity of the corresponding
small elements. When this relation holds, the mapping is said to be conformal.
A surface S is said to be conformally mapped onto a surface
*
S , if there is
differentiable homeomorphism of S on
*
S , such that angle between any two curves at an
arbitrary point P on S equal to the angle between the corresponding curves on
*
S .
Note: An isometric mapping preserves both distances and the angles, whereas a
conformal mapping just preserves angles. A one one correspondence of P (u, v) on S and
( )
, Q u v   on
*
S is said to be differentiable if , u v   have continuous partial derivatives
w.r.t u and v and vice versa. When this correspondence is also homeomorphism between
S and
*
S , we say that it is a differentiable homeomorphism.
By considering small triangles, we find that isometric maps preserve both distance
and angles whereas conformal maps preserve angles but not distance in general.
Let us now find the condition for a mapping of S on
*
S to be conformal. Let S and
*
S have the metrics
2 2 2
2 ds Edu Fdudv Gdv = + + and
2 2 2
2 ds E du F dudv G dv
  
 = + + ,
where the corresponding points P and
*
P have the same parametric value.
Let
( )
1 1
, l m ,
( )
2 2
, l m be the direction coefficients for two direction through P and
( ) ( )
1 1 2 2
, , , l m l m
   
be the corresponding direction coefficients of P . If u and u  are the
angles between these two pairs of directions, we have
( )
1 2 1 2 2 1 1 2
cos El l F l m l m Gmm u = + + + and
( )
* *
1 2 1 2 2 1 1 2
cos E l l F l m l m G m m u
         
= + + + .
But
1 1 1
.
du du ds ds
l l where
ds ds ds ds
p p

  
= = = =
Hence
( )
2
1 2 1 2 2 1 1 2
cos E l l F l m l m G mm u p
  
 = + + +
Since the mapping is conformal
*
u u = (or)
*
cos cos u u = , so that we
have
2
* * *
E F G
E F G
p = = =
This is necessary condition for the mapping to be conformal and evidently it is
also sufficient, since if the condition
2
* * *
E F G
E F G
p = = = is satisfied
*
cos cos u u = , so
that
*
u u = .
142
The scale factor p is in general a function of u and v. When p is a constant, the
conformal mapping is a similarity mapping and inparticular if 1 p = , the mapping
becomes an isometry.
Check Your Progress ( C Y P ) :
8. When do we say that a surface S is said to be conformally mapped onto a surface
s*?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
Theorem:
Every point on a surface has a neighbourhood which can be mapped conformally
on a region of the plane.
Proof: Let S be the given surface with the metric
2 2 2
2 ds Edu Fdudv Gdv = + + . At any
point P, there are two imaginary directions given by
2
0 ds =
i.e.
2 2
2 0 Edu Fdudv Gdv + + = . These are called the isotropic direction at P and since
2
0 EG F ÷ = , it follows that these directions are always distinct.
Now, if the curves along these directions are chosen as the parametric curves, the
metric becomes
2
ds du dv ì = (since the parametric curves
correspond 0 0, 0 du and dv so that E G = = = = , where we have put 2F ì = .
Putting u U i V = + and v U i V = ÷ where U and V are real, the metric
becomes
( )
2 2
ds dU dV ì = + . Comparing this with the metric of the plane
2 2 2
ds dx dy = + we see that , x U y V = = gives a conformal mapping of a region of the
given surface on a region of a plane. Hence the theorem.
5.10.1 Corollary:
Every point on a surface has a neighbourhood which can be mapped conformally
on some neighbourhood of any other surface.
This follows immediately, since a neighbourhood of a point P on S and a
neighbourhood of point
*
P on
*
S can both be mapped on the same region of the plane.
The metric viz.
( )
2 2 2 2
ds dU dV = A + (where we have taken
2
ì = A ) is said to
correspond to an isothermic system of parameters.
We will now show that there are infinite number of isothermic system of
parameters, each system corresponding to an analytic function of n complex variable. Let
(u, v) and (U, V) be two different isothermic system of the same surface.
Then
( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
ds du dv dU dV ì = + = A +
Since
1 2 1 2
, dU U du U dv and dV V du V dv = + = + we have
( ) ( )
( )
( )
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1 2 1 2 2 2
2 du dv U V du U U VV dudv U V dv ì
+ = A + + + + +
143
from which, we have
2
2 2 2 2
1 1 2 2
2
U V U V
V
ì  
+ = =

\ .
and
1 2 1 2
0 U U VV + =
Hence, if follows that either
1 2 2
, U V U V = = ÷ or
2 1 1 2
, U V U V = = ÷
comparing this with the cauchy Riemann equations
,
u v u v
x y y x
c c c ÷c
= = ÷
c c c c
, we find that
( ) U iV or U iV + ÷ is an analytic function of u iv +
Hence, if u= constant and v= constant are isothermic, any other isothermic system
has parameters U, V which are the real and imaginary parts of an analytic functions of the
complex variable u+ iv. Thus, for each isothermic system, there is a natural conformal
mapping of the surface on the plane. Hence, we see that from one isothermic system of
parameters, we can construct infinitely many other such systems, using various analytic
functions.
Check Your Progress ( C Y P ) :
9. Prove that every point on a surface has a neighbour hood which can be mapped
conformally on a region of the plane
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
10) What is the distinction between isometric maps and conformal maps ?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
5.11. SUMMARY:
Using the normal property of geodesics, we can find out whether a given curve
on a surface is a geodesic or not. Through existence theorem, the geodesic is determined
uniquely by the initial conditions viz., “A geodesic can be found to pass through any
given point and have any given direction at that point. Geodesic parallels and geodesic
curvature are studied well. The total curvature of the region, whether simply connected or
not is studied through GaussBonnet theorem. Surfaces of constant curvature is known
through Gaussian curvature. Conformal mapping between the surfaces are studied well.
144
5.12. KEY WORDS:
1) Convex region :
A region R of a surface is said to be convex, if any two points of it can be joined
by at least one geodesic lying wholly in R.
2) Simple Region :
A region R is simple, if there is at most one geodesic wholly lying in R. The
surface of a sphere as a whole is convex but not simple, for the smaller arc as well
as greater arc of the great circle through two points arc both geodesics.
3) Geodesic disc :
The geodesic disc with centre P and radius ‘r’ is the set of all points Q on the
surface, such that there is a geodesic curve PQ of length not greater than r.
4) Geodesic Polar Coordinate System :
In the plane, u = constant constitute geodesics through the origin and r = constant
arc concentric circles which give the geodesic parallels. Similarly on a surface, we
choose all geodesic passing through a fixed point O and their orthogonal
trajectories would be the curves u = constant , u being the distance of the
orthogonal trajectory measured from O along any geodesic. Thus ‘ u ‘ behaves
like ‘ r’ in the plane.
For v, we take the angle between the tangent to a geodesic and the tangent to a
fixed geodesic at O ( just like u in the plane) . The metric then becomes
2 2 2
ds du Gdv = + . A small neighbourhood of O is almost a plane and the metric
must reduce to the form
2 2 2 2 2 2
. ., dr r d i e du u dv u + + .
Hence, for points near O, G is approximately =
2
u . Thus
0
lim 1
u
G
u
÷
= . The
parametric system u and v introduced here is called Geodesic polar coordinate
system and the curves u = constant are called Geodesic circle.
5) Geodesic Curvature Vector :
For any curve on a surface, curvature vector at P is r kn
''
=
r r
, where k is the
curvature and n
r
is the unit principal normal. Clearly
1 2 n
r r r k N ì u '' = + +
r
r r r
, since
any vector at P is a linear combination of
1 2
, r r and N
r
r r
. The quantity
n
k is called
the normal curvature at P. For a geodesic, by the normal property , r
''
r
is normal to
the surface and hence, ,
n
t k N
''
=
r
r
so that 0 ì u = = . Thus the vector
( )
1 2
, . ., i e r r ì u ì u +
r r
gives a measure of the deviation of the curve from a geodesic.
The vector ( ) , ì u is called the geodesic curvature vector of the curve.
145
6) Geodesic Curvature
g
k :
The magnitude of the geodesic curvature vector ( )
, ì u
is called the geodesic
curvature
g
k .
7) Simply Connected region:
If any closed curve within a region can be shrunk to a point without passing out of
the region, then the region is called simply connected region .
8) Surface of Constant Curvature :
It is one for which every point has same Gaussian curvature.
5.13. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS:
1. The principal normal of a geodesic at any point is in the direction of the normal to
the surface at that point and every curve having this property is a geodesic. This
property is called the normal property of geodesics.
2. A region R of a surface is said to be convex, if any two points of it can be joined
by at least one geodesic lying wholly in R. The region is simple, if there is at most
one such geodesic. The surface of a sphere as a whole is convex but not simple,
for the smaller arc as well as the greater arc of the great circle through two points
are both geodesics.
3. In the plane u =constant constitute geodesics through the origion and r= constant
are concentric circles which gives the geodesic parallels. Similarly, on a surface,
we choose all geodesics passing through a fixed point O and their orthogonal
trajectories would be the curves u= constant, u being the distance of the
orthogonal trajectory measured from O along any geodesic.
4. Taking u as the parameter i.e., u= t, v=c, so that 1, 0 u v = =
& &
, we have as shown
already
1 1 2
1 1
, , ,
2 2
T T
E F U E V F E
u v
c c
= = = = ÷
c c & &
and
2 2 2
2 s Fu Fuv Gv E = + + = & & && &
Hence
g
k
( ) ( )
2
1 T T
V t U t
Hs u v
c c
= ÷
c c
& & &
( )
1 2 1
3
2
1 2 1 3
2
1 1 1
2 2
1
2
2
E F E F E
HE
EF EE FE
HE
   
= ÷ ÷
 
\ . \ .
= ÷ ÷
146
5. If at each point of a curve C, we have the parametric curve= constant cutting C at
an angle u which varies from point to point, then the Liouville’s formula for
geodesic curvature is given by
g
d
k Pu Qv
ds
u
' '
= + + , where
( )
( )
1 1 2
1 2
1
2
2
1
2
P EF FE EE
HE
Q EG FE
HE
= ÷ ÷
= ÷
6. A region R in a surface is said to be a simply connected, it every closed curve
lying in the region can be shrunk to a point without passing out of the region.
7. A surface of constant curvature is one for which every point has same Gaussian
curvature.
8. A surface S is said to be conformally mapped onto a surface
*
S , if there is
differentiable homeomorphism of S on
*
S , such that angle between any two
curves at an arbitrary point P on S equal to the angle between the corresponding
curves on
*
S .
9. Let S be the given surface with the metric
2 2 2
2 . ds Edu Fdud Gd u u = + + At any point P, there are two imaginary directions
given by
2
0 ds =
i.e.,
2 2
2 0 Edu Fdud Gd u u + + = . These are called the isotropic directions at P and
since
2
0 EG F ÷ = , if follows that these directions are always distinct.
Now, if the curves along these directions are chosen as the parametric curves, the
metric becomes
2
ds dud ì u = (since the parametric curves correspond
0 0 du and du = = , so that E = 0 = G, where we have put 2F ì = . Putting
u U iV and U iV u = + = ÷ , where U and V are real, the metric becomes
( )
2 2
ds dU dV ì = + comparing this with the metric of the plane
2 2 2
ds dx dy = +
we see that x = U, y = V gives a conformal mapping of a region of the given
surface on a region of a plane. Hence the result.
10. The isometric maps preserve both distance and angles, where as conformal maps
preserve angles but not distance in general
147
5.14. TERMINAL QUESTIONS:
1. A particle is constrained to move on a smooth surface under no force except the
normal reaction Prove that its path is a geodesic.
2. Prove that every helix on a cylinder is a geodesic.
3. Write short notes on Geodesic parallels.
4. Obtain the expression for geodesic curvature
g
k
5. State and prove GaussBonnet theorem.
6. State and prove Minding theorem related to Gaussian curvature.
7. Prove that every point on a surface has a neighbourhood, which can be mapped
conformally on a region of the plane.
5.15 FURTHER READINGS:
1. ‘Lectures on classical Differential Geometry’ by D.T. Struck, Addison – Wesley ,
Mass 1950.
2. ‘Differential Geometry’ by F. Goreux , S.J.., New central Book Agency ,
Calcutta.
148
UNIT – VI
GEODESIC MAPPING, ASYMPTOTIC LINES, RULED SURFACES AND
DEVELOPABLE
STRUCTURE:
Learning Objectives
6.0. Introduction
6.1. Geodesic Mapping.
6.2. Ruled Surface : ( Developable and skew )
6.3. Lines of Curvature .
6.4. Conjugate Directions.
6.5. Asymptotic Lines.
6.6. Parameter of Distribution of a ruled Surface.
6.7. Formula for Central point and the equations of the line of Striction.
6.8. Summary.
6.9. Key Words.
6.10. Answers to Check Your Progress.
6.11. Terminal Questions.
6.12. Further Readings.
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
1. Geodesic mapping
2. Ruled surfaces (Developable and show)
3. Lines of curvature
4. Conjugate directions
5. Asymptotic lines
6. parameter of distribution of a ruled surface
7. Formula for Gaussian curvature.
149
6.0. INTRODUCTION:
Geodesies plays an important role in surface theory and mapping of surfaces. We
are going to discuss special types of surface called ruled surface. We classify the ruled
surfaces into two types. A type of curve called asymptotic line is of great importance and
it is to be discussed in terms of conjugate directions. The envelopes of osculating plane,
normal plane and the rectifying plane are of importance in differential geometry.
6.1. GEODESIC MAPPING:
If a surface S is mapped onto a surface S* by a differentiable homeomorphism,
which takes geodesics on S into geodesics on S*, then the mapping is called geodesic
mapping.
We know that geodesics on a sphere are great circles and on the plane the
geodesics are straight lines. If we project the points on sphere from its centre onto a
tangent plane, then the great circles on the sphere (actually on the lower hemiSphere) are
mapped into straight lines on the tangent plane. Thus, this projection is a geodesic
mapping. This type of mapping of the earth’s surface on a flat Atlas takes the shortest
path on the earth’s surface between two points into the straight lines between their
images.
Theorem:
If a mapping is both geodesic and conformal, then it necessarily is an isometric or
else a similarity mapping.
Proof:
Consider a system of geodesic coordinates on S so that u = constant is a family of
geodesics on S, then the metric becomes
2 2 2
ds du Gdu = + . If the mapping from S to S*
is conformal, then on S* the metric would be
2 2 2
* ( , ) ds u du Gd ì u u = +
.
Since, again the mapping is geodesic, the image of the geodesics u =Constant on
S must be geodesics on S*. The condition for this would be
* *
2 1 1
* * 2 * 0 E E F E E F + ÷ =
Since * 0 F = this give s F*
*
2
F =0
i.e 0. sin , 0, 0 ce we get
ì ì
ì ì
u u
c c
= = =
c c
. Thus ì depends on u only.
Now, consider a geodesic on S cutting the curve u = constant at an angle u . Then,
by Liouvil le’s formula
( )
1 1 2
1
, 2
2
g
d
k Pu Q where P EF FE EE
ds HE
u
u
' '
= + + = ÷ ÷
150
( )
1 2
1
.
2
Q EG FE
HE
= ÷ since, E=1, F=0, we have P=0,
1
.
2
G
Q
H
= Also, since
g
k = 0 for
geodesic, Liouville’s formula becomes
1
0 .
2
G
d d
H
u u = + Since, the mapping is both
geodesic and conformal, the corresponding equation for S* is o =
*
1
.
2 *
G
d d
H
u u +
Thus, we have
*
1 1
*
G G
H H
=
( )
( )
( )
2
2
* * * * * * *
1 1 1 1 1 1
1, 0
, 0,
Since H EG F G E F
And H E G F G E F G G
G
G G G G
We have G
G G G G
ì ì ì
ì
ì ì ì
ì
ì ì
= ÷ = = =
= ÷ = = = =
+
= = = +
Which gives
1
G
ì
ì
=0 (or)
1
ì =0, since 0 G = i.e, ì is also independent of u i.e., ì is a
constant. Thus the mapping is a similarity, which becomes an isometry if ì =1.
Tissot Theorem:
In any non conformal mapping of a surface S on another surface S* given by a
differentiable homeomorphism regular at each point, there exists at each point P of S, a
uniquely determined pair of orthogonal directions, such that the corresponding directions
on S* are also orthogonal.
Proof:
Choose parameter on S and S* in such a manner that corresponding points have
the same parameters. Let
( ) ( )
1 1 2 2
, , , l m l m be two orthogonal directions at a point P on S
and
( ) ( )
* * * *
1 1 2 2
, , , l m l m
be the corresponding directions at P* on S*. Since,
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
1 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 2
2 2 1 2 2 1
, and , areorthogonal, 0
( )
0 __________(1)
l m l m El l F l m l m Gm m
or
El Fm l Fl Gm m
+ + + =
+ + + =
Now, the corresponding directions on S* will be orthogonal if
( )
* * * * * * * * * * *
1 2 1 2 2 1 1 2
0 _________(2) E l l F l m l m G m m + + + = . Since P and P* have the same
parameter,
*
1 1
* * *
,
du du ds ds
l where
ds ds ds ds
p p p = = · = = and similarly
* *
1 1 1 1
, m ml and n n p = =
Thus (2) becomes .
( )
( ) ( )
* * *
1 2 1 2 2 1 1 2
* * * *
2 2 1 2 2 1
0
. 0 __________(3)
E l l F l m l m G m m
i e E l F m l F l G m m
+ + + =
+ + + =
Eliminating
1 1
, l m between (1) and (3), we obtain
151
2 2 2 2
* * * *
2 2 2 2
,
El Fm El Gm
F l F m F l G m
+ +
=
+ +
Which on simplification gives
( ) ( ) ( )
* * 2 * * * * 2
2 2 2 2
0 ___(4) EF E F l EG E G l m FG F G m ÷ + ÷ + ÷ =
This is a quadratic equation and the orthogonality Condition viz.,
ER2FQ+GP=0, where
* * * * * *
, 2 , P EF E F Q EG E G R FG F G = ÷ = ÷ = ÷ is satisfied as can be verified by
substitution. Thus (4) determines two orthogonal directions at each point.
The discriminant of (4) is
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
2
* * * * * *
2
* * * *
* * * *
4
4
1
EG E G EF E F FG F G
EG E G EF E F
F EG E G G EF E F
E
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷ ÷ ÷
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
* * * * * * * *
4 4
F G
EG E G EF E F EG E G EF E F
E E
= ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ + ÷
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
2
* * * *
2
2 2
* * * *
2
2
2
2
* * * * * *
2
2
4 4
2
4 ____(5)
F
EG E G EF E F
E
F G
EF E F EF E F
E E
EG F
F
EG E G EF E F EF E F
E E
= ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷ + ÷
÷
= ÷ ÷ ÷ + ÷
Since mapping
*
S S ÷ is non – conformal, the relations
* * *
E F G
E F G
= = do not hold.
This means that both
( ) ( )
* * * *
EG E G and EF E F ÷ ÷ are not both zero. Also, since
0 E = and
2
0, EG F ÷ > we see from (5) that the discriminant is strictly positive. Thus,
the roots of the quadratic(4) are real and disinct. Hence, at each point P on S, there are
two orthogonal directions on S* which are also orthogonal. Hence the theorem.
Dini’s Theorem:
Two surfaces S and S* which are mapped geodesically in each other by a non
conformal mapping must have line elements which can be written in the forms
( ) ( )
2 2 2
, ds U V du dv = ÷ +
( ) ( )
2
* 1 1 2 1 2 i
ds V U U du v dv
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷ + Where U is a function of
u alone V, a function of u alone.
152
Proof:
Let f be a differential homeomorphism of S onto S* , which is nonconformal.
Then, by Tissot’s theorem, through each point P of S there exists a uniquely determined
pair of real orthogonal directions, so that the corresponding directions on S* are also
orthogonal. If the parametric curves are chosen along these directions, then the metrics S
and S* will be of the form
2
2 2 2 * * 2 * 2
, ds Edu Gd ds E du G dv u = + = +
First, we shall obtain the equation of geodesic on s with parameter u i.e when u=t,
1, 0 u u = = & &&
Now
( )
2 2
1
2
T Eu Gu = +
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2 2 2
1 1 1 1
2 2 2
2 2 2 2
1 1
2 2
1 1
,
2 2
T
Hence E u G E G
u
T T
E u G E G Eu E
v u
T
G
v
u u
u u
u
c
= + = +
c
c c
= + = + = =
c c
c
=
c
& & &
& & & &
&
&
( ) ( )
( )
( )
2
1
1 1 2
2
1
1 2 1 1 2
2 2 2
1 1
1 2 2 2
2 2
1 1
2 2
2 2
d T T d
ThenU E E G
dt u u dt
Eu E v E G
E E E G
E E G
u
u
u u
u u
c c
 
= ÷ = ÷ +

c c
\ .
= + ÷ +
= + ÷ ÷
= + ÷
&
&
& & &
& &
& &
( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2 2
2
1 2 2 2
2 2
1 2 2 2
2
2 1 2
1
2
1
2
1 1
2 2
1 1
2 2
d T T d
andV G E G
dt v v dt
G Gu G E G
G G G E G
E G G G
u u
u u u u
u u u u
u u u
c c
 
= ÷ = ÷ +

c c
\ .
= + + ÷ +
= + + ÷ ÷
=÷ + + +
& &
&
&& & & & &
&& & & &
& & &&
Hence, the equation to the Geodesic on S is 0
T T
V U
u u
c c
÷ =
c c & &
( )
2 2
2 1 2 1 2 1 1
3 2
1 2 2 1 1 2
2 2
1 2 2 1 1 2
1 1 1 1
. 0
2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1
0
2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1
. , 0 _________(1)
2 2 2 2
i e E G G G E E E G G
EG GG EG GE EG GE EE
G G E G E E
i e
G G E G E G
u u u u u u
u u u u
u u u u
÷ + + + ÷ + ÷ =
   
+ + ÷ + ÷ ÷ =
 
\ . \ .
   
+ + ÷ + + ÷ =
 
\ . \ .
& & && & & &
&& & & &
&& & & &
Similarly the equation of geodesic on S* is
153
* * * * * *
2 2 1 2 2 1 1 2
* * * * * *
1 1 1 1
0 _________(2)
2 2 2 2
G G E G E E
E G E G E G
u u u u
   
+ + ÷ + ÷ ÷ =
 
\ . \ .
&& & & &
Since the mapping is geodesic, equations (1) and (2) must be identical. Thus comparing
coefficients, we obtain.
*
1 1
*
____________(3)
G G
E E
=
*
2 2 2 2
* *
1 1
____(4)
2 2
E G E E
E G E G
÷ = ÷
* *
1 1 1 1
* *
*
2 2
*
1 1
____(5)
2 2
_________(6)
E G E G
E G E G
E E
G G
÷ = ÷
=
( )
2
2
2
2
2 2
* *
2 2
* *
*
*
log 2log log
2
1
2
2
1
2 sin (4)
2
log
E
Now E G
G
G
E
E G
E G
E G
E G
U g
E G
E
G
u u
u
 
c c
= ÷

c c
\ .
= ÷
 
= ÷

\ .
 
= ÷

\ .
 
c
=


c
\ .
And integrating, we obtain
2
2 *
2
*
log log log
E E
U
G G
 
= +


\ .
Or
2
2 *
2
*
________(7)
E E
U
G G
=
Where U is some function of u.
Similarly using (5), we can obtain
2 *
2
*
_____(8)
G G
V
E E
=
Where Vis some function
u
.
From (7) and (8) we obtain
* 2
______(9) E E U V =
* 2
________(10) and G G UV =
Using (9) in (3) we have
2 *
1 1
G U VG =
154
2 *
2
2
( )
sin (10)
U V G
u
G
U V u g
u UV
c
=
c
c
 
