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I, the author, would like to take a moment here to ask you, the reader, not to freely distribute this book amongst your friends. A lot of hard work has gone into its creation and it's only fair that I be compensated for my effort. It may not seem like it, but freely distributing this book is stealing. It's less personal than swiping a purse, but it's stealing none the less. That having been said, enjoy the book. - oger !elsen "r.

Warning: This book and the material it presents is intended for educational purposes only. #efore starting a training program consult your physician and make sure you're healthy enough for physical activity. Apply the information contained within this te$t at your own risk. The author takes no responsibility for injuries sustained while training.

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This book is dedicated to my family and friends, without whom I would have nothing.

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Table of Contents Engineering an Athlete The Building Blocks Ex osure !ntegration #efine$ent &utrition and #eco'er( The +ind . #eferences 5 7 15 3" %1 )* 7* *-) 11% 11) % .u$$ing Things .tandards and Testing +iscellaneous .

strengthen relevant tissues. which combine to make up tissues. breathing symphony in action. but in its function as well. but that's where this te$t comes in. and athletes are artists. and the whole thing runs like clockwork. *onflicting information comes in from all sides and without an almost prohibitively large amount of study it's difficult to know how to separate the wheat from the chaff. which combine to make up organs. and most people get lost along the way. (ith so much information out there on how to train. which ultimately combine to make up organisms. and beauty the likes of which most people could only dream of replicating. The path to greatness is rarely easy. or string and bow. It's the author's intention to outline the components that make up great athletes and e$plain how said components fit together and should be trained in order to see the best results. (atching a high level athlete play. or even obvious though. )ach section of the body syncs up in perfect harmony and the end result is grace. move. sport-specific training will be covered in detail with instructions on how to tailor programming for individual sports 5 . (hen one sees someone who is truly great at what they do. and generally prepare the body for high intensity sport work. The book will start by e$plaining the characteristics which make up athleticism and will then proceed to outline a progression meant to instill proper movement patterns. &nce the body is ready. it's easy to find one's self taking a less than optimal route.1 Engineering an Athlete The human body is an absolutely ama%ing machine. The beauty isn't just in its marvelous design though. athletes generate art through motion. or even table tennis. which combine to make up organ systems. and generally e$press their physical abilities is akin to watching a living. they're art. #ut rather than creating their masterpieces with paint and canvas. power. &rganelles combine to make up cells. 'ports are more than just games. regardless of whether that's sprinting. their ability is both unmistakable and awe inspiring and anyone with athletic aspirations of their own wants to perform similarly. or throwing.

(hile the intent here is to approach training in an almost mechanical sense. All in all. the book looks to take one from novice to seasoned and capable pro. and pour their heart and soul into their work. the principles discussed within are applicable to every sport with a slight amount of tweaking. In order to reach their peak. greatness isn't guaranteed. And though the target audience for this te$t is primarily anaerobic sprinting and jumping athletes. but everyone can be better.and athletes. forgetting to account for the human spirit dooms one to failure. and the primary goal here is to help everyone reading this book to capture their potential to the fullest.oger !elsen "r. and even then. !ot everyone can be great. ) . It should be said now that regardless of how smart one trains. if their heart isn't behind it they'll be shooting themselves in the foot. train hard. . one needs to train smart.

. . and consistency. $obilit(. s eed. and skill. can be broken down into five interdependent categories/ strength. as will the mobility and skill of a gymnast versus a rower. but everyone draws from the same pool of characteristics. they're a combination of physical . great athletes are a combination of -od-given talent.ualities varies from athlete to athlete and sport to sport. each component of athleticism interacts strongly with the others. 'kill especially bleeds into the four other categories.ore than that though. tendons.uire the same degree of components. The e$act balance of . one can build an athlete for any sport. *iting some more e$treme e$amples. and this chapter will cover them in detail. The strength needed to sprint fast is not necessarily the same strength needed to lift big weights. The need for differing . the muscles generate 7 . but one with no simple answer. !aturally however.trength 'trength is the ability of the body to generate tension and it is reliant on the muscles. hard work. not all athletes will re. the strength and endurance levels of marathoners and shot putters will differ significantly. but is still separate enough to warrant being placed in its own category. endurance. the components of fitness. As noted. or the building blocks with which trainers work. and nervous system. -enerally speaking.ualities is obvious when looking at such polari%ed e$amples. proper training. but it does still need its own section.ualities. nor is the endurance needed to play a football game the same endurance needed to swim a 011 meter breaststroke.aking things as simple as possible. but it's necessary to note more subtle cases as well. The nervous system tells the muscles how to function. The components are not general one-si%e-fits-all .ualities. .uestion. (ithin each .uality there are variations that need to be understood. #y manipulating each of the five components.2 The Building Blocks (hat makes a great athlete+ A simple .

tension. which act as an intermediary between muscle and bone. and it is perfectly possible to have more contractile protein in a smaller muscle if the larger muscle has a significant amount of energetic hypertrophy. and the tendons transmit that tension to the skeletal system to create movement. but they can provide e$tra force in activities involving relatively high speed eccentric action. and as such his strength as demonstrated through front and back s. . the more force it will be able to generate. the greater * .4. As noted though.uality of the muscles that limits strength is the distribution of muscle fiber within a muscle. Trappe. 811. Typically.uats will typically be greater 3assuming similar limb lengths4. the muscles contract to generate tension. An e$treme e$ample of this would be the leg development of an &lympic lifter compared to a bodybuilder. 811@4.uscle cross sectional area 3thickness4 significantly correlates with ma$imal voluntary strength 3Akagi. 8119: Akagi et al.=4. It is perfectly possible for the &lympic lifter to have more contractile protein in the muscles of his legs despite smaller overall measurements. as large muscles typify strength. .. 6 7itts. 6 7ukunaga. the entire process will be disrupted and the result will be sub-par performance or even injury. <. muscles with a greater proportion of fast twitch muscle fibers 3type IIa and type IIb4 will be able to produce more force as a same-si%ed muscle group comprised of a greater proportion of slow twitch fibers 3type I4. In addition to just transferring muscular forces to the bone. most of the propulsive force comes from the tendons while the muscles just lock-up to allow the tendons to stretch and rebound optimally. Technically speaking. If there's one weak link in the chain. As such. this is an e$treme e$ample. contraction force is limited by the amount of contractile protein present. The more muscle present. *ostill. 5anehisa. 5awakami. so odds are. 2ow hard they contract 3absent involvement from the nervous system4 really depends on only two factors/ si%e 3cross sectional area4. which in turn. if one's muscles get larger. In addition to pure cross sectional area.uscle si%e contributes to strength in a fairly obvious way. 'tarting first with the muscles. The tendons. In some movements. *ontrolling for fiber area. type IIb muscle fibers produce more force than type IIa muscle fibers. don't actively contract. they will get stronger. another . the tendons also act as springs. produce more force than type I fibers 3(idrick. such as throwing a baseball or running at top speed. and fiber type distribution. stretching to store energy during an eccentric contraction only to >snap back? to their original length and add that energy during the concentric portion of the movement 3#osch 6 5lomp.

2ere is where strength and skill directly overlap. but all tasks re. the tendons need to be as structurally sound as possible in order to do their job. <. 811B4. ecruitment is just what it sounds like.uire specific degrees of tension and specific - .uickly it rebounds after being stretched. !ervous system contributions to strength can be broken down into two subcategories/ intramuscular coordination. the number of fibers called into action to generate force. The more collagen present. the last contributing factor to strength is the nervous system.@4. si%e is not a <11C reliable indicator of strength.? The stiffer a tendon. a larger tendon isn't always a stronger tendon. In order to perform any comple$ sporting movement. Tendons are made up primarily of three types of fiber/ collagen. obins.uire more control and precision than others 3juggling versus holding a ball4. The strength of a tendon is known as its >stiffness. and reticulin. the more dependent it is on propulsion from the tendons. 'ince the stiffness of the tendon is based on the collagen formation within it. !aturally. <. Aike the muscles though. with more synchroni%ed firing patterns leading to higher levels of force generated 3Fatsiorsky. the less it deforms under load and the more . the stronger the tendon structure will be 3#ailey. <. As noted earlier. Dlaying directly on the last point. And synchroni%ation is how well the nervous system manages to fire the muscle fibers in concert with one another. elastin allows for fle$ibility. all of the body's muscles need to coordinate their actions. and the more cross-links amongst its fibrils.E04. and reticulin forms the bulk of the tendon mass 3'iff. Intramuscular coordination involves the control of the fibers within a given muscle group and can be split even further into three more categories/ recruitment. the second factor determining tendon stiffness is the formation of the collagen within said tendon. and collagen formation. Intermuscular coordination involves the control of muscle groups relative to one another. the thicker a tendon is.uency of the motorneurons. elastin. and synchroni%ation. The stiffness of a tendon is dependent upon two variables/ si%e 3cross sectional area4.994. *ollagen provide the strength 3stiffness4. 6 #alian. much like a rope.the speed of movement.. the components of fitness overlap and here is where strength and skill start to spill into one another. 'ome tasks re. the more force it will generally be able to tolerate 3)noka. ate coding is the discharge fre. and higher levels of rate coding are generally seen with higher levels of force. and intermuscular coordination. egardless of if they're being used to transmit muscular force or if they're the ones providing the primary drive. And finally. rate coding.

strength gains tend to be limited to around <@-81 degrees in either direction. Aongo. isometric. This is important because certain sports re. the strength gains will effectively transfer to the rest of the range of motion 3Fatsiorsky 6 implications later. sprinting. and type IIa fibers' contraction speed is somewhere in between the two e$tremes 3Andersen. 81194. ela$ation times follow a similar path.iyaguchi 6 Gemura. 81114. speed of tension generation and dissipation is dependent on the proportion of fiber types within a muscle group. lifting weights.uire high levels of skill in e$ecuting their various movement patterns in order for the body to e$press its strength optimally 3Fatsiorsky. gains in eccentric.E04.=: eeves. <. <. if one trains in a position where the stressed muscle is ma$imally or near ma$imally lengthened. In this way.: 'iff.. or throwing all re. as it will be considered here. This will have . &n the neural side of the coin. Intermuscular coordination won't affect the force generated by a single muscle group. 811. 6 !arici. is how rapidly the neuromuscular comple$ is able to manipulate tension and it is reliant on both physical and neural properties. with the greatest gains in strength coming in the mode3s4 of contraction one primarily uses 32igbie. speed is determined by a well practiced nervous system and specific motor patterns. 811@4. it is also important to note that strength is somewhat specific to contraction type. tendon stiffness 3#osch 6 5lomp. #eyond the neural and physiological components of strength.aganaris. jumping. 811B4. but it will greatly affect the force created in more comple$ movements. If one trains a joint at only one angle. Gepending on how one trains. 'chjerling. 'trength is also partially joint-angle-dependent. the more it relies on intermuscular coordination. *ureton.. as type IIb fibers release tension 1" . 2owever. . speed is determined by muscle fiber type distribution and muscle fascicle length 3the number of sarcomeres running in series4. aitsin.@4. and eccentric strength 3. &n the physical side of the coin. The more muscles that are involved and the more comple$ the task. which many sports rely heavily upon.uire differing levels of some types of contraction-dependent strength over others.timing if they're to be conducted with any proficiency. 6 Drior. eed: 'peed. Type IIb muscle fibers contract roughly <1 times faster than type I fibers. 6 'altin. <. and concentric strength will differ. Dhysically speaking. is largely dependent on a combination of intermuscular coordination. (arren. eactive strength.

<. but e$actly what kind is specific to the sport.atveyev. The adenosine-triphosphateIphosphocreatine 3ATDID*r4 energy pathway provides the majority of the energy for activities lasting 1-B seconds. behavior. most people are referring to energy systems development. 6 5awamoto. All sports re. Dhysically.uickly than a muscle group with a lower percentage of fast twitch muscle fibers. the manipulation of force within one or more muscle groups is largely just a motor skill. It has already been established that muscle contraction velocity is largely determined by fiber type. As sporting proficiency increases.E@4. (hen they refer to endurance. &n the neural side of the e.. endurance is dependent on the level of development of the appropriate energy pathways as well as physical strength. #eyond innervation and fiber type. endurance is dependent on sporting skill and movement efficiency.: . there is overlap between both the physical attributes that contribute to speed and the skill component of fitness. 7ukashiro. but fiber type. which in turn release tension more .uire some degree of endurance.uickly than type I fibers 3#urke 6 )dgerton. 6 #rechue.uation. <. and characteristics are determined by the nature of the neural signal innervating it 3#acou et al.ultiple studies have also shown that faster athletes consistently e$hibit longer muscle fascicles than their slower peers 3Abe.. The anaerobic glycolytic 3A-4 energy pathway provides most 11 . (ith this in mind. <.9<4. 81114. !eurally.. Endurance: )ndurance is the ability to perform a given task at a given intensity for a given period of time. 2arada. As is apparent. each providing energy for a certain time span before e$hausting its stores.uickly than type IIa fibers. 8111: Abe. it follows that a muscle with a higher percentage of fast twitch fibers will be able to contract and rela$ more .94.. 811<: 5umagai et al. contraction speed and rela$ation speed tend to increase as well 3'iff 6 Herkhoshansky. .=: #arjot et al. <. <. The speed of force generation within a muscle group is also dependent on the number of sarcomeres arranged in series 3which manifests as greater muscle fascicle lengths4. There are three energy systems. . 5umagai. endurance also heavily crosses over with the other components.more . and even the individual athlete. position.ore sarcomeres running in series allows for each sarcomere to contract over a smaller range of motion to produce a given change in overall muscle length. like the other building blocks. resulting in given movements taking less time to complete.

81194. The higher a given load is relative to an athlete's ma$imum strength. 6 'chneider. <. This is where endurance and skill directly overlap with one another. egardless of the load used. 811. strength is a major determinant.=4. (eber.: 'toren. 'toa. *ontinuing with the physical makeup of endurance. a sprinter would need to spend most of his time developing the A. 811@4. As proficiency in a sporting movement increases. 12 . 2elgerud. two athletes have a competition to see who can bench press 88@ lbs for the most reps. 2aseler.. and as the energy cost decreases. The neural determinant of endurance is the ability to efficiently perform a given movement. Gifferent sports re. the amount of spurious tension 3tension not directly contributing to the action4 in antagonistic muscle groups decreases and the overall energy e$penditure drops. 6 2off. endurance means different things for different people. skiing 32off.uickly after contractions during cyclical activities allows for better regeneration of energy stores and therefore allows for intensity to be maintained for longer. 2owever. <. and (hite. one gains the ability to perform the movement for longer. This happens because as one becomes more proficient at performing a movement. if their competition were to see who could bench press 0@ lbs for more reps 3a much lower percentage of their ma$ lifts4. 6 2elgerud. <. 'imilarly.? To give an e$ample. while a marathoner would focus on the aerobic pathway. Genadai. And the aerobic pathway provides most of the energy for activities lasting longer than @1 seconds 3#rooks. increasing ma$imal strength has been shown to increase endurance for cycling 3'unde et al.. running 3-uglielmo. 'ince the energy pathways are largely separate.E94. 'ince Athlete A has a strength reserve of only 8@ lbs 38@1-88@4 and Athlete # has a strength reserve of <11 lbs 3B8@-88@4.uire different levels of energy systems development based upon their pace and duration. 7or instance. the outcome would not be apparent. the ability to rela$ more .: 2off.: Aoveless. 7ahey. Athlete A can bench press 8@1 lbs for a ma$. the amount of energy spent to perform the movement decreases 3Horobyev. it's important to note that. -ran.of the energy for activities lasting 0-@1 seconds. 6 (isloff. 81184.pathway. 811. it's fairly obvious who is going to be able to do more reps with 88@ lbs/ Athlete #.. and a number of other sports. -reco. at least in this sense. the more closely related endurance and strength will be. and Athlete # can bench press B8@ lbs for a ma$. 2elgerud. 2igher strength levels allow for a greater >reserve.

but the author is going to throw relative muscle activation and posture into this category as well. depressed shoulders. it's important that there is balance. 'tanton. every sporting action has optimal body positions 3relative to each athlete's limb lengths and tendon-insertion points4.+obilit(: . the best sprinters display an upright posture. improper muscle recruitment patterns can result in injury. 13 . sufficient hip e$tension &. but proper range of motion and muscle activation as well. or their tendon attachment points. can be thought of as the ability of the joints to move over a given range of motion. as just mentioned. In order to perform most movements in a proficient and efficient way. altered or diminished ability to activate and control the abdominal musculature can lead to lower back pain 32ides. and being so will result in joint instability and increased injury potential. Altered or diminished activation of other muscles around the body can result in similar decrements in performance. #y gradually e$posing the muscles to greater lengths and tensions 3simultaneously is best4. 81<1: . and it's essential that everything is working as it should be. some people prefer to use certain muscle groups over others. when running at top speed. one can teach the body to allow for greater ranges of motion 3'iff. Dosture is based upon resting muscle length. so it can be seen how they all fit together. some people primarily utili%e their hamstrings and spinal erectors. and minimal e$ternal rotation of the femurs. the easier one will be able to hold proper sporting positions and the less energy one will need to e$pend to move 3this is where mobility and endurance cross4.obility is usually defined as fle$ibility. 7or instance. #oughen. 811.uire not only strength in the right muscle groups. 2aving said that. it is possible to be e$cessively fle$ible 3hypermobility4. while others utili%e their glutes. fle$ibility is controlled by neurological phenomena. To hit and hold these positions.arshall 6 . or infle$ibility. 811B4. In terms of relative muscle activation and posture. Gue to their posture. In addition to affecting performance. which is based upon both fle$ibility and muscle activation. or their limb lengths. The more freely the limbs are able to move.. A number of proprioceptive organs within the muscles and tendons sense muscle length and tension and regulate range of motion accordingly in an effort to prevent injury.4. or their relative muscular development. in creating hip e$tension. 7le$ibility. or the range of motion through which the joints can travel voluntarily. they re. 'trudwick. a neutral to slightly posteriorly rotated pelvis.urphy. 7or the most part. 6 (ilson. 7or instance. 7or instance.

In addition to being task-specific. As has been mentioned. depending on the comple$ity of the task. If one wants to get good at running as fast as possible. but if they have no familiarity with the sport or its movements then their performance will be compromised. they need to practice running as fast as possible. and for different durations. "ogging will do nothing for sprint form. yet may be unable to juggle due entirely to a lack of practice. A good e$ample for this is that someone may have fast hands and good hand-eye coordination. every movement re. &ne can have all of the physical attributes necessary to e$cel in a given sport.uires the mind to coordinate different muscle groups. 7or them. in different sports re. -olfing re. 7rom this point on. : &nce more. different athletes.kill: 'kill is by far the most task-specific of the the components of the athleticism. skill is also largely intensity-specific as well. Wra . If one wants to get good at an action. but until they build up their skill in that particular movement. it's time to discuss how to go about building them. or any other skill as well. throwing. !aturally. but there are commonalities between all individuals. any skill work that's remotely close to the sporting task can be beneficial. 1% .uires significantly more skill than does putting a shot. mastering a given movement takes years of work. with practice they'd do just fine. they need to practice it. the te$t will start focusing on prescription rather than description: starting with the development of basic strength and athleticism and working towards individual sporting mastery. The only real e$ception is for brand new athletes or those just coming back from injury. The same goes for jumping. their physical abilities will be nothing but untapped potential. In sports. at different times. And finally. nor will mere running.. fitness or athleticism is comprised of five different components/ strength/ s eed/ endurance/ $obilit(/ and skill0 !ow that one has a basic understanding of said components. and as such. And while a kinesthetically competent athlete may be able to perform most movements with some degree of proficiency with little to no practice.uire different levels of development in order to perform at their best. the amount of time and energy devoted to skill training will vary between sports. the amount of skill necessary to perform it varies. in different proportions. in different positions.

trengthening 'ital $uscle grou s 1.ualities addressed during the )$posure stage. Though it can be considered the most remedial of stages. it is also the most important. this is where athletes go through a number of progressions in order to build a healthy. egardless of sport. "ust like one cannot perform calculus without having learned elementary math. one cannot become a great athlete without having established the basic . mobile body and prepare themselves physically and mentally for the more intense e$ercises yet to come.3 Ex osure 'porting development can be broken down into three separate stages. goal of the )$posure phase of training is 15 . though not necessarily most important.trengthening connecti'e tissues 1Teaching correct $uscle acti'ation 1!ncreasing flexibilit( 1Building 2ork ca acit( 1+ental re aration &nce these goals have been met. the rest of the chapter will outline both the reasoning behind the above goals as well as a plan in order to reach them. )$posure is the period of training in which the groundwork for all future improvement is laid. As for how this will be accomplished. the athlete will be prepared to undertake more intense forms of training while ma$imi%ing their results and minimi%ing their injury risk. The goals of )$posure include/ 1.trengthening 3ital +uscle 4rou s: The first. the first of which is known as Ex osure. .

sprinting 3Gelecluse. the gluteals 3the primary hip e$tensors4 cannot function to their full capacity.4. The pro$imal muscle groups should be dominant in sportsmen. 6 Agbeja.urphy. the abdominal and dorsal muscles are largely responsible for the stabili%ation of the pelvis and spine. 2anninen. but in preventing injury as well. In terms of sheer injury prevention.: 5ankaanpaa. the dorsal muscles. 1) .4. &ther than the absolutely essential groups already mentioned. Taimela.9E4.E: #osch 6 5lomp. These muscle groupings have been deemed >vital? because their development is crucial not only to optimi%ing sports performance. 6 2ewett. #oughen. (ilson. <. #inet. knee stability is compromised and the likelihood of injury rises. but the muscles of particular interest include the abdominal musculature. and the hamstrings. in that their development is necessary for both sprinting speed 3Gelecluse. It is.. Aaaksonen. 81194. not the absolute strength of the hamstrings. 'trength in the hip e$tensors contributes heavily to jumping 3 obertson 6 7leming.E4. as nearly all athletic training should be. 6 *roisier. <. 6 Airaksinen.uadriceps are significantly stronger than the hamstrings. The greatest forces encountered in sport are generated around the pelvis. -anteaume. . 811. and presumably weakness as well.. 811. but the balance of strength between the hamstrings and the . 'trudwick.yer. 6 7erret. 811. Akosile.94. 811@4 and the prevention of knee injuries. the gluteals. and as such. 81104. have also been linked to low back pain 32ides. 'tanton. If one has underdeveloped glutes. #allantyne. &f course.arshall 6 . (ithout proper abdominal support. If the . #ury. all muscle groups will be strengthened during this phase. 6 Gavis. 6 (ilson.. 7ord. -enty. #inet. The glute muscles are the primary hip e$tensors 3#osch 6 5lomp.uadriceps that has been shown to have a significant link with knee injury 3Aehance. they're setting themselves up for both poor performance on the field and an increased risk of knee injury 3Aeetun. and stabili%ation of the hip and knee joints 3Imwalle.strengthening a number of vital muscle groups. <. 81<1: . <. . however.: *roisier.bada. Ireland. The hamstrings are another key muscle group. as they allow for the most economical manipulation of the limbs. 811. Geficits in abdominal muscle control. 7irst and foremost. the focus during )$posure will be on the pro$imal muscle groups. strength and control over the muscles in the region are necessary for performance. a lack of strength and endurance in the dorsal muscles has been linked with incidences of low back pain 3and therefore spinal instability4 3"ohnson. 811@4 and their development is necessary for any athlete that wants to run fast or jump high.

=E4. Teaching Correct +uscle Acti'ation: #eyond just being strong. eally. <. 6 Dearson. . the muscles and tendons also need to coordinate in the correct manner in order to facilitate sports performance and reduce injury risk. those muscle groups should not be the primary focus. tendon-specific training isn't necessary. it will deform beyond a safe range resulting in serious damage to its structure 3(ang. and so recovery between bouts of e$ercise takes longer. the best solution is to regulate training intensity and volume. In this way. and therefore reduce the risk of overload injury. but will re. )ither way. 'child. *onnective tissue responds to loading by laying down further collagen fibrils 3. *aution needs to be taken though. <. Tendons and ligaments with more collagenous mass will not only serve to return more energy during reactive movements.9<4. In order to prevent such an overload. and especially in sports.=. Though some mass out at the distal end of the limbs is unavoidable. and of course. Jnlike with the muscles. <.90: . but ligaments don't.The more muscle one carries further out towards the distal end of the limb. avoidable soft tissue injuries are all too common. to strengthen the tissues themselves. -raham-'mith. e$posing the body to higher intensity forces than it's accustomed to dealing with will result in more robust connective tissues. when connective tissue is loaded too heavily. 811=4. make sure the muscles are strong enough to keep the joints out of vulnerable positions.ichna 6 2artmann.9.uire more force to deform beyond safe limits. 6 Tomanek. <. this pro$imal distribution of muscle mass is apparent. If the right muscles aren't firing at the 17 . (hen looking at particularly fast animals in nature.trengthening Connecti'e Tissues: In life. as blood flow and nutrient transport to the connective tissues is not as great as in muscle tissue. the more difficult and costly it becomes for them to move that limb due to leverage issues. 811E4 as well as plyometric 3#urgess. <. *onnick.: (oo et al. as tendon stiffness and mass respond to both traditional strength loading 35ubo et al. any kind of consistent loading works to strengthen the tendons and ligaments over time.ichna. Tendons do have some amount of give 3which allows them to store energy and act like springs during certain types of movement4. 811E4 and sprint work 3Tipton.4 and becoming more resistant to injury 3Hiidik.

@: (adsworth. 'imilarly. 1* . 6 *holewicki. 6 (ilson. cannot function optimally if the pelvis isn't correctly positioned and stabili%ed. eeves. Airaksinen. Add in more force and the right muscle failing to contract properly can lead to surgery or a career ending tear.uate abdominal strength and control will ensure that forces around the hip and lower spine are properly controlled 3#osch 6 5lomp. as the primary hip e$tensors.. 'tanton. there are certain muscle groups that deserve more attention than others when it comes to muscle activation training. 6 2opf. 2ewett. 811B4 As such. 7actors contributing to the instability include dysfunction andIor weakness of the scapulothoracic muscles. 6 2odges. #y strengthening the scapular retractors and the e$ternal rotators of the humeri while increasing fle$ibility in a select few other muscle groups. making sure everything is firing correctly is a necessity. 81<14 and knee 3Fa%ulak. #oughen. 8111: 2ungerford. or just in front of a TH. la$ity of the anterior capsuloligamentous structures. <. soreness.right times. Ade. and often do. !ncreasing 5lexibilit(: . even under low force situations. 6 2anninen. #ullock-'a$ton. in front of a computer. e$cessive shoulder internal rotation strength compared to e$ternal rotation strength. 811@4 and will allow for the glutes to do their job. 8119: upp. egardless of whether one is looking for performance or just looking to stay healthy. 'imilarly. The two groupings that usually need the most attention are the abdominal muscles and the gluteal muscles. The gluteus ma$imi are the largest single muscles in the body and. 6 oge%.E4. tends to limit mobility around certain joints. or chronic pain can occur. <. limb strength asymmetries. and a deficit in shoulder internal rotation range of motion 3&livier. these issues can be avoided. 'trudwick. Improper strength and control of the abdominal and trunk muscles can also lead to back 3 2ides. Kuintin. altered activation patterns of the gluteus ma$imi have been linked to low back and sacroiliac pain 3Aeinonen. As when developing strength. 5ankaanpaa. lead to instability and impingement issues.odern life is a largely sedentary one for most people and all of the time spent sitting. improper strength and function of the muscles around the glenohumeral 3shoulder4 joint can. are the driving force behind nearly all athletic movements. 811E4 pain or injuries. -oldberg. #erninger. The glutes however. -illeard. whether in a desk.. then overuse injuries. getting these muscle groups working is of prime importance for health reasons. a task which falls largely to the abdominal muscles.

having antagonistic musculature which is too tight will impede the stroke of a limb. altered scapular position 3as caused by tight pectoralis majors.ualities of athleticism are trained at a relatively low level of intensity 3'iff. endocrine system. 811B4. In terms of injury potential. lower hip and hamstring fle$ibility has been correlated with an increased chance of muscle strain 3#radley 6 Dortas. these joints are usually tightened the most from poor day-to-day posture. 811B: Fatsiorsky <. Building Work Ca acit(: The bodies of most beginning athletes aren't used to doing too much besides sitting around and playing video games. #arnes. The )$posure stage of training is essentially a -DD 3general physical preparedness4 phase in which the general .@4. The work done in this phase prepares the muscles. slowing its speed and increasing the amount of energy needed to move it. Aikewise. they need to prepare themselves to weather and recover from physical activity. pectoralis minors. before they can really begin to train hard.4. infle$ibility in certain muscle groups will prevent athletes from reaching the right positions. and as such. In terms of sheer athletic performance. and nervous system to stand up to the higher intensity work coming in later phases.ost sports and a lot of training methods re. 811E: 2enderson. 811=4. and latissimus dorsi4 can be linked to shoulder pain and impingement 35ibler. 1- . Dreventing such issues from arising is of prime importance. Infle$ible hip fle$ors 3rectus femori and illiopsoas4 will force hip e$tension beyond neutral to come from pelvic movement 3anterior rotation4 which will reduce the ability to reutili%e reactive energy gained during footstrike 3#osch 6 5lomp. 811@4. thereby distorting form and overall efficiency. and unfortunately. Increasing mobility will rectify the issue. anterior deltoids. It has been demonstrated by thousands of athletes in nearly every sport for decades that periods of higher volume and lower intensity best prepare the body for safe gains when the volume is slowly lowered and the intensity raised 3'iff... while for the upper body. &ne e$ample of this can be seen in running form.uire free movement over large ranges of motion from the hips and shoulders. 6 Dortas. This process is what the progression outlined here is meant to conform to. 811. tendons.

egardless of their sport. Training in Ex osure: Though training is a highly individuali%ed process. the mental component to training and competing is undeniably vital. and even the time of year. The intensity found in this phase won't be high. The )$posure program is specifically designed to meet these needs with minimal individual input or tinkering. position. if one intends to participate as an elite athlete. (hether one is an e$perienced athlete or an Lbo$ warrior. the )$posure stage looks to do its part to try and acclimate athletes to hard work. and emotional pain. 2" . the )$posure phase revolves around a one-si%e-fits-all program. mental. Training to compete at a high level is hard work and usually re. If one manages to make it through the upcoming progression and out of the )$posure stage. The author would suggest that all trainees. they will either need superior inborn skill or high levels of self-confidence and work ethic to keep them working towards their goals 3'mith. individual. but a healthy and capable human being. but by putting in this type of work early. start with this phase and keep with it for at least a month and preferably until their gains start to stall. the goal isn't to construct a capable athlete.uires years of unwavering dedication. they'll be able to handle the more intense 3but easier4 training in upcoming phases. while the unsuccessful lack such traits. regardless of e$perience level. 81194: skills that allow them to train through physical. in fact.+ental 6re aration: Though athleticism is largely dependent upon physical skills. largely what separates the successful from the unsuccessful. everyone needs correct basic activation patterns. Though mental toughness and perseverance are something that one must cultivate rather than be taught. The mental component is. one is ensuring that they're getting the most out of the work they put in later. As such. 'uccessful people tend to be mentally tough and relentlessly focused 3"ones. with prescribed e$ercise depending on the needs of the sport. There's always the temptation to look at the simple things and think they're too easy or too remedial. but a majority of the training methods used are uncomfortable and mentally ta$ing. At this point in development. )$posure will tune up their body and make sure that it's ready to perform optimally in upcoming phases. and everyone needs muscle and connective tissue strength. in athletics and business alike. 811B4. everyone needs proper mobility.

since isometrics involve minimal to no movement. muscle. Mielding isometrics involve holding a weight 3or one's body4 in a set position for a set amount of time rather than moving through a specified range of motion like most normal lifting. etc4 for @-<1 minutes or until a light sweat develops (alking Aunges. yielding isometrics are actually reliant on a combination of isometric and e$tremely slow eccentric muscle contractions. It is meant to be followed in its entirety with minimal 3preferably no4 alteration. 8 sets $ <1 repetitions 21 . 811B4. and connective tissue very effectively 35ubo. the program will be comprised largely of longer duration yielding isometrics.@4 and will effectively increase fle$ibility 3'iff. 811<4. builds endurance and strength simultaneously. rowing. 5anehisa. most of the work during )$posure will consist of combination strength and coordination e$ercises meant to teach balance and muscle activation and build strength and muscle in positions most relevant to general movement and athletics. it's easy to get into the right position and concentrate on contracting the right muscle groups.ild activity 3elliptical. isometrics have also been shown to build strength. The program utili%es isometrics for a number of reasons. The fact that most of the movements will train the muscles while stretched will also ensure that strength is developed over the entire range of motion 3Fatsiorsky. Ito. The Ex osure 6rogra$: The following template is the )$posure program. 8 sets $ <1 repetitions per leg 'houlder Gislocations. And despite their name..uats. : +obilit(: B times per week . 7ukunaga. 7irst and foremost. 811<4 and the isometrics are all of longer duration because the greater volume allows for . 8 sets $ <1 repetitions Toe-Touch '. 6 7ukunaga. 5re7uenc(: War$1. As each individual set goes on. fatigue will cause a slight and almost imperceptibly slow lengthening of the working muscles. #eyond that. and there is evidence to suggest that longer duration isometrics result in greater increases in tendon stiffness as well 35ubo. 5anehisa.In terms of actual training methods. 'pecifically. 8 sets $ <1 repetitions per leg 'ide Aunges.uicker motor learning. <. All e$ercises in the mobility section are to remain unloaded.

but that is the intended effect. rower.uat. 0 sets $ B1 seconds I'& Dush-up. 0 sets $ B1 seconds I'& 'ingle-Aeg *alf aise. 0 sets $ B1 seconds per leg Conditioning: Cool 8o2n: 81-B1 minutes of mild activity 3elliptical.ost people can e$pect to stay with this routine for at least a month before moving on to the ne$t phase and many will need stick with it for three or more before continuing. 0 sets $ B1 seconds per leg I'& Inverted ow.4 while keeping the heart rate between <81-<01 beats per minute epeat the >.obility? section &otes: est periods in between sets and movements should be held to under 8 minutes. 8 sets $ <1 repetitions *hair. they may increase the load used a ma$imum of @ lbs each session. It should be made clear now that the primary focus while performing this program is on maintaining correct form and using the right muscle groups. B sets $ 8@ repetitions Workout: I'& Aunge.ualification. 7rom that point on. It's possible to build strength on a routine like this for an e$tended period of time and one is advised not to move on too early just because the program is boring and hard.'capular 'lides. regardless of one's level of strength or . &ne should never sacrifice form for load. 0 sets $ B1 seconds I'& '. if one is able to perform all of the sets of a given e$ercise while maintaining perfect form. . Though each movement will be described in detail momentarily. This limitation on loading is in place because it forces one to focus on correct muscle activation rather than weight lifted. 0 sets $ B1 seconds per leg I'& Aeg Aowering. the one cue to keep in mind while performing every movement is to focus on keeping the pelvis neutral through conscious manipulation of the abdominals 3allow neither e$cessive posterior nor anterior pelvic tilt4. etc. This will get tiring. All movements listed in the >(orkout? section should be done unloaded for the first workout. 0 sets $ B1 seconds I'& &verhead 'ingle-Aeg GA. Advanced or very strong athletes can increase <1 lbs at a time. 22 .

Jsing the abs.1 degree angles. not the amount of weight lifted. the set ends. hold momentarily before letting the feet come back together. If fatigue causes one to deviate from proper form. concentrate on keeping the knees close together while moving the feet as far apart as possible 3medially rotating the femurs4.+o'e$ents: 'ince the correct performance of each movement is of such great importance. It's far better to remain at a lighter weight and lift correctly than to add weight and disrupt proper recruitment patterns.aintaining the position of the pelvis. &nce more. &.. it needs to be reiterated that form and muscle activation are the focus. That is one 23 . back. posteriorly rotate the pelvis and press the lower back flat on the ground. . Chair: Aie on your back and position your legs so that the hips and the knees are both at . &nce you have reached the end of the repetition. and legs. each of them will be described in detail and demonstrated.

5eeping the lower back in contact with the floor. -et the legs as close to the ground as possible while maintaining contact between the ground and lower back. when your arms are straight. posteriorly rotate the pelvis and press the lower back flat on the ground. 2old this position for the designated time. fle$ at the hips so the legs and torso form a roughly . Mour feet should be significantly in front of the bar. To increase difficulty.1 degree angle. 2old yourself in this position as close to the bar as possible for the designated time. your solar ple$us is directly beneath the bar. !ow. !. touching it to the bar if possible.9 :eg :o2ering: Aie on your back and. keeping your body and legs perfectly straight 3it'll look like you're doing an upside down push up4. 2% . one can elevate their feet.9 !n'erted #o2: Jsing a bar set at roughly navel-height. keep the legs straight and the feet pointing upwards and lower them slowly towards the ground. retract and depress your scapulae and pull the bar towards your sternum. grasp the bar with a supinated 3underhand4 grip with the hands spaced slightly wider than shoulder-width apart.!. keeping the knees locked. Dosition yourself so that. Jsing the abs.

-et as low as you possibly can while following all cues and hold for the designated time. The shin of the front leg should be perpendicular to the ground and one's weight should be supported through the heel.9 :unge: -et into a deep lunge position with your weight distributed evenly between both legs. Dush the butt as far back as you can while maintaining balance and a neutral spine. 25 . hold for the designated time. If weights are added. though the knee can come forward a bit. #oth feet may need to be elevated for those with good fle$ibility. and push the butt back. they are to be held in the hands. 'tand on one foot. (hen at the end of the &. The legs should also be kept roughly in line 3avoid e$ternal rotation at the hip4. contract the abs to pull the pelvis into a neutral position.9 9'erhead .ingle1:eg #8:: 'tand upright and raise the arms up overhead so the torso and the arms are in line. 5eep the palms facing one another. !. keeping the supporting leg fairly straight.. The torso should be completely upright and one should use their abs to maintain a neutral pelvis 3avoid anterior rotation4. !early all of the movement should be at the hip.The ight (ay The (rong (ay !.

9 6ush . 2old the position for the designated time. Mou can use your hands to steady yourself. 2old the position for the designated time. 2) . !ow.ingle1:eg Calf #aise: 'tand on the edge of a step with only the ball of the foot on the step and the heel and midfoot hanging down over the edge. Grop the heel as low as possible while keeping tension in the calf. 5eep the weight distributed evenly between the inside and the outside of the foot. Aess knee fle$ion will shift stress on to the hamstrings while more will put it on to the glutes !. : -et into a push up position with both the hands and the feet elevated for e$tra &. !. lower yourself as far as you can while keeping the upper arms flared roughly 0@ degrees from the torso.)mphasis can be shifted between the glutes and hamstrings by manipulating knee fle$ion..9 . Tighten the abs and hold the pelvis and spine neutral.

1 degree angles at the shoulders and elbows. shoulders.ca ular . -o as low as you can while maintaining a neutral pelvis and hold in this position for the designated time. and wrists in contact with the wall.7uat: 'tanding with the feet roughly shoulder width apart and slightly e$ternally rotated.lides: 'tand with your heels roughly =-<8? away from a wall. reach up towards the ceiling.9 . epeat for the designated number of repetitions. . aise your arms as high as you can while maintaining contact with the wall before lowering them back to the starting position. elbows.!. Aean back against the wall and raise your arms so they form . use the abs to pull the pelvis into a neutral position and then s.uat down keeping your weight on your heels. 5eeping the back. 27 .

step out directly to the side and descend into a lunge position. 5eeping the arms straight. 'till keeping the arms straight. Griving through the heel. In order to correctly complete this e$ercise. and then back behind you where it will come to rest against your glutes or lower back..houlder 8islocations: 2old a broomstick. 2* . . up over the head. stand back up to the starting position and repeat for the designated number of repetitions. move the object up in front of the body. epeat for the designated number of repetitions. belt. or rope in front of the body with straight arms. -o as deep as possible while maintaining a neutral back. some people will need to take very wide grips. return it to the starting position. Mou will be able to bring your hands in as fle$ibility improves though.ide :unges: 'tanding up straight and keeping the pelvis held neutral via abdominal contraction.

Toe1Touch ,7uats: 'tanding with the feet roughly shoulder width apart and slightly e$ternally rotated, use the abs to pull the pelvis into a neutral position and then s,uat down keeping your weight on your heels. Gescend until your are able to touch your feet with your hands and then stand back up. epeat for the desired number of repetitions.

Walking :unges: 'tanding up straight and keeping the pelvis held neutral via abdominal contraction, step directly forward and descend into a lunge position. Griving through the heel, stand up on the foot that just stepped forward and repeat for the desired number of reps.

Wra . :
After finishing up with the )$posure phase, one should have ingrained proper muscle recruitment patterns, enlarged most major muscle groups, strengthened their tendons and ligaments, increased their fle$ibility, and prepared themselves for the more intense work yet to come. If one ,uestions whether or not they're ready to move on to the ne$t phase, then they should stick with )$posure work until they're sure they are. If one feels they're ready, they can move on to the Integration phase. 2-

%
!ntegration
Integration is the second of the three phases of training. #y the time they've reached this point, a trainee has developed a base of muscular and connective tissue strength, ingrained proper movement patterns, and has started to acclimate their body to the rigors of training. (hat they've yet to do is integrate those skills into dynamic sporting movements. Though yielding isometrics 3the primary tool of the )$posure phase4 are useful for teaching initial coordination and conditioning the musculotendon system, they do have their limits. (hereas the isometrics, by nature, involve minimal movement, most sporting actions occur at high speeds and involve not only one mode of contraction, but all three, oftentimes simultaneously across different muscle groups with tensions far e$ceeding what one is able to create voluntarily. 'o while the gains from the previous phase do prepare the body for upcoming work, there's still a lot more to be learned before one can truly perform at their best out on the field. 'pecifically, the goals of the Integration phase include/ 1Teaching correct $uscle acti'ation 2hile $o'ing 1Ex osing the $uscles and tendons to high forces 1+astering general high s eed eccentric athletic $o'e$ents #y the time an athlete has met the above goals, they will finally be ready to get down to training for their specific sport, but that's a ways off at this point. As with the last phase, taking one's time and progressing only as they're able is the key. results. ushing to get ahead will do nothing but impair future

Teaching Correct +uscle Acti'ation While +o'ing:
As mentioned, isometrics, by definition, don't involve much movement. 'porting actions, on the other hand, are all about speed. *oordination is specific to not only the position of the limbs and the 3"

muscle groups being activated, but to contraction speed and timing as well 3'iff, 811B4. Aearning to activate the right muscle groups while sitting still is one thing, but doing the same while moving as fast as possible and dealing with the distraction of a opponents, e$pectations, and a roaring crowd is another thing entirely. In fact, research has shown that fast and slow movements result in differing levels of brain activity in different parts of the brain 3'iff, 811B4. The jump from isometrics to full speed sporting movement is a bit too much for most, so the journey has to be made in steps. The speed and comple$ity of movement needs to be gradually increased in order to allow for the development of optimal coordination at all speeds. 'ome naturally gifted athletes e$hibit near perfect coordination from the beginning, but for those who are less talented it takes time and lots of practice. And though it might be clichN, it needs to be said that practice doesn't make perfect, only permanent. "ust performing high speed movements 3or movements of any speed, for that matter4 with poor form won't get one anywhere. They need to strive to perform each movement perfectly each time. Going so ensures that they're teaching themselves to do it right, not just hammering home sloppy and counterproductive repetitions.

Ex osing the +uscles and Tendons to ;igh 5orces:
The forces encountered in sporting movements far e$ceed those found in normal life or even weight training 3regardless of how heavy one lifts4. In both sprinting 35yrolainen, Avela, 6 5omi, 811@4 and plyometrics 3Gursenev 6 aevsky, <;E94, muscle tension and activation e$ceeds <11C of voluntary concentric capacity. This is possible because the strength of a muscle group is partially dependent upon the mode of contraction. .uscles are capable of generating B1-01C greater tension during an eccentric contraction and around <1C greater in an isometric contraction than in a concentric contraction 3'iff, 811B4. This is believed to be due to the properties of the bonds between intramuscular contractile proteins, but the e$act reason is still unknown. Irrelevant minutia aside, these properties make for some useful and interesting differences between contraction types. 7or instance, as the speed of concentric contraction increases, the amount of force the muscle is able to produce decreases. 7or eccentric contractions however, the amount of force the muscles are able to produce increases with speed. In fact, depth drops from over 8 meters have been shown to result in instantaneous forces e$ceeding B@11 kilograms, or

31

Aeveritt. eed Eccentric +o'e$ents: Jnlike lifting weights. increased intramuscular structural protein levels 3Aehti. there needs to be a gradual build-up here. 7ukunaga. at least without years of e$tensive preparation. the working muscles contract eccentrically to dampen the force of the body descending. 5omi. 2amilton. 5omulainen. As with all training goals. 5ivela. 8111: Daddon-"ones. and it also needs to learn that it isn't in danger from the rapid stretching forces. 7raser. 811@: 5urokawa. 811<4. in which the primary focus is generally on the concentric portion of the movement. 6 5yrolainen. 811B4. 6 7ukashiro.. Gempsey. once downward movement has been terminated.more than 81 times bodyweight 3Gursenev 6 aevsky. most sporting actions rely primarily on eccentric contractions.E94. 5ainulainen. and possibly even hyperplasia 3or the formation of new muscle fibers 35elley. Aeonard. *outurier. Though one would be ill advised to use 8 meter depth drops as a training tool. 6 Gohm. 32 . Fheng. Aambert. Derforming high-speed eccentric movements 3a category which includes nearly all sporting movements4 re. but also a significant amount of coordination. Aongergan. !agano. such as a sprint stride or the countermovement prior to a jumping takeoff.uires not only a great deal of muscular strength and tendon stiffness. 811@4. 6 Abernethy. The brain needs to learn when and how to contract the muscles during these movements. Guring a high speed movement. the tendons provide a great deal of the propulsion while the muscles they're attached to serve to correctly regulate tension and stretch the aforementioned connective tissue 3#osch 6 5lomp. the tendons snap back to their original length and the muscles contract concentrically to add to the tendon-generated force. increased tendon stiffness 3 abita. they transfer that force to the tendons. a shift towards fast twitch fiber e$pression 32ortobagyi.igh . As they contract. <. 'peed and force need to be closely regulated.4. eccentric training is arguably the best mode of training with which to e$pose the muscles and tendons to high levels of force. 2aving someone go out and try to perform sprints at <11C their first time on the track is a recipe for disaster. Aambert%. In this way. 811. 6 2er%og. which stretch under the load. lest it inhibit muscle contractions to prevent a potential tear or rupture. <. +astering 4eneral . And then.=4. Dotential benefits of eccentric-dominant training include sarcomereogenesis 3#utterfield. 81194.

Training in !ntegration:
"ust as in the )$posure phase, training in the Integration phase is in a simple one-si%e-fits-all format. (hereas the point of )$posure was primarily to make the body healthy enough for real e$ercise, the point of the Integration phase is to prepare the body and mind specifically for performing sporting actions. This goal will be accomplished by first teaching the athletes to perform basic dynamic movements while holding the correct postures and activating the right muscles. To do this, the phase will use a progression designed specifically to ease them into ma$imal ballistic movement. The progressions will ultimately lead to the athlete, regardless of sport, being able to perform both depth jumps and sprints at full intensity. &nce they're able to do that, they will be able to move on to the efinement phase. 'prints and depth jumps have been chosen as the ultimate goal movements for a couple of reasons. 7or one, top speed sprinting and depth jumps involve higher intensities than are found in nearly any sporting movement. Team sport athletes never get the chance to actually reach top speed in a game, so the forces of top speed sprinting are higher than anything they'd typically encounter 3(eyand, 'ternlight, #elli%%i, 6 (right, 81114, and the eccentric loading found in depth jumps is higher than anything seen outside of track and field. And two, sprints and depth jumps are very general movements that transfer well to nearly all sports and provide great overall benefits 3.arkovic, "ukic, .ilanovic, 6 .etikos, 811E: Moung, .cAean, 6 Ardagna, <;;@4. In addition to working towards ma$imal sprinting and plyos, regular weight training with moderate loads 3around E1-91C of one rep ma$4 will also be employed in this phase. !ot only does combining resistance training with plyometrics produce results superior to plyometrics or weights alone 3Adams, &''hea, &''hea, 6 *limstein, <;;84, but plyometrics performed prior to weight training effectively enhance strength 3.asamoto, Aarsen, -ates, 6 7aigenbaum, 811B4, further increasing the training effect of the session. 5eeping in mind the interactions between each type of training, each session will be structured for ma$imal results. 'imilarly, the progressions will allow one to safely increase the force and comple$ity of the employed movements in a safe and methodical manner. As with last phase, this phase will focus on a few select movements and will drill them with regularity. And again, as with last time, the focus will be on performing each movement with the best posture and muscle activation as possible, with intensity coming afterwards. 33

The !ntegration 6rogra$:
The following program is meant to be followed as closely as possible. Jnlike in the last phase, training will be split into upper and lower body sessions. There will also be a little more variability because it will be up to the individual to determine the volume and intensity of their training sessions as well as the rate at which they move through the outlined progressions. :o2er Bod( ,ession: 5re7uenc(: War$1. : +obilit(: 8 times per week .ild activity 3elliptical, rowing, etc4 for @-<1 minutes or until a light sweat develops (alking Aunges, 8 sets $ <1 repetitions per leg 'ide Aunges, 8 sets $ <1 repetitions per leg 'houlder Gislocations, 8 sets $ <1 repetitions Toe-Touch ',uats, 8 sets $ <1 repetitions 'capular 'lides, 8 sets $ <1 repetitions *hair, B sets $ 8@ repetitions 6rogressions: Workout: 8-0 )$ercises from the >#allistic Drogression?, 9-<8 total sets #ack ',uat, 81-01 total repetitions 'ingle-Aeg omanian Geadlift, 81-01 total repetitions per leg I'& Aeg Aowering, 0 sets $ B1 seconds I'& 'ingle-Aeg *alf aise, 0 sets $ B1 seconds per leg Conditioning: Cool 8o2n: . er Bod( ,ession: 5re7uenc(: War$1. : +obilit(: 8 times per week .ild activity 3elliptical, rowing, etc4 for @-<1 minutes or until a light sweat develops (alking Aunges, 8 sets $ <1 repetitions per leg 3% 81-B1 minutes of mild activity 3elliptical, rower, etc.4 while keeping the heart rate between <81-<01 beats per minute epeat the >.obility? section

'ide Aunges, 8 sets $ <1 repetitions per leg 'houlder Gislocations, 8 sets $ <1 repetitions Toe-Touch ',uats, 8 sets $ <1 repetitions 'capular 'lides, 8 sets $ <1 repetitions *hair, B sets $ 8@ repetitions Workout: #ench Dress 3shoulder-width grip4, 81-01 total repetitions *hest-'upported ows, 81-01 total repetitions G# )$ternal otations, 8 sets $ <1-<8 repetitions Conditioning: Cool 8o2n: 81-B1 minutes of mild activity 3elliptical, rower, etc.4 while keeping the heart rate between <81-<01 beats per minute epeat the >.obility? section

&otes: As one may notice, while there are some concrete guidelines in the routine above, there is a lot of room for play. 7or instance, when one is given the directive >81-01 total repetitions? that means that they get to choose how much volume they do. They can choose @ sets of @ repetitions, B sets of <1 repetitions, <1 sets of 8 repetitions, or maybe sets of 9, E, =, and @ repetitions. (hat they do does not matter. The only guidelines are that the total number of working reps is between 81 and 01 and the trainee challenges themselves. -oing to failure on any given set is strongly discouraged, but working hard is the name of the game. &ne should be neither fresh as a daisy nor fall-down tired after a given session. As long as one challenges themselves and tries to increase the weights, repetitions, or e$ercise density between sessions, they're doing fine. Again though, never increase the weight or number of repetitions at the e$pense of form 3tilted pelvis, jerky motions, etc.4. This variability in total volume also allows one to assign work depending on how they're feeling on a particular day. If one feels rundown or tired, they might do less work at a lighter weight. If one feels strong and is itching to train, they may do more work. It's all up to the individual to decide what they're doing. egardless of the number of repetitions however, the author suggests that trainees limit rest times to 8-B minutes between sets. This provides both a cap to the intensity and helps build conditioning. In the >Drogressions? section of lower body days, a similar amount of variability is seen. Again, depending on how the trainee feels on a given day and how they want to focus on things, they can 35

uantify with the use of a video camera. The reason for this is that each movement works best when applied for certain volumes per set. or perhaps maintain proficiency in some movements while building it in others. (hen it remains perfect throughout the movement. 3) .uickly. If they want to slowly get ac. they're usually ready to go on. it should be said again that during all movements. &ne can move on from an e$ercise when they are able to perform it . Also. 7or more information on the ballistic progressions. they can distribute their volume between more e$ercises. Delvic tilt is a little easier to . Ballistic 6rogression: The #allistic Drogression is a series of e$ercises meant to gradually and safely e$pose trainees to high-speed. which will be indicated by an overly fle$ed or overly e$tended lumbar spine. knowing when to progress can be difficult. but a preferred range of set durations and rest periods for each movement as well. one should atte$ t to kee their el'ic tilt neutral through acti'e abdo$inal control. though one might be proficient in a given e$ercise right away. #y filming one's self performing the e$ercise. There's also variability between the optimal rest periods for many of the movements. easily. and with perceived ease. >Kuickly? and >easily? are rather subjective. it's usually a good idea to drill each e$ercise for at least 8-0 sessions before leaving it behind. for single-legged e$ercise. &ne should start with the e$ercises at the beginning of the progression and only move on to more difficult e$ercises as their abilities allow. and while keeping their pelvis in the right position. high-force activities such as sprinting and depth jumps. see the >#allistic Drogression? section below. the set for the right leg and the set for the left leg count as a single work set. If the trainee really wants to work on mastering a couple of particular e$ercises. then they should only employ two different movements per session. If one feels like there's a chance they might not be ready to move on.uainted with more movements. And just as a note. they're ready to move on. one can see what their posture is like at any given time. The progression includes not only a list of e$ercises. 2aving said this though.choose to vary the number of ballistic e$ercises they perform as well as the total volume. As a final note. smoothly. but when one can perform a movement confidently. 5eys to look for are e$cessive posterior or anterior tilt. then they are not.

only the movements from the #allistic Drogression will be covered. the joints should give as little as possible. It's better to move more slowly.uat. 'ome might also re. lift less weight. each movement is to be performed with a neutral pelvic position. Altitude :andings: Altitude landings involve stepping off of a bo$ or other raised surface and sticking the landing like a gymnast 3overhead arm flourishes are optional and not recommended4. followed by intensity and volume. 'ince the movements listed in the >(orkout? section of the Integration Drogram are largely self e$planatory.+o'e$ent 7I Aine 2ops '. Though one can land in a number of different positions to emphasi%e different muscle groups. or drop from higher if one's form is considerably off. lift more.uat "umps 7I 'tep 2ops Altitude Aandings Gepth "umps 'prints 3long4 'prints 3short4 . or drop from a lower height with good form than it is to go faster.ets <81-<91 seconds <81-<91 seconds <91-801 seconds 8@-01 seconds <81-<91 seconds <1-8@ seconds <81-<91 seconds @ repetitions *ountermovement "umps @ repetitions 'ingle-Aeg 7I Aine 2ops <1-8@ seconds <81-<91 seconds B-@ repetitions 801-B=1 seconds O811. &ne 37 . As has been said continually throughout the last two chapters.uire special cues or instructions for their performance. ran B1-=1 seconds per <1.et 8uration @ repetitions #est Bet2een . but the landing should not be harsh or jarring. As always. Jpon ground contact. altitude landings in the #allistic Drogression should be performed by landing in a . This section will address both issues. form is the first priority in performing any given movement or e$ercise.uarter s. ran 'ingle-Aeg 7I 'tep 2ops <1-8@ seconds <81-<91 seconds +o'e$ents: 'ome of the movements utili%ed in this phase might not be familiar to a number of trainees. B1-=1 seconds per <1. P811.

uat position with their weight on their mid-foot. but the injury potential during such drops is too high to be considered safe 3Gursenev 6 aevsky. but they should be absorbing very little landing energy. (hen one is able to rebound higher than their countermovement jump from a drop of any height.uickly as possible and jumping as high as possible.uadriceps4. they're proficient in performing depth jumps. one will see better results than by focusing on rebound height alone 3#obert. (hen one is able to jump and land under control and in balance. then one is not performing the movement correctly. they are proficient in the e$ercise.E94. 2uijing.uarter s. 3* . 5omi. while people with a higher proportion of slow twitch fibers are the opposite 3#osco.should also land with a majority of their weight on their mid-foot. The depth to which one dips and the speed with which they alternate from eccentric to concentric contraction is likely to be largely determined by the dominant muscle fiber type in their drive muscles 3glutes and . Counter$o'e$ent <u$ s: A countermovement jump is otherwise known as a standing vertical leap. (hen one can correctly land from a drop <81-<B1C of their ma$imal countermovement jump height. Grop height is determined by strength and specific preparedness. they are proficient in this movement.8. <. 6 Apor. <. &ne steps off of a bo$ or other raised surface. . As with altitude landings. and springs back into the air as high as they can. have been used during research. absorbs the landing energy. likely due to too high of intensity 3drop height4. The heels can and will touch the ground. If it's noticeably separated into a landing and a takeoff phase. 2eights of up to B. Tihanyi. Grop height is determined by finding the bo$ height from which one rebounds the highest. <. but most people can start with a bo$ anywhere from <11-<<1C of their countermovement jump height. and then jumps as high as they can. 8e th <u$ s: Gepth jumps are similar to altitude landings. The whole movement should be smooth and fluid. #y focusing on fast absorption and reversal. one should land in a . &ne stands still. 7ekete. &ne should focus on both getting off of the ground as .9E4.984. Deople with a higher proportion of fast twitch fibers benefit from shallower dips and faster transitions. 6 van Ingen 'chenau.uickly dips down.

but on one foot at a time. and therefore less pounding on the body.uickly as possible.uickly as possible. they'll tie up and destroy both their form and their speed. rints: Gescribing proper sprint form in a single chapter. If one pushes too hard or puts too much effort into a run.te . so one will have to judge for themselves when they're ready to move on from here. .o s: 7I step hops involve hopping onto and off of a step 3usually =-9? in height4 as . let alone a single set of paragraphs. 7oot contacts should be fast 3well under .ingle1:eg #5! . . but rather there is movement at the hips to allow the feet to travel upwards and downwards while the center of mass stays relatively stable in height. 7oot contacts should be fast 3well under .8 seconds each4 and movement should be fast and coordinated. #5! .te . . They can be done both linearly 3forward and back4 or laterally 3side to side4. but on one foot at a time. things will tend to turn out fine. 'till.8 seconds each4 and movement should be fast and coordinated. 7orm aside. There are no strict proficiency guidelines. as long as one remembers to keep their pelvis neutral and rela$ out on the track.ingle1:eg #5! :ine .o s: 7I line hops involve simply hopping back and forth over a line on the ground as . the progression has sprint work moving from longer runs to shorter runs because longer runs will necessitate a slower speed than shorter runs. so one will have to judge for themselves when they're ready to move on from here. 3- . Guring these hops.#5! :ine . is beyond the author's capabilities.o s: These are performed the same as 7I Aine 2ops. the body's center of gravity does not rise and fall by the full height of the step.o s: These are performed the same as 7I 'tep 2ops. There are no strict proficiency guidelines.

uat jump is essentially a countermovement jump with no countermovement. they should be able to handle anything their sports throw at them.To replicate this effect in another way. . %" . high intensity athletic movements.uarter s. it's now time to move on to the third and final phase of training/ efinement.uat position.7uat <u$ s: A s. pauses at the bottom for 8-0 seconds. and then e$plodes upwards as high as they can.uisite physical attributes for proper training. : (ith the )$posure phase having developed the re. one can start sprinting on surfaces like flat grass and move to a synthetic track after a while. and the Integration phase having taught the athlete how to put those attributes to good use in high speed. it is suggested that athletes purchase a cheap pair of sprint spikes or cross country waffles in which to run. they've been e$posed to two training methods with higher intensities than nearly any sporting movement and from that moment on. they can move on to the ne$t movement in the progression. &nce one has become proficient in sprinting and depth jumps. but the spikes will provide grip on any surface. !ot only will the minimalistic shoe design allow their feet and lower legs to work properly. (hen one is able to leap upwards and land in a coordinated and balanced manner.uats down into a . egardless of the surface. Wra . &ne s.

In order to be at one's best. proficient athletes will contract only the muscles they need to perform the movement. fast. and strong an athlete is. in some sports. that's mainly what this section will cater towards. (hereas the previous two phases focused solely on increasing one's raw physical abilities. As such. the efinement phase centers around making each athlete as proficient at their sporting skills as possible while targeting specific physical abilities necessary to perform said skills. and will boost the overall level of performance. in order to perform optimally at a given task they will need to spend significant amounts of time practicing it. 6la(ing the 4a$e: !o matter how big. even though their work is significantly %1 . the body will become more efficient. In fact. for more physically capable athletes to be outplayed by opponents who are simply more skilled. while less skilled athletes will contract antagonistic muscle groups. the perfection of an athlete's sporting movements and the precise physical . creating spurious tension which reduces the output and efficiency of the movement 3'iff. it's perfectly possible.5 #efine$ent efinement is the third and final stage of training in which the focus shifts from general training to sport specific training. 811B4. and this is what the efinement phase seeks to do. the author will still cover general programming strategies. In any sporting activity. will stop contracting e$traneous muscles. 'ince this book deals mainly with running and jumping athletes 3which a majority of American athletes are4. Training in efinement needs to be tailored to the individual and their sport. Though this does make specific prescription impossible. the generali%ed format of the previous two phases is gone. they need to hone both their physical abilities and their sporting skill.ualities they depends on. In some sports. more specifically. and in fact common. skilled athletes e$pend less energy to perform given movements than their less skilled counterparts. #y repeatedly practicing a movement.

or properly run pass routes.E94.ualities upon which sporting actions rely andIor potentiate sporting movement performance.any athletes want to run fast and jump high and they look for special e$ercises to help them reach their goals. they need to do it. if one wants to get good at a sporting action. The importance of each type of work can generally be ascertained by looking at its name. or anything else that isn't directly related to sporting movement performance. anticipate opponents' motions. throwing. and general work. At this point in training. The 6lan: Training sessions in efinement will usually contain three elements/ specific work. the . 'pecific work includes the sporting actions themselves. which usually re. basketball players will need to spend more time on the court than football offensive linemen will on the field. supplementary work. Those things are best learned on the field.oving away from sports themselves. 7or athletes in more common 3for the J'4 sports.uestion isn't whether or not one needs to train their sport. 'pecific work is most important.uire a rather large mental component. . maintaining or increasing fle$ibility. a golfer will spend far more of his energy playing golf than he will in the weight room. but what they should be doing is practicing running fast and jumping high. And general work includes anything meant to fulfill general goals like increasing muscle mass.uire significantly more practice than others: for e$ample. !eedless to say. whereas a shot putter will spend a great deal of his energy in the weight room and a bit less in the ring. dribble better. golf versus shot put. sporting action are also best learned through performance. This te$t won't cover how to read defenses. jumping 3off of one foot or two. depending on one's sport4. they'd sit down and play. but how often they need to do it. Aike the sports themselves however. sporting actions are what this phase is really about. The %2 .more intense 3Horobyev. reinforcing proper general recruitment patterns. followed by supplementary work. Individual plans need to reflect this. <. 'ome sports will re. and any other basic movement one's sport relies heavily upon 3or entirely upon in the case of track and field athletes4. 'upplementary work includes anything meant to train the specific physical andIor neural . and trailed by general work. "ust like if one wanted to get good at the piano. 'porting actions include sprinting. .

As covered in the >'kill? section of the second chapter. In other words. 'tarting at the end of the list and working back. &ne can manipulate volume. but there are distinct differences. They're both very similar.u le$entar( Work 14eneral Work 1Conditioning 3if necessary4 1Cool 8o2n It won't always be this way though.uality relative to a ma$imal performance.@C is not the same as running at <11C. and intensity to create the desired training effect. 1+obilit( 1. 2owever. the higher the intensity. and general4 can create potentiating effects if employed properly. If you're a sprinter.uires a little e$planation. A sample training session may look something like this/ 1War$ . if you're a thrower. Intensity is the speed ran. The only movement that matches the skill of performing ma$imally is performing ma$imally. Instructions for implementing this type of training will be covered later. and the distance thrown. rest periods. ecific Work: As already mentioned. with the e$ception of the early off season. the objective is usually to perform at the highest level possible 3ie. you jump and focus on change of direction. . there is still great variability in the way it can be applied. if you're a basketball player. In competition. set duration. as a careful mi$ing and matching of certain methods 3specific. 'pecific work should be the primary focus of an athlete's training plan for most of the year. 2ow and why one should manipulate each of the aforementioned variables re. Gespite the fact that specific work is limited to a few sport-specific movements. supplementary. ecific Work 1. the intensity of the specific work can thought of as its . The better the performance relative to one's ability. %3 . Dretty simple.order and construction of training sessions will reflect such. each and every movement is a skill unto itself. the height jumped. ma$imally4. you sprint. you throw. running at . what wasn't covered was that speedIintensity of movement is specific as well. specific work is classified as performing one's sporting actions at a relatively high intensity.

.@C or less of their true ma$ while competing. #y training in the correct span of time one can effectively target a given energy pathway. but type IIb fibers.@4.uality of work and the energy system3s4 trained.uick to fatigue. the less average intensity it must have.uality. and lower intensities allow for greater volume before performance deteriorates. and which energy system is ta$edItrained. Again though.uality work and less of a %% . .1C. If one wants their skill training to be effective. which are the most powerful. what one really needs to do is observe patterns of energy e$penditure in their sport and train accordingly while not really worrying about which pathway is providing the fuel. the body will not be able to produce ma$imal tension and sporting ability will decline. when looking to train the skill necessary for sprinting at <11C. In other words. running at . 'et duration affects overall work volume because longer sets necessitate lower intensities. )$plosive movements are dependent upon type II muscle fibers. &verall e$citation levels are much higher in competition than in practice. as intensity decreases. rest periods also play a big part in determining both the .uch like set duration. and one's <11C in practice may be . which is more transferable than running at 9@C.. A focus on high intensity sports practice becomes even more important once one understands that very few people are able to perform at a true <11C outside of competition 3Fatsiorsky.ovement intensity is affected because the longer duration a movement is performed for. Aonger rest periods allow for higher .@C is more transferable than running at . fatigue in well under <1 seconds. it needs to try to replicate game speed. and type II fibers are relatively . overall work volume. set duration should be limited to QB seconds 3about twice that in cyclical activities with intra-movement >rests. Type IIa muscle fibers can provide tension for roughly @1 seconds. and so on. 'et duration directly affects potential movement intensity.? like sprinting4. the less transferability there is. Going away with unnecessary science. if one is going for absolutely ma$imal . 7or this reason. <. As covered in the >)ndurance? section of the second chapter. each of the three energy pathways is dominant over a certain span of time.The further from ma$imal intensity a movement is performed at. If any type of fibers are e$hausted and unable to contribute. so does the movement's transferability over to ma$imal performance. (hich energy system is primarily trained relies on set duration as well. usually after only around B seconds or less. 'et duration 3how long a given set lasts4 is another important factor in specific training.

it's a scale one has to balance. so too must the intensity at which they're training if they hope to see gains in sprint proficiency.ore post session recovery time means less training fre. any work meant to train skill must increase in intensity if one wants it to apply. an athlete will not be able to train at full intensity nor will he be able to maintain performance levels for too long before they begin to deteriorate. with single session volume at one end and training fre. As their proficiency in the skill increases however. ran. In other words. &n the other side of the spectrum. if one ran 811. while < minute of rest for every 81-01. a beginning sprinter can train at 9@C and make gains in their <11C sprint form. ran works well for sprints. The training intensities discussed above also affect work volume. (hen using rest periods as an intensityIvolume governor 3which usually works best with sprint work4 rest periods of .@-<11C intensity.1C. when focusing on the . In addition. This means. %5 . the last variable that needs to be taken into consideration when performing specific work in a given session is overall stimulus volume. it's also a good way to monitor work capacity.1-<81 seconds between sets of most e$plosive movements works well. lower intensity work can be very effective in teaching them to perform their movements. The intensity a sporting movement is performed at will determine the ma$imal volume one can apply and will also influence the training effect. If forced to operate on limited rests.uality of work. 2igh intensity work for greater volumes isn't always desirable though. 7inally.performance drop off between sets.uency. one also needs to take training intensity into consideration as well. at . -reater volumes allow for a greater training stimulus.uency at the other. 7or beginners. but as their skill increases. who have not yet mastered their sporting skill. In general. 7or more metabolically ta$ing movements like sprinting. they would need to rest 81 minutes before trying to repeat the feat.uire more post session recovery time. limited rests can be used as an intensity andIor volume governor. . Aower intensity work allows beginning athletes to get more overall e$posure to their skill. 811=4.uent e$posures. a good rule of thumb laid down by legendary sprint coach *harlie 7rancis is < minute of rest for every <1. but they also re. This will allow for more fre. Intensity during sets with such limited rest periods will necessarily need to be around 91-.uent e$posure to one's sporting movements and if intensities and rest periods are kept the same. rest periods in between bouts of e$plosive e$ercise should be at least B minutes in length 3(illardson. In a sense. as this will involve longer recovery times between sessions and motor learning happens fastest with more fre.

but one can tweak form to create specific adaptations andIor make them more specific. It tends to mimic an athlete's sporting movement in muscles targeted. the body would likely compensate 3through either altering form or decreasing overall output4 and just try to work around the deficit. Dure skill development aside. the author is going to give a list of common and effective supplementary movements for a few common sporting skills. Gepth jumps. andIor muscle-tendon dominance. A lot of other movements are similar in that they can be applied for a wide spectrum of goals. (hat makes supplementary work useful is that it can be used as a form of specific overload for pertinent musculotendon groups andIor neural processes. jumping. because if one tried to address them with the sporting movement itself. %) . since running.uency. they need to gradually work their way towards <11C. can be used to effectively supplement nearly any sporting movement. As mentioned. range of motion. specific physical development through specific work seems to occur best when one keeps intensity between 9@-. The ability to target and strengthen specific muscles or processes that might be lagging in sporting movements is very useful. the best range of intensity to work in is 9@-. beginners can afford to work in the range of 9@C or so. desired training fre. and e$ercise intensity. regardless of skill level. regardless of one's level of proficiency in the skill.u le$entar( Work: 'upplementary work is any work that is meant to train the specific physical and neural . 'o in short. . and cutting 3the foundation of most popular sports4 are so similar. Holumes will be determined by recovery ability. contraction type. range of motion.ualities upon which an athlete's sporting movements are based. supplementary work can also be used to potentiate sporting skill performance. (ork in this intensity range allows for great enough volume to create physical changes.@C. 2owever. contraction type. speed of movement. 'upplementary work allows one to target their problems without worrying about negatively affecting sporting form. (hen training for specific physical adaptations. there's a lot of crossover between supplementary movements and sporting movements. andIor muscle-tendon dominance. supplementary work tends to mimic sporting actions in muscles targeted. but further tweaking allows for greater specificity. In order to simplify things somewhat.@C. when training for pure skill. for instance.while higher intensity work for the proficient necessarily limits their training volume. 'imilarly. speed of movement. but as their proficiency increases.

'printing 3Acceleration4 -Altitude Aandings 3split s.uat variation especially4 -Gepth "umps 3split s. The lack of a rebound %7 . Altitude landings are useful because they allow for higher intensities than depth jumps 3Gursenev 6 aevsky. This force overload can be used to either condition the muscles.uat variations4 -2A TT Drogression -'hort 'prints 3P01. and bones to withstand higher forces.uat variation4 -Gepth "umps 3R s.uat and stiff-legged variations4 -2urdle 2ops 3focus on low -*T4 -'peed #ounds 3from an approach4 -Gownhill 'prints 3very slight grade4 8-7oot "umping 37rom an Approach4 -Altitude Aandings 3R s. tendons. ligaments.uat variation4 -'hort 'prints 3P01.E94 and are easier to perform as there is no rebound. <.4 Altitude :andings: Altitude landings are an effective way to e$pose the body to high levels of force in very specific positions. or can be incorporated with specific work in order to cause potentiation.4 <-7oot "umping 37rom an Approach4 -Altitude Aandings 3nearly all variations4 -Gepth "umps 3nearly all variations4 -#ounds 3from an approach4 -Top 'peed 'prints *hanging Girection -Altitude Aandings 3split and deep s.esisted 'prints 3wIsled or tow cord4 -2ill 'prints 3slight grade4 'printing 3Top 'peed4 -Altitude Aandings 3reverse and stiff-legged variations4 -Gepth "umps 3R s.uat variation especially4 -#ounds 3from standing4 .

set finished4.allows the athlete to concentrate solely upon landing in the right position and absorbing the kinetic energy properly. 'ingle-leg and reverse variations can be combined with all other variations with the e$ception of single-leg split s.uat 'tiff-Aegged 'plit '. 5nee )$tensors Dlantarfle$ors 2ip )$tensors. landing position can be altered to target certain movement patterns and muscle groups. 3ariation R '. 5nee )$tensors. Bounds: (hereas depth jumps and altitude landings are typically knee e$tensor dominant. Drime. Dlantarfle$ors 3solei4 'hifts 'tress to 2ip )$tensors 'hifts 'tress to 7emoral otators 'ets of altitude landings should consist of @ or less reps and rest times in between sets should be greater than B minutes. The following table outlines common variations and the muscle groups they target. 'ome high level sprint coaches even use bounds as a tool to measure specific strength for their athletes 3Gick4.uat everse 'ingle-Aeg Targets Dlantarfle$ors 3gastrocnemii4. it can be tweaked for different purposes. (hen one is using single-leg or split s. 81<14. bounds provide a means of supplementary training focused far more on the hip e$tensors. reverse single-leg R s. As covered e$tensively 3some might say/ e$cessively4 earlier.uats4. The movement has only B real variations/ bounding from a %* .uat Geep '. it's best to alternate between the left and right leg with each rep 3ie. 'andell. In essence. Derforming bounds also trains a number of refle$es whose development is crucial to running fast 3#osch 6 5lomp. Though bounding form isn't as variable as that found in depth jumps and altitude landings. where traditional plyometrics are meant to mimic jumping movements. right. 6 #undle. 811@4 while the fact that its unilateral in nature only makes it more specific to sprinting 3'iff. 2ip )$tensors.uat variations. Gepending on one's goals. right. proper position and activation are even more important than e$ercise volume and intensity. left. as bounds involve even higher levels of ground forces than sprints 3(eyand.uat landings 3ie. bounding is meant to mimic sprinting movements. left. 5nee )$tensors Dlantarfle$ors 3solei4. 811B4.

the better.stand.uadriceps and plantarfle$ors and bounding for distance puts more stress on the glutes and hamstrings. is a progression the author created to help build change of direction ability in athletes. The progression circumvents this issue by using athlete-generated hori%ontal 3and vertical4 energy as loading rather than the always-vertical force of gravity.. The progression also has the benefit of needing no e. which stands for 2ori%ontally-loaded Absorptive and eactive Torsion Training.. but involve a landing and then an e$plosive rebound. but depth jumps are easier to measure fatigue with 3decrease in jump height4 and they're more fun too. #ounding from an approach involves approaching a designated area at a jogging pace and then using that momentum to bound for either height or distance. 8e th <u$ s: Gepth jumps are similar to altitude landings. and speed bounding from an approach.uires the highest levels of reactivity of any bounding variation and sets typically involve covering distances of 81-B1. the force on the limbs is largely hori%ontal. while the force from traditional plyometric drills is vertical..uires the most strength and the least reactivity of all bounding variations. bounding from an approach. In truth though. The faster one is able to go while maintaining form.uires a moderate level of strength and moderate level of reactivity compared to the other two variations.A#TT 6rogression: 2A TT. 'peed bounding from an approach involves running at a high speed and then transitioning into a bounding sprint in which one tries to replicate traditional sprinting form but with more vertical and hori%ontal amplitude.uipment to apply. #ounding from a stand re.and so on4 and due to the standing start ground contact times are longer. one could very easily e$clude depth jumps from their supplementary work and only use altitude landings with no problems whatsoever. The basic premise behind 2A TT is that when cutting and changing direction. 'peed bounding re. only a fair-si%ed %- . 'ets typically involve covering a distance of 81-B1. . Gepth jumps and altitude landings really both accomplish the same thing.. . #ounding for height puts more stress on the . #ounding from a stand is commonly done in continuous sets of B to <1 3 A A .ost of the stress from this variation falls to the glutes and hamstrings. All of the guidelines and variations that apply to altitude landings also apply to depth jumps. #ounding from an approach re.

