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1.1 Overview of the theme
In this literature review, I am going to review motivation in organization behavior. Motivation is one of the most important parts of organization behavior when we do some research of human resource management. Because motivation is the fuel that drives a person to fulfill their goals, wants, and needs. The key to leadership success is motivating others to do their best. Motivation plays a very important role in workplace for both manager and employee to achieve their personal goal and company’s target.
1.2 Nature of Motivation
Motivation is the set of forces that cause people to behave in certain way. From the manger’s viewpoint, the objective is to motivate people to behave in ways that are in the organization’s best interest. (Moorhead & Griffin 1995, p.78) From another way, motivation is the term used to describe those processes, both instinctive and rational, by which people seek to satisfy the basic drives, perceived needs and personal goals, which trigger human behavior. (Cole 1995, p.119) And other writers defined the study of motivation is concerned with why people behave in a certain way, and with what determines the direction and persistence of their actions. Levels of work performance are determined not only by the ability of staff but also by the strength of their motivation. If staffs are to perform to the best of their abilities, attention must also be given to the nature of work motivation and job satisfaction. (Mullins 2001, p.223) Motivation represents the forces acting on or within a person that cause the person to behave in a specific, goaldirected manager. (Hellriegel & Slocum 1995, p.170)
1.3 Historical view of motivation
The earliest views on human motivation were dominated by the concept of hedonism: the idea that people seek pleasure and comfort and try to avoid pain and discomfort. William James argued that instinctive behavior and unconscious motivation are also important in human behavior. Historical views on motivation, even though not always accurate, are of interest for several reasons. For one thing, they provide a foundation for contemporary thinking about motivation. For another, because they generally were based on common sense and intuition, an appreciation of their strength and weaknesses can help managers gain useful insights into employee motivation in the workplace. (Moorhead & Griffin 1995, p.80) Late in the 19th century Frederick Taylor developed one of the earliest conceptions of management 1
and the management role which included a set of assumptions about motivation. Taylor drew upon the wider authority and methodology of science to offer a version of what the manager should do. The division of labor between worker and manager was seen in terms of a separation of the planning function from that of execution. It is attempt to relate reward to the efficiency of effort and output that has led many to insist that Taylor placed a primary motivational value upon money. (Knights & Willmott 2007, p.43) 1.4 Theories of Motivation 1.4.1 Content Theories of Motivation Content theories of motivation try to explain the factors within a person that energize, direct, and stop behavior, that is, the specific factors that motivate people. For example, an attractive salary, good working conditions, and friendly co-worker are important to most people. (Hellriegel & Slocum 1995, p.174) The most well-known content theory of motivation is the hierarchy of human needs developed by psychologist Abraham Maslow in the 1940s. He put forward that people‘s needs are arranged in an hierarchy in which basic needs generally have to be satisfied before higher needs come into play. The basic needs include physiological and safety needs, followed by social and affiliation needs. The higher needs include esteem needs and self–actualization to which were later added ' curiosity' and the need to understand. (Cole 1995, p.125) Another well-known content theory of motivation is Clay Alderfer’s ERG theory of motivation, he provides a more flexible approach than Maslow’s. Alderfer’s ERG theory holds that the individual has three sets of basic needs: existence, relatedness, and growth. The two theories differ in their view of how people may satisfy the different sets of needs. Maslow states that unfilled needs are motivators and that the next higher level need is not activated until the preceding lower level need is satisfied. In contrast, ERG theory suggests that, in addition to this fulfillment-progression process, a frustration-regression process is at work. That is, if a person is continually frustrated in attempts to satisfy growth needs, relatedness needs will reemerge as a significant motivating force. (Hellriegel & Slocum 1995, p.177) In addition, McClelland has developed a content theory of motivation which is rooted in culture. The need for achievement underlies the higher levels of Maslow’s hierarchy. That is achievement theory of motivation which emphasized on the importance of achievement. The work of McClelland is based on the concept of four main sets of needs and socially developed motives: the need for affiliation, achievement, power, avoidance. People possess all four needs but the relative intensity of these motives varies among individuals and different occupations. Although all four needs are 2
