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Software Corporation
January 2009
Thermal Analysis Using MSC SimXpert
SMX124 Course Notes
MSC.Software Corporation
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Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
2
Legal Information
MSC.Software Corporation reserves the right to make changes in specifications and other information contained in this
document without prior notice. The concepts, methods, and examples presented in this text are for illustrative and
educational purposes only, and are not intended to be exhaustive or to apply to any particular engineering problem or
design. MSC.Software Corporation assumes no liability or responsibility to any person or company for direct or indirect
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Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
3
CONTENTS
Section Pages
1.0 Introduction to MSC SimXpert Thermal Analysis……………………………………………….. 11
2.0 Conduction………………………………………………………………………………………………. 21
3.0 Convection………………………………………………………………………………………………. 31
4.0 Transient Thermal Analysis……………………………………………..…………………………… 41
5.0 Radiation…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 51
6.0 SOL 400 Thermal Capability………………………………………………………………………….. 61
7.0 Thermal Analysis Theory………………………………………………………………………………71
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
4
S11
SMX124, Section 1, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 1
INTRODUCTION TO
MSC SimXpert THERMAL
ANALYSIS
S12
SMX124, Section 1, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
S13
SMX124, Section 1, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
HEAT TRANSFER
● Should a Heat Transfer analysis be performed ?
● When the solution for the temperature field in a solid (or fluid) is
desired, and the temperature is not influenced by other fields, a heat
transfer analysis is appropriate.
vs
Coupled Fields
Thermal Field
S14
SMX124, Section 1, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
MODES OF HEAT TRANSFER
● Mechanisms of Heat Transfer
● Conduction (through a material)
● Convection (to a fluid)
● Natural (free)
● Forced
T
1
>T
2
Convection
T
2
Moving Fluid Removes
Heat From Solid
q
T
1
T hA q A =
T
2
Advection
T
1
>T
2
T
1
Heat Moves IN
Moving Fluid
q
) (
2 1
T T C m q
p
÷ =
Radiation
T
1
>T
2
2 1 > ÷
q
1 2 > ÷
q
T
1
T
2
) (
4
2
4
1
T T FA q ÷ = o
● Advection (energy carried in a fluid)
● Radiation (energy transfer through
free space (no intervening medium)
from one surface to another)
● Ambient (to space)
● Enclosure (enclosed radiation
system)
S15
SMX124, Section 1, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
ANALYSIS TYPES
● Thermal problems can be categorized as
● Steadystate
● Steadystate analyses are concerned with state point solutions with
fixed boundary conditions
● Transient
● Transient analyses are characterized by solution evolution over time,
and in addition to energy exchange with the environment, involves
thermal energy storage
● Linear
● Properties; i.e. conductivity, convection coefficient.; do not change
with
● Temperature
● The boundary conditions do not involve
● Radiation
S16
SMX124, Section 1, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
ANALYSIS TYPES (Cont.)
● Thermal problems can be categorized as (continued)
● Nonlinear
● Temperature dependent material properties.
● Conduction
● Convection
● Natural
● Forced
● Radiation boundary conditions.
● Ambient
● Enclosure
● Steadystate or transient solution.
● All nonlinear analyses necessarily involve solution iteration, error
estimation, and convergence criteria.
S17
SMX124, Section 1, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
THERMAL MODEL ELEMENTS
● MSC SimXpert thermal elements
● 1D – conduction only in the direction of the centerline of the element
● 2D – conduction only through the midplane of the element
● 3D – conduction in all three directions
● Axisymmetry
● Nonzero thermal gradient in the radial and axial directions
● Zero thermal gradient in the circumferential direction
● Special elements for conduction
● Special element for lumped thermal capacitance
S18
SMX124, Section 1, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
THERMAL MODEL MATERIAL PROPERTIES
● Thermal materials
● Conduction
● Thermal conductivity
● Can be a function of temperature
● Transient model
● Specific heat (heat capacity per unit mass)
● Can be a function of temperature
● Density
● Cannot be a function of temperature
S19
SMX124, Section 1, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
THERMAL MODEL MATERIAL PROPERTIES
● Thermal materials
● Convection
● Natural (free)
● Heat transfer coefficient
● Can be a function of temperature
● Can be a function of time
● h = function(Gr, Pr)
● Forced
● Constant coefficient
● h = function(Re, Pr)
● Radiation
● Surface absorptivity
● Can be a function of temperature
● Surface emissivity
● Can be a function of temperature
S110
SMX124, Section 1, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
THERMAL MODEL BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
● Thermal boundary conditions
● Convection
● Natural (free)
● Forced (SimXpert R4.0)
● Radiation
● Ambient (to space)
● Enclosure
● Temperature
● Temperature  constant or time varying temperature for set of nodes
● “Initial conditions” for set of nodes
● Steadystate – initialization/starting temperature
● Transient – initial temperature
● MPC – multipoint constraint (constraint for set of nodal
temperatures)
S111
SMX124, Section 1, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
THERMAL MODEL LOADS
● Thermal loads
● Heat flux
● Applied to surface, Normal Flux
● From a distant radiation source, Radiant Flux
● Can specify direction not normal to the surface
● Nodal heat
● Power input to a node
● Volumetric load
● Internal (to element) heat generation
S112
SMX124, Section 1, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
STEADYSTATE EQUATION
● The familiar conduction heat transfer equation is
● The MD Nastran Thermal steadystate equation derived from this equation is
● This is a nonlinear matrix equation. It is solved using the NewtonRaphson
iteration scheme. In concert with the NewtonRaphson method, the following
options are provided to improve the efficiency of the iteration process.
● Tangential matrix update strategy
● Line search method
● Bisection of loads
● QuasiNewton (BFGS) updates
● This equation, and its solution, are described in Section 7.
t
T
k
q
T
c
c
= + V
o
1
2
} { } { } ]{ [ } ]{ [
4
N P T T T K
abs
+ = + + R
S113
SMX124, Section 1, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
TRANSIENT EQUATION
● The familiar conduction heat transfer equation is
● The MD Nastran Thermal transient equation derived from this equation is
● This is a nonlinear matrix equation. It is solved using the NewtonRaphson
iteration scheme. In concert with the NewtonRaphson method, the
following options are provided to improve the efficiency of the iteration
process.
● Tangential matrix update strategy
● Line search method
● Bisection of loads
● QuasiNewton (BFGS) updates
● This equation, and its solution, are described in Section 7.
t
T
k
q
T
c
c
= + V
o
1
2
} { } { } ]{ [ } ]{ [ } ]{ [
4
N P T T T K T B
abs
+ = + + + R
S114
SMX124, Section 1, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
S21
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 2
CONDUCTION
WITH
ELEMENTS, MATERIALS,
CONSTRAINTS, LOADING
S22
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
S23
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
TOPICS ON CONDUCTION
● Laws affecting conduction
● Supported element topologies
● 1D, 2D, 3D, Axisymmetric
● Assemble element conduction matrices to form system matrix
● Create elements
● Material for conduction
● Isotropic (K)
● Orthotropic (Kxx, Kyy, Kzz)
● Anisotropic (Kxx, Kxy, Kxz, Kyy, Kyz, Kzz)
● Temperature independent or dependent
● Constraints and loads that can be applied to conduction elements
● Temperature (constant, spatial dependent, or time dependent)
● Heat flux to a surface: normal flux, radiant (vector) flux
● Nodal heat input
● Heat generation within conduction element
S24
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
LAWS AFFECTING CONDUCTION
● Second law of thermodynamics
● Heat only flows from regions of high temperature to regions of low
temperature.
● Fourier’s Law (empirical)
● One dimension
● General
● First law of thermodynamics  conservation of energy
t
T
k
q
T
c
c
= + V
o
1
2
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
c
c
÷ =
i
x
T
k q} {
) / ( dx dT kA q ÷ =
S25
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
SUPPORTED ELEMENT TOPOLOGIES
● Element types
● The MD Nastran SOL 153 and SOL 159 elements are
isoparametric
CTUBE
CROD
CTRIA6 CONROD
CTETRA CTRIA3 CBEND
CPENTA CQUAD8 CBEAM
CTRIAX6 CHEXA CQUAD4 CBAR
Axisym 3D 2D 1D
S26
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
SUPPORTED ELEMENT TOPOLOGIES (Cont.)
● 1D element
● Isoparametric element with 1 dimension, (r)
● Interpolation within element
● Element conduction matrix
11
12
13
33
34
35
12
¯
=
=
2
1
) (
i
i i
T r h T
, 2 / ) 1 (
1
r h ÷ = 2 / ) 1 (
2
r h + =
í =
) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
] [ ] [ ] [ ] [
j
V
j j j T j j
e
dV B k B k
r
1 2
0 r = 1 r = 1
S27
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
SUPPORTED ELEMENT TOPOLOGIES (Cont.)
● 1D element
● where
● = element j conduction matrix
● = element j temperature gradient
interpolation matrix
● = element j thermal conductivities
● The integration is over the volume of element j
● An example is
11
12
13
33
34
35
12
) (
] [
j
e
k
) (
] [
j
k
) (
] [
j
B
· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·
· · · · · ·
÷
÷
· · · · · ·
· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·
=
] 0 [ ] 0 [ ] 0 [
] 0 [
1 1
1 1
] 0 [
] 0 [ ] 0 [ ] 0 [
] [
) (
) (
j
j
e
L
Ak
k
S28
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
SUPPORTED ELEMENT TOPOLOGIES (Cont.)
● 2D element
● Isoparametric element with 2 dimensions, (r,s)
● Interpolation within element
11
12
13
33
34
35
55
56
57
34
¯
=
=
4
1
) , (
i
i i
T s r h T
, 4 / ) 1 )( 1 (
1
s r h + + = 4 / ) 1 )( 1 (
2
s r h + ÷ =
, 4 / ) 1 )( 1 (
3
s r h ÷ ÷ = 4 / ) 1 )( 1 (
4
s r h ÷ + =
r
s
0
r = 1 r = 1
s = 1
s = 1
1
2
3
4
S29
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
SUPPORTED ELEMENT TOPOLOGIES (Cont.)
● 2D element
● Element conduction matrix
11
12
13
33
34
35
55
56
57
34
í =
) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
] [ ] [ ] [ ] [
j
V
j j j T j j
e
dV B k B k
S210
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
SUPPORTED ELEMENT TOPOLOGIES (Cont.)
● 3D element
● Isoparametric element with 3 dimensions, (r,s,t)
● Interpolation within element
● Element conduction matrix
¯
=
=
8
1
) , , (
i
i i
T t s r h T
í =
) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
] [ ] [ ] [ ] [
j
V
j j j T j j
e
dV B k B k
S211
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
SUPPORTED ELEMENT TOPOLOGIES (Cont.)
● Recommendations
● Use linear elements, unless have substantial curvature and desire to
minimize the number of elements
● If doing thermal analysis (calculate temperatures) to structural analysis
(stress analysis) mapping (loads are temperatures from thermal
analysis), it is best to use the same type of element that is to be used
for the structural analysis, e.g. Tet10, and not Tet4.
● Loads and boundary conditions do not affect which type of element
should be used
● Special Elements
● This category is for elements that are not finite elements, but of course
they can be used in modeling a thermal process. There are two types
of special elements. They are
● CELASi (scalar spring)
● Simple conduction element
S212
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
SUPPORTED ELEMENT TOPOLOGIES (Cont.)
● Special Elements (continued)
● CELASi (scalar spring) (continued)
● Used to model a onedimensional conduction element with a thermal resistance.
● R= L/kA, where CELAS2 used inverse of R
● G=1/R = kA/L (Watt/
0
C, type of unit)
● DMI or DMIG (direct matrix input)  complex component
● DMI
● For defining matrix data blocks.
● where the elements X
ij
may be real or complex (real and imaginary part). The
matrix is defined by a single header entry and one or more column entries. Only
one header is required. A column entry is required for each column with nonzero
elements.
● For more information see the MD Nastran Quick Reference Guide.
] [ ] [
ij
X name =
S213
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
ASSEMBLE ELEMENT MATRICES
● Assemble all element conduction and other system
matrices
● Derive element conduction matrices
● Sum the element conduction matrices
● Create other necessary system matrices, and create the
conduction system matrix equation
í
=
) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
) (
] [ ] [ ] [ ] [
j
j j j T j
j
e
V
dV B k B k
¯ =
j
j
e
k K
) (
] [ ] [
} { } ]{ [ P T K =
S214
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
● Summary of the steadystate finite element method
ASSEMBLE ELEMENT MATRICES (Cont.)
Assemble loads into a global load vector {P}
Represent continuous structure as a collection of
discrete elements connected by nodes
Derive element conduction matrices from
material properties, element properties, and geometry
Assemble all element conduction matrices into a
global conduction matrix [K]
Apply boundary conditions to constrain the
model
Solve the matrix equation [K] {T} = {P} for
nodal temperature
Compute thermal flux from temperature results
S215
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CREATING 1D ELEMENTS
● 1D elements
● Create by meshing curve or edge
● Create a material property set
● Create an element property set
● Mesh a geometric curve with 1D
elements
● Select the curve for Curve to mesh,
CURVE/1
● Specify the element size, 1
● From the Model Browser tree select the
element property, PBAR_1
S216
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CREATING 1D ELEMENTS (Cont.)
● 1D elements (continued)
● Create manually
● Select the Element Property under PID
● Specify (X1,X2,X3) for the crosssection
orientation vector
1
2
● 1D elements
● Create manually
● Specify the coordinates for the
two ends of the 1D element
S217
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CREATING 2D ELEMENTS
● 2D elements
● Create by meshing surface or face, method l
● Create a material property set
● Create an element property set
● Mesh a geometric surface with 2D elements
● Screen select the surface for Surface to mesh
● Specify the element size
● Specify Mapped for Mesh method
● From the Model Browser tree select the element
property PSHELL_1
S218
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
● 2D elements
● Create manually
● The four sets of coordinates
are (0,0,0), (1,0,0), (1,1,0),
and (0,1,0)
● The image of the CQUAD4
element created is
CREATING 2D ELEMENTS (Cont.)
● 2D elements (continued)
● Create manually
● Use the pick panel to define four
corner nodes
S219
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CREATING 3D ELEMENTS
● 3D elements
● Create by meshing solid, method I
● Create a material property set
● Create an element property set
● Mesh a geometric solid with 3D elements
● Select the solid for Solid To mesh
● Specify the element size
● From the Model Browser tree select the
element property PSOLID_1
S220
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
● 3D elements
● Create manually
● The eight sets of coordinates
are (0,0,0), (1,0,0), (1,1,0),
(0,1,0), (0,0,1),…,(0,1,1)
● The image of the CHEXA8
element created is
CREATING 3D ELEMENTS (Cont.)
● 3D elements (continued)
● Create manually
● Use the pick panel to define
eight corner nodes
S221
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
MATERIAL FOR CONDUCTION
● Thermal conductivity of solid material
● Isotropic
● K
● Temperature independent
● Temperature dependent
● Orthotropic
● Kxx, Kyy, Kzz
● Temperature independent
● Temperature dependent
● Anisotropic
● Kxx, Kxy, Kxz, Kyy, Kyz, Kzz
● Temperature independent
● Temperature dependent
● These material properties are for modeling conduction
● Steadystate
● Transient
S222
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
MATERIAL FOR CONDUCTION (Cont.)
● In addition the following topics are covered for materials
● Required material properties to define a model
● Units
● Method of creation of materials
● Use of fields for material definition
● In the section on transient analysis the following topics are covered,
in addition to those for steadystate analysis
● Density
● Specific heat at constant pressure
● Lumped thermal capacitance
S223
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
MATERIAL FOR CONDUCTION (Cont.)
● Isotropic material
● Temperature independent
Isotropic material property.
● Access the material
property forms using the
Materials and Properties
tab, then the Material group.
● Select Isotropic.
● Enter the name, ID, and
description.
● Select Solid to define
thermal properties of solid
material.
● Enter the value for the
thermal conductivity.
● Click OK.
S224
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
MATERIAL FOR CONDUCTION
(Cont.)
● Isotropic material (continued)
● Temperature dependent Isotropic material property
● For the Thermal Conductivity entry box click on the Pick… icon
● Select a temperature dependent table in the Model Browser tree
● Click OK
S225
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
MATERIAL FOR CONDUCTION (Cont.)
● Orthotropic and Anisotropic material
● Temperature independent or dependent.
● Access the material property forms using the Materials and Properties
tab, then the Material group.
● Select an Orthotropic or Anisotropic material, similar to that for Isotropic
material.
S226
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
MATERIAL FOR CONDUCTION (Cont.)
● Units
● The following table lists the units that correspond to the fields of the
Materials – Thermal (High Level Editor), or the fields of the
MatIsotropic and RadMat entries (Single Card Image ).
S227
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
TEMPERATURE CONSTRAINTS
● Temperature constraints at node points
● Access the temperature constraint form using the LBCs tab, then the
LBC group
● The form Defaults For Temperature BC appears
● Its default setting is for a constant temperature at node points.
Enter the value for the temperature.
● Click Store, then click Exit
S228
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
TEMPERATURE CONSTRAINTS (Cont.)
● Temperature constraints at node points
● Specify the application region using the Create Temperature pick
panel
● Select an entity type to screen pick, e.g. Nodes
● Screen pick the nodes to constrain their temperature
● Click Done, then click Exit
S229
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
TEMPERATURE CONSTRAINTS (Cont.)
● MPC temperature constraints
● Access the constraint form
using the LBCs tab, then the LBC
group
● The form Defaults For
MPC BC appears
● Change to the form
Defaults For MPC BC by
using an Entity Type pick
● DOF0 is for the DOF of the
dependent node
● WT0 is for the weighting
factor for DOF0
¯ =
k
k k
T A 0
S230
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
TEMPERATURE CONSTRAINTS (Cont.)
● MPC temperature constraints
● DOFi is for the DOF of the ith
independent node
● WTi is for the weighting factor
for DOFi
● Click Store, then click
Exit
S231
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
TEMPERATURE CONSTRAINTS (Cont.)
● MPC temperature constraints
● Specify the application region
using the Create MPC pick
panel
● Select an entity type to screen
pick, e.g. Nodes
● Screen pick the nodes
● First node picked is dependent
node (example, Node 25)
● Subsequent nodes picked are
independent nodes (example,
Node 50, 49, 24)
● Click Done
● In MultiPoint Constraint form
that appears click Create
S232
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
INITIALIZATION TEMPERATURE
● Temperature initialization
● To perform nonlinear steadystate or transient analysis it is
necessary to specify initialization temperatures.
● Steadystate, must specify starting temperature (as opposed to
“initial temperature” that is needed for transient analysis) at all
the nodes.
● Transient, must specify the initial temperature at all the nodes.
S233
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
INITIALIZATION TEMPERATURE (Cont.)
● Temperature initialization
● Access the initialization temperature form using
the LBCs tab, then the LBC group.
● The form Defaults For TEMP_INIT BC
appears.
● Enter the value for the initial temperature.
● Click Store, then click Exit.
S234
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
INITIALIZATION TEMPERATURE (Cont.)
● Temperature initialization
● Specify the application region using the Create
TEMP_INIT pick panel.
● Select an entity type to screen pick, e.g.
Nodes.
● Screen pick the nodes to specify their
initialization temperature.
● Click Done, then click Exit.
S235
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
INITIALIZATION TEMPERATURE (Cont.)
● Temperature initialization
● For the nodes not included in the
specified application regions, their
temperatures are specified using
Analysis: Solver Control / General
Parameters / Properties / General
Solution Parameters / Default Init
Temperature
S236
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE
S237
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE
● Create Material property
S238
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE
● Create Property
S239
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE
● Create surface
● Create two curves
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SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE
● Create surface
● Create two curves
● Create a surface using the curves
S241
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE
● Create surface
● Create a surface using the curves
S242
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE
● Mesh the surface
S243
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE
● Apply temperature constraints
S244
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE
● Apply temperature constraints
S245
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE
● Create an LBC Set
S246
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE
● Create SimXpert analysis file
S247
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE
● Create SimXpert analysis file
S248
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE
● Create SimXpert analysis file
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SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
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CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE
● Run MD Nastran Thermal
● Display thermal results
● Attach .xdb file
S250
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE
● Display thermal results
● Display thermal fringe
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SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
LOADING
● Loads that can be applied to conduction elements
● Heat flux to a surface
● Normal flux (Nastran QHBDY or QBDYi)
● Heat Flux (power/area)
● Time scaling function
● Application region
● Heat into a node
● Nodal heat
● Heat generation in conduction elements
● Volumetric heat (Nastran QVOL)
● Power input per unit volume
● Power produced by heat conduction elements
● Time scaling function
● Application region
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SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
LOADING (Cont.)
● Heat flux to a surface
● Normal Flux
● Access the normal flux form using the LBCs tab, then the LBC group.
● The form Defaults For Normal Flux appears.
● Enter the value for the heat flux (power/area).
● Click Store, then click Exit.
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SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
LOADING (Cont.)
● Heat flux to a surface
● Normal Flux
● Specify the application region
using the Create Normal Flux
pick panel
● Select an entity type to screen
pick, e.g. Nodes
● Screen pick the nodes to apply
the heat flux to
● Click Done, then click Exit
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SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
LOADING (Cont.)
● Heat generation
● Volumetric Heat
● Access the volumetric heat form using the LBCs tab, then the LBC
group.
● The form Defaults For Volumetric Heat BC appears.
● Enter the value for the power input per unit volume (power/volume)
● Click Store, then click Exit
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SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
LOADING (Cont.)
● Heat generation
● Volumetric Heat
● Specify the application region using the
Create Volumetric Heat pick panel
● Select an entity type to screen pick, e.g.
Elements
● Screen pick the elements to apply the
internal heat generation to
● Click Done, then click Exit
S256
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
NOTE ON GEOMETRIC SURFACE ELEMENTS
● Heat flux or boundary condition surface elements
● To apply heat flux, convection, or radiation to a
conducting surface (2D element, e.g. CQUAD4)
or face (3D element, e.g. CHEXA) it is necessary
to apply them to a geometric surface, which in
turn is connected to conducting elements. The
geometric surface elements are named CHBDYE,
CHBDYG, or CHBDYP, or simply CHBDYi. This
is shown conceptually.
● The user does not explicitly create the CHBDYi
elements. They are created automatically by
(from within) SimXpert as a result of creating the
loads and boundary conditions.
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Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
LOADING (Cont.)
● The heat flow through the isoparametric elements is in the parametric
directions of the elements.
● 1D element
● Heat flow is only along the centerline of the element, not normal to the centerline
of the element
● 2D element
● Heat flow is only in the plane of the element, not normal to the plane of the
element
● 3D element
● Heat flow is in all three directions of the element
● Axisymmetric element
● Heat flow is only in the radial or centerline direction of the element, not in the
circumferential direction
● So, do not use an isoparametric element that does not have a parametric
coordinate in a direction that heat flow must be modeled
● The performance of linear finite elements, e.g. CQUAD4 element, is as good
as that of parabolic finite elements, e.g. CQUAD8 element, for 2D or 3D.
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● Create an LBC set that combines the needed LBCs
● Access the loads and boundary condition set form using the
LBCs tab, then the LBC Set group.
● The form LBC Set appears.
● Select the two loads and boundary conditions
● Click OK
LBC Set
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SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
ANALYSIS SETUP
● The Analysis forms in the Model
tree browser are used to specify
the parameters for an analysis
● Model: Analysis
● Model: Analysis / Nastran Jobs
● Nastran Jobs : Create New Job
● Job Properties form
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SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.)
● The Analysis forms in the Model
● General Parameters, etc.
● General Parameters: Properties
● General Solution Parameters
form
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ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.)
● The Analysis forms in the Model
● Radiation Parameters: Properties
● Radiation Parameters form
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SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
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ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.)
● The Analysis forms in the Model
● Cases: Add Common Case
● Common Case, Case Control
● Specify titles to be
above all subcases
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SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
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ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.)
● The Analysis forms in the Model
● Common Case, Add Output
Requests
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SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.)
● The Analysis forms in the Model
● Cases: Add Subcase
● Select the desired LBC Set
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SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.)
● The Analysis forms in the Model
● Subcase Parameters: Properties
● NINC = number of equal
subdivisions of the load change
defined for the subcase for
NewtonRaphson methods.
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SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
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ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.)
● The Analysis forms in the Model
● Matrix Update Method
● Automatic => the program
automatically selects the most
efficient strategy based on
convergence rates. At each step
the number of iterations required
for convergence is estimated.
The conduction matrix is updated
if 1) the estimated number of
iterations to converge exceeds
MAXITER, 2) the estimated time
required for convergence with the
current conduction matrix
exceeds the estimated time
required for convergence with
updated conduction, and 3) the
solution diverges.
S267
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.)
● The Analysis forms in the Model
● Matrix Update Method
● SemiAutomatic => the program
for each load increment 1)
performs a single iteration based
on the new load, 2) updates the
conduction matrix, and 3) follows
the normal Automatic approach.
● Controlled Iters => the program
updates the conduction matrix at
every KSTEPth iteration and on
convergence if KSTEP <=
MAXITER. However, if KSTEP >
MAXITER the conduction matrix
is never updated.
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SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.)
● The Analysis forms in the Model
● Matrix Update Method
● Controlled Iters => note that the
NewtonRaphson iteration
strategy is used by selecting this
approach (Controlled Iters) and
KSTEP = 1, while the Modified
NewtonRaphson iteration
strategy is used by selecting this
approach (Controlled Iters) and
KSTEP = MAXITER.
● KSTEP => for Automatic and
SemiAutomatic methods the
conduction matrix is updated at
convergence if KSTEP is < the
number of iterations that were
required for convergence with the
current conduction.
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SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.)
● The Analysis forms in the Model
● MAXITER => the number of
iterations for a load increment is
limited to MAXITER. If the solution
process does not converge in
MAXITER iterations the load
increment is bisected and the
analysis is repeated.
● Temperature Error, Yes or No
● EPSU = error tolerance for
temperature criterion
● Load Error, Yes or No
● EPSP = error tolerance for load
criterion
● Work Error, Yes or No
● EPSW = error tolerance for work
criterion
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ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.)
● The Analysis forms in the Model
● Output File: Properties
● Output File Properties form
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ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.)
● The Analysis forms in the Model
● Submit an analysis file to the solver
● ss_sample_problem: Run
● File name
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ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.)
● The Analysis forms in the Model
● Choices for SOL type for steady
state analysis.
● SOL153
● SOL600, 153
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DISPLAY RESULTS
● Display thermal analysis results
● Attach an .XDB result file
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SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
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DISPLAY RESULTS (Cont.)
● Display thermal analysis results
● Access the results form using the
Results tab, then the Results group.
● Select the following
● Fringe
● Result Cases  SC1: Nonlinear: 100 % of L
● Result Type  Temperatures
● Click Update Plot
S275
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
DISPLAY RESULTS (Cont.)
● Display thermal analysis results
● Display the temperature results as a fringe plot
S276
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
EXERCISE
Perform Workshop 1 “PCB With Heat Flux and
Constant Temperature at Boundary” in your exercise
workbook.
S31
SMX124, Section 3, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 3
CONVECTION
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SMX124, Section 3, January 2009
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S33
SMX124, Section 3, January 2009
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HEAT TRANSFER VIA CONVECTION
● The transfer of energy (heat) between a solid boundary and a fluid
takes place by a combination of conduction and mass transport
● The fluid motion can be induced by two different processes.
● The fluid may be moved as a result of density differences due to a
temperature variation within the fluid. This type of heat transfer is called
free (or natural) convection.
● The fluid motion may be caused by an external source, such as a pump
or blower. This type of heat transfer is called forced convection.
● A simple representation of convection heat transfer is given by
● where
● q
surface to fluid
= rate of heat transfer by convection
● h
c
= convective heat transfer coefficient, or average unit thermal convective
conductance
) (
0
T T A h q
s c fluid to surface
.
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SMX124, Section 3, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
HEAT TRANSFER VIA CONVECTION (Cont.)
● where
● A = heat transfer area
● T
s
= surface temperature
● T
0
= fluid temperature
● The convective heat transfer coefficient is actually a complicated
function
● Fluid flow
● Thermal properties of the fluid medium
● Geometry of the thermal system
● Its numerical value is in general not uniform over a surface
● Depends on the location where the fluid temperature T
0
is specified
● Convective heat transfer is modeled with SimXpert using
empirically derived functions
S35
SMX124, Section 3, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
HEAT TRANSFER VIA CONVECTION (Cont.)
● Free convection
● where
● Nu = Nusselt number (ratio of the temperature gradient in the fluid
at the surface to a reference temperature gradient)
● Gr = Grashof number (ratio of buoyant to viscous forces)
● Pr = Prandtl number
● The Reynolds number (Re) is not needed for free convection
(Pr) ) ( g Gr f Nu
f
c
k
L h
Nu
L
k
Nu h
f
c
) (
0
T T
L
A
k Nu q
s f fluid to surface
S36
SMX124, Section 3, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
HEAT TRANSFER VIA CONVECTION (Cont.)
● Forced convection
● where
● Nu = Nusselt number (ratio of the temperature gradient in the fluid
at the surface to a reference temperature gradient)
● Re = Reynolds number (ratio of inertia to viscous forces)
● Pr = Prandtl number
(Pr) (Re) g f Nu
f
c
k
L h
Nu
L
k
Nu h
f
c
) (
0
T T
L
A
k Nu q
s f fluid to surface
S37
SMX124, Section 3, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
FREE CONVECTION
● Free convection
● Access the free convection form using the LBCs tab, then the LBC
group.
● The Defaults For Free Convection form appears
● Enter the value for the ambient temperature.
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SMX124, Section 3, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
FREE CONVECTION (Cont.)
● Free convection
● Convection coefficient – constant coefficient
● ConvCoeff vs Time scaling function (for transient analysis click in
checkbox, and specify a time function using a table)
● Formula type – type of formula for free convection (more on
subsequent page)
● Reference temp location – location used to calculate the convection
film coefficient (more on subsequent page)
● Conv coeff exponent – free convection exponent
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SMX124, Section 3, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
FREE CONVECTION (Cont.)
● Free convection
● ConvCoeff vs Temperature scaling function – free convection heat
transfer coefficient as a function of temperature
● Click Store, then click Exit
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Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
FREE CONVECTION (Cont.)
● Free convection
● Formula type – choices for type of formula
for free convection:
● The reference temperature is the average of element node point
temperatures (average) and the ambient point temperatures (average)
● The reference temperature is the surface temperature (average of
element node point temperatures)
● The reference temperature is the ambient temperature (average of
ambient point temperatures)
) ( ) (
AMB
EXPF
AMB CNTRLND
T T T T T H q
) (
EXPF
AMB
EXPF
CNTRLND
T T T H q
S311
SMX124, Section 3, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
FREE CONVECTION (Cont.)
● Free convection
● Specify the application region using
the Create Free Convection pick
panel
● Select an entity type to screen pick,
e.g. Nodes
● Screen pick the nodes to apply the
free convection to
● Click Done, then click Exit
S312
SMX124, Section 3, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: CONVECTION OFF PLATE
S313
SMX124, Section 3, January 2009
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CASE STUDY: CONVECTION OFF PLATE
● Create Material property
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CASE STUDY: CONVECTION OFF PLATE
● Create Property
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SMX124, Section 3, January 2009
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CASE STUDY: CONVECTION OFF PLATE
● Create surface
● Create two curves
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SMX124, Section 3, January 2009
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CASE STUDY: CONVECTION OFF PLATE
● Create surface
● Create two curves
● Create a surface using the curves
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SMX124, Section 3, January 2009
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CASE STUDY: CONVECTION OFF PLATE
● Create surface
● Create a surface using the curves
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SMX124, Section 3, January 2009
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CASE STUDY: CONVECTION OFF PLATE
● Mesh the surface
S319
SMX124, Section 3, January 2009
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CASE STUDY: CONVECTION OFF PLATE
● Apply temperature constraints
S320
SMX124, Section 3, January 2009
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CASE STUDY: CONVECTION OFF PLATE
● Apply free convection boundary condition
S321
SMX124, Section 3, January 2009
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CASE STUDY: CONVECTION OFF PLATE
● Create an LBC Set
S322
SMX124, Section 3, January 2009
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CASE STUDY: CONVECTION OFF PLATE
● Create SimXpert analysis file
S323
SMX124, Section 3, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: CONVECTION OFF PLATE
● Create SimXpert analysis file
S324
SMX124, Section 3, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: CONVECTION OFF PLATE
● Create SimXpert analysis file
S325
SMX124, Section 3, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: CONVECTION OFF PLATE
● Run MD Nastran Thermal
● Display thermal results
● Attach .xdb file
S326
SMX124, Section 3, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: CONVECTION OFF PLATE
● Display thermal results
● Display thermal fringe
S327
SMX124, Section 3, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
EXERCISE
Perform Workshop 2 “Steadystate Analysis of Hex
Mesh with Free Convection and Internal Heat” in your
exercise workbook.
S328
SMX124, Section 3, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
S41
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 4
TRANSIENT THERMAL ANALYSIS
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SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
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S43
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
TRANSIENT THERMAL MODELS
● The preceding sections (conduction and convection)
dealt with steadystate thermal models
● Before steadystate conditions can occur some time
must elapse after the heat transfer process is initiated
for the transient conditions to decay to zero
S44
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
TRANSIENT THERMAL MODELS (Cont.)
● For some models steadystate
conditions will never be reached, e.g.
heating a brick
S45
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
TRANSIENT EQUATION
● The familiar conduction heat transfer equation is
● The MD Nastran Thermal transient equation derived from this equation is
● This is a nonlinear matrix equation. It is solved using the NewtonRaphson
iteration scheme. In concert with the NewtonRaphson method, the
following options are provided to improve the efficiency of the iteration
process.
● Tangential matrix update strategy
● Line search method
● Bisection of loads
● QuasiNewton (BFGS) updates
● This equation, and its solution, are described in Section 7.
t
T
k
q
T
1
2
} { } { } ]{ [ } ]{ [ } ]{ [
4
N P T T T K T B
abs
R
S46
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
TRANSIENT TEMPERATURE CONSTRAINTS
● The Defaults For Temperature
BC form was shown for the
section on conduction
● The material given in the section
on conduction is repeated here
● The Temperature entry was used
to specify a constant
temperature
● The Temp vs Time scaling
function entry is discussed now
S47
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
TEMPERATURE CONSTRAINTS (Cont.)
● Temperature at node point
constraints
● The constraints can be made
time dependent by clicking in
the Temp vs Time scaling
function check box
● Click on the box with the “…” to
the right
● Can select Select or Create to
specify the time dependent table
● Select the entry TABLED1_1
(this is a time dependent table
that must have been previously
created)
● Click OK
S48
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
TEMPERATURE CONSTRAINTS (Cont.)
