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Volleyball

Volleyball Study Sheet
Fun Facts
• Volleyball is an American game that was conceived as a combination of basketball, tennis, and handball skills by William G. Morgan in Springfield, Massachusetts, in 1895. • Volleyball was originally called mintonette. • Setting and spiking skills were first used in the Philippines in 1916. • The United States Volleyball Association (USVBA) was created in 1928 when it became apparent that players needed to follow a set of standard rules. • The first beach volleyball association was formed in California in 1965. • The first two-person volleyball competition occurred in 1948. • The Olympics included two-person volleyball for the first time in 1996.

Skills
• Underhand serve—With the holding hand at waist height, the foot opposite the hitting hand forward, and the body facing the net, swing the hitting arm so that the fist or heel of the hitting hand contacts the ball below its center, or in the mouth of the imagined face. • Overhead serve—In a forward-stride position, holding the ball in front of and slightly above the shoulder, bring the hitting elbow back and then forward, contacting the ball with the heel of the hand so the heel of the hand meets the ball on the nose of the imagined face. • Bump, dig, forearm pass—From the ready position of arms straight, 90º away from the body, shoulders forward, hips back, and knees bent, meet the ball at hip height with the lower part of the forearm, slightly above the wrists. If an arm swing is necessary, it should be in the direction of the target. • Setup pass—With fingers spread in an unclosed triangle over the eyes, get under the ball, face the target, and meet the ball with the fingers slightly above the forehead. On the hit, extend legs and arms up in the direction of the target. • Net recovery—Use a bump pass and get under the ball to retrieve it. If it hits high on the net, it will roll almost straight down. If it hits in the middle of the net, it will rebound out. • Spike—Jump off both feet with both arms swinging forward and the hitting elbow pulling back. With a relaxed, open hand, swing up to make the hit, using the heel of the hand to hit the ball, continuing the face metaphor, around its eyes. Your hand and the ball should meet in front of you with the hitting arm extended overhead. • Block—Jump with and in front of the hitter from the other team. Go straight up off both feet, with arms extended overhead and angled slightly forward. Watch the opposing setter’s hands before the set to know where the hitter will be and thus where to make the block. Watch the hitter’s eyes to know where he plans to direct the hit.

Rules
• Boundaries -- A ball landing within the court or on the line is fair -- If the ball touches ceiling, walls, people, or objects outside the court, it is out of play. • Serving -- The ball must be put into play with one hand. -- The serve must be contacted outside the court and inside the service zone. -- Teams get the right to serve: • After they win the choice at the beginning of the game. • After they win a point when they were the receiving team. »continued

From Isobel Kleinman, 2009, Complete Physical Education Plans for Grades 5 to 12, Second Edition (Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics).

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Volleyball
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Teams not following their service order lose points gained when the rotation error is discovered. -- Rotation is clockwise. • Scoring -- The team that wins the rally scores a point (rally scoring system). -- If both teams commit a fault at the same time, the point is replayed. -- Games (sets) are won when one team gets 25 points (class rules may be different) and is ahead by 2 points. -- Official matches require winning three games, or sets (class rules may be different). -- In official matches, if a fifth game is necessary, the team achieving 15 points and leading by 2 has won the match. • Hitting -- Each team is entitled to three hits before the ball passes over the net. -- A player cannot hit the ball twice in succession, with the following exceptions: • An opponent touched it simultaneously over the net. • The ball touching any part of the body is considered a hit. • A block is not considered one of the team’s three hits. • Net play -- Blockers may touch the ball beyond the net once attackers have executed their play, not before or during opponent’s hit. -- Players may follow through over the net. -- Players cannot go beyond the center line or go into the opponents’ court. -- When playing the ball, players cannot contact the net. -- Back-line players may play balls at the net if the ball is lower than the net at the moment of contact, but they may not execute an attack in the front zone. -- There can be no attack in response to an opponent’s service. -- Only frontline players may block or spike in the front part of the court.

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Positions
• Rotation positions during serve (see figure 14.4 on page 572) -- Right back (server) -- Right forward -- Center forward -- Left forward -- Left back -- Center back (last server) • Playing positions for advanced teams that specialize -- Setter—Sends the second tap to the team hitter or spiker; always faces left sideline. -- Outside hitter—Hits from the strong side, left-front position; blocks weak-side hits and assists in blocking middle hits. -- Weak-side hitter (to the right of the setter)—Hits and blocks balls on the right side; responsible for setting if the setter plays the first tap. -- Middle hitter—Hits and blocks balls to middle of court; assists blocks on either side.

From Isobel Kleinman, 2009, Complete Physical Education Plans for Grades 5 to 12, Second Edition (Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics).

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