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BasicCICS

BasicCICS

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CICS

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Table of Contents
• • • • • • • • • •
Introduction to CICS Basic Mapping Support Screen Definition Facility Program Control File Control Queues Interval and Task Control Recovery and restart Program preparation CICS Supplied Transactions
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CICS - The Online system

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Batch & Online : differences
• BATCH SYSTEM
1. Input data is prepared and given in sequence (file) 2. Processing sequence is predictable and hence restarting the process in case of failure is easy. 3. Programs and files can’t be shared 4. Programs are scheduled through jobs
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• ONLINE SYSTEM
1. Data is entered as needed not in sequence (terminal) 2. Since processing seq. is unpredictable, special recovery/restart proc. is reqd. in case of failure. 3. Programs and files can be shared 4. Transaction can be run at any time
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Introduction
• Customer Information Control System -CICS developed
in late 1960s as a DB/DC control system • CICS provides an interface between the Operating System and application programs • Macro Level CICS - initial version Assembler macro to request CICS services • Command Level CICS - high level lang.version commands to request CICS services - Single command can replace series of macros

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CICS & Operating System

Operating System CICS
Enter Code :

User’s App.Prg

Files & Database

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DB/DC System
Terminals

Central System

Data Base

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CICS System Services
• • • • •
Data-Communication Functions Data-Handling Functions Application Program Services System Services Monitoring Functions

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Task &Transaction
• Task :- A basic unit of work which is scheduled by the
operating system or CICS

• Read from and write to the terminal • Read and write files • Starting another task etc...

• Transaction :- An entity which initiates execution of a
task. In CICS, transaction is identified by the transaction identifier

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Terminal Conversation
• Conversational : A mode of dialogue between program
and terminal based on a combination of sending message and receiving message within the same task

• Since human response is slower than the CPU speed, a
significant amount of resource will be wasted just waiting

• Pseudo-Conversational. A mode of dialogue between
program and terminal which appears to the operator as a continuous conversation but which is actually carried by a series of tasks

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Conversational Transaction Example
PROCEDURE DIVISION. : FIRST-PROCESS. EXEC CICS RECEIVE ---- <= TSK1,12345 END-EXEC. : process EXEC CICS SEND ----- <= EMP(12345) Details END-EXEC. * - - - - - - Program Waits For Response - - - - SECOND PROCESS. EXEC CICS RECEIVE ----- <= User Enters Data END-EXEC. : process CTS-PAC Version 1.1 11

Pseudo-Conversational -Example
Transaction TSK1 Program PROG1 PROCEDURE DIVISION. : EXEC CICS RECEIVE END-EXEC. : EXEC CICS SEND END-EXEC. EXEC CICS RETURN TRANSID (‘TSK2’) END-EXEC. CTS-PAC Transaction TSK2 Program PROG2 PROCEDURE DIVISION. : EXEC CICS RECEIVE END-EXEC. : EXEC CICS SEND END-EXEC. EXEC CICS RETURN END-EXEC.
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CICS Components
• Management Modules
• Programs that interface between OS and app. pgm • Handle the general functions that are crucial to operation of
CICS

• Control Tables
• Define the CICS environment • Functionally associated with the management module • Control Blocks • Contain system type information. Eg. Task Control Area
contains info. about the task

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Management Pgms. & Ctrl. Tables
• Programs
Program Control File control Terminal Control Storage Control Task Control Temporary Storage Transient Data Interval Control Journal Control PCP FCP TCP SCP KCP TSP TDP ICP JCP

• Tables
Processing Progm Table File Control Table Terminal Control Table Program Control Table Temp. Storage Table Destin. Control Table PPT FCT TCT PCT TST DCT

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CICS Program Considerations & Restrictions
• Considerations
• Must eventually return control to CICS • Can’t modify procedure division instructions ‘cause CICS •
programs may be shared by many tasks Can modify working storage since a unique copy of working storage is created for each task

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CICS Program Considerations & Restrictions
• Restrictions
• FILE SECTION, OPEN, CLOSE, and non-CICS READ & •
WRITE statements are not permitted ‘cause file management is handled by CICS Many COBOL features should be avoided like internal sorts, using special registers, ACCEPT, DISPLAY, EXHIBIT, TRACE, STOP RUN, & GOBACK. (STOP RUN & GOBACK are sometimes included in order to eliminate a compiler diagnostic but never executed

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Sample CICS Program
IDENTIFICATION DIVISION. PROGRAM-ID. SAMPLE. ENVIRONMENT DIVISION. DATA DIVISION. WORKING-STORAGE SECTION. 01 WS-INPUT. 05 WS-TRANSID P IC X(4). 05 FILLER PIC X(1). 05 WS-IN-EMP-CD PIC X(4) VALUE ALL ‘X’. 01 WS-OUTPUT. 05 FILLER PIC X(16) VALUE ‘EMPLOYEE CODE : ‘. 05 WS-OUT-EMP-CD PIC X(4). 01 WS-LENGTH PIC S9(4) COMP. LINKAGE SECTION. CTS-PAC Version 1.1 17

Sample Program Contd.
PROCEDURE DIVISION. 000-MAINLINE. PERFORM 100-RECV-INPUT. PERFORM 200-SEND-OUTPUT. EXEC CICS RETURN END-EXEC. STOP RUN. 100-RECV-INPUT. MOVE 9 TO WS-LENGTH. EXEC CICS RECEIVE INTO (WS-INPUT) LENGTH (WS-LENGTH) END-EXEC. MOVE WS-IN-EMP-CODE TO WS-OUT-EMP-CODE 200-SEND-OUTPUT. EXEC CICS SEND FROM (WS-OUTPUT) LENGTH (20) ERASE END-EXEC.

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Basic Mapping Support

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Topics in BMS
• • • • • • •
Introduction to BMS Physical and Symbolic Map Map and Mapset Map Definition Macros Screen Manipulation/Handling Screen Design Considerations Interfacing with Terminal using a Map

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Introduction to BMS - I
• Primary functions of BMS
• Removal of device dependent codes from Application Program • Removal of constant information from Application program • • •
(Headers, Titles...) Construct NMDS - Native Mode Data Stream Text handling Terminal Paging & Message routing

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Introduction to BMS - II
• • • •
Contents of the screen defined thru’ BMS is called Map. Map is a program written in assembly language. BMS macros are available for Map coding. Maps are of two types. Physical Map & Symbolic Map

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Physical and Symbolic Map
• Physical Map is a map used by CICS ( CSECT) • Ensure device independence in the application program • Symbolic Map is a map used by Application Program
(DSECT) • Ensure device and format independence in the application program

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Example Of Symbolic Map
01 EMPRECI. 02 FILLER PIC X(12). 02 EMPNAL PIC S9(4) COMP. 02 EMPNAF PIC X. 02 FILLER REDEFINES EMPNAF. 03 EMPNAA PIC X. 02 EMPNAI PIC X(21). 01 EMPRECO REDEFINES EMPRECI. 02 FILLER PIC X(12). 02 FILLER PIC X(03). 02 EMPNAO PIC X(21).
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Physical & Symbolic Map - Logic Flow
BMS source Assembler Physical MAP Symbolic MAP Linkage editor

Load module (MVS)

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Map and Mapset
• Representation of one screen format is called Map
(screen panel). • One or more maps, linkedited together, makes up a Mapset (load module). • Mapset must have a entry in PPT • Mapset name has two parts.

• Generic name 1- 7 chars. Used in App. Pgm. 1 char. To identify the device type • Suffix • Multimap Panel • Dynamically constructing a screen panel with multiple maps at the execution time
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Map definition Macros
General Format 1 setname operation Example EMPMAP DFHMSD 16 operands TYPE=MAP, MODE=INOUT, LANG=COBOL, STORAGE=AUTO, TIOAPFX=YES 72 contd. X X X X

* * ANY COMMENTS
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Order of Macros
• • • • • • • • •
DFHMSD TYPE=DSECT DFHMDI Map DFHMDF A field DFHMDF A field : DFHMDI Map DFHMDF A field DFHMDF A field : Mapset

• DFHMSD TYPE=FINAL Mapset CTS-PAC Version 1.1

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DFHMSD Macro
• Define a mapset and its characteristics or to end a mapset
definition • Only one mapset is allowed in one assembly run. • Example DFHMSD TYPE=&SYSPARM , • EMPMSET MODE=INOUT, LANG=COBOL, STORAGE=AUTO, TIOAPFX=YES, CNTL=(FREEKB,FRSET,PRINT)
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X X X X X

DFHMDI Macro
• Define a map and its characteristics • Example DFHMDI SIZE=(ll,cc), • EMPMAP
LINE=nn, COLUMN=mm, JUSTIFY=LEFT/RIGHT

X X X

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Screen Layout
&Customer No. :&nnnnnnnn

• Where
• & • n • Attribute character Unprotected numeric Cursor

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DFHMDF Macro For The Above Layout
• Define a field and its characteristics • Example
DFHMDF POS(ll,cc), INITIAL=‘Customer No. :’, ATTRB=ASKIP, LENGTH=14 CUSTNO DFHMDF POS=(ll,cc), ATTRB=(UNPROT,NUM,FSET,IC), JUSTIFY=RIGHT, PICIN=‘9(8)’, PICOUT=‘9(8)’, LENGTH=8
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X X X X X X X X
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Attribute character
• Invisible one byte character • Defines the characteristics of a s field
• Thru’ ATTRB param. of DFHMDF. • There are different kinds of attributes • Attributes to control the display intensity of the field • Keyboard Attributes • Attribute Related to the Field Modification • Cursor Control Attribute

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Modified Data Tag
• Indicates the field has been modified or not • Effective use of MDT reduces the amount of data traffic. • MDT setting/resetting
• when the user modifies a field on the screen • CNTL=FRSET, defined in map/mapset • FSET in ATTRB parameter of DFHMDF

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Skipper Technique
• Unlabelled 1-byte field with the autoskip attribute
• DFHMDF POS(ll,cc),ATTRB=ASKIP,LENGTH=1 • To skip the cursor to the next unprotected field after one unprotected field. • Screen Layout : • &xxxxx&$ &xx • where Skipper field • $ Attribute byte • & Unprotected field • X
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Stopper Technique
• Unlabelled 1-byte field with the protect attribute • DFHMDF POS(ll,cc),ATTRB=PROT,LENGTH=1 • To stop the cursor in order to prevent erroneous field
overflow by terminal user. • Screen Layout :

• &xxxxx&$#&$ • &xxxxx&$#&$ • where • # Stopper field
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Screen Design Considerations
• Functional Screen Design • User-Friendly Screen Design

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Cursor Positioning Techniques
• Static positioning (map definition) • Dynamic/Symbolic Positioning (app.pgm) • Dynamic/Relative Positioning (app. pgm) • Checking Cursor Position by EIBCPOSN.

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AID KEYS
• Indicates the method to initiate the transfer of info. from • • • •
terminal to CICS. PF keys, PA keys, ENTER & CLEAR key EIBAID contains , recently used AID code Standard AID list - DFHAID HANDLE AID establish the routines that are to be invoked when the aid is detected by a RECEIVE MAP command

• HANDLE AID
EXEC CICS HANDLE AID Option (label) END-EXEC Conditions : INVREQ CTS-PAC Version 1.1

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Numeric Sign/Decimal Point Handling
• Numeric Sign : For input operations, Separate fields or
CR/DR field approach can be used and for output operations, PICOUT parameter can be given in macro

• Decimal Point : For input operations, Virtual decimal
point or Separate fields approach can be used and for output operations, PICOUT parameter has to be given in the field definition macro.