● Temperature at node point constraints
● Click Store, then click Exit
● Specify the application region using the Create Temperature
pick panel
● Select an entity type to screen pick, e.g. Nodes
● Screen pick the nodes to constrain their temperature
● Click Done, then click Exit
S49
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
LOADING
● Loads that can be applied to conduction elements
● Heat flux to a surface
● Normal Flux (Nastran QHBDY or QBDYi)
● Heat Flux (power/area)
● Time scaling function
● Application region
● Heat generation in conduction elements
● Volumetric Heat (Nastran QVOL)
● Power input per unit volume
● Power produced by heat conduction elements
● Time scaling function
● Application region
S410
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
LOADING (Cont.)
● Normal Flux
● Access the normal flux form
using the LBCs tab, then the
LBC group.
● The form Defaults For Normal
Flux appears
● Enter a value for the heat flux
(power/area)
● The loading can be made time
dependent by clicking in the Flux
vs Time scaling function
checkbox
● Click on the box with the “…” to
the right
S411
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
LOADING (Cont.)
● Normal Flux
● Can select Select or Create
● Select TABLED1_1
● Click OK
● Click Store, then click Exit
S412
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
LOADING (Cont.)
● Normal Flux
● Specify the application region
using the Create Normal Flux pick
panel
● Select an entity type to screen
pick, e.g. Nodes
● Screen pick the nodes to apply the
heat flux to
● Click Done, then click Exit
S413
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
LOADING (Cont.)
● Volumetric Heat
● Access the volumetric heat form
using the LBCs tab, then the
LBC group.
● The form Defaults For Volumetric
Heat BC appears
● Enter the value for power input per
unit volume (power/volume)
● The loading can be made time
dependent by clicking in the
HeatGen vs Time scaling function
checkbox
● Click on the box with the “…” to
the right
S414
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
LOADING (Cont.)
● Volumetric Heat
● Can select Select or Create
● Select TABLED1_1
● Click OK
● Click Store, then click Exit
S415
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
LOADING (Cont.)
● Volumetric Heat
● Specify the application region using the
Create Volumetric Heat pick panel
● Select an entity type to screen pick, e.g.
Elements
● Screen pick the elements to apply the
internal heat generation to
● Click Done, then click Exit
S416
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
TRANSIENT CONVECTION CAPABILITY
● The Defaults For Free
Convection form was
shown for the section on
free convection
● There are two time
dependent function entries
● AmbTemp vs Time scaling
function – table used to define
the ambient temperature as a
function of time
● ConvCoeff vs Time scaling
function – table used to define
the convection coefficient as a
function of time
S417
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
TRANSIENT CONVECTION CAPABILITY (Cont.)
● To use either of these
functions do the following
● Click in the check box for
one of the functions, e.g.
AmbTemp vs Time
● Click in the box with the
“…” to the right of the
function entry box
● Can select Select or Create
● Select Select
● If a table corresponding to
the function has not been
created prior to doing this a
message will be displayed.
S418
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
TRANSIENT CONVECTION CAPABILITY (Cont.)
● To use either of these functions do the following
● It is necessary to create the time dependent table first
● Access the time dependent table form using the Tables tab, then
the Tables group.
S419
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
TRANSIENT CONVECTION CAPABILITY (Cont.)
● To use either of these functions
do the following
● Now, AmbTemp vs Time has “1”
in its entry box
● Click Store, then click Exit
S420
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
TRANSIENT CONVECTION CAPABILITY (Cont.)
● To use either of these functions
do the following
● Specify the application region
using the Create Free Convection
pick panel
● Select an entity type to screen
pick, e.g. Nodes
● Screen pick the nodes to apply
the free convection to
● Click Done, then click Exit
S421
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
INITIALIZATION TEMPERATURE
● Temperature initialization
● To perform nonlinear steadystate or transient analysis it is
necessary to specify initialization temperatures
● Steadystate – must specify starting temperature (as opposed to
“initial temperature” that is needed for transient analysis) at all
the nodes
● Transient – must specify the initial temperature at all the nodes
S422
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
INITIALIZATION TEMPERATURE (Cont.)
● Temperature initialization
● Access the initialization temperature form using
the LBCs tab, then the LBC group.
● The form Defaults For TEMP_INIT BC
appears.
● Enter the value for the initial temperature.
● Click Store, then click Exit.
S423
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
INITIALIZATION TEMPERATURE (Cont.)
● Temperature initialization
● Specify the application region using the Create
TEMP_INIT pick panel.
● Select an entity type to screen pick, e.g.
Nodes.
● Screen pick the nodes to specify their
initialization temperature.
● Click Done, then click Exit.
S424
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
INITIALIZATION TEMPERATURE (Cont.)
● Temperature initialization
● For the nodes not included in the
specified application regions, their
temperatures are specified using
Analysis: Solver Control / General
Parameters / Properties / General
Solution Parameters / Default Init
Temperature
S425
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: TRAN CONV OFF PLATE
S426
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: TRAN CONV OFF PLATE
● Create Material property
S427
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: TRAN CONV OFF PLATE
● Create Property
S428
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE
● Create surface
● Create two curves
S429
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE
● Create surface
● Create two curves
● Create a surface using the curves
S430
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE
● Create surface
● Create a surface using the curves
S431
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE
● Mesh the surface
S432
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE
● Apply temperature constraints
S433
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: TRAN CONV OFF PLATE
● Apply free convection
boundary condition
● See the next page for the
creation of the table
S434
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: TRAN CONV OFF PLATE
● Apply convection boundary condition
S435
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: TRAN CONV OFF PLATE
● Create an LBC Set
S436
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: TRAN CONV OFF PLATE
● Create SimXpert analysis file
S437
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: TRAN CONV OFF PLATE
● Create SimXpert analysis file
S438
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: TRAN CONV OFF PLATE
● Create SimXpert analysis file
S439
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: TRAN CONV OFF PLATE
● Create SimXpert analysis file
S440
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: TRAN CONV OFF PLATE
● Run MD Nastran Thermal
● Display thermal results
● Attach .xdb file
S441
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: TRAN CONV OFF PLATE
● Display thermal results
● Display thermal fringe
Time = 0.0 Time = 501.4 Time = 1000.6
S442
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: TRAN CONV OFF PLATE
● Display thermal results
● Display thermal chart
S443
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: TRAN CONV OFF PLATE
● Display thermal results
● Display thermal chart
S444
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
ANALYSIS SETUP
● The Analysis forms in the Model
Browser tree are used to specify
the parameters for an analysis
● Model: Analysis
● Model: Analysis / Nastran Jobs
● Nastran Jobs : Create New Job
● Job Properties form
S445
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.)
● The Analysis forms in the Model
● General Parameters, etc.
● General Parameters: Properties
● General Solution Parameters
form
S446
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.)
● The Analysis forms in the Model
● Radiation Parameters: Properties
● Radiation Parameters form
S447
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.)
● The Analysis forms in the Model
● Cases: Add Common Case
● Common Case, Case Control
● Specify titles to be
above all subcases
S448
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.)
● The Analysis forms in the Model
● Common Case, Add Output
Requests
S449
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.)
● The Analysis forms in the Model
● Cases: Add Subcase
● Select the desired LBC Set
S450
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.)
● The Analysis forms in the Model
● Subcase Parameters: Properties
● DT = initial time step size
● NDT = approximate number of
time steps
S451
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.)
● The Analysis forms in the Model
● Matrix Update Method
● Automatic => (ADAPT) the
program automatically adjusts
the incremental time and uses
bisection. During the bisection
process the conduction matrix
is updated every KSTEP
converged bisection solution.
S452
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.)
● The Analysis forms in the Model
● Matrix Update Method
● SemiAutomatic => same as
Automatic => (ADAPT)
● Controlled Iters => same as
Automatic => (ADAPT)
● KSTEP => the number of
converged bisection solutions from
a conduction matrix update to the
next conduction matrix update
S453
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.)
● The Analysis forms in the Model
● MAXITER => the number of
iterations for a time step is limited
to MAXITER. If MAXITER is
negative the analysis is terminated
when the divergence condition
occurs twice during the same time
step or the solution process
diverges for five consecutive time
steps. If MAXITER is positive the
program computes the best
solution and continues the analysis
until divergence occurs. If the
solution process does not
converge in MAXITER iterations it
is treated as divergent.
S454
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.)
● The Analysis forms in the Model
● Temperature Error, Yes or No
● EPSU = error tolerance for
temperature criterion
● Load Error, Yes or No
● EPSP = error tolerance for load
criterion
● Work Error, Yes or No
● EPSW = error tolerance for work
criterion
S455
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.)
● The Analysis forms in the Model
● Output File: Properties
● Output File Properties form
S456
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.)
● The Analysis forms in the Model
● Submit an analysis file to the solver
● transient_sample_prob: Run
● File name
S457
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.)
● The Analysis forms in the Model
● Choices for SOL type for transient
analysis.
● SOL159
● SOL600, 159
S458
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
DISPLAY RESULTS
● Display thermal analysis results
● Attach an .XDB result file
S459
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
DISPLAY RESULTS (Cont.)
● Display thermal analysis results
● Access the results form using the
Results tab, then the Results group.
● Set the following
● Fringe
● Result Cases, SC1: Time = 5.7
● Result Type, Temperatures
● Click Update Plot
S460
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
DISPLAY RESULTS (Cont.)
● Display thermal analysis results
● Display the temperature results as a fringe plot
S461
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
DISPLAY RESULTS (Cont.)
● Display thermal analysis results
● Access the results form using the Results tab, then
the Results group.
● Set the following
● Chart
● Result Cases, SC1: Time = 0. (thru) Time = 5.7
● Result Type, Temperatures
● Target Entities, Node 6431 (screen pick a node)
● Click Add Curves
S462
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
DISPLAY RESULTS (Cont.)
● Display thermal analysis results
● Display the temperature results
for a node (e.g. Node 6431) as
a function of time
S463
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
EXERCISE
Perform Workshop 3 “Transient Analysis of Heating of
an IceCream Block” in your exercise workbook.
S464
SMX124, Section 4, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
S51
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 5
RADIATION
S52
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
S53
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
RADIATION CONCEPTS
● Thermal radiation
● Radiation at wavelengths (ì) in the domain 0.1 um < ì < 100 um
● This domain includes all visible light (0.35 um < ì < 0.75 um),
portions of the ultraviolet light subdomain (short wavelength),
and infrared light subdomain (long wavelength)
● Total emissive power, E
● The total amount of radiation emitted by a body per unit area
and unit time
● Black body
● Body absorbs all radiation for all wavelengths
● Grey body
● Real bodies (grey bodies) emit radiation at a lower rate than
black bodies
S54
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
RADIATION CONCEPTS (Cont.)
● Absorption, reflection, and transmission
● When radiation impinges on a body it is partially absorbed,
partially reflected, and partially transmitted.
● o = absorptivity
● p = reflectivity
● t = transmissivity
1 = + + t p o
S55
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
RADIATION CONCEPTS (Cont.)
● Kirchhoff’s law
● Body B
i
● B
i
, A
i
, o
i
, E
i
● Emissivity (in general is a function
of T and ì)
● Grey body at thermal equilibrium
● Black body at thermal equilibrium
o o o
E E E
G = = =
2
2
1
1
c o =
1 = =
b b
c o
b
E
E
= c
B
1
B
2
G
G
S56
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
RADIATION CONCEPTS (Cont.)
● Planck’s law
● where
● h = Planck’s constant
● k = Boltzmann’s constant
● StefanBoltzmann equation
● where
● o = StefanBoltzmann constant
) 1 /( ) 0 . 8 (
) /( ) ( 5
÷ =
÷ kT hc
b
e hc E
ì
ì
ì t
4
0
T d E E
b b
o ì
ì
=
í
=
·
S57
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
RADIATION CONCEPTS (Cont.)
● Net rate of radiant heat transfer between a surface and
its surroundings
● Net rate of radiant heat flow between two grey bodies
(surfaces)
● where
● F
G
is the geometric view factor
) (
4 4
ambient surface
T T A q ÷ = o
) (
4
2
4
1
T T A F q
G
÷ = o c
S58
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
RADIATION CONCEPTS (Cont.)