)ach movement in the 2A TT progression consists of 8 or B components. they only involve a drop and then absorption. reversing rotation as necessary. rebound back -"ump forward with <91 degrees rotation. land on one foot. the more energy they'll be absorbing upon landing. rebound back -"ump forward with no rotation. And before going any further. finding the right intensity 3drop height in those cases4 is critical. yes. This is where the intensity of the movement is controlled. rebound back -"ump forward with <91 degrees rotation. rebound back 5" . land on one foot -"ump forward with <91 degrees rotation. . It was a joke.uch like depth jumps and altitude landings. land on one foot -"ump forward with . Aandings can be 8-footed or <-footed and can involve any amount of rotation. but the title works and so it stuck. and it's here where the training effect is sought. land on one foot. it's important to pick a broad jump distance that allows for the proper intensity. rebound back -"ump forward with . The rebound just involves immediately 3no resetting or stutter stepping4 bouncing back to the e$act position one broad jumped from. The first component is a plain 8-footed broad jump. as already mentioned.oving on. (hen performing 2A TT movements. . The second component is the landing from the broad jump. and then a rebound. The higher and further one jumps. .1 degrees rotation.A#TT 6rogression -"ump forward with no rotation -"ump forward with . 2A TT involves taking the hori%ontal and vertical energy generated by performing a broad jump and uses that to teach force absorption. It's always better to start off with too little rather than too much and risk injury.1 degrees rotation.1 degrees rotation.patch of clear ground. rebound back -"ump forward with . The third component isn't present in all movements. the name is meant to be overly comple$ and totally tongue-in-cheek. land on one foot. an absorption phase. 'ome 2A TT movements are like altitude landings. <-footed landings will obviously be more intense than 8-footed landings and the rotational component will put stress on the same structures needed for fast cutting. &thers are like depth jumps: they involve a drop. land on one foot -"ump forward with no rotation.1 degrees rotation -"ump forward with <91 degrees rotation -"ump forward with no rotation.

Aanding cues are simple. flying sprints are over 01. is acceleration. as the biomechanical analysis could fill a book on its own.1C of their top speed within B1. and graceful. most of them are at . re. As such. the author is going to draw the divide between acceleration and top speed sprinting work at roughly B1.(hen going through the progression. 'till.ual volumes 3unless trying to bring up the performance of a weaker leg4.uipment. sprint form should not be an issue. and agility4 than traditional plyometric training 3. 'printing heavily involves every muscle in the trunk and legs.uires minimal to no special e. it's best to start with 8-B different movements per session and only move on once one becomes truly proficient in performing them. As said earlier.ilanovic. is very metabolically demanding. This only applies to sprints from a standing or jogging start. 6 Dagola. All one needs to do is focus on landing in a balanced position in which they could easily e$plode out in any direction at a moment's notice. 'printing can be broken down into two general phases/ acceleration and top speed. (ith this in mind though. it would be sprinting. Any stutter stepping. hesitation. anything above is top speed. Droficiency can be judged by viewing the control with which one manipulates their body during the landing and. dash. one needs to make sure to rotate both directions in e. deficits in sporting form are nearly always due to recruitment issues or strength imbalances and sprinting is no different. If the movements are fast... if the build up is included. 811<4. 7or those who aren't gifted enough to run P<1 seconds in the <11. 37erro. power. "ukic. )ven though the world's best sprinters don't hit their top speed until roughly =1. Anything below B1. 811E4.ue 3when going through the )$posure and Integration phases4. 6 . it's 51 . 'ince any athlete looking to sprint has already spent months building a balanced and coordinated physi. the rebound. ivera. )ven <1. powerful. . or wild movement means the trainee need to go back to earlier steps in the progression andIor decrease the length of their initial broad jumps. describing proper sprint form in detail is beyond the scope of this te$t. and even produces better results 3in terms of strength. if applicable. If the author could only choose one supplementary movement to include for all athletes.arkovic. one is ready to move on andIor increase the intensity. of course.etikos. top speed is reached even earlier. . rints: There is perhaps no better single movement pattern for improving general athletic abilities than sprinting. And as a final note.

As such. 811B4. but a number of world class sprint coaches recommend that times increase by no more than <1C 3when compared to an unloaded sprint4 when doing tow work. 6otentiation: Dotentiation is an increase in performance in one movement caused by the aftereffects of another movement performed prior 3anywhere from minutes to days4. 811. )$cessive grades lead to significant changes in form. Trying too hard usually makes one tighten up 3create spurious tension4 or causes them to lose proper pelvic position and fall into e$cessive backside mechanics. (hen training for acceleration. Gownhill sprinting is done from a fly 3subma$imal approach used to build up to top speed4 and typically takes place over 81-B1. will be given in the >'tandard and Testing? chapter. &ther common problems. The reason for this is that the greater load found in towing work. incline sprint work also impacts sprint form. 811@4. but for all speed-related performances as well as injury prevention.a good idea to try and rela$ when sprinting. The optimal grade on which to perform downhill sprint work is difficult to pick out. the form breakdown at this speed is probably too great for optimal carryover. 6 'pinks. 'tandard sprints aside. though even the slightest grade will provide enough overload when training specifically for top speed. This adaptation is not only useful for top speed. while actually at top speed 3not including the run-in4. 81194. esistance is determined on an athlete by athlete basis. (hen training for top speed. 81194. downhill or decline sprints are very effective. #oth the top speed and the eccentric loading found in downhill sprinting are higher than in sprinting on flat ground 3Daradisis 6 *ooke. .urphy. with sled work being the most common. 6 2er%og. 'imilarly.4 and incline sprints both work well. as well as their causes and solutions. as is all other acceleration-focused work.. Though the highest speeds are found with declines of @-=C 3)bben. so it's wise to keep the grade manageable 3'lawinski et al. Aeonard. the movement has a number of different variations that can be used to great effect. (hen performing resisted sprints one can either use a tow cord or a sled. and this loading has been shown to lead to sarcomerogenesis. #y properly arranging training 52 . the greater the change in sprinting form 3Aockie. resisted sprints 3either with a pulley system or a tow sled4 32arrison 6 #ourke. the author suggests a grade of around BC. Towing and hill work is best kept to under B1. or the formation of new sarcomeres in series within a muscle 3#utterfield. 811<4.

. (hen dealing with methods of neural potentiation. and between supplementary work and specific work should be kept between 0-9 minutes. 81114. To get the benefits of DAD. <. in some cases. the athlete may have a few sets of supplementary work precede the specific work. Dut it into practice. is creating a high enough level of stimulation without causing an undue level of fatigue in the process 3'iff. After a short period of ma$imal activation 3usually less than <1 seconds4. 6 'ale. 'ale. 6 Tarnopolsky. a decrease in half-rela$ation times. it's possible to raise the ma$imal intensity of subse.uent work. all that's re. This allows enough time for recovery yet is still short enough to take advantage of the DAD. the result is referred to as post-activation potentiation 3DAD4. depending on the individual. after which point additional volume tends to become counterproductive.E4.ue production. or arranging means from one session to the ne$t. or plyometric drills and its effects typically last from @-81 minutes. 2ere are some combinations the author has found particularly effective/ 53 . ather than performing the supplementary work after the specific work.. biochemical priming. Also. and an increase in rate of force development 3&'Aeary. The muscle activation can be achieved through isometrics.acGougall.uired is <-8 sets of intense supplementary work. est periods in between sets of supplementary work. those with higher percentages of fast twitch muscle fiber will likely gain more benefit from DAD than those with lower percentages 32amada. 811B4. athletes can use their supplementary training movements to potentiate performance in their specific sport skills. 2ope. however. This increase in performance comes through either neural e$citation or. a given muscle group will display an increase in ma$imal tor.means within a given session. traditional weight training. The trick.

#eyond immediate potentiation. it significantly increases the intensity of sporting work. 811B4 and are not muscle-group specific. the volume and intensity of the potentiating work can be higher than when seeking it in specific muscle groups. orting +o'e$ent 'prints 3Acceleration4 . it's wise to use it sparingly or only in periods of time when absolute . 811B4. it's not something one should be doing if they're not <11C.uality is demanded at the e$pense of fre. (hen building potentiation through unrelated muscle groups. 'ome athletes like to perform a B11. sprint at .4 <-7oot "umping 3from an approach4 -Altitude Aandings 3nearly all variations4 -#ounds 3from an approach4 *hanging Girection -Altitude Aandings 3split and deep s. Also.uat variation especially4 -2ill 'prints 3slight grade4 -Gownhill 'prints 3very slight grade4 -2urdle 2ops 3focus on low -*T4 'prints 3Top 'peed4 8-7oot "umping 3from an approach4 -Altitude Aandings 3R s. This increase in intensity will either re. 'ome coaches even go as far as to use upper body lifts like the bench press to prime the *!' for sprint performance while sparing the legs 37rancis. training means can also have an effect on work performed days later. while a moderate volume of plyometrics does the same @-= days after performance.uire a reduction in overall session volume or a longer recovery time after the session.1-.uat variation4 -'hort 'prints 3P01.uency and volume. These increases are due to a general tonic effect on the *!' 3'iff. and as such. A moderate volume of weight training increases general performance <-8 days after training.u le$entar( +o'e$ent -Altitude Aandings 3split s.uat variations4 It should be mentioned now that though this type of training is effective. As far as biochemical potentiation goes.@C about an hour before 5% . An increase in intensity goes hand in hand with an increased risk of injury. the only place the author has seen it in practice is prior to long sprint races.. it is advised that this type of training only be used when athletes are entirely fresh. #ecause using potentiation work has these effects.

This is obviously very physically and mentally ta$ing however. and should only be attempted by athletes with high levels of work capacity and mental toughness. All one needs is 81-B1 minutes of mild activity while keeping their heart beat between <81-<01 beats per minute. general training will allow their development to continue. conditioning should be dead last. teaching correct muscle activation. bands. *onsistent conditioning work allows for faster recovery in between sets. esistance training can build muscle. and generally lay or reinforce the ground work for athleticism. and helps to promote leanness. as it's considered here. with the e$ception of a cool down. however mild. race. it does help to include in a training plan. strengthening connective tissues. or kinetic energy4. 4eneral Work: -eneral work is anything meant to increase desirable physical . In a given training session. iron. build work capacity. but it is beneficial. from interfering with the rest of the session's workload. Conditioning: *onditioning. and despite being simple. 55 .competing in a 011. )$amples include resistance training. As in the previous two phases of training. increase mobility. easy. increasing fle$ibility. The main purpose of general work is continuing on with the goals first outlined in the )$posure phase/ strengthening vital muscle groups. #esistance Training: Though nearly all forms of training can loosely be considered resistance training 3whether that resistance come from bodyweight.ualities that does not attempt to appro$imate one's sporting movements. and seemingly unimportant. conditioning work doesn't need to be anything fancy. strengthen tendons. done B-= days per week. The author has not personally put such a protocol into action and would advise anyone who wants to do so to be careful. This will prevent any fatigue. in this section. Though the trainee has already laid a baseline of said . faster recovery in between training sessions. build or maintain muscle activation patterns. and general conditioning work. the author is referring to weight training. The presence or lack of conditioning work won't make or break an athlete. and building work capacity.ualities. stretching. is not sport specific and can be thought of as general health training.

In terms of lower body and trunk development. spinal erectors. and hamstrings. balance is necessary for optimal performance. regardless of sport. In other words.uadriceps. but balance is still important. but athletes in some sports can afford to carry more muscle mass in certain places than others. 7or athletes whose sports are acceleration andIor change of direction reliant.uestion is not how much they can do and see results. .uires a high degree of top speed 3as opposed to acceleration4 may find that e$cessive . -enerally speaking.uadriceps development is a hindrance to their performance. too much bench pressing or too many push ups. 'uch an imbalance can lead to subacromial impingement 3inflammation of the supraspinatus4. as the e$tra weight can impede leg swing and disrupt sprint mechanics 3#osch 6 5lomp. <. while general work 3such as resistance training4 is added on top of everything else. #ury. 6 *roisier.E4. but the odd muscle out is the . 6 2opf. It usually arises because of a high volume of hori%ontal pressing relative to hori%ontal pulling movements.=4 and can also be caused by e$cessive internal rotation strength of the humeri relative to e$ternal rotation strength and deficits in internal humeral rotation range of motion 3&livier. As has been mentioned. coaches and athletes at this point need to assess the muscular needs of their sport as well as individuals' own relative muscular development. balance. egarding upper body development. economy is the name of the game and one's program should reflect such. . -enty. especially around the shoulder girdle. obli. 'ince the point for athletes is to get the biggest bang for their buck from their resistance training. #erninger. <. all athletes benefit from highly developed glutes. #inet. The majority of an athlete's training volume should come from their specific and supplementary work. 8119: upp.uadriceps strength and mass is necessary. 6 7erret. This issue is e$tremely common amongst swimmers 3#ak. 811@4.. 6 oge%.: *roisier. (hereas all resistance training so far has contained no individuali%ation. (hen it comes to strength training. 5) . is the key. Athletes whose sports re. Kuintin. -anteaume. hip fle$ors. <. 811.ues. most athletes don't need a very high volume of weight lifting in their routines.Jnlike powerlifters and &lympic lifters whose sports are about hoisting as much weight as possible in their competition lifts. #ullock-'a$ton. the . 81194.. The most common balance issue is scapular protractors which are relatively stronger than the scapular retractors. but how little.@: (adsworth..uadriceps that are too strong relative to the hamstrings can lead to knee instability and higher incidences of knee injury 3Aehance. #inet. abdominals.

egardless of sport.4 should carry less mass than than athletes whose sports are of shorter duration or are acceleration dependent. Though some people's muscle attachment points. Going a set of back s. As such.#alance issues aside.uirements 3sprinters. and limb lengths will make some movements easier or more difficult than others 3and might change the distribution of training effect4. These are some of the ones the author finds most effective/ 57 . 7or sprinters and basketball players. leg e$tensions. pro$imal muscles should be given the most attention as their development is the most crucial to sporting performance. the level of relative upper body mass an athlete should carry depends on their sport. almost everyone can benefit from a core group of training movements. basketball players. Athletes whose sports depend on high levels of top speed or have significant endurance re. etc. muscle activation patterns.uats is far more economical than doing leg curls. and back e$tensions and will probably provide better results too. large upper bodies are just e$cess mass that needs to be dragged along for the ride. one should look for the most economical movements when designing the resistance training portion of their routines. economy is the name of the game. Though the relevant muscle groups can be trained through nearly any number of movements 3including those necessitating machines4.

hamstringsI.uadriceps. they could throw in a few sets of bicep curls. 7or athletes with certain joint or muscle issues.uat 'natch--rip Geadlift omanian Geadlift 'tiff-legged Geadlift 7ront '. assigning some of the above movements may be contraindicated. illiopsoas Anterior and medial deltoids. spinal erectorsIhamstrings. rhomboids Anterior and medial deltoids. posterior deltoids. or other bodybuilding work at the end of their sessions. biceps. posterior deltoids. trape%ius. anterior and medial deltoidsItriceps Aatissimus dorsi. hamstrings -lutes. biceps. teres minor Though this list is far from e$haustive. rhomboids -lutes. trape%ius. . spinal erectors. rhomboids Abdominals. illiopsoas Abdominals.uadriceps.uadriceps. biceps. glutes. and depressed4 rhomboids )$ternal otations 3humeri4 Infraspinatus. if one trained e$clusively with the movements contained within they'd never have to worry about missing out on results. . even 5* . trape%ius. spinal erectors. illiopsoas Abdominals. rhomboids Aatissimus dorsi. posterior deltoids. pectoralis majorItriceps Dectoralis major. .ost athletes are young men and young men tend to worry about their appearance.uads 3depending on stance width4 -lutes. tricep e$tensions. triceps *hin Jps 3scapulae retracted Aatissimus dorsi. hamstringsI. hamstrings.+o'e$ent #ack '. and if having bigger arms will give them a psychological boost in competition 3or just in life4 then a little pointless mass might be worthwhile. spinal erectors Kuadriceps. glutes. spinal erectors. If so. trape%ius.uat Aunges 3walking4 'plit '. If one wanted to however.uads 3depending on step length4 -lutes.uats Dower 'natchI*lean Dlanks Aeg Aowerings Gecline 'itups #ench Dress 3close grip4 #ench Dress 3wide grip4 *hest-'upported ows Gumbbell ows &verhead Dresses +uscle 4rou s Trained =in order of $agnitude> -lutes. it is advised that one choose movements to work around the issues at hand. hamstrings. spinal erectors 2amstrings. . hamstrings -lutes. trape%ius.

7or traditional lifts. and power applications. guidelines. or both. they're just muddying the water. &ne could further increase volume. most trainees will only need <-8 lower body. 81<1: (hite. intensity. and < abdominal e$ercise per session. and intensity ranges allows for the best of all worlds. but low enough to prevent burnout and minimally interfere with specific and supplementary work. and simple. Intensity and volume are high enough to create neural and muscular adaptations.4 and onto the limbs by performing lifts unilaterally. 7or the abbreviated &lympic lifts 3power snatch and power clean4. etc. with Q<91 second rest periods is very effective. Jnilateral movements also more strongly activate stabili%ing muscles.1-<81 second rest periods works very well. a great many athletes have seen their best results when using the abbreviated &lympic lifts for subma$imal doubles or triples and traditional lifts for subma$imal sets of =-<1 repetitions 3'cott. 8 upper body. Guring the off season. 9-<8 sets of 8-B repetitions using E1-91C < .4. The volume of each will be dependent on a number of factors. of course. This range of work is a sort of >sweet spot? in which a vast majority of athletes will find their best gains 3in concert with training for their sport. In terms of set and rep numbers. spinal erectors. that is4. 81184. all far short of failure. Training within the above set. while focusing on bar speed and with . )ventually. it is strongly suggested that proper form be given priority over the amount of weight lifted. Athletes should seek to maintain a neutral spine on nearly every 5omanian deadlifts second. If an athlete starts their training session with back s. Though each athlete is different. sarcoplasmic hypertrophy. including the internal and e$ternal hip . this wouldn't necessarily be a bad thing. but it would be at the e$pense of other training means. Though variable repetition ranges have been shown to create different training effects 3*ampos et al. and even professional level. In terms of form and progression.uats and intends to do spinal erectors are tired. they can perform the rotators for the lower body 3'iff. but in the author's viewpoint. rep. B-0 sets of =-<1 repetitions. myofibrillar hypertrophy. but that's an issue to be covered later. college. In terms of movement selection. At the developmental. athletes can also shift stress from the core muscles 3abdominals. it's recommended that the focus be put on resolving the problems. 811B4.if that means using machines. but that isn't always possible. but finds their GAs unilaterally to save their backs. a great number of athletes seem to respond best when following a set of very general. 811. a lot of coaches throw out guidelines for pure strength.

2olcomb. 'wank. *ontrary to the claims many make about it however. Mamanaka. Training a muscle while it's lengthened also has the effect of increasing fle$ibility. 811E: "aggers.. 6 (allmann. 811E4. Ichii. it is important to note that there )" ubley.c!air. In either case. Drogression over time is necessary. but it really all depends on what type of stretching is performed and how it's done. . and 3in the case of static stretching4 can actually impair power generation in the short term 3 obbins 6 'cheuermann. and moving through a full range of motion has a number of benefits. Ichii. injury prevention. 811B4. stretching good for+ It may seem that stretching is completely pointless. stretching 3static stretching especially4 has become all but synonymous with fitness. (hile proper range of motion around the joints is a good thing. 6Masuda. but actually increase power output in the short term rather than reduce it 3Mamaguchi.aking sure to keep form tight will help prevent injuries. As such. (hile static stretching has been shown to decrease power output 3Mamaguchi. 6 Aee. it is only one form of stretching. #allistic and dynamic stretching serve to increase fle$ibility just as well as their static counterpart. . 6 Masuda. 7or one.movement and are also encouraged to move through a full range of motion 3within the limits of their mobility4 on every e$ercise. 7rost. it's recommended the muscles being stretched are warm to help prevent possible injuries. Ganneels. 6 .@4. 81194. and possibly producing sarcomereogenesis 3'iff. -uadagnoli. . 81194. or reps while maintaining correct form and staying away from failure. static stretching is fine as power output is no longer a concern. stretching does not decrease injury risk 3(itvrouw. !o benefit comes from doing the e$act same thing over long periods of time. they should do so. what is .. 81104. Dost session. 'trength gained when a muscle is lengthened will transfer over to the rest of the &. does not decrease or prevent soreness 32erbert 6 de !oronha. 'trength gained when a muscle is in a shortened state will not transfer over when it's in a longer state. <. and health in general. 8119: 'amuel. &ne may be lead to ask then. it's suggested that any stretching that takes place before a training session be dynamic in nature. sets. 811=4 and musculotendinous stiffness 3 yan et al. but the opposite is not true 3Fatsiorsky. strength is largely specific to the length of the muscles when it's developed. (hen one is capable of increasing the weight.ahieu.tretching: Though how is beyond the author. Mamanaka. 81194.

ather than prepare each training session down to the tiniest detail. and increases in their fle$ibility will not diminish it. and sometimes even training loads are all specified. 811<4. 7ields. if anything at all. 7i$ the issue as the situation allows. stress levels. making the link between fle$ibility and running economy somewhat unclear. The body is dynamic and its tolerances and abilities are in a constant state of flu$. )ldredge. 2opewell. if not months in advance. sleep schedule. Gespite it's popularity however. the author does not believe in doing things this way. . If they're feeling energetic and motivated. and trailed by macrocycles. 6 . microcycles. but know that it has its positives. The author interprets this situation by thinking that those who are naturally less fle$ible may display greater running economy. psychological readiness. but that's okay.. and macrocycles. they may end up doing very little. the author prefers to outline general frameworks and allows the athletes to decide on the specifics. followed by microcycles. (ill it be perfect+ !o.is an inverse correlation between running economy and ankle and hip fle$ibility 3*raib. eadiness at any given moment is affected by time of day. -enerally speaking. If they're rundown and dragging psychologically. reps. 5okkonen. training plans are laid out weeks. recent diet. )$pecting an athlete's work capacity and abilities to perfectly sync up with what's written on a piece of paper week in and week out is foolish. 6rogra$$ing: !ow that the components of the efinement phase have been set out. *ooper. it's time to put them all together. chronic stretching routines have been shown to not affect running economy 3!elson. <. *ontrary to popular statement. sets. *ornwell. As such. designing a good training program is not that difficult if one knows the basics. rest periods. if one naturally has poor fle$ibility. and any number of other factors that have yet to be named. and seeing as it's unattainable it should not be the end goal.organ. with nanocycles being the shortest. This may be due to better functioning of the elastic components of the glutes and hamstrings.itchell. )$ercises. *lassically speaking. training plans are divided into three time frames/ nanocycles. It all depends on the state of the athlete at the time of training. 6 -lickman-(eiss.=4. Derfection is oftentimes the enemy of good. one session might involve higher volumes and intensities. don't worry too much about it. 2owever. )1 .

accelerations and that he wants them to be fast. the author would advise one to instead choose a goal. usually in that order 3unless one is aiming to use supplementary work for potentiation4. Dopular options include jogging. 7or instance. This is where specific. : The warm up is usually @-<1 minutes in length and its sole goal is to raise the body's temperature to prepare it for the more intense physical activity to come. All types of stretching can be used. / +obilit(/ Workout/ Conditioning/ and Cool 8o2n. using a stair stepper. Ichii. 811=: yan et al. in that order. of which there are @. if one wanted to train for sprint acceleration. The athlete would then decide the e$act intensity 3depending on how they felt4. fle$ibility 37unk. most adaptive resources should go towards specific work and the left overs should be distributed between supplementary and general work. 7or most of the year 3with the e$ception of the off season. and then let the athlete go to work.&anoc(cle: The nanocycle is the shortest period of training organi%ation and is essentially nothing more than a single session. Ge Hito. 6 Treolo. Met even within this single session there are still a number of subsections. War$ . and strength. 'ince the body has a finite 3and constantly shifting4 supply of adaptive resources. but this section of the workout shouldn't take longer than <1-<@ minutes. )levated muscle temperatures result in increased fiber conduction velocity. rowing. the coach might tell the athlete they're doing B1. it's important to make sure they're allocated properly within a nanocycle. 81194. ather than provide set volumes and intensities for specific work. Adams. 811<4. Workout: The workout is the meat and potatoes of the training session. all of which the reader has already encountered thus far in the te$t. and general work takes place. supplementary. 'ome people take more work than others to loosen up. Mamanaka. 7arina. 6 7erguson. These subsections. include/ War$ . +obilit(: The mobility section of the nanocycle is all about opening up the range of motion around the joints so upcoming work can be done safely and through the proper range of motion. jumping rope. the length of rest periods 3as long as they needed before they were ready to repeat their )2 . 6 Masuda. (ork undertaken in the warm up should be strenuous enough to cause the athlete to build a light sweat. maybe an intensity. It's where skills are learned and adaptations are signaled. but that will be covered shortly4. 'wank. !immo. but not strenuous enough to develop any fatigue that might hinder their later training efforts. 811=4. but as covered earlier. power output 3-ray. dynamic and ballistic stretching work best at this point in the session as static stretching has the potential to decrease power production and tendon stiffness 3Mamaguchi. and doing medicine ball circuits.

deep breathing e$ercises. "ust like in the warm up. 811B4. After the specific work has been applied.. Again. this probably isn't necessary. If one does decide to employ conditioning work. (ork should be stopped when the athlete's performance noticeably declines or if the athlete e$presses a strong desire to stop 3some activities re. In terms of fre. athletes tend to get worn down and put less and less effort into their session 3yet another reason for putting specific work at the forefront4. This is where static stretching. the author finds mental focus. )asy conditioning can be done every day. and even )3 . but with an emphasis on easier and more subdued activity. but volume for a particular session should be limited so that the trainee is recovered and fully ready to train again within 09 hours. repeats4. )asy conditioning involves keeping the heart rate between <11-<81 beats per minute for 81-B1 minutes. popular movement options include jogging. The author also likes to split upper and lower body training into separate sessions. 011. but that's not why the author suggests the split. the author finds the best results typically come from training the same muscle groupings 8-B times per week. As the length of a session draws out. 'plitting upper and lower body work into separate sessions helps insure higher . jumping rope. and how much overall work is to be done.@: 'iff. Conditioning: *onditioning is optional within any given session. If an athlete is lean and in good shape. If an athlete is having problems with their leanness or general stamina then including something here would be beneficial. Cool 8o2n: The cool down is a repeat of the mobility section. and doing medicine ball circuits. eg.previous performance4. rowing. if the trainee has any energy left. they would move on to supplementary work.uency.uality of both. ather than worrying about insignificant changes in hormone levels.uire more mental toughness than others. using a stair stepper. is more important. while intermediate conditioning should probably only be done B-0 days per week unless the athlete is in very good shape. It will take some trial and error. <. &nce that's finished. There is plenty of research demonstrating a drop in hormone levels after 0@-=1 minutes of e$ercise 3Fatsiorsky. or the lack thereof. the coach should assign the athlete their movement3s4 and tell them the goal and then let the athlete go to work. any activity can be used as long as the heart rate is kept within the appropriate range. Intermediate conditioning involves keeping the heart rate between <81-<01 beats per minute for 81-B1 minutes. one would move on to general training and repeat the process.

2owever. setting aside a good portion of the off season to increase muscular si%e in important muscle groups. the more evenly volume is distributed between the types of work. is a good idea. "ust as in a strengthIhypertrophy block. the more concentrated the training results will be. the more diffused the results will be.meditation can come in. Anything that returns the body to a resting state or helps with physical or mental recovery fits here. and in season. (hereas one needs to )% . 9rgani?ation: (ithin a given nanocycle. their abilities will improve past baseline once they're healthy and able to play their sport again. even at the e$pense of short term sporting form. In the early off season.icrocycles are small groups of nanocycles. it's also not unusual to drastically reduce the volume of specific and supplementary work to focus on general work. usually one week in length. 'ometimes athletes suffer injuries which prevent them from doing high impact work 3foot and ankle injuries mostly4. but if they apply their general work right. followed by supplementary work volume. If facilities don't allow for performing specific work. and probably will decrease during this period of time. 'ports performance may. !o matter why or how one allocates work volume within a given nanocycle. athletes' performance may drop when dealing with their injury. +icroc(cle: . and trailed by general work volume. 'ince strength is ultimately dependent on cross sectional area of a muscle. These athletes should not stubbornly keep trying to push specific and supplementary work. most sessions should be comprised mostly of specific work volume. the balance between training means should vary depending on the goal3s4 of the session. but leave them able to lift weights. The prime reason to do this is for putting together a strength andIor hypertrophy block. but when specific and supplementary work are reintroduced in higher volumes performance will e$ceed baseline levels. supplementary work should take precedence. Aate off season. followed by general work. there are circumstances in which this arrangement will change. especially if the movements are carefully chosen. pre season. Guring these periods sport specific work is put on maintenance while the volume of weight training is ramped up. &n the other side of the coin. but should only do those things they can do pain-free. Another reason for decreasing the percentage of specific and supplementary work is to work around injuries. the body has finite adaptive capabilities and the more concentrated the volume is on one work type.

athletes should see both their absolute abilities and their work capacity increase over time 3'iff. if an athlete needs to bring up their strength and si%e. If everything is going well.focus on the content of each nanocycle. and general work they performed in previous microcycles and spread it out over 0 sessions rather than 8. 811B4. it's recommended that the intensity of the rest macrocycle be left alone. the more varied ones goals 3and hence the work they're doing to achieve them4.acrocycles are also used to outline and categori%e long stretches of training by their goal3s4. they can go back and calculate the total volume of specific. This macrocyle would contain a very large volume of weight training 3general work4 in comparison to specific and supplementary work. The 8-B hard microcycles deliver the bulk of the training effect while the one microcycle that follows allows for recovery.any coaches advocate training hard for 8-B consecutive microcycles and then following those up with one macrocycle at severely reduced volume. macrocycles are useful for tracking training volumes over time. As such. 'imilarly. If one usually trains their lower body twice during a given microcycle. . 7or a sprinter. Holume within each microcycle is also important to take note of if one intends to change the fre. . . coaches can track their athletes' work capacity progressions over time. #y taking note of the total volume of work done within each microcycle. it's best that they choose one or two compatible goals and focus their overall )5 . they might devote one macrocycle to said goals.icrocycles are also useful for allocating volume so as to help prevent athlete burnout. As with microcycles. Typically. This will provide them a guideline to follow when it comes to work volume. but volume should be dropped to Q@1C of the others preceding it. the volume of overdistance 3compared to their competitive distance4 sprinting would be disproportionately high when compared to the volume of supplementary and general work. . if one wants to see great increases within a given macrocycle. As stated before. +acroc(cle: The macrocycle is the largest unit of training organi%ation and it usually consists of 0-<8 microcycles. the more diffused results they will see. but wants to start training it 0 times per microcycle 3to see faster gains in motor learning4. a macrocycle focused on bringing up their speed endurance would consist largely of specific work.ore specifically. supplementary.uency with which they train. microcycles are more of a monitoring tool than an organi%ational one.