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SEND MAP
• Writes formatted output to a terminal.
EXEC CICS SEND MAP(mapname) [[ FROM(dataname) ] [DATAONLY] | MAPONLY] [ MAPSET(mapsetname) ] [ CURSOR(VALUE) ] [ FREEKB ] [ ERASE ] [ FRSET ] [ HANDLE | NOHANDLE [ RESP (dataname) ] ] END-EXEC

• Conditions : INVREQ,LENGERR,NOTALLOC CTS-PAC Version 1.1

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RECEIVE MAP
• To receive input from a terminal
EXEC CICS RECEIVE MAP (mapname) [ SET(pointer) | INTO(dataname) ] [LENGTH(msg-len)] [ MAPSET(mapsetname) ] [ HANDLE | NOHANDLE [ RESP() ] ] END-EXEC • Handle Conditions: • EODS, INVMPSZ, INVREQ, MAPFAIL
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Types of BMS Panel operations
• • • • •
Single Map panel Text Panel Multipage Message Multimap Panel Multimap/Multipage Message

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CICS Transaction (Initiation) Flow :Operating System System Services Terminal 2 Control Storage Manage -ment Program Library

ACCT

3 Account File

1

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CICS Transaction Flow :-( SEND MAP)
Operating System Menu Screen File Control Account File Program Library

Program ACCT00 BMS
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CICS Transaction Flow :( RECEIVE & SEND MAPs) Operating System User’s Next input File Control Account File Program Library

6 8 BMS
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Program ACCT01
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Screen Definition Facility SDF - II

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INTRODUCTION - SDF
• An interactive tool for defining information to be
displayed on the screen • Objects created by SDF are used by various systems like CICS/BMS, IMS, ISPF etc.. • The SDF objects are Panel and Panel Groups (etc..) corresponding to map and mapset in CICS/BMS

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SDF Functions
• Creation of objects which is common for all the systems • Provides functions to alter and test the objects • Generation function to create code for the objects like
macro codes for CICS/BMS • Provides utilities to print, migrate & convert objects • Provides functions to develop application prototypes

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Panel Commands
• SDF has panel commands like ‘TOP’ ‘BOTTOM’ ‘UP’ • • • • •
‘DOWN , to browse through the the panels PRESERVE to protect the panel AUTOSAVE to set the automatic save option on commands ‘SAVE’ to record the changes and CANCEL/CCANCEL to quit the changes TEST to test the appearance of the object Commands are available to edit the panels... like to create,alter & view the fields and its attributes E.g.. ATTRIBUTE,EDIT,SHOW,HIDE etc..

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Panel & Line Commands
• SDF has got panel commands to do the following.
• To browse through the panel • To quit/save the changes • To protect the panel and to restore the panel in case or errors • To test the appearance of the panel • Panel editor commands to create, alter & view the fields and its attributes • And Line commands to copy, move, delete, repeat & insert lines

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Panels
• To create a panel, Enter a existing panel which is to be
used as a skeleton for the new panel OR Enter a device type • Panel text can be defined by typing the text in the required panel position in format mode. • Variable fields can be defined by variable field marks. and arrays can be defined by specifying a dimension and direction. • Variable fields can be defined by variable field marks

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Panels

Contd.

• A panel can be included in another panel with few
restrictions • Default attributes are assigned to fields which can be changed. E.g.. for attributes are,

• color,protection,intensity,cursor position,justify, field
format,field validation, modified data flag, etc.

• To change the panel,
• Enter the panel name and library identifier where the panel
resides

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Panel Groups
• A panel group contains information about a group of
panels, and the names of the panels that belong to the panel group. • Procedure of Creating and editing panel group is same as panel • Define the global parameters of the panel group thru’ ‘Panel Group Characteristics’ opt.

• E.g.. BMS characteristics like generation name(later used in
generation) & logical device code etc.

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Generation
• As SDF objects are stored in internal rep. they have to
be generated to be used in applications • Output of generation , depends on the object type

• Panel => Map • Panel group => Mapset • One or more data structures(used in Cobol) or control blocks (BMS macros) can be generated

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SDF Libraries
• Define libraries(created in ISPF) to be used by SDF II to
store and retrieve objects • SDF II library is a partitioned data set with a three-level dataset name (project.group.dgipnl) • Only the first two levels can be defined & third level added by sdf depends on the object type

• DGIPNL-for panels, DGIGRP-for panel groups and DGIPSTfor partition sets

• 'ID' is assigned for each library which is used to search the
objects in the library • password can be given to protect the library.
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SDF utilities
• Print :- To print utility produces printouts of panels, panel
groups,partition sets etc..

• Migration:- To migrate objects from various sources into
SDF libraries. Eg. Maps, map sets & partition sets defined with CICS/BMS macros

• Conversion utility :-To convert objects from one target
system to a new target system.

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Application Prototype
• To test the flow of panels, before they are incorporated
into application programs.

• Simulative prototype :- Simulates the primary interaction
between the application & user. • Used to validate and determine the initial user requirements before
designing the program

• Prototype definition
• Identify the panel by giving name & library ID • Define the prototype rules based on the CURRENT panel,the
ACTION to be performed & NEXT PANEL to be displayed if certain CONDITIONS are met.
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Sample Macro
TULMAP DFHMSD TYPE=MAP,LANG=COBOL,MODE=INOUT, STORAGE=AUTO,SUFFIX=C TULMAP DFHMDI SIZE=(12,60),CTRL=(FREEKB,ALARM,FRSET), COLUMN=1,LINE=1,DATA=FIELD, TIOAPFX=YES,JUSTIFY=(LEFT,FIRST) * *

NAME

DFHMDF POS=(3,14),LENGTH=6,INITIAL='Name:', * ATTRB=(PROT,NORM) DFHMDF POS=(3,21),LENGTH=10,ATTRB=(UNPROT,BRT,ASKIP) DFHMDF POS=(3,32),LENGTH=1,ATTRB=(PROT,NORM) DFHMDF POS=(4,14),LENGTH=6,INITIAL='Age :', ATTRB=(PROT,NORM) DFHMDF POS=(4,21),LENGTH=3, ATTRB=(UNPROT,NORM), DFHMDF POS=(4,25),LENGTH=1,ATTRB=(PROT,NORM)

*

AGE

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PROGRAM CONTROL

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CICS PROG A LINK RETURN PROG B XCTL PROG C LINK RETURN

Level 0 Level 1

Level 2

Level 3 Application Program Logic Levels
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PROG D XCTL
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PROG E RETURN
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LINK
• Used to pass control from one application program to
another • The calling program expects control to be returned to it • Data can be passed to the called program using COMMAREA • If the called program is not already in main storage it is loaded

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LINK Syntax :
LINK PROGRAM(name) [COMMAREA(data-area) [LENGTH(data-value)]] Conditions : PGMIDERR, NOTAUTH, LENGERR

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XCTL
• To xfer control from one application program to another
in the same logical level • The program from which control is transferred is released • Data can be passed to the called program using COMMAREA • If the called program is not already in main storage it is loaded

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XCTL Syntax :
XCTL PROGRAM(name) [COMMAREA(data-area) [LENGTH(data-value)]] Conditions : PGMIDERR, NOTAUTH, LENGERR

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RETURN
• To return control from one application program to another
at a higher logical level or to CICS • Data can be passed using COMMAREA when returning to CICS to the next task

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RETURN Syntax :
RETURN [TRANSID(name) [COMMAREA(data-area) [LENGTH(data-value)]]] Conditions : INVREQ, LENGERR

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LOAD
• To load program/table/map from the CICS DFHRPL
concatenation library into the main storage • Using load reduces system overhead

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LOAD Syntax :
LOAD PROGRAM(name) [ SET (ptr-ref) ] [LENGTH(data-area)/FLENGTH(data-area) ] [ ENTRY(ptr-ref) ] [HOLD] Conditions : PGMIDERR, NOTAUTH, LENGERR

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LOAD - programming example
Assembler Program - To define the table to be used by another program CNTRYTBL CSECT DC CL7’01USA’ DC CL7’02UK’ DC CL7’03INDIA’ END

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Programming example -cont’d
WORKING-STORAGE SECTION 01 TBL-LEN S9(4) COMP. LINKAGE SECTION 01 CNTRYTBL-DATA. 05 FILLER OCCURS 10 TIMES. 10 CNTRY-CODE PIC 99. 10 CNTRY-NAME PIC X(5). EXEC CICS LOAD PROGRAM(‘CNTRYTBL’) SET(ADDRESS OF CNTRYTBL-DATA) LENGTH(TBL-LEN) END-EXEC CTS-PAC Version 1.1

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RELEASE
• To RELEASE a loaded program/table/map • Syntax :
RELEASE PROGRAM(name) Conditions : PGMIDERR, NOTAUTH, INVREQ

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COMMAREA
• Data passed to called program using COMMAREA in
LINK and XCTL • Calling program - Working Storage defn Called program - Linkage section defn under DFHCOMMAREA • Called program can alter data and this will automatically available in calling program after the RETURN command ( need not use COMMAREA option in the return for this purpose ) • EIBCALEN is set when COMMAREA is passed
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Processing Program Table - PPT
DFHPPT TYPE=ENTRY PROGRAM |MAPSET= name [PGMLANG= ASM|COBOL|PLI] [RES= NO|FIX|YES] : : other options : Eg. DFHPPT TYPE=ENTRY,PROGRAM=TEST, PGMLANG=COBOL
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PCT Entry
DFHPCT TYPE=ENTRY TRANSID= name PROGRAM=name TASKREQ=pf6 DTIMOUT=mmss RTIMOUT=mmss RESTART=yes/no ( TRANSEC = 1to 64) RSLKEY= 1 to 24 resource level key SCTYKEY= 1 to 64 security key TIMEOUT= mm between tasks DUMP= TRNPRTY= 0 to 255 RSLC= Yes/No

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Application Programming Concepts
• Pseudo-Conversational • Multitasking • Multithreading • Quasi-Reentrancy

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POSSIBLE ERRORS
• Conditions that aren't normal from CICS's point of view • • • •
but that are expected in the pgm. Conditions caused by user errors and input data errors. Conditions caused by omissions or errors in the application code. Errors caused by mismatches bet. applications and CICS tables, generation parameters & JCL Errors related to hardware or other system conditions beyond the control of an appl. pgm.

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Handling Methods...
When the error (exceptional conditions) occur, the program can do any of the following • Take no action & let the program continue - Control returns to the next inst. following the command that has failed to execute. A return code is set in EIBRESP and EIBRCODE. This state occurs ‘cause of NO HANDLE /RESP/IGNORE conditions • Pass control to a specified label - Control goes to a label in the program defined earlier by a HANDLE CONDITION command. • Rely on the system default action - System will terminate or suspend the task depends on the exceptional condition occurred
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HANDLE CONDITION
• HANDLE CONDITION condition[(label)]... 'condition'
specifies the name of the condition, and 'label' specifies the location within the program to be branched • Remains active while the program is executing or until it encounters IGNORE/another HANDLE cond.

• EXEC CICS HANDLE CONDITION •

ERROR(ERRHANDL)

DUPREC(DUPRTN) LENGERR This example handles DUPREC cond. separately, all the other ERRORs together. LENGERR will be handled by system

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Alternative to HANDLE Condition
• NOHANDLE to specify “no action to be taken for any
condition or attention identifier (AID) “

• RESP(xxx) "xxx" is a user-defined fullword binary data
area. On return from the command, it contains a return code. Later, it can be tested by means of DFHRESP as follows, If xxx=DFHRESP(NOSPACE) ... or If xxx=DFHRESP(NORMAL) ...

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IGNORE CONDITION
• IGNORE CONDITION condition condition ... • ‘condition’ specifies the name of the condition that is to be
ignored( no action will be taken)

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EXEC CICS IGNORE CONDITION ITEMERR LENGERR END-EXEC This command will not take any actions if the given two error occurs and will pass the control to the next instruction
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PUSH & POP
• To suspend all current HANDLE CONDITION,
IGNORE CONDITION, HANDLE AID and HANDLE ABEND commands. • Used for eg. while calling sub-pgms (CALL) • While receiving the control, a sub-program can suspend Handle commands of the called program using PUSH HANDLE • While returning the control, it can restore the Handle command using POP HANDLE

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EXEC Interface Block
• CICS provides some system-related information to each
task as EXEC Interface Block (EIB) • unique to the CICS command level Attention- Id (1 Byte) • EIBAID • EIBCALEN Length of DFHCOMMAREA (S9(4) comp) Date when this task started (S9(7) comp-3) • EIBDATE Function Code of the last command ( 2 Bytes) • EIBFN • EIBRCODE Response Code of the last command (6 Bytes) • EIBTASKN Task number of this task (S9(7) comp-3) Time when this task started (S9(7) comp-3) • EIBTIME • EIBTRMID Terminal-Id (1 to 4 chars) Transaction-Id 1.1 to 4 chars) (1 • EIBTRNID CTS-PAC Version 83

File Handling

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Introduction
• • • •
Services Provided by CICS. Access Methods Supported by CICS. Defining A File to CICS. Coding File-Handling Statements in the Program.

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Services Provided By CICS
• Basic Operations required for a file are
• • • • • • • •
Adding a Record. Modifying an Existing Record. Deleting an Existing Record. Browsing One or Selected or All Records. Exclusive Control. (Record Level Locking). Data Independence. Journalling. Opening and closing Files.

• In Addition, CICS Provides

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VSAM
Three types of Files in VSAM. Entry Sequenced Dataset • ESDS • KSDS Key Sequenced Dataset • RRDS Relative Record Dataset Linear Sequential Dataset • LSDS

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Defining Files.
• In CICS, Files Cannot be Created, Files can be created
using IDCAMS Utility.

• Re-indexing, Creating new indexes, etc. should be done
using IDCAMS Only.

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Defining A File to CICS.
• Files should be defined in FCT (File Control Table). • FCT will contain all the Information about a File. (like
dataset name, access methods, permissible file service request, etc.) • Defining Files can be done either by CEDA Transaction or DFHFCT Macro.

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Syntax of DFHFCT Macro :-

DFHFCT

TYPE=FILE,ACCMETH=VSAM, DATASETNAME=NAME, SERVRQ=(ADD,BROWSE,DELETE,READ,UPDATE),

FILSTAT=(ENABLED,OPENED)

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File Handling in Programs.
• Files should not be defined in the Program. • Program should not open or close a File. • Records can be written in any order. A number of records
can be added at a time. • Records can be inserted, updated or deleted.

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Important Key-Words
• Dataset/File :- Name in the FCT. • Into/From (WS-Rec) :- Working-Storage Area
defined in the program where the CICS Puts/Gets the Data. • RIDFLD :- Contains the Record Key. :- Contains the return code of the • RESP executed command. • LENGTH :- Length of the Record to be Retrieved or Written.

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Random READ

EXEC CICS READ File(filename) SEt() | Into() RIdfld(Rec-Key) END-EXEC.
Exceptions: DISABLED, NOTOPEN, NOTFND, LENGERR, DUPKEY, IOERR.

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Example for Random Read :
EXEC CICS READ File( 'INVMAS ') Into(WS-INVMAS-REC) Length(WS-INVMAS-LEN) RIdfld('7135950602') | RIdfld(WS-INVMAS-KEY) Keylength( +00010 ) Equal END-EXEC.
CTS-PAC Version 1.1 94

Sequential Read
• Sequential Read is done by Browse Oper. • Establish the pointer to the First Record to be Read • • • •
Using StartBr. Next and Previous Records can be Read as required Using ReadNext and ReadPrev. End the Browse Operation at last. Browse can be re-positioned. During Browse Operation, Records cannot be Updated.
Version 1.1 95

CTS-PAC

Syntax for STARTBR
EXEC CICS STARTBR FILE(filename) RIDFLD(data-area) END-EXEC.
• Exceptions: DISABLED, IOERR, NOTFND, NOTOPEN.

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Reading the Record after STARTBR.
• Sequentially the Next or Previous Record can be read
by a READNEXT or READPREV. • The first READNEXT or READPREV will read the Record where the STARTBR has positioned the File Pointer.

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Syntax
READNEXT :

EXEC CICS READNext | READPrev FILE(name) INTO(data-area)|SET(ptr-ref) RIDFLD(data-area) END-EXEC.
• Exceptions: DUPKEY, ENDFILE, IOERR, LENGERR, NOTFND.
CTS-PAC Version 1.1 98

ENDBRowse
• ENDBRowse terminates a Previously issued
STARTBRowse. • SYNTAX :EXEC CICS ENDBR FILE(filename) END-EXEC.
• Exception : INVREQ
CTS-PAC Version 1.1 99

RESETBR
• Its effect is the same as ENDBR and then giving
another STARTBR. EXEC CICS RESETBR FILE(filename) RIDFLD(data-area) END-EXEC.
• Exections: IOERR, NOTFND.
CTS-PAC Version 1.1 100

WRITE Command
• Adds a new record into the File. • For ESDS, RIDFLD is not used but after write
execution, RBA value is returned and Record will be written at the end of the File. • For KSDS, RIDFLD should be the Record Key. The record will be written depending on the Key. • MASSINSERTion must be done in ascending order of the Key.

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Syntax for WRITE
EXEC CICS WRITE FILE(filename) FROM(data-area) RIDFLD(data-area) END-EXEC.
• Exceptions: DISABLED, DUPREC, IOERR, LENGERR, NOSPACE,
NOTOPEN.

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REWRITE Command

• Updates a Record which is Previously Read with
UPDATE Option.

• REWRITE automatically UNLOCKs the Record after
execution.