● Net rate of heat flow by
radiation between two grey
bodies (surfaces) A
1
and A
2
2 1
2 1
2
2 1
4
2
4
1 2 1
cos cos
) ( dA dA
A A
r
T T q
íí
÷ =
><
t
o o
o c
o
1
o
2
r
A
1
A
2
dA
1
dA
2
1
ˆ n
2
ˆ n
S59
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
RADIATION CONCEPTS (Cont.)
● Viewfactor
● Reciprocity theorem
● In general
● Net radiation from A
i
to other
surfaces in enclosure
● Sum of F
ik
for enclosure
j i
j i
ij
j i
i
ij
dA dA
A A
r
A
F
íí
=
2
cos cos
1
t
o o
ji ij
F F =
ji j ij i
F A F A =
¯ ÷
= =
=
n
i k k
bk bi i
E E F A q
ik net i
, 1
) (
,
¯ =
= =
n
i k k
ik
F
, 1
1
S510
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
RADIATION CAPABILITIES
● Ambient exchange
● Emissivity, c
● Constant, 0 <= c <= 1
● Temperature dependent
● Absorptivity, o
● Constant, 0 <= o <= 1
● Temperature dependent
● Time dependent viewfactor
S511
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
RADIATION CAPABILITIES (Cont.)
● Applied heat flux from a distant source
● Heat Flux (Q0) (e.g. W/m
2
)
● Constant or time dependent
● Absorptivity
● Constant, time and/or temperature dependent
● Emissivity
● Constant or temperature dependent
● Radiation enclosures
● Temperature dependent emissivity (o = c)
● Diffuse surface view factor calculations with self and
3
rd
body shadowing
S512
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
RADIATION CAPABILITIES (Cont.)
● Radiation enclosures
● Adaptive view factor calculations with error estimation
● Net effective view factors
● Radiation matrix control
● Radiation enclosure control
● Multiple radiation enclosures
S513
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
RADIATION TO SPACE (AMBIENT)
● Radiation to space (ambient)
● Access the rad to space form using the LBCs tab, then the LBC group.
● The Defaults For Rad to Space form appears
● Ambient temperature  constant ambient temperature
● AmbTemp vs Time scaling function – function used to define the ambient
temperature as a function of time
S514
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
RADIATION TO SPACE (AMBIENT) (Cont.)
● Radiation to space
(ambient)
● View factor – view factor
between face and ambient
● ViewFact vs Time scaling
function – function used to
define the view factor as a
function of time
● Absorptivity – absorptivity,
0 <= o <= 1
● Emissivity – emissivity,
0 <= c <= 1
● Shell surface option
● FRONT
● BACK
S515
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
RADIATION TO SPACE (AMBIENT) (Cont.)
● Radiation to space
(ambient)
● Detailed surface prop
definition – wavelength
and/or temperature
dependent surface
properties
● Can select Select or
Create
● First, create a
radiation material
property. Use the
Solver Card option.
● In the form Defaults
For Rad to Space
click on box with “…”.
● Select Select, then
select RadMat_1
S516
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
RADIATION TO SPACE (AMBIENT) (Cont.)
● Radiation to space (ambient)
● Click Store, then click Exit
● Specify the application region using
the Create Rad to Space pick panel
● Select an entity type to screen pick,
e.g. Nodes
● Screen pick the nodes to apply the
radiation to space them
● Click Done, then click Exit
S517
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
RADIATION TO SPACE (AMBIENT) (Cont.)
● Radiation to space (ambient)
● Rate of heat flow by radiation to space (ambient)
) (
4 4
amb e e
T T FAMB q ÷ · · = c o
S518
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: NONDIRECTION SOLAR LOAD
S519
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: NONDIRECTION SOLAR LOAD
● Create Material property
S520
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: NONDIRECTION SOLAR LOAD
● Create Property
S521
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: NONDIRECTION SOLAR LOAD
● Create surface
● Create two curves
S522
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
● Create surface
● Create two curves
● Create a surface using the curves
CASE STUDY: NONDIRECTION SOLAR LOAD
S523
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: NONDIRECTION SOLAR LOAD
● Create surface
● Create a surface using the curves
S524
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: NONDIRECTION SOLAR LOAD
● Mesh the surface
S525
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: NONDIRECTION SOLAR LOAD
● Create radiation to ambient
S526
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: NONDIRECTION SOLAR LOAD
● Create uniform heat flux
S527
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: NONDIRECTION SOLAR LOAD
● Create LBC Set
S528
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: NONDIRECTION SOLAR LOAD
● Create Job Properties
S529
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: NONDIRECTION SOLAR LOAD
● Specify General Solution Parameters values
S530
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: NONDIRECTION SOLAR LOAD
● Specify Radiation Parameters values
S531
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: NONDIRECTION SOLAR LOAD
● Create a subcase
S532
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: NONDIRECTION SOLAR LOAD
● Specify desired output
S533
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: NONDIRECTION SOLAR LOAD
● Specify Static Nonlinear Iterations parameter values
S534
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: NONDIRECTION SOLAR LOAD
● Specify information and file type to be output
S535
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: NONDIRECTION SOLAR LOAD
● Write SimXpert analysis file and run analysis
S536
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: NONDIRECTION SOLAR LOAD
● Attach SimXpert analysis result file
S537
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: NONDIRECTION SOLAR LOAD
● Plot temperature fringe
S538
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: NONDIRECTION SOLAR LOAD
● Plot temperature fringe
S539
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
EXERCISES
Perform Workshop 4 “Hex8 Mesh With Heat Flux,
Ambient Convection, and Ambient Radiation” in your
exercise workbook.
S540
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
RADIATION IN ENCLOSURES
● Radiation in enclosures
● Access the enclosure radiation face
form using the LBCs tab, then the LBC
group.
● The Defaults For Encl Rad Face form
appears
● Shell surface option  for specifying
what face the radiation is emitted from.
● Front
● Back
S541
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
RADIATION IN ENCLOSURES (Cont.)
● Radiation in enclosures
● Shading option  for specifying
what is to be shaded or what is
to shade.
● None
● The face cannot shade or
be shaded by other faces
● Can shade
● The face can shade other
faces
● Can be shaded
● The face can be shaded by
other faces
● Both
● The face can shade and be
shaded by other faces
S542
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
RADIATION IN ENCLOSURES (Cont.)
● Radiation in enclosures
● Subelem mesh size (bdir (beta
direction)) and (gdir (gamma
direction)).
● Used for the calculation of view
factors by a finite difference or
contour integration technique.
They are used to specify how
fine a “grid” (not finite element
grids) for surface elements
(CHBDYi) for integration there
are to be in the bdir and gdir
direction.
Subelem (bdir) = 2
Subelem (gdir) = 4
S543
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
● Radiation in enclosures
● Absorptivity
● Constant, 0 <= o <= 1
● Emissivity
● Constant, 0 <= c <= 1
● Detailed surface prop definition
● Create a temperature dependent
table for Absorptivity and
Emissivity
RADIATION IN ENCLOSURES (Cont.)
S544
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
RADIATION IN ENCLOSURES (Cont.)
● Radiation in enclosures
● Click Modify
● Click Store, then click Exit
● Specify the application region
using the Create Encl Rad Face
pick panel
● Select an entity type to screen
pick, e.g. Elements
● Screen pick the elements to
define the face
● Click Done, then click Exit
S545
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
RADIATION IN ENCLOSURES (Cont.)
● Radiation in enclosures
● Now, that the face(s) have been
defined, it is necessary to define
an enclosure(s) using the faces.
● Access the create radiation
enclosure form using the LBC
tab, then the LBC group.
● SHADOW  control thirdbody
shading calculation during view
factor calculation.
● Yes
● No
● TAMB
● Temperature of ambient
environment that radiation is
lost to
S546
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
RADIATION IN ENCLOSURES (Cont.)
● Radiation in enclosures
● SCALE
● Enclosure view factor sum is
set equal to this if the sum >
1
● PRTPCH
● Control printing and punching
view factor to RADLST and
RADMTX entries.
● NFECI. Controls whether a
finite difference method or
contour integration is to be
used for calculating view
factors.
● Finite difference
● Contour integration
● Mixed method
S547
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
RADIATION IN ENCLOSURES (Cont.)
● Radiation in enclosures
● RMAX
● Subelement area factor.
When NFECI is set to “Mixed
method” the contour
integration method is used
only if
where A
s
= area of
subelement s, and d
rs
=
distance between subelement
r and subelement s.
● GITB
● Gaussian integration order to
be used for calculating net
effective view factors with
third –body shadowing.
RMAX d A
rs s
>
2
/
S548
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
RADIATION IN ENCLOSURES (Cont.)
● Radiation in enclosures
● GIPS
● Gaussian integration order to
be used for calculating net
effective view factors with self
shadowing.
● ETOL
● Error estimate above which a
corrected view factor is
calculated using the semi
analytic contour integration
method.
● ZTOL
● If calculated view factor is <
ZTOL it is set to zero.
S549
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
RADIATION IN ENCLOSURES (Cont.)
● Radiation in enclosures
● WTOL
● If amount of warpage of
surface element, CHBDYi, is
> WTOL the view factor F
ii
is
calculated using exact
method.
● NUMBCS
● Number of enclosure
radiation faces. After entering
the value, and clicking in the
cell just to the right of the
value, the form updates so
there are NUMBCS ERFace
cells.
S550
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
RADIATION IN ENCLOSURES (Cont.)
● Radiation in enclosures
● NUMBCS
● Double click in first ERFace
cell.
● Entity Selection form appears.
● Select an Encl Rad Face entity.
● Click OK.
● Repeat, by selecting the next
ERFace.
● …
● Click OK.
● …
● Click Create, then click Exit.
S551
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: THREE RAD ENCLOSURES
S552
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: THREE RAD ENCLOSURES
● Import model of four 2D
elements
● Select file
multiple_enclosures.bdf
S553
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: THREE RAD ENCLOSURES
● Display the four 2D elements showing their node numbers
S554
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: THREE RAD ENCLOSURES
● Display the element normals
● Create three enclosures
1
2
3
S555
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: THREE RAD ENCLOSURES
● Create first enclosure
● Two faces for this enclosure
S556
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: THREE RAD ENCLOSURES
● Create first enclosure
● Two faces for this enclosure
S557
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: THREE RAD ENCLOSURES
● Create first enclosure
● Two faces for this enclosure
S558
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: THREE RAD ENCLOSURES
● First enclosure created and shown
S559
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: THREE RAD ENCLOSURES
● Create second enclosure
● Two faces for this enclosure
S560
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: THREE RAD ENCLOSURES
● Create second enclosure
● Two faces for this enclosure
S561
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: THREE RAD ENCLOSURES
● Create second enclosure
● Two faces for this enclosure
S562
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: THREE RAD ENCLOSURES
● Second enclosure created and shown
S563
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: THREE RAD ENCLOSURES
● Create third enclosure
● Two faces for this enclosure
S564
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: THREE RAD ENCLOSURES
● Create third enclosure
● Two faces for this enclosure
S565
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: THREE RAD ENCLOSURES
● Create third enclosure
● Two faces for this enclosure
S566
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: THREE RAD ENCLOSURES
● Third enclosure created and shown
S567
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: THREE RAD ENCLOSURES
● Fix the left element at 2000
0
K
S568
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: THREE RAD ENCLOSURES
● Fix the left element at 2000
0
K
S569
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: THREE RAD ENCLOSURES
● Create an LBC Set
S570
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: THREE RAD ENCLOSURES
● Create SimXpert analysis file
S571
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: THREE RAD ENCLOSURES
● Create SimXpert analysis
file
S572
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: THREE RAD ENCLOSURES
● Create SimXpert analysis
file
S573
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: THREE RAD ENCLOSURES
● Create SimXpert analysis
file
S574
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: THREE RAD ENCLOSURES
● Create SimXpert analysis
file
S575
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: THREE RAD ENCLOSURES
● Create SimXpert analysis file
S576
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: THREE RAD ENCLOSURES
● Execute MD Nastran Thermal analysis
● Attach the MD Nastran Thermal results file
S577
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: THREE RAD ENCLOSURES
● Display thermal results using a fringe plot
S578
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: THREE RAD ENCLOSURES
● Display thermal results using a fringe plot
S579
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
EXERCISES
Perform Workshop 5 “Single Radiation Enclosure With
Five Faces” in your exercise workbook.