=

c
\ .
( )
( )
2 2
1 1
2 1 1
2 4
1 1
1 1 1
UV G GU V
GU VG
U V
U V V
G U
or GV GU U G
G U V
÷
÷
= =
= ÷ =
÷
Integrating, we get log G =
2
log( ) log U V V ÷ +
( )
2
. ., _______(11) i e G U V V = ÷
Where V is some function of u . Similarly using (10) in (6) and proceeding as
above we get
2
( ) E U V U Where U = ÷ is some function of u.
Thus the metric on S becomes
( )
2 2 2
2 2 2 2
( ), sin (11) (12)
ds Edu Gd
U V U du V dv u g and
u = +
= ÷ +
And metric on S* becomes
( ) ( )
2
* * *
1 1
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
, sin (9) (10)
sin (11) (12)
ds E du G d
E G
du d u g and
U V UV
U V U U V V
du d U g and
U V UV
U V U V
du d
U V U V
u
u
u
u
= +
= +
÷ ÷
= +
÷
= +
Changing the parameters to u* and
*
u
*
* , u U du and V d u u = =
í í
The métrics on S and S* will reduce to
( )
( )
( )
2
2 2
2 *2 *
* 1 1 1 * 1 2
*
ds U V du d and
ds V U U du V d
u
u
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷ +
= ÷ +
This completes the proof of Dini’s theorem.
Check Your Progress ( C Y P ) :
1. What is geodesic mapping between two surfaces?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
155
Q P
c
6.2. RULED SURFACE: ( Developable and skew)
A ruled surface is a surface which is generated by the motion of one parameter
family of straight lines and the straight line itself is called its generating line. Cones,
cylinders and conicoids are special forms of ruled surfaces.
There are two distinct classes of ruled surfaces, namely, those on which
consecutive generators intersect and those on which consecutive generators do not
intersect; these are called developable and skew surfaces respectively.
A surface generated by one parameter family of planes is called a developable
surface or simply a developable.
Developable associated with space curves:
Since the equation to three principal planes namely osculating plane, normal plane
and rectifying plane contain only a single parameter which is usually taken to be the arc
length s, hence their envelopes are developable surfaces and they are respectively called
osculating developable (or) tangential developable, polar developable and rectifying
developable. Also the generators of polar developable and rectifying developable arc
called polar lines and rectifying lines respectively.
Equation of the ruled surfaces:
If C is any curve on the ruled surface such that it meets each
generator precisely once, then C is called a base curve or a
directrix (These are many in number ) and the ruled surface is
determined by any curve C and direction of the generator at
their points of meeting with the curve. Let ( ) g u
r
be the unit
vector along the generator at a curved point Q an C and ( ) r u
r
,
the position vector of Q, then R
r
,the position vector of the
general point P on ruled surface is given by
, R r g u = +
r
r r
Where
u
is the parameter and determines directed distance along the generator
from C.
Theorem:
The necessary and sufficient condition for a surface to be developable surface is
that its Gaussian curvature should be zero.
Proof: Necessary condition:
Let the surface be developable, to prove that the Gaussian curvature K is zero.
For a developable surface to be a cylinder or cone, the Gaussian curvature K=0; and if
these be excluded, the general equation of a developable may be written. as,
( ) ( ) R r s t s r t u u = + = +
r
r r
r r
If the suffixes 1 and 2 denote partial differentiation w.r.t. s and u respectively ,
we have
o
R
r
r
r
156
( )
1 2 1 2
11 12 21 22
1 2
2 2
11 12 22
2
2
, ,
, , 0
. , . 0, . 0
0, 0
R t k n R t R R K b
R kn k b kt k n R R kn R
R R K b
N
H H
k
L N R M N R N N R
H
LN M
Hence Gaussian curvature K Since M N
EG F
v
v v
v
u
t
v t
= + = × = ÷
'
= + ÷ + = = =
× ÷
= =
÷
= = = = = =
÷
= = = =
÷
r r r r r
r r
r
r r r r r r
r
r r r
r r r
r
r r r r r r
Sufficient condition: If the Gaussian curvature 0 K = for the given surface ( , ) r r u u =
r r
to
prove that the given surface is developable. We have 0 K = (or) (LNM
2
)/H
2
=0 (or)
LNM
2
=0 (or)
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
1 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 2
, , . . 0( ) . 0 r N r N r N r N or r r N N ÷ = × × =
r r r r r r
r r r r r r
(by vector
identity due to Lagrange)
(or)
( )
1 2 1 1 2 1 2
0 ( ) , , 0 ( ) , , 0 sin ( 0) ____(1) HN N N or H N N N or N N N ce H
× = = = =
r r r r r r r r r
In view of relation (1) above, there arise following four possibilities:
i)
1 2
, N N and N are coplanar
r r
(or)
ii)
1 2 1 2
0 ( ) ) 0( ) ) N or iii N or iv N N u = = =
r r r r r r
Now we shall discuss these possibilities:
i)
1 2
, N N and N are coplanar
r r
Since N
r
is a vector of unit length (i.e., constant length ), and so
1
. 0 N N and =
r r
2
. 0 N N =
r r
. These relations together imply that N
r
is perpendicular to both
1
N
r
and
2
N
r
.
Hence,
1
, N N
r r
and
2
N
r
cannot be coplanar.
ii)
1
0 N =
r r
. The equation of the tangent plane at any point
( )
, r u v
r
on the surface
( )
, r r u u =
r r
is
( )
0 R r N ÷ · =
r r
r
we have
( )
{ }
( )
1
R r N r N R r N
u
c
÷ · = ÷ · + ÷ ·
c
r r r r r
r r r
= 0 (since
1 1
. 0, 0 r N N = =
r r
r
)
Thus ( ) R r N ÷ ·
r r
r
is independent of the parameter u and hence the equation of the
tangent plane contains only one parameter u . Therefore, the surface is the envelope of a
single parameter family of planes and hence it is a developable surface.
iii)
2
0 N =
r r
.Proceeding similarly as in ii) above, the equation of the tangent plane
contains only one parameter u. Hence in this case also the surface is developable.
1 2
) iv N N u =
r r
. Let us change the parameters u, u to , u u
' '
by the transformation
, , u u u u u uu ' ' ' ' = + = ÷ we obtain
157
( )
1
1 1 2 1 2
1
2 1 2
1 2 1 2
1
1 ( )
0
N N u N
N N N N N
u u u u
N N u N
N N N
u u
N N N N
u
u
u
u
u u u
u u
c c c c c
= = · + · = · + = +
' ' '
c c c c c
c c c c c
= = · + · = · + ÷
' ' '
c c c c c
= ÷ = =
r r r
r r r r r
r r r
r r r
r r r r
Q
These relations show that N
r
, surface normal depends on only one parameter.
Hence, by case (iii) above, the surface is developable. Hence the theorem.
Check Your Progress ( C Y P ) :
2. What is ruled surface and what are its classification?
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________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
6.3. LINES OF CURVATURE:
Definition 1:
A curve drawn on a surface and possessing the property that the normals to the
surface at the consecutive points intersect, is called a line of curvature.
Definition 2:
A line of curvature on any surface is a curve such that the tangent line to it at any
point is a tangent line to the principal sections of the surface at that point.
Differential equation of lines of curvature.
Since, the direction of line of curvature at any point is along the principal
direction at the point, the differential equation of lines of curvature is given by
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
0 EM FL du EN GL dud FN GM d u u ÷ + ÷ ÷ =
This equation of lines of curvature can be remembered in the following form of a
determinant.
2 2
d dud du
E F G
L M N
u u ÷
________________________________________________________________________
Property of lines of curvature :
The normal to any surface of consecutive points of one of its lines of curvature
intersect. Conversely, if the normal at two consecutive points of a curve drawn on a
surface intersect, the curve is a line of curvature.
Proof:
Let N
r
and N
r
+d N
r
be the unit normal
vectors to the surface at two consecutive
points ( ) ( ) P r and Q r dr +
r r r
. Let the
158
direction of ( ) ( , ). Q r dr be du du +
r r
It the normals at P and Q intersect, then
, N N dN +
r r r
and dr
r
must be coplanar – i.e., their scalar tripple product should be zero.
Hence, N,N+dN,dr 0
. N,dN,dr 0 i e
=
=
r r r
r
r r
r
We known
1 2 1 2
, dN N du N d dr r du r d u u = + = +
r r r
r r r
Substituting these values in the equation N,dN,dr 0 =
r r
r
,
( )
1 2 1 2
2 2
1 1 2 1 1 2 2 2
We get N,N du+N du,r du+r 0
( ) N,N ,r N,N ,r N,N ,r N,N ,r 0 ______(1)
d
or du dud d
u
u u
=
+ + + =
r r r
r r
r r r r r r r r
r r r r
( )
1 1 1 1
1 2
2
N,N ,r N N r
EMFL
N
But
N N
T
= · ×
= · ×
r r r r
r r
r
1 2
2
2 1
1 2
2 2
N,N ,N
N,N ,r
N,N ,r
N,N ,r
EM FL EM FL
T H
EN FM
H
FM GL
H
FN GM
H
÷ ÷
= =
÷
=
÷
=
÷
=
r r r
r r
r
r r
r
r r
r
The equation (1) becomes
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
0
( ) 0
EM FL FM GL EN FM FN GM
du dud d
H H H H
or EM FL du EN GL dud FN GM d
u u
u u
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
   
+ + + =
 
\ . \ .
÷ + ÷ + ÷ =
But, this is the differential equation of the lines of curvature. Thus, the normals at
consecutive points of the lines of curvature intersect.
Conversely , let the curve be a line of curvature. Just reversing the steps, we get
, , 0 N dN dr
=
r r
r
which can be written as , , 0 N N dN dr
+ =
r r r
r
. This expression implies
that , , N N dN dr +
r r r
r
are coplanar. i.e., the normals , , N N dN +
r r r
at consecutive points of the
lines of curvature intersect.
Incidentally, we note that the differential equation of the lines of curvature on a
surface can also be expressed by
{ }
2 2
1 1 2 1 1 2 2 2
N,N ,r N,N ,r N,N ,r N,N ,r 0 du dud d u u
+ + + =
r r r r r r r r
r r r r
159
Check Your Progress ( C Y P ) :
3. Define line of curvature on a surface and write down the differential equation of
the same.
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________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
A property of lines of curvatures on Developables:
Monge’s theorem:
A necessary and sufficient condition that a curve on a surface be a line of
curvature is that the surface normals along the curve form a developable.
Proof:
Suppose ( ) r r s =
r r
is the equation of a curve on the surface ( , ) r r u u =
r r
. Consider
the unit vector N
r
along the normal to the surface ( , ) r r u u =
r r
at a point ( ) P r
r
on the curve
( ) r r s =
r r
. Then r
r
is a function of s and also N
r
may be regarded as a function of s. The
position vector R
r
of a point Q on such a normal is represented by
( )
( ) __(1)
s
R r s N r N u u = + = +
r r r
r r
where s and u are two parameters. Thus equation (1) is
the equation of the surface formed by the normals to the surface ( , ) r r u u =
r r
along the
given curve.
Let suffixes 1 and 2 be used to denote partial differentiation w.r.t.s and
u respectively.
1
2
(1)
____(2)
,
From we have R r N t N
dr dN
R N where r N
ds ds
u u
¹ ' ' '
= + = +
¦
 
`
' '
= = =

¦
\ .
)
r r r
r
r
r
r
r r
r
From (2)
21 12 22
; 0 R N R R
'
= = =
r r r r r
If M and N are fundamental coefficients of second order of surface (1) we know
HM=
1 2 12
, , R R R
r r r
and HN=
1 2 22
, , R R R
r r r
.
, , , , , , , 0 ______(3)
, , 0 0
, 0 0, 0.
HM t N N N t N N Since t N N
and HN t N N
HN implies N asH
u
u
' ' ' '
= + = =
' = + =
= = =
r r r r r r r
r r r
r r r
r
Hence, the Gaussian curvature K of (1) is given by
( )
2 2
2 2
sin 0 _______(4)
LN M M
ce N
EG F H
÷ ÷
K = = =
÷
Now, we know that a surface is developable if and only if its Gaussian curvature
K is zero.
i.e, if and only if
2
2
M
H
÷
is zero.
i.e, if and only if M is zero
160
i.e, if and only if , , t N N
'
r r
r
is zero (use (3) and 0 H = )
Hence, we are to prove only , , t N N
'
r r
r
=0 if and only if the curve ( ) r r s =
r r
is a
line of curvature on the surface ( , ) r r u u =
r r
Necessary Condition :
If the condition , , 0 t N N
' =
r r
r
holds, then to prove that the curve
( )
r r s =
r r
is a
line of curvature on the surface
( )
, r r u v =
r r
Now , , t N N
'
r r
r
=0 i.e., , , t N N
'
r r
r
( )
., . 0 5 ie t N N ' × = ÷
r r
r
We know that N
'
r
is perpendicular to N
r
, therefore N
'
r
, lies in the tangent plane to
the surface
( )
, r r u v =
r r
. Hence, t N' ×
r
r
is normal to the given surface ( , ) r r u u =
r r
and so
t N
'
×
r
r
is parallel to the unit surface normal vector N
r
. Thus in order that equation (5)
holds t N' ×
r
r
must be zero, since 0 N =
r r
.
Equation (5) ¬ t N
'
×
r
r
=0
r
N kt for some function k ' ¬ = ÷
r
r
dN dr
k
ds ds
¬ = ÷
r
r
0 dN kdr ¬ + =
r r
r
which is Rodrigue’s formula characteristic only of lines of curvature and therefore the
curve ( ) r r s =
r r
is a line of curvature on the surface ( , ) r r u u =
r r
Sufficient condition:
Conversely, if the given curve ( ) r r s =
r r
is a line of curvature on the surface
( , ) r r u u =
r r
then we have 0 dN kdr + =
r r
r
(Rodrigue’s formula).
0 0
, , , , 0
. , , , 0
dN dr
k N kt N kt
ds ds
Hence t N N t N kt
i e t N N
' '
¬ + = ¬ + = ¬ = ÷
'
= ÷ =
' =
r
r
r r r r
r r
r r r
r r r
r r
r
So that the condition of developability is satisfied
Check Your Progress ( C Y P ) :
4. State Monge’s theorem
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________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
161
6.4. CONJUGATE DIRECTIONS:
Definition: Conjugate directions at a given point ( , ) P u u on a surface ( , ) r r u u =
r r
are
defined as follows:
Let P and Q be two neighbouring points on a surface, and consider tangent planes
at these two points and let PR be the line of intersection of these two planes. Then, as
Q÷P, the limiting directions of the lines PQ and PR are called the conjugate directions
at P.
An analytical expression for two directions to be conjugate:
Let the unit normals at ( ) P r
r
and ( ) Q r dr +
r r
be N
r
and N
r
+ dN
r
and let , u u be
the parameters, so that
1 2
PQ dr r du r du = = +
uuur
r r r
If r c
r
is the vector PR in the limiting position, then
1 2
. R r u r u c = c + c
r
r r
Again, since
PR is parallel to the tangent planes at P and Q r c
r
is perpendicular to both
( )
, 0, . 0 0 N and N dN thus N r N dN r or N r + · c = + c = c · c =
r r r r r r r
r r r
( )
( )
( )
1 2 1 2
1 1 1 2 2 1 2 2
0 0
( ) 0
( ) 0
( ) 0
N r gives N du N d r u r v
or N r du u N r du N r d u N r dv
or Ldu u M du d u Nd
du u du u
or L M N
d d
u
u u u
u u u u
u u u u
c · c = + · c + c =
· c + · c + · c + · c =
c + c + c + c =
c c
 
· + + + =

c c
\ .
r r r
r r r
r r r r
r r r r
This expression determines the conjugate directions
du
du
and
u
u
c
c
. The symmetry
of the above result shows the if
u
u
c
c
is conjugate to
du
du
, then
du
du
is conjugate to
u
u
c
c
, this
property is reciprocal one.
Again the expression (1) being linear in each of the ratios
du
du
and
u
u
c
c
implies that
there is a unique conjugate direction to a given direction.
________________________________________________________________________
Condition that the two directions given by,
2 2
0 Pdu Qdudv Rdv + + = to be conjugate:
Solution: let the two directions be represented by
du
du
and
u
u
c
c
.
162
0
0
( ) 0
du u Q
d P
du u R
d P
du u du u
L M N
d d
R Q
L M N
P P
or LR NP MQ
u u
u u
u u u u
c ÷
+ =
c
c
· =
c
c c
 
· + + + =

c c
\ .
÷
   
¬ + + =
 
\ . \ .
+ ÷ =
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The necessary and sufficient condition for the parametric curves to have conjugate
directions is M=0.
Solution: The differential equation of parametric curves is dudu =0. Comparing this
equation with
2 2
0, Pdu Qdud Rd u u + + = we find P=R= 0, Q=1. Hence, the direction of
the parametric curves will be conjugate, if LR+NPMQ=0 i.e., MQ=0 i.e., M=0
( )
0 as Q = . Conversely if M=0, the condition LR+NPMQ=0 is clearly satisfied since for
parametric curves P=0 , R=0.
________________________________________________________________________
The Principal directions (Lines of curvature ) at a point are conjugate and orthogonal:
Solution: We know that F=0, M=0 are the necessary and sufficient conditions for the
parametric curves to be lines of curvature and M=0 is the necessary and sufficient
condition for the parametric curves to the conjugate, It implies that the principal
directions (lines of curvature) at a point of the surface are conjugate directions and these
directions are orthogonal.
Check Your Progress ( C Y P ) :
5. Find the necessary and sufficient condition for the parametric curves to have
conjugate directions.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
6.5. ASYMPTOTIC LINES:
Definition :
The directions which arc self conjugate are called asymptotic directions and the
curves, whose tangents are along asymptotic directions are called asymptotic lines.
Differential equation of an a asymptotic line:
Suppose at any point
( )
, u u , the direction of an asymptotic line is
( )
, . du du
Hence
( )
, du du is a self conjugate direction.
163
Hence, putting
du u
du u
c
=
c
is the condition of conjugacy of two directions namely
0
du u du u
L M N
d d u u u u
c c
 