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Syntax for REWRITE

EXEC CICS REWRITE FILE(filename) FROM(data-area) END-EXEC.
• Exceptions: DUPREC, IOERR, LENGERR, NOSPACE.

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DELETE Command
• Deletes a Record from a dataset. • Record can be deleted in two ways,
• RIDFLD with the full key in it. and • the record read with READ with UPDATE will be deleted. • Multiple Records Delete is possible using Generic Option.

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DELETE Syntax
EXEC CICS DELETE FILE(filename) RIDFLD(data-area) END-EXEC.

Optional

• Exceptions: DISABLED, DUPKEY, IOERR, NOTFND, NOTOPEN.

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Syntax for UNLOCK
• To Release the Record which has been locked by READ
with UPDATE Command. EXEC CICS UNLOCK FILE(filename) SYSID(systemname) Optional END-EXEC.
• EXCEPTIONS: DISABLED, IOERR, NOTOPEN.

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General Exceptions:
• The following Exceptions usually will occur for ALL
CICS File Handling Commands.

FILENOTFOUND, ISCINVREQ, SYSIDERR,

ILLOGIC, NOTAUTH, INVREQ

In Addition to the above, Exceptions shown along the systax will occur.

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Communication With Databases

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CICS - DB2
• CICS provides interface to DB2. • DB2 requires “CICS Attachment Facility” to connect
itself to CICS • CICS programs can issue commands for SQL services in order to access the DB2 database.
EXEC SQL function [options] END-EXEC

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Operating system

CICS REGION

DB2 REGION
CICS Attachment Facility

App. Pgm. EXEC SQL..

DB2 Database

CTS-PAC

DB2 Database access by CICS

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RCT Entry
• The CICS-to-DB2 connection is defined by creating and
assembling the resource control table (RCT) • The information in RCT is used to control the interactions between CICS & DB2 resources • DB2 attachment facility provides a macro (DSNCRCT) to generate the RCT. • The RCT must be link-edited into a library that is accessible to MVS

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DB2 - Precompiler
Source Program (EXEC SQL... | EXEC CICS...) DB2 Precompiler | CICS command translator | Compile By COBOL | Linkedit by Linkage editor | Load Module
CTS-PAC Version 1.1 113

QUEUES

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Transient data Control
• Provides application programmer with a queuing facility • Data can be stored/queued for subsequent internal or
external processing • Stored data can be routed to symbolic destinations • TDQs require a DCT entry • Identified by Destination id - 1 to 4 bytes

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TDQs
• Intra-partitioned - association within the same CICS
subsystem • Typical uses are • ATI (Automatic Task Inititation ) associated with trigger level • Message switching • Broadcasting etc Extra-partitioned - association external to the CICS subsystem • Can associate with any sequential device - Tape, DASD, Printer
Version 1.1 116

etc • Typical uses are CTS-PAC

TDQs
• Operations
• Write data to a transient data queue (WRITEQ TD) • Read data from a transient data queue (READQ TD) • Delete an intrapartition transient data queue (DELETEQ TD).

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WRITEQ TD
WRITEQ TD QUEUE(name) FROM(data-area) [LENGTH(data-value)] [SYSID(systemname)]
Conditions: DISABLED, INVREQ, IOERR, ISCINVREQ, LENGERR, NOSPACE, NOTAUTH, NOTOPEN, QIDERR, SYSIDERR

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READQ TD
Reads the queue destructively - Data record not available in the queue after the read.
READQ TD QUEUE(name) {INTO(data-area) | SET(ptr-ref) } [LENGTH(data-value)] [SYSID(systemname)] [NOSUSPEND] Conditions : DISABLED, IOERR, INVREQ, ISCINVREQ, LENGERR, NOTAUTH, NOTOPEN, QBUSY, QIDERR, QZERO, SYSIDERR
CTS-PAC Version 1.1 119

DELETEQ TD
Deletes all entries in the queue DELETEQ TD QUEUE(name) [SYSID(systemname)] Conditions: INVREQ, ISCINVREQ, NOTAUTH, QIDERR, SYSIDERR

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TDQ - Exceptional Conditions
• DISABLED • IOERR • ISCINVREQ • LENGERR • ITEMERR • NOSPACE • NOTAUTH • NOTOPEN • QBUSY • QIDERR • QZERO CTS-PAC • SYSIDERR

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Destination Control Table
• DCT is to register the information of all TDQs • Destination Control Program (DCP) uses DCT to
identify all TDQs and perform all I/O operations. • DFHDCT is a macro to define intra & extra partition TDQs TYPE=INTRA/EXTRA • REUSE option specified along with intra partition TDQ tells whether the space used by TDQ record will be removed & reused after it has been read.

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Automatic Task Initiation
• Facility through which a CICS transaction can be
initiated automatically DFHDCT TYPE=INTRA
DESTID=MSGS TRANSID=MSW1 TRIGLEV=500 When the number of TDQ records reaches 500, the transaction MSW1 will be initiated automatically

• Applications

CTS-PAC

Message switching & Report printing

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123

Temporary Storage Control
• Provides application programmer the ability to store and
retrieve data in a TSQ • Application can use the TSQ like a scratch pad • TSQs are

• Created and deleted dynamically • No CICS table entry required if recovery not required • Identified by Queue id - 1 to 8 bytes • Typically a combination of termid/tranid/operid • Each record in TSQ identified by relative position, called the item number
CTS-PAC Version 1.1 124

TSQs
• Operations
• Write and Update data • Read data - Sequential and random • Delete the queue • Access • Across transactions • Across terminals • Storage • Main - Non-recoverable • Auxiliary - Recoverable
• TST entry required, VSAM file DFHTEMP
CTS-PAC Version 1.1 125

TSQs - Typical uses
• Data passing among transactions • Terminal Paging • Report printing