S580
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
VECTOR FLUX FROM A DISTANT SOURCE
● Radiant Flux  heat flux
from a distant radiation
source
● Access the radiant flux form
using the LBCs tab, then the LBC
group
● The form Defaults For Radiant
Flux appears
● Heat Flux – thermal heat flux into
element face. It is positive for
heat flow into a surface.
● Flux vs Time function – function
used to define the flux as a
function of time
S581
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
VECTOR FLUX FROM A DISTANT SRCE (Cont.)
● Radiant Flux  heat flux from a distant radiation source
● Temp of radiant source – temperature of source
● Local coord system for specifying the thermal vector flux
direction
● Local xdir – direction cosine of flux relative to xaxis of local
coordinate system
● Local ydir  direction cosine of flux relative to yaxis of local
coordinate system
● Local zdir  direction cosine of flux relative to zaxis of local
coordinate system
S582
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
VECTOR FLUX FROM A DISTANT SRCE (Cont.)
● Radiant Flux  heat flux from a distant radiation source
● Absorptivity
● Constant, 0 <= o <= 1
● Absorp vs Time scaling function
● function used to define absorptivity as a function of time
● Emissivity
● Constant, 0 <= c <= 1
● Shell surface option
● FRONT or BACK
● Detailed surface prop definition
● Wavelength and/or temperature dependent surface properties
S583
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
VECTOR FLUX FROM A DISTANT SRCE (Cont.)
● Radiant Flux  heat flux from a
distant radiation source
● Click Store, then click Exit
● Specify the application region using
the Create Radiant Flux pick panel
● Select an entity type to screen pick,
e.g. Nodes
● Screen pick the nodes to apply the
vector heat flux to
● Click Done, then click Exit
S584
SMX124, Section 5, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
EXERCISES
Perform Workshop 6 “Variable Directional Solar Load to
a Single Quad4 Element” in your exercise workbook.
S61
SMX124, Section 6, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 6
SOL 400 THERMAL CAPABILITY
VIA STRUCTURES WORKSPACE
S62
SMX124, Section 6, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
S63
SMX124, Section 6, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
THERMAL PROBLEMS VIA SOL 400
● Currently SOL 400 is accessed via the Structures
Workspace (SimXpert R3.2)
● It is similar to the Thermal Workspace
● The following briefly covers several topics
● Material properties
● Element properties
● Loads and boundary conditions
● SimXpert analysis file creation (Simulations)
S64
SMX124, Section 6, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
THERMAL PROBLEMS VIA SOL 400
● Materials
● Some of these apply to heat transfer
● Isotropic
● Orthotropic 2D, 2D Axi, and 3D
● Anisotropic 2D and 3D
● Radiation Band
● Radiation Mat
S65
SMX124, Section 6, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
THERMAL PROBLEMS VIA SOL 400
● Properties (element)
● Some of these apply to heat transfer
● 0D
● Spring (simple resistor) (PELAS)
● Damper (simple lumped heat capacity) (PDAMP)
● 1D
● Truss (PROD)
● Beam (simple, library, or arbitrary crosssection) (PBAR)
● Spring (simple resistor) (PELAS)
● Damper (simple lumped heat capacity) (PDAMP)
S66
SMX124, Section 6, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
THERMAL PROBLEMS VIA SOL 400
● Properties (element)
● 1D
● Tube (PTUBE)
● Bend (PBEND)
● 2D
● Shell (PSHELL)
● Layered composite (PCOMP)
● Plane strain composite
● 3D
● Solid (PSOLID)
● Solid composite (PCOMPLS)
S67
SMX124, Section 6, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
THERMAL PROBLEMS VIA SOL 400
● Loads and boundary conditions.
● Currently these are the available lbcs.
● Future releases of SimXpert (>R3.2) will include forced
convection.
S68
SMX124, Section 6, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
THERMAL PROBLEMS VIA SOL 400
● Specify the parameter values for a SimXpert thermal
analysis.
S69
SMX124, Section 6, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
THERMAL PROBLEMS VIA SOL 400
● Under DefaultLoadCase specify the analysis type as
nonlinear steady state heat transfer.
S610
SMX124, Section 6, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
THERMAL PROBLEMS VIA SOL 400
● Specify the parameter values for
Loadcase Control.
S611
SMX124, Section 6, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
THERMAL PROBLEMS VIA SOL 400
● Observe what LBCs are associated to Loads/Boundaries;
look at the set DefaultLbcSet.
S612
SMX124, Section 6, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
THERMAL PROBLEMS VIA SOL 400
● For a SimXpert chained
analysis (e.g. thermal to
structural) this is what a
Model Browser tree can look
like.
S613
SMX124, Section 6, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
EXERCISE
Perform Workshop 7 “Concentric Spheres With
Radiation Between Them” in your exercise workbook.
Perform Workshop 8 “Transient Response of Power
Electronics” in your exercise workbook.
Perform Workshop 9 “Integrated Circuit Board Thermal
Stress Analysis” in your exercise workbook.
S614
SMX124, Section 6, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
S71
SMX124, Section 7, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 7
THERMAL ANALYSIS THEORY OF
MSC SimXpert THERMAL
ANALYSIS
S72
SMX124, Section 7, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
S73
SMX124, Section 7, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
FORMULATIONS
● Thermal problems can be categorized as
● Steadystate
● Steadystate analyses are concerned with state point solutions with
constant/fixed boundary conditions
● Transient
● Transient analyses are characterized by solution evolution over time,
and in addition to energy exchange with the environment, involves
thermal energy storage
● Linear
● Properties; i.e. conductivity, convection coefficient; they do not
change with
● Temperature
● The boundary conditions do not involve
● Radiation
S74
SMX124, Section 7, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
FORMULATIONS (Cont.)
● Thermal problems can be categorized as (continued)
● Nonlinear
● Temperature dependent material properties.
● Conduction
● Convection
● Natural
● Forced
● Radiation boundary conditions.
● Ambient
● Enclosure
● Steadystate or transient solution.
● All nonlinear analyses necessarily involve solution iteration, error
estimation, and convergence criteria.
S75
SMX124, Section 7, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
STEADYSTATE FORMULATION STEPS
● The familiar conduction heat transfer equation is
● A transition is made from this equation (strong form) to a variational
formulation (weak form). The matrix equation corresponding to the
variational formulation is
● where, [B] and [K] are the heat capacity and conduction matrices
● {T} and {F} are the temperature and heat load vectors
● The MD Nastran Thermal steadystate equation derived from this
equation is
t
T
k
q
T
c
c
= + V
o
1
2
} { } ]{ [ } ]{ [ F T K T B = +
} { } { } ]{ [ } ]{ [
4
N P T T T K
abs
+ = + + R
S76
SMX124, Section 7, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
STEADYSTATE FORMULATION STEPS (Cont.)
● This is a nonlinear matrix equation. It is solved using the Newton
Raphson iteration scheme. A residual load vector function is defined as
the difference between the applied thermal load vector and the thermal
load vector due to element temperature.
● The residual load vector function is equal to zero for the solution
temperature vector. The task is to determine the solution temperatures.
The residual load vector function is approximated by its firstorder
Taylor series expansion about the temperature vector from the ith
iteration.
) } ]{ [ } ]{ ([ }) { } ({ } {
4
abs
T T T K N P R + + ÷ + = R
) } { } ({
} {
} {
)} } ({ { })} ({ {
i
i
i
T T
T
R
T R T R ÷
c
c
+ ~
S77
SMX124, Section 7, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
STEADYSTATE FORMULATION STEPS (Cont.)
● The Taylor series expansion is evaluated at the temperatures for the
(i + 1)th iteration, and set equal to zero.
● From this the following equation is arrived at.
● where
● Note
} 0 { ) } { } ({
} {
} {
)} } ({ { )} } ({ {
1 1
= ÷
c
c
+ ~
+ + i i
i
i i
T T
T
R
T R T R
i i i
T
R T K } { } { ] [ = A
i i i
T T T } { } { } {
1
÷ = A
+
( )
i
abs
i i i i
T
T
N
T T K K
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
c
c
÷ + + ~
} {
} {
} { ] [ 4 ] [ ] [
3
R
i i i
T T T } { } { } {
1
A + =
+
S78
SMX124, Section 7, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
STEADYSTATE FORMULATION STEPS (Cont.)
● This is an iterative process, not linear. Start with i = 0. Thus, the first
equation to be solved is
● From the solution to this equation the next temperature vector is
found from
● Next, use i = 1. The next equation to be solved is
● From the solution to this equation the next temperature vector is
found from
● This process is repeated until a converged solution is obtained, {T}
m
.
0 0 0
} { } { ] [ R T K
T
= A
0 0 1
} { } { } { T T T A + =
1 1 1
} { } { ] [ R T K
T
= A
1 1 2
} { } { } { T T T A + =
S79
SMX124, Section 7, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
STEADYSTATE FORMULATION STEPS (Cont.)
● Graphical representation of the solution process
● Expression (F) for the thermal load vector due to element
temperature
4
} ]{ [ } ]{ [
abs
T T T K F + + => R
K
T
1
1
T
0
T
1
T
2
T
m
T
F
P + N
K
T
0
1
F
0
F
1
AT
0
AT
1
R
0
R
1
S710
SMX124, Section 7, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
STEADYSTATE FORMULATION STEPS (Cont.)
● Since matrix decomposition is time consuming, MD Nastran does not
update the lefthand side matrix at each iteration. The tangential matrix
is updated only when the solution fails to converge or the iteration
efficiency can be improved. However, the residual vector is updated at
each iteration.
● In concert with the NewtonRaphson method, the following options are
provided to improve the efficiency of the iteration.
● Tangential matrix update strategy
● Line search method
● Bisection of loads
● QuasiNewton (BFGS) updates
S711
SMX124, Section 7, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
STEADYSTATE CONVERGENCE
● Convergence of nonlinear
steadystate solution process
● The form, whos entries are used to
specify control of the nonlinear
steadystate solution process, is
repeated here for convenience. MD
Nastran parameter (alpha) names
are shown in the MSC SimXpert
GUI
S712
SMX124, Section 7, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
STEADYSTATE CONVERGENCE (Cont.)
● Convergence of nonlinear steadystate solution process
● Iteration control
● The incremental and iterative solution processes are controlled by the
parameters specified under Static Nonlinear Iterations.
● For each subcase, load, and SPC temperature, changes are processed
incrementally with the number of subdivisions defined by the value of NINC.
T
F
P + N
f
2
(P + N)
f
1
(P + N)
One
Increment
One
Increment
One
Increment
Total Load
S713
SMX124, Section 7, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
STEADYSTATE CONVERGENCE (Cont.)
● Convergence of nonlinear steadystate solution process
● Iteration control
● The incremental and iterative solution processes are controlled by the
parameters specified under Static Nonlinear Iterations.
● The Matrix Update Method field is used to specify the tangential matrix update
strategy. Three separate options may be selected.
