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V.

Pathophysiology
Precipitating Predisposing Age-73 years old Hereditary - asthma History of cigarette smoking (10 years and can consume 2 packs per day)

Allergens enter the upper respiratory tract

Stimulation and activation of B Lymphocytes

B Lymphocytes produces Immunoglobulin E(IgE)

IgE antibodies attached to mast cells and basophils in thebronchial walls

Mast cells degranulation

Mast cells releases chemical mediators of inflammation

Hydrocortisone ( Solu-Cortef) 100mg IV q6H

Histamine

Bradikynin

Prostaglandin

Slow- reacting substanceanaphylaxis ( SRS- A)

increase blood flow to the area of insult

Increase mucus production

Chemical mediators induced capillary dilation

Contraction of the bronchial smooth muscles that encircles the airway (bronchospasm)

Crackles/Rales Attraction of WBC to the area Productive cough (whitish sputum in minimal amount) Edema of the airway Deposition of collagen below the basement membrane Diagnostic Exam: Chest X-ray

Fluid shifting fromthe vasculatureand to the alveoli

Airway constriction or bronchoconstriction NAC 200 mg, 1 sachet in ½ glass water q 8h Increase work of breathing Hyperinflation of alveoli Increase resistance to airflow

Narrowing of the Airway

Salbutamol + ipratropium Neb q 8h

Fatigue of muscles of ventilation

Weak Cough

Ventilation- Perfusion (V/Q) mismatch and shunt

Inadequate exchange of O2 and CO2 Tachycardia110bpm Paleness, BP- 140/80Capillary refill 5Seconds, fatigue, altered sleep pattern, feeling of physically drained

Hypoxemia
Interventions: >Oxygen administration through mechanical ventilator attached to ET Tube >Monitor pulse oximetry > Elevated head of bed and advised to sit-up in his bed. >Turned the client on his side every 2 hours

ACUTE RESPIRATORY FAILURE
COMPLICATIONS:
Tissue hypoxia, Subsequent organ damage chronic respiratory failure, Tension pneumothorax, Lobar atelectasis, Pneumonia, Pulmonary edema

Legend

Pathophysiology

Diagnostic Exam

Medications

Intervention

Signs and symptoms

Complication