This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Example 1: 1. Objective: The three-phase fault duty at a Wind Farm facility is 5kA (299 MVA) on the ungrounded 34.5 kV system. It is required to ground this system using a zigzag grounding transformer and limit the ground-fault current to 400 A. the objective of this study is specifying the grounding transformer.

2. Input Data a. System Voltage: b. System Grounding: c. Type of required grounding Source: d. Neutral ground current that grounding transformer shall carry under fault: 3. Calculation: a. Transformer Impedance Use 100 MVA Base (100000 kVA) Rated Voltage = 34.5 kV Base Ohms = (1000) (kV)2/KVA=1000 (34.5)2/100000= 11.9 Ω Base Amps = KVA/(KV × √3)= 100000/(34.5 x √3)= 1673 A Z1 = Z2 = 100/299 = 0.334 per unit (p.u.) 34.5kV, 3phase, 3Wire Ungrounded c1: zigzag transformer c2: wye-delta 400A

Positive sequence Negative sequence

0.334 p.u.

0.334 p.u..

Zero sequence

Z0

IG = 400/1673= 0.24 p.u. A I0 = 0.24/3= 0.08 p.u. A Ztotal = 1/0.08= 12.5 p.u. Ω

For a wye-delta grounding transformer.5– 0. The reduced size can be established in terms of an “equivalent two-winding 55 C kVA” kVAx. Table 1. it is common to rate it on a reduced time such as 10 s or 1 minute. by applying a reduction factor K to the shorttime rated kVA of the grounding transformer. the actual (short-time) rating in kilovoltamperes is: kVA= (Line-to-Line kV)(Neutral Amps)/3= (34.334– 0.Ztotal – 2Z1 = 12.9 × 11. The reduced size can be established in terms of an “equivalent two-winding 55 C kVA” kVA reduced.5 x 400)/3=4600 kVA ii. its size and cost are less than for a continuous duty transformer of equal kVA rating. Transformer short time kVA rating i. and this reduced kVA can be used for a price estimate. the actual (short-time) rating in kilovoltamperes is: kVA= (Line-to-Line kV)(Neutral Amps)/√3= (34.832= 140. Since a grounding transformer is a short-time device and normally only required to carry short-circuit ground current until the circuit breakers clear the fault. Ω Z0 = 11. Under these circumstances the physical size (and resulting cost) is considerably reduced.832 p.5 x 400)/√3=7967 kVA (8 MVA) Because a grounding transformer is a short-time device.8 Ω/phase for grounding transformer b. Values for K are listed in Table 1 below for various types and classes of grounding transformers.K FACTORS FOR DETERMINING EQUIVALENT TWO-WINDING 56 C KVA OF GROUNDING TRANSFORMERS .u. by applying a reduction factor K to the short-time rated kVA of the grounding transformer. since both windings are active in the primary circuit. For a zigzag grounding transformer.334= 11.

5 kV line to-ground charging current and the unbalanced current (if any). oil: 50⁰C at 40⁰C ambient temperature Standard CAN/CSA C88-M90 (R2009) Accessories Normal Special .8 Ω Temperature Copper: 55⁰C. As per IEEE 32.5 x 28)/3=322 kVA 4. Icontinuous= (7/100) x 400= 28 A Continuous kVA rating= (34. i.5 kV Rated BIL 200 kV Continuous Neutral Current 28 A Rated Neutral Fault Current 400 A for 1 minute Zero sequence impedance 140. The zigzag grounding transformer is required to continuously carrying the 34.e. Proposed Zigzag Grounding transformer Technical Requirement for the Proposed Grounding Transformer Cooling ONAN Installation Outdoor Winding Configuration Zigzag Rated Voltage 34.5 kV system could be subjected to more than one faults in quick succession 1 minute rating is preferable.Since in wind farms the 34. the continuous current for a zigzag grounding transformer with a 1minute time-rating is equal to the 7% of the ground fault current i.

Z0 = Zero sequence impedance. B0. VL-L = system line-to-line voltage in kilovolts. D = the diameter of cables over the insulation shield.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Conservator with liquid drain valve and filling valve Breather Liquid level indicator Liquid draining and sampling valve Top oil thermometer Lifting. the current in the zero sequence impedance IG during a line-to-earth fault must be equal to or greater than three times the line-to-earth system charging current. d = the diameter of the conductor. SIC = dielectric constant. The zero sequence capacitance of transformer is negligible.02415 x SIC)/log (D/d) µF/ km Where. C0 = zero sequence capacitance of the system. 600/5A. C50. zero sequence capacitance can be high if considerable lengths are involved. for overhead lines. .5 Control box 5. moving detanking & jacketing facilities Name plate Grounding pad 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Buchholtz relay Winding temperature indicator Conservator magnetic liquid level indicator Anti-condensate heater Pressure relief device 4 CTs. However. Evaluation of Proposed Zigzag Grounding transformer To examine the proposed grounding transformer is suitable it has to be shown that: Z0 ≤ XC0 Where. f = system frequency The zero sequence capacitance of any type of cable can be calculated using the following formula: C0 = (0. 3IC0 IG ≥ 3IC0 3IC0 could be calculated from below formula: 3IC0 = (√3) *(2 xπ x f x C0 x VL-L) /103] Amperes Where. and XC0= line-to-ground capacitive reactance of the system Or in another way.

Eng. Mehrdad Boloorchi.00625 µF/ km Note: the given admittance of collector system.01 µF/transformer Overhead line C0 = 0. Senior Systems Engineer . however it meets the above mentioned requirement. the following approximate capacitance values could be used: Transformer C0 = 0. P.As a general rule. i. It is recommended to verify the line-to-ground capacitive reactance of the collector system based on the formulas given above. Associate. YC =170.5 micro-mho does not seem reliable.e.

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd