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Ground Reference Transformer Sizing

Ground Reference Transformer Sizing

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sizing the grounding transformer for the purpose of provision of ground referenceground
sizing the grounding transformer for the purpose of provision of ground referenceground

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Published by: mehrbloor@gmail.com on Jan 10, 2014
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02/12/2015

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Ground Reference Transformer Sizing

Example 1: 1. Objective: The three-phase fault duty at a Wind Farm facility is 5kA (299 MVA) on the ungrounded 34.5 kV system. It is required to ground this system using a zigzag grounding transformer and limit the ground-fault current to 400 A. the objective of this study is specifying the grounding transformer.

2. Input Data a. System Voltage: b. System Grounding: c. Type of required grounding Source: d. Neutral ground current that grounding transformer shall carry under fault: 3. Calculation: a. Transformer Impedance Use 100 MVA Base (100000 kVA) Rated Voltage = 34.5 kV Base Ohms = (1000) (kV)2/KVA=1000 (34.5)2/100000= 11.9 Ω Base Amps = KVA/(KV × √3)= 100000/(34.5 x √3)= 1673 A Z1 = Z2 = 100/299 = 0.334 per unit (p.u.) 34.5kV, 3phase, 3Wire Ungrounded c1: zigzag transformer c2: wye-delta 400A

Positive sequence Negative sequence

0.334 p.u.

0.334 p.u..

Zero sequence

Z0

IG = 400/1673= 0.24 p.u. A I0 = 0.24/3= 0.08 p.u. A Ztotal = 1/0.08= 12.5 p.u. Ω

the actual (short-time) rating in kilovoltamperes is: kVA= (Line-to-Line kV)(Neutral Amps)/√3= (34. since both windings are active in the primary circuit. by applying a reduction factor K to the short-time rated kVA of the grounding transformer.832= 140. The reduced size can be established in terms of an “equivalent two-winding 55 C kVA” kVAx. For a wye-delta grounding transformer.334– 0.9 × 11. Under these circumstances the physical size (and resulting cost) is considerably reduced. Table 1. and this reduced kVA can be used for a price estimate. it is common to rate it on a reduced time such as 10 s or 1 minute. Transformer short time kVA rating i. its size and cost are less than for a continuous duty transformer of equal kVA rating. The reduced size can be established in terms of an “equivalent two-winding 55 C kVA” kVA reduced. the actual (short-time) rating in kilovoltamperes is: kVA= (Line-to-Line kV)(Neutral Amps)/3= (34. Since a grounding transformer is a short-time device and normally only required to carry short-circuit ground current until the circuit breakers clear the fault. For a zigzag grounding transformer. Ω Z0 = 11.K FACTORS FOR DETERMINING EQUIVALENT TWO-WINDING 56 C KVA OF GROUNDING TRANSFORMERS .Ztotal – 2Z1 = 12.8 Ω/phase for grounding transformer b. Values for K are listed in Table 1 below for various types and classes of grounding transformers.5 x 400)/3=4600 kVA ii.832 p.334= 11.5 x 400)/√3=7967 kVA (8 MVA) Because a grounding transformer is a short-time device.u. by applying a reduction factor K to the shorttime rated kVA of the grounding transformer.5– 0.

5 kV line to-ground charging current and the unbalanced current (if any). Proposed Zigzag Grounding transformer Technical Requirement for the Proposed Grounding Transformer Cooling ONAN Installation Outdoor Winding Configuration Zigzag Rated Voltage 34. Icontinuous= (7/100) x 400= 28 A Continuous kVA rating= (34. oil: 50⁰C at 40⁰C ambient temperature Standard CAN/CSA C88-M90 (R2009) Accessories Normal Special .Since in wind farms the 34.e.5 kV system could be subjected to more than one faults in quick succession 1 minute rating is preferable. As per IEEE 32.5 x 28)/3=322 kVA 4. the continuous current for a zigzag grounding transformer with a 1minute time-rating is equal to the 7% of the ground fault current i. i. The zigzag grounding transformer is required to continuously carrying the 34.8 Ω Temperature Copper: 55⁰C.5 kV Rated BIL 200 kV Continuous Neutral Current 28 A Rated Neutral Fault Current 400 A for 1 minute Zero sequence impedance 140.

and XC0= line-to-ground capacitive reactance of the system Or in another way. zero sequence capacitance can be high if considerable lengths are involved. f = system frequency The zero sequence capacitance of any type of cable can be calculated using the following formula: C0 = (0. VL-L = system line-to-line voltage in kilovolts.5 Control box 5. d = the diameter of the conductor.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Conservator with liquid drain valve and filling valve Breather Liquid level indicator Liquid draining and sampling valve Top oil thermometer Lifting. 3IC0 IG ≥ 3IC0 3IC0 could be calculated from below formula: 3IC0 = (√3) *(2 xπ x f x C0 x VL-L) /103] Amperes Where. The zero sequence capacitance of transformer is negligible.02415 x SIC)/log (D/d) µF/ km Where. the current in the zero sequence impedance IG during a line-to-earth fault must be equal to or greater than three times the line-to-earth system charging current. However. D = the diameter of cables over the insulation shield. B0. SIC = dielectric constant. . C0 = zero sequence capacitance of the system. for overhead lines. moving detanking & jacketing facilities Name plate Grounding pad 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Buchholtz relay Winding temperature indicator Conservator magnetic liquid level indicator Anti-condensate heater Pressure relief device 4 CTs. C50. Z0 = Zero sequence impedance. 600/5A. Evaluation of Proposed Zigzag Grounding transformer To examine the proposed grounding transformer is suitable it has to be shown that: Z0 ≤ XC0 Where.

01 µF/transformer Overhead line C0 = 0. YC =170. the following approximate capacitance values could be used: Transformer C0 = 0. It is recommended to verify the line-to-ground capacitive reactance of the collector system based on the formulas given above. however it meets the above mentioned requirement.5 micro-mho does not seem reliable. P.Eng. Associate. Mehrdad Boloorchi. Senior Systems Engineer .As a general rule. i.00625 µF/ km Note: the given admittance of collector system.e.

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