● Automatic  the program automatically selects the most efficient strategy based on
convergence rates. At each iteration, the number of steps (iterations) required to converge as
well as the computing time with and without matrix update are estimated. The tangential
matrix is updated if (a) the estimated number of iterations to converge exceeds MAXITER, (b)
the estimated time required for convergence with current matrix exceeds the estimated time
to converge with matrix update, or (c) the solution diverges. The tangential matrix is also
updated on convergence if KSTEP is less than the number of steps required for convergence
with the current matrix.
T
F
j
For iteration
“j”
# iters to
converge
estimated
j
T
K ] [ updated if
a) Est # iters to converge > MAXITER,
b) Est time to converge with current >
Est time to converge with update, or
c) Solution process diverges
Automatic
S714
SMX124, Section 7, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
STEADYSTATE CONVERGENCE (Cont.)
● Convergence of nonlinear steadystate solution process
● Iteration control
● The Matrix Update Method field is used to specify the tangential matrix
update strategy. Three separate options may be selected.
● SemiAutomatic  this option is identical to the AUTO option except that the
program updates the tangential matrix after the first iteration.
● Controlled Iters  the program updates the tangential matrix at every KSTEPth
iteration and on convergence if KSTEP < MAXITER. However, the tangential matrix
is never updated if KSTEP > MAXITER. Note that the NewtonRaphson method is
obtained if KSTEP = 1, and the modified NewtonRaphson method is selected by
setting KSTEP = MAXITER.
j
T
K ] [ updated every KSTEPth iteration or at
convergence if KSTEP <= MAXITER
T
F
j
For iteration
“j”
Controlled Iters
S715
SMX124, Section 7, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
STEADYSTATE CONVERGENCE (Cont.)
● Convergence of nonlinear steadystate solution process
● Iteration control
● The number of iterations for a load increment is limited to MAXITER. If the solution
does not converge in MAXITER iterations, the current load increment is bisected and
the analysis for that increment is repeated.
T
F
P + N
f
2
(P + N)
f
1
(P + N)
S716
SMX124, Section 7, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
STEADYSTATE CONVERGENCE (Cont.)
● Convergence of nonlinear steadystate solution process
● Iteration control
● The divergence rate is defined as the ratio of energy error before and at the end of
the current iteration, i+1
● The divergence parameter for the ith iteration, NDIV
i
, is incremented as follows
● This computation is performed for all of the iterations of the current load increment
● The solution for the current load increment is taken as diverged when NDIV
final
>=
MAXDIV
error severe less for NDIV NDIV
i i
, 1
1
+ =
+
error severe more for NDIV NDIV
i i
, 2
1
+ =
+
S717
SMX124, Section 7, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
STEADYSTATE CONVERGENCE (Cont.)
● Convergence of nonlinear steadystate solution process
● Iteration output
● For each iteration, the related output is printed under the following headings:
Number of occurrences of bisection conditions during the iteration MDV
Number of occurrences of probable divergence during the iteration NDV
Expected number of iterations for convergence ENIC
Number of line searches performed during the iteration NLS
Number of quasiNewton vectors appended NQNV
Error at the end of the line search EFINAL
Divergence rate, initial error before line search EFIRST
Final value for the line search parameters FACTOR
Absolute norm of the residual vector DLMAG
Rate of convergence LAMBDA
Relative error for energy EWI
Relative error for load EPI
Relative error for temperature EUI
Iteration i ITERATIONS
Description Parameters
S718
SMX124, Section 7, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
STEADYSTATE CONVERGENCE (Cont.)
● Convergence of nonlinear steadystate solution process
● Convergence criteria
● The convergence criteria are characterized by the dimensionless error
functions and the convergence tolerances. To ensure accuracy and
efficiency, multiple criteria with errors measured about temperatures,
loads, and energy are provided.
● Temperature error function
● Since the error in temperatures is not known, a contraction factor q is
introduced to formulate the temperature error function, which is defined as
● The final form of the temperature error function is obtained by introducing a
weighted normalization. The result is
● where the weighting function {e} is defined as the square root of the diagonal
terms of the tangent matrix.
 
 
 
 
1 1
1
÷ ÷
+
A
A
=
÷
÷
=
i
i
i i
i i
T
T
T T
T T
q
} { } {
} { } {
1 T
T
q
q
E
T
T
U
·
A ·
÷
=
e
e
S719
SMX124, Section 7, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
STEADYSTATE CONVERGENCE (Cont.)
● Convergence of nonlinear steadystate solution process
● Convergence criteria
● Load error function
● The load error function is defined as
● where
● where {P
ld
} is the applied thermal load at the previous load step, and {AP
ld
} is the
incremental load.
● Energy error function
● The energy (or work) error function is defined as
} { } {
} { } {
T P
T R
E
T
T
P
· '
·
=
} { } { } {
ld ld
P P P A + = '
} { } {
} { } {
T P
T R
E
T
T
W
·
'
A ·
=
S720
SMX124, Section 7, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
STEADYSTATE CONVERGENCE (Cont.)
● Convergence of nonlinear steadystate solution process
● Convergence criteria
● Using the error functions
● At every iteration, error functions are evaluated and the results printed in
the convergence table under the headings EUI, EPI, and EWI. The
convergence test is performed by comparing the value of the error
functions with the convergence tolerances, e.g.
● E
U
< EPSU ?
● E
P
< EPSP ?
● E
W
< EPSW ?
● where the value of EPSU, EPSP, and EPSW are tolerances specified in
the MSC SimXpert Subcase Parameters form. The solution has converged
if these tests are satisfied. Note that only those criteria selected by the user
(specified in the Convergence Criteria part of the form) are used to check
for convergence. The tolerances should not be too restrictive so that many
more iterations are performed than need to be, or too unrestrictive so that
there is poor accuracy. It is recommended that the default values be used
until better values are found through iteration experience.
S721
SMX124, Section 7, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR STEADYSTATE
● Recommendations
● The following are recommendations, designed to aid the user.
● Highly nonlinear radiation problems
● It is advised to use NLPARM,ID,NINC,DT,KMETHOD,KSTEP,…; where NINC = 1,
KMETHOD = ITER, and KSTEP = 1. This will cause the tangent conduction matrix
to be calculated for each iteration.
● NLPARM settings for problems that do not involve a highdegree of nonlinear
radiation
● NLPARM,ID,NINC,DT,KMETHOD,KSTEP,MAXITER,…; where NINC = 1,
KMETHOD = AUTO, KSTEP = 5, and MAXITER = 25.
● Also, for some of these problems, the iterative solution is sensitive to the initial
temperature guess. It is recommended to overshoot (i.e., make a high initial guess)
the estimated solution temperature vector.
S722
SMX124, Section 7, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR STEADYSTATE
● Recommendations
● The following are recommendations, designed to aid the user.
● Incremental load
● Incremental loading reduces the imbalance of the equilibrium equation caused by
applied loads. The singlepoint constraints (temperature specified by SPC in the
Bulk Data) and the applied loads (specified by QHBDY, QBDYi, VECFLUX, and
QVOL) can be incremented. If the solution takes more iterations than the default
values of the maximum number of iterations allowed for convergence (MAXITER),
the increment size should be decreased. For linear problems, no incremental load
steps are required.
● Convergence criteria
● At the beginning stages of a new analysis, it is recommended that the defaults be
used for all options. However, all the Error options (Temperature, Load, and Work)
may be selected to improve the efficiency of convergence. For problems with poor
convergence, the tolerances EPSU, EPSP, and EPSW can be increased within the
limits of reasonable accuracy.
S723
SMX124, Section 7, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR STEADYSTATE
● Recommendations
● The following are recommendations, designed to aid the user.
● Convergence criteria
● For radiation problems that do not converge, and have an error code SFM 4551,
use the full Newton Raphson method so the conduction matrix will be updated
every iteration. This is done using NLPARM, ID, NINC, DT, KMETHOD, …, where
KMETHOD = FNT for SOL 400.
● SOL153
● The best method determined through experience is to use the “full” Newton
Raphson method. This involves updating the conduction tangent matrix every
iteration. To do this use Matrix Update Method: Controlled Iters, Number of
Iterations per Update (KSTEP) = 1. Because the conduction tangent matrix is
calculated for each iteration it is necessary to have only one increment, NINC = 1.
● For problems that are not highly nonlinear it is acceptable to use Matrix Update
Method: Automatic.
S724
SMX124, Section 7, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
TRANSIENT THERMAL ANALYSIS
● Transient analysis
● Models are similar to those for steadystate analysis, except must
also have
● Specific heat (heat capacity per unit mass)
● Density
● As needed
● Lumped thermal capacitance
● Dynamic transfer function
● The equation for the variation of temperature with time, as shown on
the following page, will have to be solved as for steadystate
analysis. Also, integrating the set of equations will require specifying
parameters, e.g. integration interval/step.
S725
SMX124, Section 7, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
TRANSIENT FORMULATION STEPS
● The familiar conduction heat transfer equation is
● A transition is made from this equation (strong form) to a variational
formulation (weak form). The matrix equation corresponding to the
variational formulation is
● where, [B] and [K] are the heat capacity and conductivity matrices
● {T} and {F} are the temperature and heat load vectors
● The MD NASTRAN Thermal transient equation derived from this
equation is
t
T
k
q
T
c
c
= + V
o
1
2
} { } ]{ [ } ]{ [ F T K T B = +
} { } { } ]{ [ } ]{ [ } ]{ [
4
N P T T T K T B
abs
+ = + + + R
S726
SMX124, Section 7, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
TRANSIENT FORMULATION STEPS (Cont.)
● This is a nonlinear matrix equation. It is solved using the Newton
Raphson iteration scheme. A residual load vector function is defined
as the difference between the applied thermal load vector and the
thermal load vector due to element temperature and temperature
rate.
● The residual load vector function, at a given time, is equal to zero for
the solution temperature vector at that time. The task is to determine
the solution temperatures and their rates. The residual load vector
function is approximated by its firstorder Taylor series expansion
about the temperature vector from the ith iteration, for the n+1 time
point (the solution is known for time point n).
) } ]{ [ } ]{ [ } ]{ ([ }) { } ({ )} ( {
4
abs
T T T K T B N P t R + + + ÷ + = R
) } { } ({
} {
} {
} { } {
1 1
1
1 1
i
n n
i
n
i
n n
T T
T
R
R R
+ +
+
+ +
÷
c
c
+ ~
S727
SMX124, Section 7, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
TRANSIENT FORMULATION STEPS (Cont.)
● The Taylor series expansion is evaluated at the temperatures for the
(i + 1)th iteration, and set equal to zero.
● From this the following equation is arrived at.
● where
● Note
} 0 { ) } { } ({
} {
} {
} { } {
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
= ÷
c
c
+ ~
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
T T
T
R
R R
i
n
i
n
i
n
T T T } { } { } {
1
1
1 1 +
+
+ +
÷ = A
i
n
i
n
i
n T
R T K } { } { ]
~
[
1 1 1 + + +
= A
i
n
i
n
i
n
T T T } { } { } {
1 1
1
1 + +
+
+
A + =
S728
SMX124, Section 7, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
TRANSIENT FORMULATION STEPS (Cont.)
● where (continued)
● and, where the approximation for the time derivative is given by
● Another approximation used is
n T n
i
n T
i
n
i
n
i
n T
K B
t
K B
t T
R
K ] [ ] [
1
] [ ] [
1
} {
}) { (
]
~
[
1 1
1
1
+
A
~ +
A
=
c
÷ c
=
+ +
+
+
u u
( )
n
abs n n n n T
T
N
T T K K
c
c
÷ + + ~
} {
} {
} { ] [ 4 ] [ ] [
3
R
} ){
1
1 ( }) { } ({
1
} {
1 1 n n
i
n
i
n
T T T
t
T
u u
÷ + ÷
A
~
+ +
S729
SMX124, Section 7, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
TRANSIENT FORMULATION STEPS (Cont.)