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WRITEQ TS
WRITEQ TS QUEUE(name) FROM(data-area) [LENGTH(data-value)] [NUMITEMS(data-area) | ITEM(data-area) [REWRITE] ] [SYSID(systemname)] [MAIN|AUXILIARY] [NOSUSPEND] Conditions : ITEMERR, LENGERR, QIDERR, NOSPACE,
NOTAUTH, SYSIDERR, IOERR, INVREQ, ISCINVREQ CTS-PAC Version 1.1
127

READQ TS
READQ TS QUEUE(name) {INTO(data-area) | SET(ptr-ref) } LENGTH(data-value) [NUMITEMS(data-area)] [ITEM(data-area) | NEXT ] [SYSID(systemname)] Conditions : ITEMERR, LENGERR, QIDERR, NOTAUTH,
SYSIDERR, IOERR, INVREQ, ISCINVREQ
CTS-PAC Version 1.1 128

DELETEQ TS
Deletes all entries in the queue DELETEQ TS QUEUE(name) [SYSID(systemname)] Conditions: INVREQ, ISCINVREQ, NOTAUTH, QIDERR, SYSIDERR

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TSQ-Exceptional Conditions
• • • • • • • • •
ITEMERR LENGTHERR QIDERR INVREQ IOERR ISCINVREQ NOTAUTH NOSPACE SYSIDERR
Version 1.1 130

CTS-PAC

INTERVAL AND TASK CONTROL

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ASKTIME
• Used to obtain current date and time
EXEC CICS ASKTIME[ABSTIME(data-area)] END-EXEC.

• EIBDATE and EIBTIME updated with current date and
time • ABSTIME returns value of time in packed decimal format

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FORMATTIME
FORMATTIME ABSTIME(data-ref) [YYDDD(data-area)] [YYMMDD(data-area)]... etc. [DATE(data-area) [DATEFORM[(data-area)]]] [DATESEP[(data-value)]] [DAYCOUNT(data-area)] [DAYOFWEEK(data-area)] [DAYOFMONTH(data-area)] [MONTHOFYEAR(data-area)] [YEAR(data-area)] [TIME(data-area) [TIMESEP[(data-value)]]]
CTS-PAC Version 1.1 133

DELAY
• Used to DELAY the processing of a task • The issuing task is suspended for a specified interval or
Until the specified time
EXEC CICS DELAY INTERVAL(hhmmss) | TIME(hhmmss) END-EXEC Conditions: EXPIRED, INVREQ
CTS-PAC Version 1.1 134

POST/WAIT event
• POST to request notification when the specified time •
has expired. WAIT EVENT to wait for an event to occur.
EXEC CICS POST INTERVAL(hhmmss) | TIME(hhmmss) SET (Ptr-Ref) END-EXEC Conditions : EXPIRED, INVREQ EXEC CICS WAIT EVENT ECADDR(Ptr-Ref) END-EXEC. Conditions: INVREQ CTS-PAC

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135

• Used to start a transaction at the specified terminal

START

and at the specified time or interval Data can be passed to the new transaction

EXEC CICS START TRANSID(transid) [TERMID(termid) TIME(hhmmss) | INTERVAL(hhmmss) ] END-EXEC Conditions : INVREQ, LENGERR,TERMIDERR, CTS-PAC Version 1.1 TRANSIDERR

136

RETRIEVE
• Used to retrieve the data passed by the START
RETRIEVE {INTO(data_area) | SET(ptr_ref)} {LENGTH(data_area)} {RTRANSID(data_area)} {RTERMID(data_area)} {QUEUE(data_area)} {WAIT} Handle Conditions: ENDDATA, ENVDEFERR, INVREQ, CTS-PAC Version 1.1 137 IOERR, LENGERR, NOTFND

CANCEL
• Used to cancel the Interval Control requests. eg.
DELAY,POST and START identified by REQID. CANCEL {REQID(name) {TRANSID(name)} {SYSID(name)}} Handle Conditions: INVREQ, NOTAUTH, NOTFND,SYSIDERR
CTS-PAC Version 1.1 138

SUSPEND
• Used to suspend a task • After the execution of higher priority tasks, control will
be returned to the suspended task EXEC CICS SUSPEND END-EXEC

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ENQ
• ENQ- to gain exclusive control over a resource
ENQ RESOURCE(data_area) {LENGTH(data_value)} {NOSUSPEND} • Handle Conditions: ENQBUSY, LENGERR, INVREQ

CTS-PAC

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140

DEQ
• DEQ- to free the exclusive control from the resource
gained by ENQ DEQ RESOURCE(data_area) {LENGTH(data_value)} • Handle Conditions: INVREQ, LENGERR

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141

RECOVERY & RESTART

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142

The Need for Recovery/Restart
• The possible failures that can occur outside the CICS
system are

• Communication failures (in online systems) • Data set or database failures • Application or system program failures • Processor failures & Power supply failures. • Recovery/Restart facilities are required to minimize or if possible, eliminate the damage done to the online system, in case of the above failures to maintain the system & data integrity.
CTS-PAC Version 1.1 143

RECOVERY
• An attempt to come back to where the CICS system or the
transaction was when the failure occurred

• Recoverable Resources
• • • • •
VSAM files Intrapartition TDQ TSQ in the auxiliary storage DATA tables Resource definitions & System definition files

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RESTART
• To resume the operation of the CICS system or the
transaction when the recovery is completed

• Facilities for CICS Recovery/Restart
• • • • • •
Dynamic Transaction Backout Automatic Transaction Restart Resource Recovery Using System Log Resource Recovery Using Journal System Restart Extended Recovery Facility (XRF)
Version 1.1 145

CTS-PAC

Dynamic Transaction BackoutDTB
• When the transaction fails, backing out the changes made
by the transaction while the rest of the CICS system continues normally is called DTB • CICS automatically writes the ‘before image’ information of the record into the dynamic log for the duration of one LUW ,the work between the two consecutive SYNC points • When an ABEND occurs, CICS automatically recovers all recoverable resources using the info. in dynamic log (Set DTB=YES in PCT)
CTS-PAC Version 1.1 146

