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A ceramic is an inorganic, nonmetallic solid prepared by the action of heat and subsequent cooling. Ceramic materials may have a crystalline or partly crystalline structure, or may be amorphous (e.g., a glass). Because most common ceramics are crystalline, the definition of ceramic is often restricted to inorganic crystalline materials, as opposed to the noncrystalline glasses, a distinction followed here. The earliest ceramics made by humans were pottery objects, including 27,000 year old figurines, made from clay, either by itself or mixed with other materials, hardened in fire. Later ceramics were glazed and fired to create a colored, smooth surface. Ceramics now include domestic, industrial and building products and a wide range of ceramic art. In the 20th century, new ceramic materials were developed for use in advanced ceramic engineering; for example, in semiconductors. The word "ceramic" comes from the Greek word κεραμικός (keramikos), "of pottery" or "for pottery", from κέραμος (keramos), "potter's clay, tile, pottery". The earliest mention of the root "ceram-" is the Mycenaean Greek ke-ra-me-we, "workers of ceramics", written in Linear B syllabic script. "Ceramic" may be used as an adjective describing a material, product or process; or as a singular noun, or, more commonly, as a plural noun, "ceramics".
A Ming Dynasty porcelain vase dated to 1403–1424
1 Types of ceramic product 1.1 Examples of whiteware ceramics 1.2 Classification of technical ceramics 2 Other applications of ceramics 3 Types of ceramic material 3.1 Crystalline ceramics 3.2 Noncrystalline ceramics 4 Ceramics in archaeology 5 See also 6 References 7 External links
Fire test furnace insulated with firebrick and ceramic fibre insulation.
Types of ceramic product
For convenience, ceramic products are usually divided into four sectors; these are shown below with some
quartz and feldspar. although it is more brittle and can snap from a fall onto a hard surface. ceria.
Other applications of ceramics
Knife blades: the blade of a ceramic knife will stay sharp for much longer than that of a steel knife. gas burner nozzles. and in Japan. special. coatings of jet Rock. nitride. fiber reinforced. Such items include tiles used in the Space Shuttle program. or "bridge"
Classification of technical ceramics
Technical ceramics can also be classified into three distinct material categories: Oxides: alumina. combinations of oxides and nonoxides. such as kiln linings. steel and glass making crucibles Whitewares. Each one of these classes can develop unique material properties because ceramics tend to be crystalline.examples: Structural. Frequently. including tableware. ballistic protection. including bricks. Advanced composite ceramic and metal matrices have been designed for most modern armoured fighting vehicles because they offer superior penetrating resistance against shaped charges (such as HEAT rounds) and kinetic energy penetrators. wall tiles. which is often made from clay. ceramic disk brake. zirconia Nonoxides: carbide. cookware. boride. is also known as engineering. biomedical implants. gas fire radiants. advanced. beryllia. missile nose cones. silicide Composite materials: particulate reinforced.
Examples of whiteware ceramics
Main article: pottery Earthenware. nuclear fuel uranium oxide Mid-16th century Ceramic Tilework on The Dome of the pellets. fine ceramics.
. bearing (mechanical).etc. pottery products and sanitary ware Technical. pipes. which is often made from kaolin Bone china
Fixed partial porcelain denture. the raw materials do not include clays. floor and roof tiles Refractories. Stoneware Porcelain. Jerusalem engine turbine blades. Ceramic brake disks for vehicles are resistant to abrasion at high temperatures.