· + + + =

c c
\ .
We have
2
2 0
du du
L M N
d d u u
 
+ + =

\ .
2 2
2 0 ______(1) Ldu Mdud Ndu u + + =
This is the differential equation of an asymptotic line.
________________________________________________________________________
We know
2 2
2 dN dr Ldu Mdud Nd u u · = + +
r
r
2 2
( ) 2
dN dr du du d d
or L M N
ds ds ds ds ds ds
u u       
· = + +
   
\ . \ .\ . \ .
r
r
But the direction coefficients of the direction at the point r
r
of the curve ( ) r r s =
r r
are
,
du d
ds ds
u
 

\ .
. Therefore, the necessary and sufficient condition for the curve ( ) r r s =
r r
to be
asymptotic line is
2 2
2 0
. ., 0 ________(2)
du du d d
L M N
ds ds ds ds
dN dr
i e
ds ds
u u
      
+ + =
   
\ . \ .\ . \ .
· =
r
r
Expression (1) being quadratic in
du
du
gives two asymptotic directions at a point.
They will be real and distinct if M
2
LN is positive i.e., if Gaussian curvature K is
negative . It
K
is +ve, they are imaginary. They are identical if
K
is zero and also in this
case the surface is developable and single asymptotic line through a point is the
generator.
The normal curvature in any direction is equal to
( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
2 / 2 Ldu Mdud Nd Edu Fdud Gd u u u u + + + + it clearly vanishes for the
asymptotic directions (using equation (1) ). These directions are thus the direction of the
asymptotes of the indicatrix and hence this name.
________________________________________________________________________
The binormal of asymptotic line is the normal to the surface:
Proof: The tangent t
r
to the asymptotic line is perpendicular to the surface normal N
r
, we
have N t ·
r
r
=0
Differentiation w.r.t. ‘s’ yields
. 0
0
0 .
N t N t
dN dr
N Kn
ds ds
dN dr
But for asymptoticline
ds ds
' '
+ · =
· + · =
· =
r r
r r
r
r
r
r
r
r
164
The above equation yields
( )
. 0 0 N n k = =
r
r
Q
Also . 0 t N =
r
r
Now . 0 0 N n and t N N = · = ¬
r r r
r
r
is parallel to t n ×
r
r
N ¬
r
is parallel to b
r
Check Your Progress ( C Y P ) :
6. Show that the binormal of asymptotic line is the normal to the surface.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
The osculating plane at any point of an asymptotic line is the tangent plane to the
surface:
Proof: From the above result, we know
N b
r
r
P
i.e.,
N
r
P
to the binormal to the asymptotic
line. We may choose the direction, such that N b =
r r
.
Now N
r
is the normal to the tangent plane at a point on the surface and b
r
is normal to
osculating plane at a point on the asymptotic line and the relation N b =
r r
makes them
coincident at the point on the curve on the surface and hence the theorem.
________________________________________________________________________
The necessary and sufficient conditions that the parametric curves be asymptotic lines are
L=0, N=0 0 M = .
Proof: The differential equation of the parametric curves is
0 ____(1) dudu =
The differential equation of asymptotic lines are
2 2
2 0 ________(2) Ldu Mdud Nd u u + + = ÷
In order that the parametric curves are asymptotic lines, equations (1) & (2) must be
identical i.e., we must have .
L=0,
0 M =
, N=0
Conversely if L=0 ,N=0, 0 M = , the equation (2) reduces to equation (1). Hence
the proposition.
________________________________________________________________________
Curvature and torsion of an asymptotic line:
We know that the unit binormal to an asymptotic line is the unit surface normal.
(or) b N =
r r
.
Differentiation of this relation w.r.t. arc length gives b N
' '
=
r
r
, which on using
Frenet’s formulae gives
( ) . n N or N n t t
' '
÷ = = ÷
r r
r r
( )
, ,
But n b t or n N t
N N t N N t t
= × = ×
' '
= ÷ · × =
r
r
r r
r r
r r r r
r r
165
Again, we know , t kn
'
=
r
r
so that
, , , ,
( ) , .
k t n t N t t N t N t t
or k N r r
' ' ' '
= · = · × = =
' ''
=
r r r
r r r r r r r
r
r
r r
Check Your Progress ( C Y P ) :
7. Find the curvature and torsion of an asymptotic line.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
Theorem of Beltrami – Enneper:
The torsion of the two asymptotic lines through a point are equal in magnitude but
opposite in sign and the square of either is the negative of the Gaussian curvature.
Proof: The torsion of an asymptotic line is given by
{ }
( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 1 2
2 2
1 1 1 2 2 1 2 2
2 2
, ,
( ) , ,
, ,
, , , , , , , ,
( ) ___(1)
N N t
or N N r
N N u N ru r
N N r u N N r N N r u N N r
or H EM FL u EN GL u v FN GM
t
t
u u
u u
t u
' =
' '
=
' ' ' '
= + +
' ' ' '
= + + +
' ' ' '
= ÷ + ÷ + ÷
r r
r
r r
r
r r r
r r
r r r r r r r r
r r r r
Now, we suppose that the asymptotic lines are taken as parametric curves, so that
L=N=0, 0 M = and the above equation (1) reduces to
( )
( )
2 2
2 2
2
_____(2)
H M Eu G
Edu Gd
M
ds
t u
u
' '
= +
÷
=
For the asymptotic line 0 du = , using
2 2
, ds Edu = we have from equation (2),
( )
2
2
____(3)
MEdu M
HEdu H
t = = = ÷K
Similarly for the asymptotic line du=0, using
2 2
ds Gdu = , we have from (2)
( )
____(4)
M
H
t = ÷ = ÷ ÷K
From (3) and (4), we have
( )
2
t t = ± ÷K ¬ = ÷K . Hence the theorem.
Fundamental Coefficients and Gaussian curvature for a ruled surface:
The equation of ruled surface is given by ___(1) R r g u = +
r
r r
Where rand g
r r
are functions of the parameter u, and R
r
is the function of two parameters
u and u we have
166
1 2
11 12 22
,
, , 0
R R
R r g R g
u
R r g R g R
u
u
u
c c
= = + = =
c c
= + = =
r r
r r
r r
& &
r r r r
r r r
&& & &
Therefore
( )
2
2 2 2 2,
1
2 E R r g r r g g u u u = = + = + · +
r
r r r r r r
& & & & & &
( )
2
1 2
( 1 2
. 0)
F R R r g g r g g g g
g g
u = · = + = · = ¬ ·
¬ =
r r
r r r r r r r r
& & & & &
Q
r r
&
2 2
2
1 G R g = = =
r
r
The unit surface normal vector N
r
is given by
( )
( )
( )
1 2
11 1 2
2
12 1 2
, , , ,
, , , , , , , ,
, , ,
, , , ,
NH R R r g g
Also HL R R R r g r g g
r r g g r g r g g g g g
HM R R R g r g g
g r g g g g
u
u u
u u u
u
u
= × = + ×
= = + +
= + + +
= = · +
= +
r r r
r r r
& &
r r r
r r r r r
&& && &
r r r r r r r r r r r r
&&& &&& &&& &&&
r r r
r r r r
& &
r r r r r r
&& & &
( )
, , , , ( ) 0 r g g g g g g g g
= = × · =
r r r r r r r r r
& & && & &
Q
&
22 1 2
, , 0 HN R R R
= =
r r r
, since
22
0 R =
r r
Therefore N=0 as 0 H = .
The Gaussian curvature K is given by
( )
2
2
2 4
, ,
0
r g g
LN M
N
H H
÷
K = = ÷ =
r r r
& &
Q
Hence, for a ruled surface , K is never positive, we known that the necessary and
sufficient condition for a surface to be a developable surface is that K =0. Hence the
necessary and sufficient condition for a ruled surface to be the developable is
, , r g g
r r r
& &
=0.
Again the necessary and sufficient condition for a ruled surface to be skew is
, , r g g
r r r
& &
≠0
Remark: For a ruled surface,
( )
NH r g g u = + ×
r
r r r
&
. This relation implies that the tangent
plane to the ruled surface varies at points on the same generator unless the ruled surface
is developable. i.e., unless , , r g g
r r r
& &
=0
The asymptotic lines on a ruled surface:
The differential equation of asymptotic lines on a surface is given by
2 2
2 0____(1) Ldu Mdud Nd u u + + = But N=0, for a ruled surface. Hence , equation (1)
of asymptotic lines on a ruled surface becomes
2
2 0 Ldu Mdudu + = (or) ( ) 2 0 ____(2) du Ldu Mdu + = .
167
From equation (2) it follows that one family of asymptotic lines on a ruled surface
is given by du=0 i.e., u= constant. Hence, one family of asymptotic lines is the family of
a parametric curves u=constant. Also the parametric curves u= constant are the
generators of the ruled surface. Thus, we state: The generators of a ruled surface
constitute one family of asymptotic lines.
Again from equation (2) it follows that the other family of asymptotic lines (i.e.
system of curved asymptotic lines) is given by
2 0
2
Ldu Md
d L
du M
u
u
+ =
¬ = ÷
{ }
2
1
, , , , , , , , ______(3)
2 , ,
d
r r g g r g r g g g g g
du
r g g
u
u u u
¬ = ÷ + + +
r r r r r r r r r r r r
&&& && & &&& &&&
r r r
& &
The differential equation (3) is of the type
2
d
A B C
du
u
u u = + + where A,B,C are
functions of u only. This differential equation is of Riccati type differential equation.
We know that the most general solution of this D.E. is of the form
_____(4)
CP Q
CR S
u
+
=
+
where P,Q, R,S are functions of u and c is an arbitrary constant: The equation (4)
is the required equation of family of curved asymptotic lines, and for different values of
c, we have different members of the family.
Consider four asymptotic lines
1 2 3, 4
, , C C C C of this family and let these asymptotic
lines be met by the generator
o
u u = . Let the parameter u has the values
1 2 3 4
, , , u u u u at
these four points, Hence from (4), we have
( )( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
3 1 2 4
1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4
1 2
1 2
1 2
1 2 1 2
3 4
3 4
3 4
, , ,
C P Q C P Q C P Q C P Q
C R S C R S C R S C R S
C C PS QR
C P Q C P Q
C R S C R S C R S C R S
C C PS QR
Similarly etc
C R S C R S
u u u u
u u
u u
+ + + +
= = = =
+ + + +
÷ ÷
+ +
÷ = ÷ =
+ + + +
÷ ÷
÷ =
+ +
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
1 3 2 4 1 3 2 4
C C C C
C C C C
u u u u
u u u u
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
=
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
which is free from
0
u
and hence same for
all generators. But
1 2
u u ÷ is the distance between the points
1
u and
2
u (since u is the
distance along the generator from the directrix etc.) . Therefore, the cross ration of the
four points, in which a generator is met by four given curved asymptotic lines, is the
same for all generators.
168
6.6. PARAMETER OF DISTRIBUTION OF A RULED SURFACE:
Definition : A function p (u) defined by
2
, ,
( ) _____(1)
r g g
p u
g
=
r r r
& &
r
&
is called the
parameter of distribution of a ruled surface.
Properties of Parameter of distribution:
i) The parameter of distribution has a constant value at each point of a generator:
The parameter of distribution p(u) is defined by 1). The vector r
r
&
, g
r
and
g
r
&
are all
functions of the parameter u only and thus they are all independent of the parameter u .
Hence, p(u) is a function of u only. But along a generator u is constant and hence p(u)
has a constant value along each generator. Thus p(u) has a constant value at each point
of a generator.
ii) The Parameter of distribution p(u) is independent of the particular base curve
chosen. By replacing
r
r
by
. ., (1) r wg i e r by r wg in + +
r r r r r
& & &
we have
2 2 2
, , , , , , , ,
( ) ( , , 0)
r wg g g r g g w g g g r g g
g g g
p u Since g g g
+ +
= =
= =
r r r r r r r r r r r r r
& & & & & & & & &
r r r
& & &
r r r
& &
This proves our property .
iii) The parameter of distribution is independent of the choice of parameter u:
Let t be taken as parameter instead of u. Now, the parameter of distribution p(t) is given
by.
2 2
2
2 2 2
, , , ,
( )
, , , ,
( )
dr dg dr du dg du
g g
dt dt du dt du dt
p t
dg dg du
dt du dt
du dr dg dr dg
g g
dt du du du du
du dg dg
dt du du
p u
· ·
= =
   
·
 
\ . \ .
 

\ .
= =
     
  
\ . \ . \ .
=
r r r r
r r
r r
r r r r
r r
r r
In particular, if arc length s of the directrix is taken as parameter, then the parameter of
distribution (p) of the generator g(s) through the point ( ) r s
r
of the directrix is
 
2
2
, ,
, ,
( )
r g g
dg
p Where g
g ds
t g g
or p
g
' '
'
= =
'
'
=
'
r r r
r
r
r
r
r r
r
iv) the Gaussian curvature interms of p:
169
The Gaussian curvature K of a ruled surface in given by
2
4
, ,
___(2)
r g g
H
K = ÷
r r r
& &
Putting the value of , , r g g
r r r
& &
from (1) in (2) we have
2 4
4
g
H
p ÷
K =
&
Then K is always negative except along those generators where p=0. Since K = 0 for a
developable surface, hence a developable surface is ruled surface for which the
parameter of distribution p vanishes identically.
Central Point: There exists on each generator of a general ruled surface a special point,
called the central point of the generator.
It is defined as follows:
The central point of a given generator is the point of intersection of the generator
and the shortest distance between it and a consecutive generator of the system.
Line of striction:
The locus of the central points of all generators is called line (curve) of striction.
The line of striction lies on the ruled surface.
6.7. FORMULA FOR CENTRAL POINT AND THE EQUATION OF THE LINE
OF STRICTION:
Suppose the equation of ruled surface is _____(1) R r g u = +
r
r r
where r and g
r r
are
functions of parameter u and R
r
is the function of two independent parameters u and u .
Let suffixes 1 and 2 denote partial differentials w.r.t. u and u respectively.
1 2
, We have R r g R g u = + =
r r
r r r
&
( )
1 2
_________(2) NH R R r g g u = × = + ×
r r r
r r r
& &
Let
1 2
Q and Q be two points on the directrix and let ( ) g u and g g o +
r r r
be unit vectors
along generators (say)
1 2
g and g
r r
through
1 2
Q and Q respectively.
Let MN be the line of shortest distance between the generators
1 2
g and g
r r
As
2 1
Q Q ÷ Suppose M÷C, then C is the central point of the generator through
1
Q .
As
2 1
Q Q ÷ , the vector MN tends to be tangential to the surface at the point C. Let
d
r
denote to the vector along the limiting direction of the Vector MN, thus d
r
is
to N ±
r
( . . 0) i e dN =
r
, N
r
,being normal to the surface at C. Also d
r
is perpendicular to the
generator g, through
1
Q , i.e., d
r
is perpendicular to the vector g
r
and consequently d
r
is
parallel to the vector g N ×
r
r
.
170
Also
( )
. ., d i e g N ×
r r
r
must be perpendicular to the generator
2
g through
2
Q
( )
, 0 0
( ) 0 ( sin 0)
( ) 0
Hence d g and d g g
or d g U g d g
g
or d
u
o
o
o
o
· = · + =
· = · =
· =
r r
r r r
r r
r r
r
r
And proceeding to the limit as
2 1
Q Q ÷ , we have
( )
( )
( )
0 ( ) 0
0
0
d g or g N g
g g N
g g N
· = × · =
· × =
× · =
r
r
r r r
&
r
r r
&
r
r r
&
( )
( )
{ }
0 ( sin (2) )
r g g
g g u g for N
H
u × ×
× · =
r r r
& &
r
r r
&
( ) ( ) ( )
{ }
( ) ( ) ( )
2
0
0 _________(3)
g g r g g g
g g r g g g
u
u
× · × + × =
× × + × =
r r r r r r
& & &
r r r r r r
& & &
Using vector identity
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
a b c d a c b d a d b c × · × = · · · ÷ · · ·
r r r r r r
r r r r r r
and relations
2
1, 0 g g g = · =
r r r
, we get from (3)
( )
( )
( ) ( )
{ }
( )
{ }
( )
{ }
( )
2
2 2
2
2
2
. 0
( ) (1) 0 1 0 0
( ) 0
( ) ______(4)
g r g g g g g r v g g g g
or g r g
or g r g
g r
or
g
u
u
u
· · ÷ · · + ÷ × =
· ÷ + · ÷ =
· + =
÷ ·
=
r r r r r r r r r r r r
& & & & & &
r r r
& &
r r r
& & &
r r
& &
r
&
(4) is uniquely determined provided
2
g
r
&
≠0. where u is the distance of central point C
from the directrix. It R
r
is the position vector of the central point C, then we
have R
r
= ( ) ( ) ___(5) r u g u u +
r r
whereu is given by (4).
Check Your Progress ( C Y P ) :
8. Define central point.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
171
Corollary : If 0, g r · =
r r
& &
we have u =0 from (4). Hence ( ) R r u =
r
r
from (5). Therefore , the
line of striction will be the directrix itself if and only if 0, g r · =
r r
& &
.
Formula for K in terms of p and v :
To obtain Formula for
( )
2
2
2 2
p
P u
÷
K =
+
for the Gaussian curvature at the point distant u
from the central point on a generator of parameter p. Hence to show that on any one
generator, the Gaussian curvature is greatest in absolute value at the central point; and at
points equidistant from this, if has equal values,
Proof: Let the equation of the ruled surface be R
r
= ( ) ( ) ___(1) r u g u u +
r r
Let the line of striction be taken as directrix. Then 0, g r · =
r r
& &
___(2). Also g
r
is a vector of
unit (Constant) modulus.
2
1 0 _____(3) g g g = ¬ · =
r r r
&
Equation (2) &(3) g ¬
r
&
is parallel to r g ×
r r
&
Let r g g ì × =
r r r
&
(where ì is a scalar ) _______(4)
Taking scalar Product both sides with g
r
, we have
( ) r g g g g ì × · = ·
r r r r r
& & & &
2
( ) , , or r g g g ì
=
r r r r
& & &
( )
2 2
( )
or p g g
or p
ì
ì
=
=
r r
& &
2
, , r g g
p
g
 

=

\ .
r r r
& &
Q
r
&
Hence, form (4) we get _______(5) r g pg × =
r r r
& &
Differentiating (1) Partially w. r. t. u and u , we get,
( )
1 2
1 2
,
( ) _____(6)
R r g R g
HN R R r g g g
or HN pg g g
u
u
u
= + =
= × = × + ×
= + ×
r r
r r r
& &
r r r
r r r r
& &
r
r r r
& &
Squaring both sides of (6) we have
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
{ }
( )
( )
2
2
2
2 2 2
2
2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2
2
2 , , .
1, 0, , , 0
______(7)
H pg g g
p g p g g g g g
p g p g g g g g g g
p g g g g g g g g
p g
u
u u
u u
u
u
= + ×
= + × + ×
= + ÷ ÷
= + = · = =
= +
r r r
&
r r r r r r
& & & &
r r r r r r r r
& & & & &
r r r r r r r r
& & & & &
Q
r
&
172
We know that Gaussian curvature
2
4
, , r g g
H
K = ÷
r r r
& &
And
2
, , r g g
p
g
= ÷
r r r
& &
r
&
( )
( )
2
4 2
2 4 2 4
2 4
2 2 4
2
2
2 2
, ,
(7)
. _________(8)
g p r g g
p g p g
use
H
P g
p
i e
p
u
u
=
÷
K = = ÷
+
÷
K =
+
r r r
& &
&
& &
&
Hence we have taken the line of striction as the directix, therefore the distance of a point
on the generator from its central point is u . But u =0, on the central point
Again p has the same value at each point of a generator. Hence, it follows from
formula (8), that K will be greatest at that point of a generator at which
2
u has minimum
value i.e, at
2
u =0 i.e., at u =0 (i.e., at the central point). Therefore on any one generator,
the Gaussian curvature K is greatest in absolue value at the central point. This proves
second part of the theorem.
Lastly at points equidistant from the central point, suppose at u = u
'
± , we have
from formula (8),
( )
( )
( )
2 2
2 2
2 2 2 2
p p
p
p
u
u
÷
K = = ÷
'
+ '
+ ±
Hence Gaussian curvature K has equal values
Check Your Progress ( C Y P ) :
9. Write down the formula for Gaussian curvature in terms of p and u .
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
6.8. SUMMARY:
Hitherto, we explained geodesic mapping between the surfaces. Three theorems
regarding the geodesic mapping are proved. Ruled surfaces and their classification are
explained. Equations for the same arc derived. Lines of curvature and their properties are
studied. Asymptotic lines, its properties and curvature & torsion for the same are
explained. A theorem regarding asymptotic lines is proved. Gaussian curvature for
ruled surface is obtained.
173
6.9. KEY WORDS:
1) Homeomorphism:
A mapping from a surface (say) S to another surface (say) S’, which is
continuous, one to one and onto is called homeomorphism.
2) Developable and skew surfaces :
There are two distinct ruled surfaces, namely those on which consecutive
generators intersect and those on which consecutive generators do not intersect;
these are called developable and skew surfaces respectively.
3) Conjugate Directions:
Let P and Q be two neighbouring points on a surface, and consider tangent planes
at these two points and let PR be the line of intersection of these two planes.
Then, as Q÷P, the limiting directions of the lines PQ and PR are called the
conjugate directions at P.
4) Asymptotic Directions:
The directions which are self conjugate are called asymptotic directions and the
curves whose tangents are along asymptotic directions arc called asymptotic lines.
5) Parametric Distribution :
A function p (u) defined by
( )
2
, , r g g
p u
g
=
r r r
& &
r
&
is called the parameter of the
distribution of a ruled surface.
6) Line of striction :
The locus of the central points of all generators is called line of striction. The line
of striction lies on the ruled surface.
7) Central Point :
There exists on each generator of a general ruled surface, a special point called
the central point of the generator. The central point of a given generator is the
point of intersection of the generator and the shortest distance between it and a
consecutive generator of the system.
6.10. ANSWER TO THE CHECK YOUR PROGRESS :
1. It a surfaces is mapped onto a surface S* by a differentiable homeomorphism, which
takes geodesics on S into geodesics on S*, then the mapping is called geodesic
mapping.
2. A ruled surface is a surface, which is generated by the motion of one parameter
family of straight lines and the straight line itself is called its generating line. Cones,
cylinders and conicoids are special forms of ruled surfaces. There are two distinct
classes of ruled surfaces, namely, those on which consecutive generators intersect and
those on which consecutive generators do not intersect. These are called developable
and skew surfaces respectively.
174
3. A line of curvature on any surface is a curve, such that the tangent line to it at any
point is a tangent line to the principal sections of the surface at that point. Since, the
direction of line of curvature at any point is along the principal direction at the point,
the differential equation of lines of curvature is given by
2 2
( ) ( ) ( ) 0 EM FL du EN GL dud FN GM d u u ÷ + ÷ + ÷ =
This equation of lines of curvature can be remembered in the following form.
( )
2
2
d dud du
E F G
L M N
u u ÷
4. Monge’s Theorem: A necessary and sufficient condition that a curve on a surface to
be a line of curvature is that the surface normals along the curve form a developable.
5. The differential equation of parametric curves is dudu =0 Comparing this equation
with
2 2
0, Pdu Qdud Rd u u + + = we find P= R = 0, Q=1. Hence, the direction of the
parametric curves will be conjugate, if LR+NPMQ=0
i.e., M=0 (as Q≠0) Conversely, if M=0, the condition LR+NPMQ=0 is clearly
satisfied since for parametric curves P=0, R=0.
6. The tangent t
r
to the asymptotic line is perpendicular to the surface normal , N
r
we
have N
r
.
t
r
=0
Differentiation w.r. t ‘s’ yields
0
0
N t N t
dN dr
N kn
ds ds
' '
· + · =
· + · =
r r
r
r
r
r
r
But 0
dN dr
ds ds
· =
r
r
for asymptotic line.
The above equation yields 0 ( 0) N n k · = =
r
r
Q
Also
t
r
. N
r
=0
0 0 Now N n and t N N · = · = ¬
r r r
r
r
is parallel to t n ×
r
r
N ¬
r
is parable to b
r
7. We know that the unit binormal to an asymptotic line is the unit surface normal (or)
b N =
r r
.
Differentiation of this relation w.r. t. arc length gives b N
' '
=
r
r
which on using Frenet’
formulae
gives ( ) n N or N n t t
' '
÷ = = ÷ ·
r r
r r
But ( ) n b t or n N t = × = ×
r r
r r
r r
, , N N t N N t t
' '
= ÷ · × =
r r r r
r r
Again, we knowt kn
'
=
r
r
, so that
, , , ,
( ) , ,
k t n t N t t N t N t t
or k N r r
' ' ' '
= · = · × = =
' ''
=
r r r
r r r r r r r
r
r
r r
175
8. Central Point: The central Point of a given generator is the point of intersection of the
generator and the shortest distance between it and a consecutive generator of the
system.
9. The Gaussian Curvature at the point distant
u
from the central point on a generator of
parameter p is given by
( )
2
2
2 2
p
p u
÷
K =
+
.
________________________________________________________________________
6.11. TERMINAL QUESTIONS:
1. State and prove Tissot’s theorem.
2. State and prove Dini’s theorem .
3. Show that the surface S is a developable iff the Gaussian curvature at each point
of S is zero.
4. Prove that the Gaussian Curvature of the surface of revolution
( )
cos , sin , ( ) r u u f u u u =
r
is given by.
( )
2
2 2
, ,
1
f f f f
where f f
u u
u f
' '' c c
' ''
K = = =
c c
' +
5. Show that the Gaussian curvature is the same at two points of a generator which
are equidistant from the central point.
6. Show that all straight lines on a surface are asymptotic lines.
6.12. FURTHER READINGS:
i) ‘Differential Geometry’ by D. Somasundaram, Narosa publishing House,
Chennai, 2005.
ii) ‘Elementary Topics in Differential Geometry’ by J.A.Thorpe, Springes –
Verlag, New York, 1979.
176
UNIT –VII
REGRESSION, AND FURTHER THEORY OF SURFACE :
STRUCTURE:
Learning Objectives
7.0. Introduction
7.1. Joachimsthal’s Theorem
7.2. Equations of Dupin’s Indicatrix
7.3. Three types of points ( Elliptic, Hyperbolic and Parabolic )
7.4. Third Fundamental form
7.5. Envelope
7.6. Edge of regression
7.7. Minimal Surface
7.8. Gauss Characteristic Equation
7.9. Summary
7.10. Key Words
7.11. Answers to Check Your Progress
7.12. Terminal Questions
7.13. Further Readings.
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
After going through this unit, you should be able to,
* define Dupin’s Indicatrix
* derive the equation of Dupin’s Indicatrix
* classify the points on the surface with respect to the sign of Gaussian curvature.
* define characteristic, envelope, the edge of regression, minimal surface.
* derive the equation of envelope, edge of regression. Gauss characteristic and
Mainardi – Codzzi equations.
177
7.0. INTRODUCTION :
For further study of curves on surface, we need to define envelope of the family
of curves in terms of characteristics. Special type of surface under the condition on mean
curvature is to be dealt with. The relation between the fundamental coefficients is needed
to study the orthogonal property of certain parametric curves and Gaussian curvature .
7.1. JOACHIMSTHAL’S THEOREM:
If the curve of intersection of two surfaces is a line of curvature on both, the
surfaces cut at a constant angle. Conversely, if two surfaces cut at a constant angle, and
the curve of intersection is a line of curvature on one of them, it is a line of curvature on
the other also.
Proof: Let C, the curve of intersection of two surfaces, be a line of curvature on both
surfaces.
Let N
r
and N
r
be the unit normals at P to the two surfaces and t
r
, the unit tangent
at P to C. Now t
r
being perpendicular to N
r
and N
r
is parallel to N
r
× N
r
. Again C is
the line of curvature on both the surfaces, therefore, t
r
is parallel to N
'
r
and N
'
r
.
,
dN
N etc
ds
 