important, McClelland’s research had concentrated mainly on how managers can develop the need for achievement in subordinate staff. The extent of achievement motivation varies among individuals. It is dependent upon cultural influences, occupational experiences and the type of organization in which they work. (Mullins 2001, p.235) McGregor posed the Theory X about content theory of motivation. Theory X proposition are as follows (McGregor 1989, p.315): 1. Management is responsible for organizing the elements of productive enterprise-money, materials, equipment, people - in the interest of economic end. 2. With respect to people, this is a process of directing their efforts, motivating them, controlling their actions, modifying their behavior to fit the needs of the organization. 3. Without this active intervention by management, people would be passive-even resistant- to organizational needs. They must therefore be persuaded, rewarded, punished, controlled- their activities must be directed. Frederick Herzberg’s motivator – Hygiene Theory is one of the most controversial theories of motivation. This theory includes two different sets of factors. Motivator factors are intrinsic factors, which includes the work itself, recognition, advancement, and responsibility. These factors are associated with an individual’s positive feeling about the job and are related to the content of the job itself. Hygiene factors are extrinsic factors, which includes company policy and administration, technical supervision, salary, working conditions, and interpersonal relations. These factors are associated with an individual’s negative feeling about the job and are related to the context or environment in which the job is performed. (Herzberg & Mausner 1959, p. 113-114) 1.4.2 Process Theories of Motivation Process theories try to describe and analyze how personal factors (internal to the person) interact to produce certain kinds of behavior. (Hellriegel & Slocum 1995, p.187) Process theories attempt to identify relationships among the dynamic variables which make up motivation. They provide a further contribution to our understanding of behavior and performance at work, and the complex nature of motivation. Process theories are concerned with how behavior is initiated, directed and sustained. (Mullins 2001, p.237) The four best known process theories of motivation are expectancy, equity, goal setting, participation and empowerment. The basic expectancy theory model emerged from the work of Edward Tolman and Kurt Lewin. Vitor Vroom, however, is generally credited with first 3
applying the theory to the motivation of individuals in the workplace. The basic premise of expectancy theory is that motivation depends on how much we want something and how likely we think we are to get it. (Moorhead & Griffin 1995, p.108) One of the variables identified in the Porter and Lawler expectancy model is perceived equitable rewards. This leads to consideration of another process theory of motivation – equity theory –which adds further to our understanding of the behavior of people at work. Equity theory focuses on people’s feeling of how fairly they have been treated in comparison with the treatment received by others. Applied to the work situation, equity theory is usually associated with the work of Adams. People expect certain outcomes in exchange for certain contributions or inputs. Equity theory is based on this concept of exchange theory. For example, a person may expect promotion as an outcome (and in exchange for) a high level of contribution in helping to achieve an important organizational objective (input). (Mullins 2001, p.242) In addition, Locke proposed the idea of goal theory that working towards goals was in itself a motivator. The thinking behind goal theory is that motivation is driven primarily by the goals or objectives that individuals set for themselves. Unlike in expectancy theory, where a satisfactory outcome is the prime motivator, goal theory suggests that it is the goal itself that provides the driving force. And Locke’s research indicated that performance improved when individuals set specific rather than vague goals for themselves. When these specific goals were demanding ones, performance was even better. (Cole 1995, p.132) Participative management and empowerment also represent important process based perspectives on employee motivation. Participation is the process of giving employees a voice in making decisions about their own work. Empowerment is the processes of enabling workers to set their own work goals, make decisions, and solve problems within their sphere of responsibility and authority. Empowerment is a somewhat broader concept that promotes participation in a wide variety of areas, including but not limited to work itself, work context, and work environment. (Moorhead & Griffin 1995, p.117)
Through the reviewing about motivation of some literatures in organization stream from above aspects, we can find most scholars’ research about motivation emphasized on the content theories and process theories. By researching these two theories, we can know what specific factors that motivate employee are and how to motivate employee in organization 4
behavior. And we can apply these theories to the real workplace in the future.
3. Reference List
1. Moorhead, G. & Griffin, R.W. 1995, Organization Behavior: Managing People and Organization, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 2. Cole, G.A. 1995, Organization Behavior, DP Publications Ltd, London. 3. Mullins, L.J. 2001, Hospitality Management and Organizational Behavior, Pearson Education Limited, London. 4. Hellriegel, D. & Slocum, J.W. 1995, Organization Behavior, West Publishing Company, New York. 5. Knights, D. & Willmott, H. 2007, Introducing Organizational Behavior Management, Thomson Learning, London. 6. Herzberg, F. & Mausner, B. 1992, The Motivation to Work, Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick. 7. Vroom, V.H. 1995, Work and Motivation, Jossey-Bass Publishers, San Francisco. 8. McGregor, D. 1989, Reading in Managerial Psychology, McGraw-Hill, New York. 9. Pinder, C. 1984, Work Motivation, Scott, Glenview. 10.Hilgard, E.R. 1967, Introduction to Psychology, Harcourt, New York. 11.Maslow, A.H. 1954, A Theory of Human Motivation, Harper&Row, New York. 12.McClelland, D.C. 1988, Human Motivation, Cambridge University Press, London. 13.Adams, J.S. 1979, Motivation and Work Behavior, McGraw-Hill, New York. 5