bone mineral. The expected advantages would have been lighter materials and a smaller cooling system (or no need for one at all). Similar material is used to protect the cockpits of some military airplanes. heat from friction during rolling can cause problems for metal bearings. In the early 1980s. fully dense nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite ceramic materials for orthopedic weight bearing devices. The case of the IWC 2007 Top Gun edition of the Pilot's
. but naturally occurring. which are reduced by the use of ceramics. such engines have not succeeded in production because of costs for the ceramic components and the limited advantages. Work is being done to make strong. Ceramics are also more chemically resistant and can be used in wet environments where steel bearings would rust. leading to a major weight reduction. meaning they have less contact with the bearing retainer walls and can roll faster. and are used to coat metal orthopedic devices to aid in forming a bond to bone or as bone fillers. replacing foreign metal and plastic orthopedic materials with a synthetic. Ceramics such as alumina and boron carbide have been used in ballistic armored vests to repel large-caliber rifle fire. The expected increase of fuel efficiency of the engine (caused by the higher temperature. Work is being done in developing ceramic parts for gas turbine engines. (Small imperfections in the ceramic material with its low fracture toughness lead to cracks. Ceramics can be used in place of steel for ball bearings. because of the low weight of the material. durability and smooth touch. In very high speed applications. Turbine engines made with ceramics could operate more efficiently. The ceramics would have allowed temperatures of over 3000°F (1650°C).) Such engines are possible in laboratory settings. even blades made of advanced metal alloys used in the engines' hot section require cooling and careful limiting of operating temperatures. or SAPIs. In some cases. IWC is one of the brands that initiated the use of ceramic in watchmaking. Ultimately. which can lead to potentially dangerous equipment failure. their electricity-insulating properties may also be valuable in bearings. giving aircraft greater range and payload for a set amount of fuel. the natural mineral component of bone. They also deform less under load. Their higher hardness means they are much less susceptible to wear and typically last for triple the lifetime of a steel part. scratch resistance. Currently. such as dental implants and synthetic bones. Such plates are known commonly as small arms protective inserts. Two drawbacks to ceramic bearings are a significantly higher cost and susceptibility to damage under shock loads.and kinetic energy penetrators. Recent advances have been made in ceramics which include bioceramics. as shown by Carnot's theorem) could not be verified experimentally. has been made synthetically from a number of biological and chemical sources and can be formed into ceramic materials. Toyota researched production of an adiabatic engine using ceramic components in the hot gas area. synthetic bones. They are also used as fillers for orthopedic plastic screws to aid in reducing the inflammation and increase absorption of these plastic materials. Most hydroxyapatite ceramics are very porous and lack mechanical strength. it was found that the heat transfer on the hot ceramic cylinder walls was higher than the transfer to a cooler metal wall as the cooler gas film on the metal surface works as a thermal insulator. these ceramic materials may be used as bone replacements or with the incorporation of protein collagens. despite all of these desirable properties. but mass production is not feasible with current technology. Thus. High-tech ceramic is used in watchmaking for producing watch cases. Orthopedic implants coated with these materials bond readily to bone and other tissues in the body without rejection or inflammatory reactions so are of great interest for gene delivery and tissue engineering scaffolds. The material is valued by watchmakers for its light weight. Hydroxyapatite.
technology and behavior of peoples of the past. e.
Crystalline ceramic materials are not amenable to a great range of processing. Some elements.
Noncrystalline ceramics. Details of these processes are described in the two books listed below. and then sintering to form a solid body. often crystalline oxide. may be considered ceramics. electrical and electronics industries.000 °F). A glass is often not understood as a ceramic because of its amorphous (noncrystalline) character.
A low magnification SEM micrograph of an advanced ceramic material. Ceramic forming techniques include shaping by hand (sometimes including a rotation process called "throwing").
. by casting.
Types of ceramic material
A ceramic material is an inorganic. A few methods use a hybrid between the two approaches. widely used as cook-top and also as a glass composite material for nuclear waste disposal. more commonly known as alumina. by reaction in situ.
Traditional ceramic raw materials include clay minerals such as kaolinite. glassmaking involves several steps of the ceramic process and its mechanical properties are similar to ceramic materials. generally in the form of small fragments of broken pottery called sherds. They withstand chemical erosion that occurs in other materials subjected to acidic or caustic environments. or by "forming" powders into the desired shape.600 °C (1. However. whereas more recent materials include aluminium oxide.000 °C to 1. and other variations. Methods for dealing with them tend to fall into one of two categories – either make the ceramic in the desired shape. Ceramics generally can withstand very high temperatures. Both are valued for their abrasion resistance. tape casting (used for making very thin ceramic capacitors. such as carbon or silicon. dry pressing. strong in compression. Advanced ceramics are also used in the medicine. The glass is shaped when either fully molten. nitride or carbide material. The properties of ceramics make fracturing an important inspection method.Watch double chronograph is crafted in black ceramic. injection molding. which are classified as advanced ceramics. such as temperatures that range from 1. being glass.g. or when in a state of toffee-like viscosity. Processing of collected sherds can be consistent with two main types of analysis: technical and traditional.).