LUW & SYNC point
• The period between the start of a particular set of changes
and the point at which they are complete is called a logical unit of work- LUW • The end of a logical unit of work is indicated to CICS by a synchronization point (sync pt). • Intermediate SYNC pt. can be done by EXEC CICS SYNCPOINT [ROLLBACK] END-EXEC
CTS-PAC Version 1.1 147

LUWs & SYNC pts
|- - - - - - - - - - - - LUW - - - - - - - - - | Task A|---------------------------------------------| SOT EOT-SP |- - - LUW- - |- - - LUW- - |- - -LUW- - | Task B|---------------->--------------->--------------| SOT SP SP EOT-SP When the failure occurs, changes made within the abending LUW will be backed out.
CTS-PAC Version 1.1 148

Automatic Transaction Restart
• CICS capability to automatically restart a transaction after
all resources are recovered through DTB • If the transaction requires automatic restart facility, Set RESTART=YES in PCT • Care should be taken in order to restart the task at the point where DTB completes in the case of intermediate SYNC point

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Extended Recovery Facility-XRF
• XRF is to increase the availability of CICS by • • • •
automating the fast recovery of CICS resources There are two systems with same configuration All the resources are shared by the two systems If the failure occurs in one system, the other system will continue The system downtime can be reduced to few minutes if XRF is used

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150

Communication Controller (3725)

XRF-Concept
3090 MVS/XA ACF/VTAM CICS/MVS

ACF/NCP Active Session Back-up Session

3090
System Files CICS Files Application Files

MVS/XA ACF/VTAM CICS/MVS

Active System
CTS-PAC

Shared Resources
Version 1.1

Alternate system
151

Program Preparation

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152

Introduction
• Preparing a Program to run in CICS Environment. • Defining the Program in the CICS Region. • Executing the Program.

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Preparing a Program
• CICS requires the following steps to prepare a Program.
• Translating the Program. • Assemble or Compile the Translator Output. & • Link the Program.

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Translation
• Translates the ‘EXEC CICS’ Statements into the
Statements your Language (COBOL) Compiler can Understand. • The Translator gives two outputs, a Program Listing as SYSPRINT and a Translated Source in SYSPUNCH. • The SYSPUNCH is given as the input to the Program Compiler. • If any Copy Books are used in the Program, there should not be any CICS Statements in the Copy Book.

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Translator Options.
• The Translator Options Can be specified using
• PARM Statement to the Translating Step. or • By Specifying CBL. • Some important Translator Options are • COBOL2, OPT, DEBUG, SOURCE, FLAG, EDF, ...

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Compiling or Linking
• As the CICS Commands have been translated, The
Compilation of the CICS Program is the same as Language Program. • Hence, the Compiler Options can be specified as required. • FDUMP and RENT option should be specified for VS COBOL II.

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Defining the Program
• The Application should be defined and Installed into the
PPT. • This can be done either by using CEDA Trans. or DFHPPT.

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CICS Supplied Transactions

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CESN/CSSF Transactions
• To sign on to CICS system • CESN [USERID=userid] [,PS=password] • • • • •
[,NEWPS=newpassword][,LANGUAGE=l] userid & password values can be from 1-8 chars. In RACF, the Userid given in CESN is verified. NEWPS to change the password and LANGUAGE to choose national language Sign off by CSSF which breaks the connection between the user and CICS If the Sign on is done twice for the same userid at the terminal, the previous operator will be signed off
Version 1.1 161

CTS-PAC

CEBR-Temporary Storage Browse
• To browse the contents of CICS temporary storage • • • • • •
queues (TSQ) CEBR by default will show the queue associated with the current terminal ‘CEBRL001’ which can be overridden to view any other queue TERM to browse TSQ for another terminal QUEUE to make the named queue, current PUT to copy the current queue contents into TDQ GET to fetch TDQ for browsing PURGE erases the contents of the current queue
Version 1.1 162

CTS-PAC

CECI - Command Level Interpreter
• To build and test the effect of EXEC CICS commands • CECI ASSIGN is used to get the current userid,sysid,
terminal id, application id etc.. • Before using the maps in programs, it can be tested using CECI to check how it appears on the screen. • CECI gives the complete command syntax of the specified command. • CECI READQ TD QUEUE(TESTL001) will read the current record of the given TDQ

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CEMT-Master Terminal Transaction
• CEMT provides the following services
• • • •
Displays the status of CICS & system resources Alter the status of CICS & system resources Remove the installed resource definitions Perform few functions that are not related to resources

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CEDA - Resource Definition Online
• To define and alter resource definitions of CICS system • The main two functions provided by CEDA are DEFINE
& INSTALL
• DEFINE - To specify the resource definition in CICS system •
definition (CSD) file INSTALL - To transfer the new definition to active CICS system. In few cases, activation of definitions is done later thru ‘CEMT’ ( CEMT S PROG(CCDTEST) NEW)

• Resources that are defined/installed are FILE, PROGRAM,
TERMINAL,TRANSACTIONS,MAPSETS etc... • Used to get the characteristics of transactions,programs, files, etc through View command
CTS-PAC Version 1.1 165

CEDF-Execution Diagnostic Facility
• To test command level application programs interactively • CEDF [termid/sysid/sessionid] [,ON/,OFF] • Termid - the identifier of the terminal on which the
transaction to be tested is being run • Sessionid - To test/monitor a transaction attached across an MRO/ISC session • Sysid - To test a transaction across an APPC session

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CEDF - Contd.
• The points at which EDF interrupts execution of the
program and sends a display to the terminal

• At transaction initialization, after EIB has been initialized and • • • • •
before the app. pgm given control Start of execution of each CICS command (auguement values can be changed at this point) End of execution of each CICS command and before the Handle condition mechanism is invoked (response code values can be changed) At program termination & at normal task termination When an ABEND occurs & at abnormal task termination. EIB values can be changed..& CEBR can be invoked
Version 1.1 167

CTS-PAC

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