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Man power planning or human resource planning is “the process by which management determines how an organization should move from the current manpower to the desired manpower position. Through planning, a management strives to have the right number and the right kind of people at the right place, to do things which result in both individual and the organization receiving the maximum long range benefit. Coleman has defined human resource or manpower planning as “the process of determining manpower requirements and the means for meeting those requirements in order to carry out the integrated plan of the organization.” Stainer defines manpower planning as “strategy for the acquisition, utilization, improvement, and preservation of an enterprise’s human resources. It relates to establishing job specifications or the quantitative requirements of jobs determining the number of personnel required and developing sources of manpower. According to Wickstrom, manpower planning consists a series of activities ie 1. forecasting future manpower requirements 2. making an inventory of present manpower resources 3. anticipating manpower problems by projecting present resources into the future and comparing them with the forecast of requirements to determine their adequacy, both quantitatively and qualitatively 4. planning recruitment selection, training, development, utilization, transfer, promotion motivation and compensation to ensure that future manpower requirements are properly met thus, it will be noted that manpower planning consists in projecting future manpower requirements and development manpower plans for the implementation of the projections. Manpower planning is a double edges sword. If used properly, it leads to the maximum utilization of human resources, reduces excessive labor turnover and high absenteeism, improves productivity and aids in achieving organizational goals. If not used properly, it leads to disruption in the flow of work, lower production, less job satisfaction, high cost of production and constant headaches for management personnel. Therefore, for the success of an enterprise, manpower planning is very important function. For an individual it is important because it helps to improve his skills and potential to the utmost. For an organization it is important as it improves its efficiency and productivity. It is only through initial manpower planning that capable hands are available for promotion. NEED FOR MANPOWER PLANNING Manpower planning is essential because of the following reasons 1. To carry out its work, each organization needs personnel with the necessary qualifications, skills, knowledge, work experience and aptitude foe work. These are provided through effective planning. 2. Since large number of persons have to be replaced who have grown old, or who retire, die or become incapacitated because of physical or mental ailments, there is a constant need for replacing such persons. Otherwise the work will suffer.
3. human resource planning is essential because of frequent labor turnover which is unavoidable and even beneficial because it arises from factors which are socially and economically sound such as voluntary quits, discharges, marriage etc 4. In order to meet the needs of expansion programs hr/manpower planning is unavoidable. 5. The nature of the present workforce in relation to its changing needs also necessitates the recruitment of new labor. To meet the challenge of new and changing technology and new techniques of production, existing employees need to be trained or new blood injected in an organization. 6. manpower is also needed to identify the areas of surplus as well as shoratage of labor THE OBJECTIVE OF HR/MANPOWER PLANNING The objective of manpower planning is to maintain and improve the organizations ability to achieve its goal by developing strategies that will contribute its optimum contribution of human resources. Manpower planning is the responsibility of both line and staff manager. The line management is responsible to give estimate of manpower requirements and staff manager is responsible to take actions on selection and recruitment in association with line manager who needs the man power. BENEFITS OF MANPOWER PLANNING. • Less costs because management can anticipate imbalances before they become unmanageable and expensive • More tine is provided to locate the talent • Better opportunities exist to include women and minority groups in future growth plans • Better planning of assignments to develop managers can be done. • Major and successful demands on local labor markets can be made PROCESS OF MANPOWER PLANNING It is a multi-step process as follows • Deciding goals and objectives • Estimating future organizational structure and manpower requirements • Auditing human resources • Planning job requirements and job descriptions • And developing human resource plan DECIDING OBJECTIVES In effect the main purpose is one of matching or fitting employee abilities to enterprise requirements, with an emphasis on future instead of present arrangements. The ultimate mission or purpose is to relate future human resources to future enterprise needs so as to maximize the future return on investment in human resources. ESTIMATING THE FUTURE ORGANIZATIONAL FORECASTING THE MANPOWER REQUIREMENTS. STRUCTURE OR
The management must estimate the structure of the organization at a given point of time. The number and type of employees needed have to be determined. Many environmental factors affect this determination. They include business forecasts, expansion, growth, design, structural changes,
management philosophy, government policy , product and human mix and competition Forecasting is necessary because, • The eventualities and contingencies of general economic business cycles (such as inflation, wages, prices, costs and raw material supplies) have an influence on the short range and long run plans of all organizations. • An expansion following enlargement and growth in business involves the use of additional machineries and personnel and a reallocation of facilities, all of which call for advance planning of human resources. • Changes in management philosophies and leadership styles. • The use of mechanical technology necessitate changes in the skills of workers as well as a change in the number of employees needed. After estimating what future organization structure should be, the next step is to draw up the requirements of manpower, both for existing and new vacancies. For this requirement details should be obtained from various departments. Vacancies occurring in any department should be notified in writing to the personnel department, stating clearly the number of vacancies to be filled category or job wise, their qualification and experience and the reasons for acquisition. A statement of duties, type of jobs, pay scale and previous experience should also be made. In determining the requirements of manpower, the expected losses which are likely to occur through labor turnover- quits, retirement, death, transfers, promotions, demotions, dismissals. Disability, resignations, lay-offs, and other separations – should be taken into account. Additional resources are gained through new employment of personnel, promotions, transfers etc. After making all adjustments, the real shortages and surplus may be found off. If a shortage is there, efforts are made to fill up the vacancies. If there is surplus deal it by transfers, retrenchments etc. AUDITING HUMAN RESOURCES Once the future requirement is estimated the next step is to determine the present supply of manpower resources. This is done through what is called “skills inventory” which contain data about each employees skills, abilities, work preference which indicated his overall value to the company. Other data pertaining his performance ratings and superior’s evaluation may also be tabulated and all these are fed into computers. These details are required by personnel departments for transfers, promotions and manpower requirement filling. JOB ANLYSIS After having decided how many persons would be needed, it is necessary to prepare job analysis, which records details of training, skills, qualification, abilities, experience and responsibilities. Etc which are needed for the job. Job analysis include the preparation of job descriptions and job specifications. DEVELOPING MANPOWER PLAN This consists in finding out the sources of labor supply with a view to making an effective use of these factors. The best policy which is followed by most organizations is to fill up higher vacancies by promotion and lower level positions by recruitment from labor market. A labor market is a geographical area from which employees recruit
their workforce and labor. The personnel manager should have a thorough knowledge about labor market.
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