Ceramics in archaeology
Ceramic artifacts have an important role in archaeology for understanding the culture. slip casting. They are among the most common artifacts to be found at an archaeological site. Ceramic materials are brittle. the resulting material is known as a glass-ceramic. If later heat treatments cause this glass to become partly crystalline. and hence find use in applications such as the wear plates of crushing equipment in mining operations. by methods such as blowing into a mold. hard. The modern ceramic materials. weak in shearing and tension. include silicon carbide and tungsten carbide.800 °F to 3. tend to be formed from melts. non-metallic.
org/index. Henry George Liddell. sherds and larger fragments into specific types based on style. Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.uwlax.0057%3Aentry%3Dkeramiko%2Fs).infoniac.com/default.cfm?pi=GL&gaction=list&grp=C).tufts.php?page=post&id=62). By estimating both the clay and temper compositions. ^ κέραμος (http://www. September 2005. ^ κεραμικός (http://www.palaeolexicon. and assigning a color to it using Munsell Soil Color notation. American Ceramic Society 7. Henry George Liddell. 8. ^ Ceramic in Watchmaking (http://watches. Ceramic Analysis (http://www. Key criteria are the composition of the clay and the temper used in the manufacture of the article under study: temper is a material added to the clay during the initial production stage.
Ceramic chemistry Ceramic materials Ceramic engineering Ceramic matrix composite Ceramic art Pottery Potter's wheel
1. composition. Retrieved on 2011-11-28. A Greek-English Lexicon. Robert Scott.html). Oxford University Press.edu/mvac/processarch/processarch/lab_ceramic. From the source assignment of the artifact further investigations can be made into the site of manufacture. Clay identification is determined by a process of refiring the ceramic. Watches. ^ Greg Geiger Introduction To Ceramics (http://web. A Greek-English Lexicon. 2. and locating a region where both are known to occur.htm). on Perseus Digital Library 4.newi. granite fragments and ground sherd pieces called 'grog'. manufacturing and morphology.uk/buckleyc/ceramics. In addition.org. on Perseus Digital Library 3.aspx?static=12&wid=383).04. Types of temper include shell pieces.tufts. by looking at stylistic changes of ceramics over time is it possible to separate (seriate) the ceramics into distinct diagnostic groups (assemblages). ^ Palaeolexicon (http://www.com/search?searchType=dictionary&q=ceramic). A comparison of ceramic artifacts with known dated assemblages allows for a chronological assignment of these pieces. the purpose of the ceramic and technological state of the people among other conclusions. 6. Temper is usually identified by microscopic examination of the temper material.perseus.edu/hopper/text? doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999. By creating these typologies it is possible to distinguish between different cultural styles.archive.perseus.infoniac. Robert Scott.Traditional analysis involves sorting ceramic artifacts.ctioa. ^ Ceramic Tile and Stone Standards (http://www.com (2008-01-09). Word study tool of ancient languages 5.).com/index.edu/hopper/text? doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999. Ctioa. Retrieved 04-11-12
. ^ "ceramic" (http://oed.0057%3Aentry%3Dke%2Framos).ac.04. The technical approach to ceramic analysis involves a finer examination of the composition of ceramic artifacts and sherds to determine the source of the material and through this the possible manufacturing site. an assignment of the material source can be made. and it is used to aid the subsequent drying process. Retrieved on 2011-11-28.org/web/20060815173829/http://www. ^ Mississippi Valley Archaeological Center.
Dolni Vestonice Venus (http://donsmaps.uiuc. aisbl (http://cerameunie.mse.
.html) World renowned ceramics collections at Stoke-on-Trent Museum (http://www. Properties and Processing of Ceramics (http://matse1.edu/ceramics/ceramics. Firing.ca/default_noflash.asp?ArticleID=2123) – The Evolution. Finishing and Design of Advanced Ceramics Cerame-Unie. By using this site. Inc..aspx) – The only museum in Canada entirely devoted to ceramics Introduction.html) How sanitaryware is made (http://www.com/details. Classification.eu/) – The European Ceramic Industry Association Retrieved from "http://en.uk/ccm/navigation/leisure/museums/collections/ceramics/) Click on Quick Links in the right-hand column to view examples.