● The residual load vector function for the ith iteration is given by
● This process is the same as for the steadystate analysis, this is an
iterative process. Start with i = 0. Thus, the first equation to be solved
is
● From the solution to this equation the next temperature vector is found
from
+ + ÷ + =
+ + + + + + +
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n n
i
n
T K T B N P R } { ] [ } { ] ([ ) } { } ({ } {
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
) } { ] [
4
1 1
i
abs n
i
n
T T +
+ +
R
0
1
0
1
0
1
} { } { ]
~
[
+ + +
= A
n n n T
R T K
0
1
0
1
1
1
} { } { } {
+ + +
A + =
n n n
T T T
S730
SMX124, Section 7, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
TRANSIENT FORMULATION STEPS (Cont.)
● Next, use i = 1. The next equation to be solved is
● From the solution to this equation the next temperature vector is found
from
● This process is repeated until a converged solution is obtained,
{T
n+1
}
m
.
● The process is repeated for the next time point, n+2. (t
n+2
= t
n+1
+
At
n+1
). Set {T
n+2
}
0
= {T
n+1
}
m
.
1
1
1
1
1
1
} { } { ]
~
[
+ + +
= A
n n n T
R T K
1
1
1
1
2
1
} { } { } {
+ + +
A + =
n n n
T T T
S731
SMX124, Section 7, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
TRANSIENT FORMULATION STEPS (Cont.)
● Graphical representation of the solution process
● Expression (F) for the thermal load vector due to element
temperature and temperature rate
4
} ]{ [ } ]{ [ } ]{ [
abs
T T T K T B F + + + => R
1
1
0
1 + n
R
1
1 + n
R
0
1 + n
F
1
1 + n
F
F
N P +
T ) (
0
1
l
n n
T T =
+
1
1 + n
T
2
1 + n
T
m
n
T
1 +
0
1 +
A
n
T
1
1 +
A
n
T
0
1
~
+ n T
K
1
1
~
+ n T
K
S732
SMX124, Section 7, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
TRANSIENT FORMULATION STEPS (Cont.)
● Since matrix decomposition is time consuming, MD NASTRAN does
not update the lefthand side matrix at each iteration. The tangential
matrix is updated only when the solution fails to converge or the
iteration efficiency can be improved. However, the residual vector is
updated at each iteration.
● In concert with the NewtonRaphson method, the following options are
provided to improve the efficiency of the iteration process:
● Tangential matrix update strategy
● Line search method
● Bisection of loads
● QuasiNewton (BFGS) updates
S733
SMX124, Section 7, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
FORMULATION STEP COMMENTS
● These options are specified under Analysis in SimXpert. In general, if
the solution process diverges, a line search algorithm, a bisection of
loads method, or the quasiNewton update method are implemented in
an effort to improve the solution obtained. If the solution still fails to
converge using all the above methods, the tangential stiffness matrix
is updated, and the iteration is resumed. The user may refer to the MD
NASTRAN Handbook for Nonlinear Analysis for a detailed description
of the above mentioned algorithms.
S734
SMX124, Section 7, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
TRANSIENT CONVERGENCE
● Convergence of nonlinear transient
solution process
● The form, whos entries are used to
specify control of the nonlinear
transient solution process, is repeated
here for convenience. MD NASTRAN
parameter (alpha) names are shown in
the MSC SimXpert GUI
S735
SMX124, Section 7, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
TRANSIENT CONVERGENCE (Cont.)
● Convergence of nonlinear transient solution process
● Automatic time stepping
● An example of adjusting the time step
● MD NASTRAN estimates an optimal time step size, and the step size evolves based
on the convergence condition. The time step is doubled (At
n+1
= 2At
n
) as {AT
n
} (= {T
n
} –
{T
n1
}) becomes small.
● where is the maximum value of the norms computed from the previous time
steps, and UTOL is a tolerance on the temperature increment specified in MSC
SimXpert.
● If the temperature increment exceeds the tolerance, a proper time step size can
be predicted from the following calculation, where e
n
is the inverse of the
characteristic time.
) 1 . 0 (
 } { 
 } { 
max
= < default UTOL
T
T
n
max
 } {  T
} { } {
} ]{ [ } {
n
T
n
n T
T
n
n
H T
T K T
n
A A
A A
= e
S736
SMX124, Section 7, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
TRANSIENT CONVERGENCE (Cont.)
● Convergence of nonlinear transient solution process
● Automatic time stepping
● The next time step is adjusted using
● where f(r) is a scaling factor defined as follows
● where
n n n
t r f t A = A
+
) (
1
RB r r f
RB r r f
r RB r f
RB r RB r f
RB r r f
n n
n n
n n
n n
n n
/ 0 . 3 , 0 . 4 ) (
/ 0 . 3 0 . 2 , 0 . 2 ) (
0 . 2 , 0 . 1 ) (
5 . 0 , 5 . 0 ) (
5 . 0 , 25 . 0 ) (
> =
< s =
< s =
< s · =
· < =


.

\

A


.

\

=
n n
n
t MSTEP
r
1 2 1
e
t
S737
SMX124, Section 7, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
TRANSIENT CONVERGENCE (Cont.)
● Convergence of nonlinear transient solution process
● Integration and iteration control
● The initial time increment and the number of time steps are specified by
DT and NDT, respectively. So, the duration of the solution of the
problem is approximately NDT * DT. This time is approximate because
the time increment may be adjusted (increased or decreased) during
the solution of the problem, so that the number of time steps may not
be equal to NDT. However, the total solution time is close to NDT * DT.
DT NDT time Total · ~
S738
SMX124, Section 7, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
TRANSIENT CONVERGENCE (Cont.)
● Convergence of nonlinear transient solution process
● Integration and iteration control
● During the bisection process (time step is bisected) the heat capacitance matrix
and tangential conduction matrix are updated every KSTEPth converged
bisection solution.
T
F
P + N
f
2
(P + N)
f
1
(P + N)
i
n T
K
1
] [
+
i
n
B
1
] [
+
update every KSTEPth
bisection solution
S739
SMX124, Section 7, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
TRANSIENT CONVERGENCE (Cont.)
● Convergence of nonlinear transient solution process
● Integration and iteration control
● The number of iterations for a time step is limited to MAXITER. If MAXITER is
specified as negative, the analysis is terminated on the second divergence
condition during the same time step or when the solution diverges for five
consecutive time steps. If MAXITER is specified as positive, the program
computes the best solution and continues the analysis until divergence occurs
again. If the solution does not converge in MAXITER iterations, the process is
considered divergent. Either bisection or matrix update is activated when the
process diverges.
Number of iterations for
time step <= MAXITER
Process diverges => Bisection of time step or matrix update
S740
SMX124, Section 7, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
TRANSIENT CONVERGENCE (Cont.)
● Convergence of nonlinear transient solution process
● Integration and iteration control
● The convergence criteria are defined under Convergence Criteria. Two types of
things must be specified
● Error: Temperature, Load, Work
● Tolerance: Temperature (EPSU), Load (EPSP), Work (EPSW)
● The requested criteria (combination of Temperature Error (U), Load Error (P),
and Work Error (W)) are satisfied upon convergence. Note that at least two
iterations are required to check the temperature convergence criterion.
● If the bisection option is used, the time step is bisected upon divergence.
Otherwise, the lefthand side matrices are updated, and the computation for the
current time step is repeated.
● The BFGS update and the line search process are performed in the same way
as in steady state analysis.
S741
SMX124, Section 7, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
TRANSIENT CONVERGENCE (Cont.)
● Convergence of nonlinear transient solution process
● Integration and iteration control
● The number of bisections for a load increment is limited to MAXBIS. Different
actions are taken when the solution diverges, depending on the sign of MAXBIS.
If MAXBIS is positive and the solution does not converge after MAXBIS
bisections, the best solution is computed and the analysis is continued to the
next time step. If MAXBIS is negative and the solution does not converge in
MAXBIS bisections, the analysis is terminated.
● Iteration output
● At each iteration or time step, the related output data are printed
S742
SMX124, Section 7, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
TRANSIENT CONVERGENCE (Cont.)
● Convergence of nonlinear transient solution process
● Integration and Iteration control
● The divergence rate is defined as the ratio of energy error before and at the end of
the current iteration, i+1
● The divergence parameter for the ith iteration, NDIV
i
, is incremented as follows
● This computation is performed for all of the iterations of the current time step
● The solution for the current time step is taken as diverged when NDIV
final
>=
MAXDIV
error severe less for NDIV NDIV
i i
, 1
1
+ =
+
error severe more for NDIV NDIV
i i
, 2
1
+ =
+
S743
SMX124, Section 7, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
TRANSIENT CONVERGENCE (Cont.)
● Convergence of nonlinear transient solution process
Number of occurrences of bisection conditions during the iteration. MAT DIV
Number of bisections executed for the current time interval. NO. BIS
Ratio of time step adjustment relative to DT. ADJUST
Number of occurrences of divergence detected during the adaptive iteration. ITR DIV
Number of line searches performed during the iteration. NLS
Number of quasiNewton vectors appended. NQNV
Error at the end of line search. EFINAL
Divergence rate, initial error before line search. EFIRST
Final value of the line search parameter. FACTOR
Absolute norm of the residual vector DLMAG
Rate of convergence LAMDBA(I)
Relative error in terms of work WORK
Relative error in terms of loads LOAD
Relative error in terms of temperatures DISP
Iteration count for each time step. ITER
Cumulative time for the duration of the analysis. TIME
Description Parameters
S744
SMX124, Section 7, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR TRANSIENT
● Convergence of nonlinear transient solution process
● Recommendations
● The following are recommendations designed to aid the user.
● Time step size
● To avoid inaccurate results or results from an unstable analysis, a proper initial time step
associated with the spatial mesh size is suggested. The selection criterion is
● where At
initial
is the initial time step, n is the modification number of the time scale, Ax is the
mesh size (dimension of the smallest element), p is the material density, C
p
is the specific
heat at constant pressure, and k is the thermal conductivity. A suggested value for n is 10.
For highly nonlinear problems a small initial time step size is recommended.
● Numerical stability
● Numerical stability is controlled by the damping parameter n. For linear problems n = 0 (no
numerical damping) is adequate, but for nonlinear problems a larger value of n may be
advisable. Increasing the value of n improves numerical stability; however, the solution
accuracy can be reduced. The recommended range of values is from 0.0 to 0.1 (the default
value is 0.01). The numerical damping is specified using PARAM, NDAMP, (value of n) .
This is a Bulk Data PARAM entry.
k
C
x
n
t
p
initial
p
2
) (
1
 A = A
S745
SMX124, Section 7, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR TRANSIENT
● Convergence of nonlinear transient solution process
● Recommendations
● The following are recommendations designed to aid the user.
● Initial temperatures and boundary temperatures
● The specification of initial temperatures and boundary condition temperatures should
be consistent. For a given point, the initial temperature should be equal to the
boundary condition temperature at t = 0.
● Convergence criteria
● At the beginning stages of a new analysis, it is recommended that the defaults be
used for all options. However, all three Error options (UPW) may be selected to
improve the efficiency of convergence. For nonlinear problems with timevarying
boundary conditions, the U Error option must be selected, because the large
conductance (internally generated) affects the calculations of the PW Error functions.
For problems with poor convergence, the tolerances EPSU, EPSP, and EPSW can
be increased within the limits of reasonable accuracy.
● When there is a time varying temperature boundary condition, e.g. time varying
ambient temperature, set the convergence criteria to just “U”. An example of this can
be seen for Example 7b of the exercises (Chapter 5) in the MD Nastran 2002 Thermal
Analysis User’s Guide.
S746
SMX124, Section 7, January 2009
Copyright© 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR TRANSIENT
● Convergence of nonlinear transient solution process
● Recommendations
● The following are recommendations designed to aid the user.
● Fixed time step
● If a fixed time step is desired, the adaptive time stepping can be deactivated by
clicking the checkbox for Fixed Time Steps.
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