'
=

\ .
r
r
.
If u is the inclination of N
r
on N
r
, Cosu = N
r
. N
r
( )
cos N N+N N =0_________(1)
d
ds
u
' '
= · ·
r r
r r
Since t
r
is parallel to N
'
r
and N
'
r
Cosu =constant and hence u = constant . equation (1) becomes
0 ________(2) N N N N
' '
· + · =
r r
r r
If C is a line of curvature on first surface. (say) Then t
r
is parallel to N'
r
(say) t N ì ' =
r
r
1 1
0 0 N N t N
ì ì
'
· = · = · =
r r
r
r
Hence , relation (2) gives N N
'
·
r
r
=0 and this relation implies that N
'
r
is
perpendicular to N
r
, but N'
r
is also perpendicular to N
r
, being a unit vector. Therefore
N
'
r
is parallel to N
r
× N
r
and consequently to t
r
. This C is a line of curvature on the
second surface also.
Dupin’s Indicatrix:
Definition –The section any surface by a plane parallel to and indefinitely, near
the tangent plan at any point 0 on the surface, is a conic, which is called the indicatrix,
and whose centre is on the normal at 0.
178
7.2. THE EQUATIONS OF DUPIN’S INICATRIX:
Let 0 be the given point on the surface. Let Q be a point on the
Dupin’s indicatrix at O then by definition Q is a point on the
surface in the neighbourhood of O. Consider a tangent plane at
0 and let p be the length of the perpendicular QR from Q to the
tangent plane. We have (by the Geometrical interpretation of
the second fundamental form) ,
2 2
2 2 _____(1) p Ldu Nd Mdud u u = + +
Now, taking lines of curvature as parametric curves, so that F=0=M, and hence (1)
reduces to
2 2
2 _____(2) p Ldu Ndu = +
The normal Curvature
n
k at the point 0 in the direction
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
, 0 _____(3)
n
Ldu Nd
du d is k F M
Edu Gd
u
u
u
+
= = =
+
Q
The principal direction at O, are the directions of the parametric curves
u
=constant and u=constant.(since the lines of curvature have been taken as parametric
curves). Therefore (1,0) and (0,1) are respectively the direction ratios of the principal
directions. Let
a b
k and k be the principal curvatures at 0 then from (3) we have
, ______(4)
a b
N L
K K
E G
= = Putting the values of L and N from (4) in (2) we get
2 2
2 _____(5)
a b
p K Edu K Gdu = +
Let
1
ds be the element of arc length of the curve u =const at 0, then using the
formula
2 2 2
1
2 ds Edu Fdud Gd u u = + +
for the direction (1,0), we have
2 2
1
ds Edu = _____(6)
Similarly, if
2
ds be the element of arc length of the curve u = constant,
then
2 2
2
________(7) ds Gdu = .
Using (6) (7) in (5), we get
2 2
1 2
2 ______(8)
a b
p K ds K ds = + . Now taking 0 as the
origin, the axes of x and y along the principal directions at 0. (taking x and y axes along
the curves u =Contant and u = Constant respectively) and the z –axis along the normal
to the surface at the point 0. With reference to these axes, let the coordinates of the point
Q on the indicatrix be (x,y,z), then we have z=p, x=ds
1
, y=ds
2
.
Substituting these values in (8), the equations of the indicatrix are given by z=p,
( )
2 2
2 2
1 2
2 , 2 ____________(9)
a b
x y
p K x K y or z p p
p p
= + = + =
Where
1 2
and p p are the principal radii of curvature at 0
1 2
1 1
,
a b
k k
p p
 
= =

\ .
.
Clearly the equations (9) represent a conic section and hence the Dupin’s
indicatrix is a conic section.
X
Y
Q
o
R
Q
P
Z
N
r
179
Note (1): When the indicatrix is an ellipse, the sign of the radius of curvature is same for
all sections. This shows that the surface in the neighbourhood of the point O is entirely
on one side of the tangent plane at 0. The surface in this case is called to be synelastic at
the point.
(2) When the indicatrix is a hyperbola, the sign of radius of curvature is sometimes
positive and sometimes negative, showing that the concavity of some sections is turned to
opposite direction to that of others. The surface in this case is said to be Antielastic at
that point.
(3) Dupin’s indicatrix gives an immediate geometrical interpretation of the variation of
the normal curvature with direction.
Check Your Progress ( C Y P ) :
1. What is Dupin’s Indicatrix?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
7.3. THREE TYPES OF POINT (Elliptic, Hyperbolic and parabolic ):
If the Gaussian curvature at any point P(u, u ) on the surface
( )
, r r u v =
r r
is
denoted by K, then ,
2
2
________(1)
a b
LN M
k k
H
÷
K = =
Where ,
a b
k k are principal curvatures at P and H
2
is a positive definite quantity. Now,
there arises following three possibilities.
(i) Elliptic point
( )
is e u K + : The point P(u, u ) is called an elliptic point if at P
the Gaussian curvature has positive sign i.e., LNM
2
>0 . Clearly K is positive if and only
if
a b
k and k are of the same sign. (see equation (1) )
(ii) Hyperbolic Point( )
is e u K ÷
: The point P(u,
u
) is called a hyperbolic point if
at P, the Gaussian curvature negative sign i.e, LNM
2
<0. Clearly K is negative if and
only if
a b
k and k are of opposite signs. (see equation (1) ).
(iii) Parabolic point ( ( K is zero) : The point P(u, u ) is called a parabolic point,
if at P the Gaussian curvature has value zero i.e, LNM
2
= 0. Clearly K is zero, if and
only if at least one of
a b
k or k is zero.
Check Your Progress ( C Y P ) :
2. Explain the hyperbolic point on the surface
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
180
7.4. THIRD FUNDAMENTAL FORM:
The third fundamental form denoted by I I I is defined by
2 2
2 III dN dN Adu Bdud Cd u u · = + +
r r
Where
2 2
1 1 2 2
, , A N B N N C N = = · =
r r r r
Family of surfaces: An equation of the form f(x,y,z,a) =0 __(1), where ‘a’ is a constant,
represents a surface, If ‘a’ can take all real values i.e. if ‘a’ is a parameter, then(1)
represents the equation of one parameter family of surfaces with ‘a’ as parameter. Giving
different values to ‘a’ we shall get different surfaces (members) of this family of surfaces.
Similarly, the equation of the form f(x,y,z,a,b)= 0 where ‘a’ and ‘b’ are
parameters represents the family of surfaces with two parameters ‘a’ and ‘b’.
Characteristic: Let F(x,y,z,a) = 0 be the equation of one parameter family of surfaces,
‘a’ being the parameter and which is constant for any given surface.
Let the two members of the family be
( ) ( )
, , , 0, , , , 0 f x y z f x y z o o oo = + =
The curve of intersection of theses two surfaces may be given by
( )
( ) ( )
, , , , , ,
, , , 0, 0
f x y z f x y z
f x y z
o oo o
o
oo
+ ÷
= =
Now , the limiting position of the curve as 0 oo ÷ becomes
( )
, , , 0 f x y z o = , 0
f
o
c
=
c
.
This limiting position is called the characteristic corresponding to the value ' ' o .
Check Your Progress ( C Y P ) :
3. What are one parameter family of surfaces?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
7.5. ENVELOPE:
The locus of characteristics for all values of the parameter is called the envelope
of the system of surfaces.
The equation of the envelope:
Eliminating ' ' o between f=0, 0
f
o
c
=
c
, we get the equation of the envelope.
Theorem:
The envelope of a family of surfaces touches each member of the family, at all
points of its characteristics.
Proof:
Let the equation of given family of surfaces be ( )
, , , f x y z o
=0, where ' ' o is a
parameter.
The equations of the envelope is obtained by eliminating ' ' o from the equations.
181
( )
, , , f x y z o =0 and
( )
, , ,
0 ___________(1)
f x y z o
o
c
=
c
Thus the equation of the envelope may be regarded as
( ) , , , f x y z o =0 __________(2)
in which ' ' o is not constant, but a function of x,y,z given by
( )
, , ,
0 ___________(3)
f x y z o
o
c
=
c
The normal to the envelope is parallel to the
vector , ,
f f f f f f
x x y y z z
o o o
o o o
 
c c c c c c c c c
+ · + · + ·

c c c c c c c c c
\ .
. But using equation (3) , this vector
reduces to , ,
f f f
x y z
  c c c

c c c
\ .
which a vector to which the normal to the surface
( )
, , , f x y z o
=0 is parallel. This means that at all common points, the surface and
envelope have the same normal, and therefore, the same tangent plane; so that they touch
each other at all points of the characteristic.
Check Your Progress ( C Y P ) :
4. What is the characteristic?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
7.6. THE EDGE OF REGRESSION:
We have seen that the curve in which any surface is met by the consecutive
surface is called the characteristic of the envelope. Every characteristic will meet the next
in one or more points, and the locus of these points is called the edge of regression (or)
cuspidal edges of the envelope. Since each characteristic lies on the envelope, therefore
the edge of regression is a curve which lies on the envelope.
Alternative definition of edge of regression:
It is the locus of the ultimate points of intersection of consecutive characteristics
of one parameter family of surfaces.
To find the equation of the edge of regression of the envelope:
The equations of the characteristic corresponding to the surface ( )
, , , f x y z o
=0
are
( )
, , , f x y z o =0 and 0
f
o
c
=
c
____(1) .
The equations of next consecutive characteristic are therefore
( ) ( )
, , , 0 , , , 0 f x y z and f x y z o oo o oo
o
c
+ = + =
c
(or) ( )
2
2
......... 0 ...... 0 ____(2)
f f f
f and oo oo
o o o
c c c
+ + = + + =
c c c
182
Hence at any point of the edge of regression, we must have f=0,
2
2
0, 0
f f
o o
c c
= =
c c
(Q for points of intersection of (2) with (1) , all four equations must be satisfied.)
Eliminating ' ' o from these equations, we get the required equations to the edge of
regression (curve).
Check Your Progress ( C Y P ) :
5. Define the edge of regression
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
To prove that each characteristic touches the edge of regressions:
The edge of regression is given by ( )
, , , f x y z o
= 0, ( ) , , , 0 f x y z o
o
c
=
c
and
( )
2
2
, , , 0 f x y z o
o
c
=
c
. So, it may be considered to be the curve given by
( )
, , , f x y z o = 0,
( )
, , , 0 f x y z o
o
c
=
c
Where ' ' o is function of x, y, z given by
2
2
0
f
o
c
=
c
Check Your Progress ( C Y P ) :
6. Write down the equation of the edge of regression .
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
The tangent at (x,y,z) to the edge of regression is the line of intersection of the tangent
planes of the surfaces. It is therefore perpendicular to each of the vectors .
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2
, ,
, ,
f f f f f f
x x y y z z
f f f f f f
and
x x y y z z
o o o
o o o
o o o
o o o o o o
 
c c c c c c c c c
+ · + · + ·

c c c c c c c c c
\ .
 
c c c c c c c c c
+ · + · + ·

c c c c c c c c c c c c
\ .
For the edge of regression
2
2
0, 0
f f
o o
c c
= =
c c
. Therefore, the vectors to which the
tangent is perpendicular reduce to , ,
f f f
x y z
 
c c c

c c c
\ .
and
2 2 2
, ,
f f f
x y z o o o
 
c c c

c c c c c c
\ .
which are the
vectors perpendicular to the tangent planes at ( x,y,z) to ( )
, , , f x y z o
= 0,
( )
, , , 0 f x y z
x
o
c
=
c
. i.e., to the characteristic. This means the tangent to the edge of
regression is parallel to the tangent to the characteristic and hence the two curves touch at
183
their common points.
To find the the envelope of the system of surfaces, whose equations involve two
parameters:
Let the equation of the surface be ( )
, , , , 0 f x y z a b =
where a and b are the
parameters. A consecutive surface of the system is
( )
, , , , 0 f x y z a a b b o o + + =
(or)
( )
, , , , ......... 0
f f
f x y z a b a b
a b
o o
c c
+ + + =
c c
.
Hence, when , a b o o are infinitely small, we must have at a point of ultimate
intersection:
0, 0
f f
f a b
a b
o o
o o
c c
= + =
Since , a b o o are independent, 0, 0, 0
f f
f
a b
c c
= = =
c c
. Hence the curve of intersection of
f = 0 with any surface consecutive to it goes through the point which satisfies the
equation 0, 0, 0
f f
f
a b
c c
= = =
c c
. By eliminating a and b from the above equations we get
the equation of the envelope.

To prove that the envelope touches each surface of the system at the corresponding
characteristic points:
Consider the surface
( )
, , , , 0 f x y z a b = . The normal at
( )
, , x y z to a surface of the
family f=0 is parallel to the vector , ,
f f f
x y z
 
c c c

c c c
\ .
_________(1)
The characteristic points are given by 0, 0, 0
f f
f
a b
c c
= = =
c c
and the equation of
the envelope can be regarded as ( ) , , , , 0 f x y z a b = , where a and b are functions of , , x y z
given by 0, 0
f f
a b
c c
= =
c c
___________(2)
The normal at ( , , x y z ) to the envelope is parallel to the vector
( )
, , 3
f f a f b f f a f b f f a f b
x a x b x y a y b y z a z b z
  c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c
+ · + · + · + · + · + · ÷ ÷÷ ÷÷

c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c
\ .
Since 0, 0
f f
a b
c c
= =
c c
hence using (2) (3) reduces to
, ,
f f f
x y z
 
c c c

c c c
\ .
184
Which means that the envelope has the normal line and therefore, the envelope and the
surface of the family have the same tangent plane at a characteristic point. Hence the
result.

To prove that the osculating plane of the edge of regression at any point P is
the tangent plane to the developable at P.
Proof: The edge of regression of the envelope is given by 0, 0, 0, V V V = = =
r r r
& &&
where V r N p = · ÷
r r
r
( , N
r
being unit normal vector tho the plane and p, the length
of
r
± from the origin to the plane).
. ., 0 __( )
0 __( )
0 __( )
i e r N p i
r N p ii
r N p iii
· ÷ =
· ÷ =
· ÷ =
r
r
r
r
&
r
r
&&
&
&&
where r
r
is regarded as function of u.
Differentiating (i), we obtain
( ) 0 _____( ) [ ( )] r N r N p or r N iv by ii · + · = · =
r r r
r r r
&
& &
&
Differentiating (ii)
( ) 0 ______( ) [ ( )] r N r N p or r N v by iii · + · = · =
r r r
r r r
& && &
& &
&&
Differentiating (iv)
0 ( ) 0 _______ ( ) [ ( )] r N r N or r N vi by v · + · = · =
r r r
r r r
&
&& & &&
From equation (iv) and (vi), we notice that both r and r
r r
& &&
are perpendicular to N
r
, it
follows that r r ×
r r
& &&
is parallel to N
r
. But r r ×
r r
&&
is perpendicular to the osculating plane and
N
r
being perpendicular to the plane 0 r N p · ÷ =
r
r
and hence the osculating plane of the
edge of regression, at any point is the tangent plane to the developable at some point.
________________________________________________________________________
To prove that the curve itself is the edge of regression of the osculating developable .
Proof: At any point r
r
on the curve ( ) r r s =
r r
, the equation of the osculating plane is
( )
0 ___(1) R r b ÷ · =
r
r
r
where r
r
and b
r
arc functions of s.
Differentiating (1) w.r.t s, we get

( )
( ) ( )
0
( ) 0 ____(2) 0, 0
t b R r n
or R r n t b
t
t
÷ · ÷ ÷ · =
÷ · = · = =
r r
r
r r
r r
r
r r
Q
The characteristic in given as the intersection of (1) and (2) i.e., at the intersection of
osculating plane and rectifying plane and is therefore the tangent to the curve at r
r
.
For edge of regression, differentiating (2) again w.r.t. s
185
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
0
( ) 0 ____(3) 0,
( ) 0 ___(3 ) sin (1)
t n R r b kt
or R r b kt t n
or R r t u g
t
t
÷ · + ÷ · ÷ =
÷ · ÷ = · =
' ÷ · =
r r
r r
r r
r r
r r
r r
Q
r
r
r
The edge of regression being given by (1) (2) and (3 )
'
is given by R r ÷
r
r
=0 R r ¬ =
r
r
.
Thus the points of the curve coincides with the points of the edge of regression and the
space curve itself is the edge of regression.

To prove that the edge of regression of the polar developable (i.e., envelope of the
normal planes ) is the locus of the centre of osculating spheres.
Proof: At any point r
r
on the curve ( ) r r s =
r r
, the equation of the normal plane is
( )
0 _____(1) R r t ÷ · =
r
r
r
Differentiating w. r. t. s we get
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
0
( ) 0____(3) 1, _____(2)
( ) 0 1 _____(2 )
R r kn t t
or R r n t t
or R r n n n n
p
p
÷ · ÷ · =
÷ · ÷ = · =
'
÷ ÷ · = · =
r
r r
r r
r
r r
r r
Q
r
r r r r r
Q
Characteristic is given as the intersection of (1) and (2 )
'
and is clearly a straight line
parallel to b
r
and passing through the centre of circular curvature. This straight line is
called polar line and is the axis of the circle of curvature.
For edge of regression differentiating (2) w. r. t s, we get
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) 0 sin (1)
( ) ___(3)
t n R r b kt
or R r b t n and u g
or R r b
t p
t p
op
'
÷ · + ÷ · ÷ =
'
÷ · = · =
'
÷ · =
r r
r r
r r
r r
r
r r
Q
r
r
r
Edge of regression is given as the intersection of (1), (2 ) ' and (3) equation (1) shows that
R r ÷
r
r
is in the normal plane. Equation (2)
¬
component of R r ÷
r
r
along n
r
is p . And
equation (3) ¬component of R r ÷
r
r
along b isop
'
r
. Hence equation of edge of
regression is given by R r n b R r n b p op p op
' '
÷ = + ¬ = + +
r r
r r
r r r r
.
Thus R
r
coincides with the centre of spherical curvature. Thus the edge of
regression of the polar developable is the locus of the centre of spherical curvature
(osculating spheres).
The tangent to the locus are the polar lines, which are the generators of the
developable.
186
To prove that the edge of regression of the rectifying developable has the
equation
( )
t kb
R r k
k k
t
t t
+
= +
' '
÷
r
r
r
r
.
Proof:
The equation of the rectifying plane at any point r
r
is given by
( )
0 ____(1) R r n ÷ · =
r
r r
where r
r
and n
r
are functions of s. Differentiating (1) w. r. t. s, we
get
( )
( )
0 ___(2) ( 0) R r b kt r n t n t
'
÷ · ÷ = · = · =
r
r
r r
r r r r
Q .
The characteristic (rectifying lines ) is given as the intersection of (1) and (2) and
is clearly a straight line perpendicular to both n
r
and
( )
b kt t ÷
r
r
and therefore it is parallel
to the direction
( )
t kb t +
r
r
.
Hence it is inclined to the tangent at angle o such that tano =
k
t
_____(3)
To find the edge of regression, differentiating (2) w.r.t. s we have
( ) ( )
0 ________(4) R r b k t k t
' '
÷ · ÷ + =
r r
r
r
.
Again, since the rectifying line is
parallel to the direction
( )
t kb t +
r
r
,
the point R
r
on the edge of regression
is given by
( )
_______(5) R r t kb u t ÷ = +
r r
r
r
were
u is some scalar.
Substituting the value of R r ÷
r
r
from (5) in (4) we get
u
( )
t kb t +
r
r
.
( )
b k t t
' '
÷
r
r
+k=0
(or)
( )
0 k k k u t t ' ' ÷ + =
(or)
( )
____(6)
k
k k
u
t t
=
' '
÷
Hence , from (6) and (5) we have
b
r
187
( )
( )
( )
( )
t kb
R r k
k k
k t kb
or R r
k k
t
t t
t
t t
÷
÷ =
' ' ÷
÷
= +
' ' ÷
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
which is the required equation of edge of regression. The term ‘rectifying’ used for this
developable is justified, when the surface is developed into a plane by unfolding about
consecutive generators, the original curve becomes a straight line. See the chapter on
‘geodesics’.
We also note that if the curve is a helix,
K
t
is constant and from equation (3), the
angle Cis equal to the angle  . Thus the rectifying lines are generators of cylinder on
which the helix is drawn, and rectifying developable is the cylinder itself.
7.7. MINIMAL SURFACES:
If, at all points of a surface, the mean curvature ( )
1
2
a b
k k u = +
is zero, then the
surface is called a minimal surface. We have seen that the mean curvature u is given by
2 2
2 2
2( ) 2
EN GL FM EN GL FM
EN F H
u
+ ÷ + ÷
= =
÷
Thus for a minimal area 0 u =
. , 2 0 i e EN GL FM + ÷ =
Theorem:
If there is a surface of minimum area passing through a closed space curve,it is
necessarily a minimal surface
Proof:
Let S be the surface ( , ) r r u u =
r r
bounded by a closed curve C. Let us give a small
displacement e in the direction of the surface normal and let s’ be the new surface
obtained, e is a function of u and u and its derivatives w.r.t. u and v arc denoted by
1 2 1 2
. and Both and e e e e are small and tend to zero as 0 e÷ i.e
2
1 2
0( ), 0( ) 0. as e = e e = e e÷
Let R
r
the position vector of the displaced surface S’.
1 1 1 1
2 2 2 2
Then R r N R r N N and
R r N N
= +e = +e +e
= +e +e
r r r r r
r r
r r r
r
Let , , E F G ' ' ' be the first fundamental coefficients of S'
Then
( )
2
2
1 1 1 1
E R r N N
'
= = +e +e
r r r
r
188
( )
( )
( )
2 2
1 1 1 1 1
2
1 1
1 2 1 1 1 2 2 2
2
1 2 1 2 2 1
2
2 ( )
2 ( ), 0,
( )
2 0( )
r r N r N o
E L o Since r N r N L
F R R r N N r N N
r r r N r N o
F M
= +e · + e · + e
= ÷ e + e · = · = ÷
'
= · = +e +e · +e +e
= · +e · + · + e
= ÷ e + e
r r
r r r
r r
r r
r r r r r r
r r
&
r r
r r r
( )
( )
( )
2
2
2 2 2 2
2 2
2 2 2
2
2 0
2 0
G R r N N
r r N
G N
'
= = +e +e
= + e · + e
= ÷ e + e
r r r
r
r
r r
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
2 2
2 2 2
2 2
2 2 2
2
2 2
1
1 2
2
2
2 0( ) 2 0( ) 2 0( )
2 2 0( )
2
4 0( ), sin
2
1 4 0( )
1 4 0( )
1 2 0( )
Thus H E G F
E L G N F M
EG F EN GL FM
EN GL F
H H ce
H
H
H H
H
u
u u
u
u
u
' ' ' ' = ÷
= ÷ e + e ÷ e + e ÷ ÷ e + e
= ÷ ÷ e + ÷ + e
+ ÷
= ÷ e + e =
= ÷ e + e
= ÷ e + e
= ÷ e + e
Hence, if A and A' denote the areas of the surfaces S and S' then
( )
( )
( )
2
2
1 2 0
2 0
S
S
S
S
A Hdud and
A H dud
H dud
A Hdud
u
u
u u
u u
'
=
' '
=
= ÷ e + e
= ÷ e + e
í
í
í
í
If S is a surface of minimum area, then A must be stationary. A
'
depends on e and A
'
takes minimum value A when e= 0, provided 0
dA
d
'
=
e
i.e of order
2
e . But
2 .
S
dA
Hdud
d
u u
'
= ÷
e
í
A does not depend on e Hence, 0
dA
d
'
=
e
0 u ¬ = . Thus the
surface S is necessarily minimal. Hence the theorem.
189
Check Your Progress ( C Y P ) :
7. Define the minimal surface and find the condition for the same.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
Problem:
Show that the surface
z
e Cosx Cosy = is minimal.
Solution: The given surface is
z
e Cosx Cosy =
cos
. ,
cos
z
y
i e e
x
=
Taking log both sides, we get z = log log ___(1) cosy cosx ÷ . The equation (1) is monge’s
form of a surface. The position Vector r
r
of any point (x,y,z) on this surface is given by.
1
2
2 2
11 12 22
2 2 2
1
1 2
2 2 2
2
1 2
( , , )
. ( , , logcos logcos )
. (1, 0, tan )
(0,1, tan )
(0, 0, ), (0, 0,0), (0, 0, )
, 1 tan
tan tan
1 tan sec
1 0 tan
0
r x y z
i e r x y y x
i e r x
r y
r Sec x r r Sec y
Now E r x Sec x
F r r x y
G r y y
i j k
r r x
=
= ÷
=
= ÷
= = = ÷
= = + =
= · = ÷
= = + =
× =
r
r
r
r
r r r
r
r r
r
r
r r
r r
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
1 tan
0 tan tan 0 1 0
tan , tan ,1
y
i x j y k
x y
÷
= ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ + ÷
= ÷
r
r r
Hence,
( )
1 2
tan , tan ,1 x y
r r
H H
÷
×
=
r r
( )
( )
2
11
2
tan , tan ,1
. 0,0, sec
sec
x y
Again L N r x
H
x
H
÷
= · =
=
r
r
( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2
22
12
tan , tan ,1
sec
. 0,0, sec
tan , tan ,1
. . 0,0, 0 0 0
x y
y
N N r y
H H
x y
M N r M
H
÷
÷
= · = ÷ =
÷
= = = =
r
r
r
r
The condition for the surface to be minimal is EN2FM+GL = 0
190
2 2 2 2
sec ( sec ) .sec
EN2FM+GL = 0 0
x y Sec y x
Hence
H H
÷
÷ + =
Hence, the given surface cos
z
e cox y = is minimal.
7.8. GAUSS CHARACTERISTIC EQUATION:
It states that
( )
( )
( ) { }
2 2 2
12 22 11
1
2 2 ln
2
T F E G m E m F G E l n F G u u v ì ìv = ÷ ÷ + + + ÷ + + + where
2 2
T LN M = ÷ and symbols have their usual meaning.
Proof: From Gauss’s formula (1), we easily have
( )
11 22
2 2 2 2
12
ln ___( )
2 ______( )
r r LN E l n F G i
r M m E m F G ii
v ì ìv
u u
· = + + + +
= + + +
r r
r
2 1 12
1 1 21 11 2
1 2 21
, 2
2
Also wehave E r r
F r r r r
G r r
= ·
= · + ·
= ·
r
r r r
r r
( )
( )
( ) ( )
22 12 12 1 12
2
11 12 21 2 21
1
12 12 21 1 21 11 2 11 22
2 2
2 2
2 2
giving E r r r r
G r r r r
F r r r r r r r r
= · + ·
= · + ·
= · + · + · + ·
r r r r
r r r r
r r r r r r r r
( )
( )
2
22 11 12 12 11 22
2
12 11 22 22 11 12
1
, 2
2
1
( ) 2 ________( )
2
Hence E G F r r r
or r r r E G F iii
+ ÷ = ÷ ·
÷ · = + ÷
r r r
r r r
Adding (i) and (iii) and subtracting (ii), we get
( )
( )
( )
{ }
2 2 2 2
12 22 11
1
2 2 ln ____(1)
2
LN M T F E G m E m F G E l n F G u u v ì ìv ÷ = = ÷ ÷ + + + ÷ + + +
which is the required equation.
Corollary 1 : Equation (1) may be put in the form
2
2 1 1 2 1
2 1 1
____(2)
2 2
FE G F E FE
LN M H H
u EH H v H H EH
c c
¦ ¹ ¦ ¹
÷ = ÷ + ÷ ÷
´ ` ´ `
c c
¹ ) ¹ )
Corollary 2: Intrinsic Formula for Gaussian Curvature
Let
( )
, r r u u =
r r
be the equation of a surface. At any point
( )
, u u on the surface,
the Gaussian curvature
K
is given by
2
2
LN M
H
÷
K = .
191
2 1 1 2 1
2 1 1 1 2
2 1 1
sin ____(2)
2 2
2 1 1
____(3)
2 2
FE G F E FE
u g
H u EH H H v H H EH
FE EG EF FE EE
H u HE H v HE
c c
¦ ¹ ¦ ¹
K = ÷ + ÷ ÷
´ ` ´ `
c c
¹ ) ¹ )
÷ ÷ ÷ c c
¦ ¹ ¦ ¹
= +
´ ` ´ `
c c
¹ ) ¹ )
Where
2 2
H EG F = ÷
This formula (3) expresses Gaussian curvature K in terms of first fundamental
magnitudes E,F,G and their Partial derivatives with respect to u and u . Therefore (3) is
intrinsic formula for Gaussian Curvature. It is convenient to use this formula when the
position vector
( )
, r u u
r
for the surface is given.
When the parametric curves are orthogonal, F =0 and the Formula (3) can be
written in much simple form
1 2
1
,
2
G E
Where H EG
H u H H u
¦ ¹ c c
   
K = ÷ + =
´ `
 
c c
\ . \ .
¹ )
Clearly, the surfaces having same E,F,G have the same Gaussian curvature.
Mainardi – Codazzi equations:
We Consider the identity
( ) ( )
11 12
2 1
r r =
r r
. Substituting values of
11 12
r and r
r r
from
Gauss’s formulae, we have
( ) ( )
1 2 1 2
2 1
2 2 1 2 2 2 12 22 1 1 1 1 2 1 11 12
( ) ___(1)
LN lr r MN mr r
or L N l r r LN lr r M N m r r MN mr r
ì u
ì ì u u
+ + = + +
+ + + + + = + + + + +
r r
r r r r
r r r r
r r r r r r r r
Substituting again values of
11 22 12
, , r r r
r r r
from Gauss’s formulae and the value of
1
N
r
and
2
N
r
from Weingarton equations viz.,
( )
1 1 2
2 2
2 1 2
2 2
___(2)
FM GL
FL EM
N r r
H H
FN GM FL EN
N r r
H H
÷ ¹
÷
= +
¦
¦
`
÷ ÷
¦
= +
¦
)
r r
r r
We shall get identity (1) as expressed in terms of vectors
1 2
, , N r r
r
r r
(noncoplanar
vectors). We then equate coefficients of
1 2
, N r and r
r
r r
from either side and get their
relations. Therefore by equating coefficients of N
r
on two sides, we get
2 1
L lM N M mL M ì u + + = + +
And thus giving
( )
2 1
___(3) L M mL l M N u ì ÷ = ÷ ÷ ÷ which is the first mainardi
codazzi equation.
Again from the identity
( ) ( )
12 22
2 1
r r =
r r
, we get by substituting values from Gauss
formulae,
2 2 1 2 2 2 12 22
1 1 1 1 2 1 11 12
M N m r r MN mr r
N N n r r NN nr r
u u
v v
+ + + + +
= + + + + +
r r
r r r r
r r
r r r r
192
Substituting again values for
11 22 12
, , r r r
r r r
from Gauss’s formulae and for
1
N
r
and
2
N
r
from relations (2), we get a vector identity and then equating coefficients of N
r
on the
two sides of the identity, we obtain
( )
2 1
2 1
_____(4)
M mM N N nL M
M N nL m M N
u v
v u
+ + = + +
÷ = ÷ ÷ ÷
Which is the second Mainardi Codazzi equation.
Problem:
From the Gauss characteristic equation deduce that when the parametric curves
are orthogonal,
1 1 1 G E
u u v
EG E G
u
   
c c c c
K = +
 
 
c c c c
\ . \ .
Solution:
When parametric curves are orthogonal, we have F = 0 and therefore
1
0, F =
Then from equation (2), viz,
2
2 1 1 2 1
2 1 1
2 2
FE G F E FE
LN M H H
u EH H v H H EH
c c
¦ ¹ ¦ ¹
÷ = ÷ + ÷ ÷
´ ` ´ `
c c
¹ ) ¹ )
We have
2
1 2
1 1
2 2
G E
LN M H H
u H v H
c c
¦ ¹ ¦ ¹
÷ = ÷ + ÷
´ ` ´ `
c c
¹ ) ¹ )
But
( )
2 2
0 H EG F EG F = ÷ = = Q
( ) ( )
2
1 2
2
1 2
1
2
1 1 1
2 2
1 1 1
G E LN M
H H u H H
G E
H u
EG EG
G E
u u
EG E G
u
u
u u
¦ ¹ ÷ c c
   
K = = ÷ +
´ `
 
c c
\ . \ .
¹ )
¦ ¹
   
c c ¦ ¦
 
= ÷ +
´ `
 
c c
¦ ¦
\ . \ .
¹ )
¦ ¹
   
c c c c ¦ ¦
= ÷ +
  ´ `
 
c c c c
¦ ¦
\ . \ .
¹ )
Check Your Progress ( C Y P ) :
8. Find the edge of regression of the rectifying developable.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
9. Prove that the curve itself is the edge of regression of the osculating developable.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
193
7.9. SUMMARY:
The important property of surfaces with reference to line of curvature on them is
studied through a theorem called Joachimsthall’s theorem. A section of a surface in the
neighbourhood of a point on it is studied. Limiting position of the curve of intersection
of two surfaces is explained. Method of finding the envelope of family of surfaces is
given. Some results regarding the properties of edge of regression are proved. Some
fundamental equation of surface theory are derived.
7.10. KEY WORDS:
1) Indicatrix:
The section of any surface by a plane parallel to and indefinitely, near the tangent
plane at any point O on the surface, is a conic, which is called the Indicatrix and
whose centre is on the normal at O.
2) Elliptic Parabolic and Hyperbolic Points:
The point
( )
, P u v is called an elliptic point, if at P, the Gaussian curvature K has
positive sign i.e.,
2
0 LN M ÷ > . Clearly K is positive if and only if
a b
k and k
are
of the same sign.
2
2
a b
LN M
K k k
H
 
÷
= =

\ .
Q
The point
( )
, P u v is called a hyperbolic point, if at P, the Gaussian curvature has
negative sign i.e.,
2
0 LN M ÷ < . Clearly K is negative if and only if
a b
k and k
arc
of opposite signs.
The point ( )
, P u v
is called a parabolic point, if at P, the Gaussian curvature has
value zero. i.e.,
2
0 LN M ÷ = . Clearly K is zero , iff at least one of
( )
a b
k or k is
zero.
3) Characteristic:
If two members of the one parameter family of surfaces are
( ) ( )
, , , 0, , , , 0 f x y z f x y z o o oo = + = then the curve of intersection of these two
surfaces may be given by
( )
, , , 0 f x y z o = ,
( ) ( )
, , , , , ,
0
f x y z f x y z o oo o
oo
+ ÷
= .
The limiting position of the curve as 0 oo ÷ becomes ( )
, , , 0 f x y z o =
,
f
o
c
c
=0.
This limiting position is called the characteristic corresponding to the value ' ' o .
4) Envelope:
The locus of characteristics for all values of the parameter is called the envelope
of the system of surfaces.
194
5) The edge of regression:
The curve in which any surface is met by the consecutive surface is called the
characteristic of the envelope. Every characteristic will meet the next in one or
more points and the locus of these points is called the edge of regression.
6) Minimal surface:
If, at all points of a surface, the mean curvature ( )
1
2 a b
k k u = + is zero, then the
surface is called a minimal surface.
7) Christoffel Symbols:
These arc denoted by , , ; , , , l m n ì u v which arc the suitable function of
fundamental coefficients E, F, G and their partial derivatives with respect to u and v.
7.11. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS :
1) The section of any surface by a plane parallel to and near the tangent plane at any
point 0 on the surface is a conic called Indicatrix and whose centre is on the
normal at 0. Dupin’s indicatrix is a conic section.
2) The point ( ) , P u v on a surface is called a hyperbolic point if atP, the Gaussian
curvature has negative sign. i.e.,
2
0 LN M ÷ < Clearly K is negative if and only if
a b
K and k are of opposite signs, where
2
2
a b
LN M
K k k
H
÷
= =
3) An equation of the form
( )
, , , 0 f x y z a = , where ‘a’ is a constant, represents a
surface. If ‘a’ can take all real values i.e., if ‘a’ is a parameter, then the above
equation represents the equation of one parameter family of surfaces with ‘a’ as
parameter. Giving different values to ‘a’ we shall get different surfaces of this
family of surfaces.
4) If
( )
, , , 0 f x y z a = is the equation of one parameter family of surfaces, ‘a’ being
the parameter and which is constant for any given surface.
Let the two members of the family be
( )
, , , 0 f x y z o = ,
( )
, , , 0 f x y z o oo + =
The curve of intersection of these two surfaces may be given by
( )
, , , 0 f x y z o = ,
( ) ( )
, , , , , ,
0
f x y z f x y z o oo o
oo
+ ÷
= . Now , the limiting
position of the curve as
0 oo ÷
becomes ( )
, , , 0 f x y z o =
,
0
f
o
c
=
c
. The
limiting position is called the characteristic ‘ corresponding to the value ' ' o .
5) We know that the curve in which any surface is met by the consecutive surface is
called the characteristic of the envelope. Every characteristic will meet the next in
one or more points and the locus of these points is called the edge of regression
195
(or) cuspidal edges of the envelope. Since, each characteristic lies on the
envelope, therefore the edge of regression is a curve which lies on the envelope.
6) The equations of the characteristic corresponding to the surface
( )
, , , 0 f x y z o =
are f=o and 0
f
o
c
=
c
. The equations of the next consecutive characteristic are
therefore
( ) ( )
, , , 0 , , , 0 f x y z ans f x y z o oo o oo
o
c
+ = + =
c
(or)
( )
2
2
...... 0 .... 0
f f f
f and oo oo
o o o
c c c
+ + = + + =
c c c
. Hence at any point of the edge
of regression, we must have .
( ) ( )
2
2
, , , 0, , , , 0, 0
f
f x y z f x y z o o
o o
c c
= = =
c c
,
which constitute the equation of edge of regression.
7) If, at all points of a surface, the mean curvature
( )
1
2 a b
k k u = + is zero, then the
surface is called a minimal surface. The mean curvature u is given by
( )
2
2
2 2
2
2
EN GL FM EN GL FM
H
EN F
u
+ ÷ + ÷
= =
÷
Thus, for a minimal area 0 u = .
i.e., EN+GL2FM=0
8) Differentiating w.r.t. S the equation
( )
. 0 R n n ÷ =
r
r r
of the rectifying plane at any
point r
r
, we get
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
. 0 . . 0 _____ 1 R r b kt r n t n t ' ÷ ÷ = = =
r
r
r r
r r r r
Q
Differentiating (1) w.r.t. S, we have
( ) ( )
( )
. 0 _________ 2 R r b k t k t
' '
÷ ÷ + =
r r
r
r
Again, since the rectifying line is parallal to the direction
( )
t kb t +
r
r
, the point R
r
on the edge of regression is given by
( )
( ) ________ 3 R r t kb u t ÷ = +
r
r
r
r
where u
is a scalar.
Substituting the value of R r ÷
r
r
from (3) in (2) , we get
( ) ( )
. 0 t kb b k t k u t t ' ' + ÷ + =
r r
r r
or ( )
0 k k k u t t ' ' ÷ + =
or
( )
_____(4)
k
k k
u
t t
=
' '
÷
Hence, from (4) and (3) we have
( )
k t kb
R r
k k
t
t t
÷
÷ =
' '
÷
r
r
r
r
(or)
( )
k t kb
R r
k k
t
t t
÷
= +
' ' ÷
r
r
r
r
196
9.) At any point on the curve
( )
, r r s =
r r
the equation of the osculating plane is
( )
( )
, 0 ____ 1 R r b ÷ =
r
r
r
where r and b
r
r
are functions of s.
Differentiating (1) w.r.t. S, we get
( )
. . 0 t b R r n t ÷ ÷ ÷ =
r r
r
r r
( )
( )
( )
( )
. 0 ___ 2 . 0, 0 or R r n t b t ÷ = = =
r r
r
r r
Q
The characteristic is given as the intersection of (1) and (2) i.e., at the intersection
of osculating plane and rectifying plane and is therefore the tangent to the curve at
r
r
. For edge of regression , differentiating (2) w.r.t. S
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
. . 0
. 0 ____ 3 . 0
. 0 3 sin (1)
t n R r b kt
or R r b kt t n
or R r t u g
t
t
÷ + ÷ ÷ =
÷ ÷ = =
'
÷ =
r
r
r r
r r
r
r
r r
r r
Q
r
r
r
The edge of regression being given by (1) , (2) and (3’) is given by
0 R r R r ÷ = ¬ =
r r
r r
Thus the points of the curve coincides with the points of the
edge of regression and the space curve itself is the edge of regression .
7.12. TERMINAL QUESTIONS:
1) State and prove Joachimsthall’s Theorem
2) Explain the elliptic, Hyperbolic and parabolic points on a surface
3) Prove that the envelope of a family of surfaces touches each member of the family
at all points of its characteristics
4) Prove that each characteristic touches the edge of regression.
5) Prove that the osculating plane of the edge of regression at any point is the
tangent plane to the developable at P.
6) Obtain the equation of the edge of regression of the rectifying developable.
7) Show that the surface cos cos
z
e x y = is minimal.
8) If the parametric curves are orthogonal, find the Gauss’s formulae.
9) Derive the Mainardi – Codazzi equations.
7.13. FURTHER READINGS:
1. ‘Differential Geometry’ by D. Somasundaram, Narosa Publishing House,
Chennai, 2005.
2. ‘An Introduction to Differential Geometry’ , by T. Willmore, Clarendon Press,
Oxford, 1959.