trying to chase two rabbits often results in catching neither.workload on achieving them. at which point they can shift back towards training specifically for their sporting goals. they will see a decrease in speed and power. Wra . )mploying a block of concentrated loading is only for advanced athletes. athletes will see a huge rebound in their physical abilities 3'iff 6 Herkhoshansky..acrocycles can also be applied in such a way as to create something known as long-term delayed training effect 3ATGT)4. : Though the information covered in the efinement chapter is far from comprehensive. If this decrease in speed and power is maintained over a period of <-8 months before volume is dropped substantially and recovery is allowed. but ma$imal performance should dip well below its peak after a week or two and remain their for the duration of the block. The organi%ation of macrocycles relative to one another also has an effect on training. It states that to maintain a skill or . a good rule to keep in mind is the rule of thirds. Guring long periods of intense training 3high levels of intensity and volume4 in which the athlete is not allowed to fully recuperate between sessions.uality takes <IB the volume necessary to improve the skill or . Aike the old saying goes. The unloading block that follows should have a volume roughly @1C of a usual macrocycle to allow for ade. If one is going to try to employ concentrated loading. )ach athlete will need to adjust the numbers to fit themselves.uality. Allocating volume according to this rule will help prevent one from taking too many steps back when shifting focus.uate recovery. it does )) . This increase is known as ATGT). The author advises that one stick with the strengthIhypertrophy macrocycle until gains start to slow down. a reasonable guideline is to increase the volume of the loading block by @1C over the volume of a typical block. *oaches will need to adjust from there. . all volume guidelines are merely suggestions. egardless of the focus of a given macrocycle. Again. but it's a good way to break up a plateau.. it usually helps to implement a macrocycle focused on strength and hypertrophy. <. some athletes find that their performance stops increasing.4. (hen this happens. The process of setting up a macrocycle in which the volume is too high to recover from is known as concentrated loading. After long periods of focusing on specific and supplementary work.

and keeping tabs on individual characteristics over time. )7 .outline the basics of what one will need to devise a successful training plan. one will learn to assign training so easily that it will become second nature. employing a little critical thinking. #y following the guidelines put forth.

) &utrition and #eco'er( Droper training isn't the only factor in the becoming a better athlete. they can alter their intake based on their goals. #y monitoring their daily food intake and seeing how their weight changes. diet and rest are important as well. making sure one's diet and offday schedules are in order is imperative. activity levels. that if it's important. If one is looking to lose body fat. As such. and other metabolic factors. but comprehensive biochemistry will be left to other te$ts. 2aving said that. then eating anywhere from @11-<111 calories less than necessary to maintain weight is a good range. there are no hard and fast rules that apply across the board. they'll need to weigh themselves every morning and keep careful track of e$actly how many calories they take in. Tackling caloric intake first. a little bit of observation is necessary. the needs of athletes vary widely depending on their muscle mass. (hile training applies the stress that causes the body to try and adapt. )ven if one's training is perfect. this is primarily a book on training. it will be covered here. In order to determine one's baseline caloric needs. &nce one has established their baseline caloric e$penditure 3which will change if their weight andIor activity levels change4. diet and recovery allow it to recover from said stress and actually adapt. 4eneral &utrition: In terms of total caloric intake and macronutrient distribution. est assured however. one would take in roughly )* . If looking to gain muscle. as opposed to fat. one can determine their baseline metabolic rate. *utting more calories would result in too fast of weight loss and would most likely result in increased levels of lost muscle. The most basic and most important facets of nutrition and recovery will be covered. insufficient rest and nutrition can wipe out any prospective gains one might incur. To get an idea of how much one needs to eat to maintain their weight.

and has other function too numerous to list. the rest of one's daily calories should come from carbohydrates.B gIkg of bodyweight to maintain positive nitrogen balance 3. *arbohydrates. and (hite. fill in the gap left after covering protein and fat. and studies on strength trained athletes suggest intakes of <.=4. then following the author's elevated intake suggestions is even more strongly advised. .ues than those who eat large amounts of protein. eating too much will: whether that e$cess comes from fat.=4.8-<. which are converted to glucose to be used as energy in anaerobic e$ercise. After calculating the numbers for protein and fat intake. Athletes need to make sure they remain in a positive nitrogen balance. <. eating fats will not make one fat. something most athletes would want to avoid.9 gIkg of bodyweight 3Aemon. 7rontera. 6 )vans. diets in which <@C or less of the total calories from fats have no athletic or health benefits 3American *ollege of 'ports .edicine. If one's intent is to gain muscle mass. 'tudies on endurance trained athletes have resulted in recommended protein intakes of <. meaning <. <. American Gietetic Association.4. but not by nearly as much as caloric intake. The author would suggest a protein intake somewhere in the region of B.@11 calories more than is necessary to maintain their weight.9. 7at is used as an energy source during aerobic e$ercise.B-0. Gespite the bad rap it has gotten.. allows for the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins. meaning their nitrogen intake e$ceeds the amount of nitrogen they e$crete 3#rooks. but would cause an increase in the rate of body fat accumulation as well. or carbohydrates is irrelevant. (hile the upper end of this recommendation is over twice the clinically recommended limit. people who get too many of their calories from fats and carbohydrates tend to have >softer? physi. And for those still interested in low fat diets.@-8 gIlb. proteins. both of these figures are on the low side. The first thing an athlete needs to concern themselves with is protein intake. 81114. is vital in the production of testosterone. It is suggested that one get 81-B1C of their daily calories from fats.acronutrient breakdown also varies on an individual basis. Fackin. Drotein is the building block with which the body rebuilds tissues after they're torn down. but as far as )- . 7ahey. 5ood Choices: The shear variety of foods available to one on a daily basis is mind boggling.eredith. In the author's personal opinion. <.0 gIkg of bodyweight. 6 Gietitions of *anada..E-<. Any greater increase would lead to increased muscle synthesis 3to a point4.

it's definitely out. That's not to say one can't eat these things.athletes 3or people in general. In fact. and if it's wrapped in a bright package. (hen it comes to what one shouldn't eat. The occasional donut or trip to a fast food joint won't 7" . as the human body is an ama%ing machine that can run on nearly anything. or deep fried should be out of the . if it looks like something that one couldn't have eaten <111 years ago. common sense usually prevails. refined. Though food types won't really do that much to affect athletic performance in the short term. it's probably something that one shouldn't be eating now. but the list of foods they shouldn't eat is considerably longer. simple is better.ilk *heese Mogurt #eef Gried #eans *itrus 7ruits Deppers Aeafy -reen Hegetables 7ish &ils 2erring Turkey 7ish Aamb Harious #eans and !uts Aegumes Mams 'weet Dotatoes Avocados &lives &live &il &kra *ollards 'pinach Gried Aentils Aiver 'weet Dotatoes 7ruit 3in general4 *arbohydrates 7ats *alcium Iron Hitamin * Hitamin G 'almon &ther 7atty 7ish The list of foods one should eat is short. no pastries. over the long term. Anything sugary. ingestion of the wrong foods can have health conse. -ood food choices for each of the three macronutrient groups as well foods for particularly important vitamins and minerals are listed below.uestion.uences. +acronutrient@3ita$in@+ineral Drotein 5oods *hicken 3not deep fried4 #eef 3preferably lean4 Dork )ggs (hole -rains Hegetables 7la$ 7atty 7ish )ggs !uts . This means no candy. really4 are concerned.

These benefits include/ lowering blood pressure. #efore moving on to anything other than these. it also happens to be one of the most effective. and even schi%ophrenia 3!arayan. depression. occasional indulgence in junk food might actually help an athlete stay on track mentally. . though not fancy in any way. And people should also be honest with themselves. The consumption of the two fatty acids found in fish oil.iyashita. and effective. cheap. while intakes of @ grams may actually be counterproductive due to e$cessive o$idation effects 3Arnesen 6 71 . &ne should train. In fact. ecommendations vary greatly from source to source. The following supplements are listed in order of importance. protecting against tumors. time by . These supplements. The average high school athlete does not need to spend S<11T per month on fancy supplements to drop their <11.u le$ents: In recent times. If one makes good dietary choices . provide widespread health benefits that are almost too numerous to count. ather than touch on every useful supplement out there. supplementing with fish oil is a true no-brainer. the author would recommend one follow a .<. one should not look at the amount of fish oil consumed. but rather at the amount of )DA and G2A consumed. rest. however. and helping treat psychological disorders such as AG2G. it won't matter if the other <1C are less than perfect. supplementary. 811=4. as found in capsule or li. but studies indicate around B grams of )DA and G2A combined on a daily basis can produce health benefits. ather than try to keep their diet absolutely perfect. !eedless to say.1/<1 rule. is perhaps the single most boring supplement ever created. supplement companies have pushed their products so hard that it might seem like progress is impossible without the latest e$pensive formulation. In terms of dosage. very much so in some cases.1C of the time. 'upplements are just what their name suggests. the author is only going to cover the absolute basics. but they're something one adds in after their diet is in order. eicosapentaenoic acid 3)DA4 and docosahe$aenoic acid 3G2A4. . preventing inflammation. They are effective. and eat according to their level of development. it's advised that one have their training and diet totally under control. are well-studied. 6 2osakawa. 5ish 9il: 'imple fish oil. but nothing could be further from the truth.hurt.uid form. inhibiting atherosclerosis.

but in diets with less variety and poor food choices. This is where protein powder comes in. *.. the most common forms of which are whey and casein. this isn't too much of a concern. it becomes one. having . while casein is digested and absorbed more slowly. goes to school. . #y protein powder. 7or instance. 81<14. these three vitamins are 72 .'eljeflot. this difference in absorption rates makes one protein better than another. Adamidou. has a social life. and so is useful when one needs to go a long time in between meals. 6 5aragiannis. so if one is going to take fish oil then they should also take antio$idants 3vitamin ). 3ita$in C/ 8/ A E: Hitamins * and ) are powerful antio$idants that help prevent cellular damage that occurs from intense e$ercise or dietary intake 3#rooks. jump higher. casein takes longer to digest. he just means protein powder. <. merely to supplement them and fill in any gaps that may occur. ingestion of whey protein immediately after e$ercise leads to higher levels of protein synthesis than casein 3Tang. and (hite.4. In certain cases.=4. Hitamin G is essential in helping prevent cardiovascular disease.uickly.oore. or some combination of the four. 7ahey. cancer.uality food on hand at all times can be difficult. It's not meant to be the primary source of protein. and a number of other problems 3Anagnostis. the author is not referring to weight gainers or other products loaded with e$tra ingredients either. (hey protein is digested and absorbed more . +ulti'ita$ins: egardless of dosage. Their long list of benefits aside. 2owever. In a complete diet. the biochemical properties of )DA and G2A make it prone to o$idation. but is there to replace meat when eating meat is difficult or impossible. but they can also be difficult to carry around even once they're made. trains.4. 811. 81<14. Hitamins are not meant to replace the nutrients from food. 7lorentin. Athyros. !ot only does cooking meals high in protein usually take a bit of time and preparation. 5ujbida. vitamin "ust as boring as fish oil. etc. multivitamins won't directly make one run faster. Tarnopolsky. or hit harder. 6 Dhillips. but they will ensure that one gets the daily minimum of important vitamins and minerals that their diet might otherwise be lacking. 6rotein 6o2der: 7or someone who works.

and have no basis in empirical study 3Doortmans 6 7rancau$. but many people become sleepy after a large meal due to the insulin response. rate of strength gain. Creatine: *reatine monohydrate. !ot only will an e$cessively full stomach put pressure against the diaphragm and make respiration more difficult 3Messis. <111-8111 IJ per day for vitamins G and ). Though e$treme overdosing with vitamins * and ) pose no serious threat.ore realistic dosages would be 8111 mg per day for vitamin *. *reatine consumption is completely safe. The single most important time for the correct administration of nutrition is around training sessions. but eating too much could result in decreased performance as well. the GA outlined by the J' government are far too low. one needs to make sure they have ade. anaerobic work capacity. &utritional Ti$ing: !ot only is getting the correct nutrients necessary for optimal progress. . Along with all of its benefits. it is suggested that one consume a fast digesting protein 3such as whey4 and high glycemic inde$ carbohydrates roughly B1 minutes prior 73 . In order to meet these needs. but getting them at the right time is important too. yet most effective supplements on the market. rumors. is one of the cheapest. anaerobic endurance. but those who have pre-e$isting kidney or liver issues may want to steer clear. often mistakenly associated with steroids even though there is no link between the two. These rumors are just that though. rate of power gain. massive overdosing with vitamin G can lead to overt to$icity and heart disease amongst other problems.14. egarding dosages. and gains in lean mass among many other benefits 35reider. and tired is no way to enter a training session. just in case. 81114. *ommonly suggest loading phases in which up to 81 grams per day are ingested are not necessary. <. creatine also brings rumors of adverse effects on the kidney and liver. especially for athletes. *reatine supplementation has been shown to increase intramuscular creatine stores..uate liver and muscle glycogen stores for energy and protein with which their muscles can rebuild themselves. )ating too little or not at all will result in a lack of both.essential to health and athletes need more of them than other populations. 811B4. *onsumption of @ grams per day is more than enough for any athlete. There are certain periods of the day where ingesting certain types of food are particularly important. Dre-workout.

#efore going to bed. water is an essential part of life. Gehydration may also be an issue. 7ink. <.uired.uate hydration can lead to negatively skewed testosterone to cortisol levels 3. the body will not be able to rebuild itself after its efforts. 811=4. decreased strength. intense workouts involving a high workload and intense perspiration. an athlete would want to consume protein and carbohydrates in a </8 ratio with a minimum meal si%e of B1 grams of protein and =1 grams of carbohydrates along with a liter or more of water. .(dration: Though far from glamorous.4. 'uch a solution allows for greater work output and endurance over the course of the session 3Ivy.uate nutrition. there are two other times of day in which nutrient timing is especially important/ upon waking and before going to bed. but if maintaining thirst is a problem. nothing is really re.uate levels of dietary protein 3preferably fast digesting protein like whey4 as well as causing an insulin response via ingesting large amounts of simple carbohydrates 35umar.. 811. *ostill. despite an almost total lack of activity. the prime concern is making sure muscle protein synthesis e$ceeds muscle protein breakdown. Inade. and (hite. To prevent this.4 and helps to prevent dehydration and keep glycogen levels high without eliciting a large insulin response. Dost-workout nutrition is perhaps the most important. one is preparing themselves to go on an 9 hour fast in which. *asein can be found in supplemental powders as well as in milk and other dairy products. <. Typically speaking. after a hard workout. ingesting a meal consisting largely of slow digesting protein 3such as casein4 can go a long way in maintaining and even building muscle mass. 6 Aower. but for long. one has just undergone an 9 hour fast and their liver is low on glycogen while their blood glucose levels are falling. one would be advised to consume a beverage containing simple sugars and electrolytes. Jpon waking. muscle can be lost. 7or peri-workout nutrition. At this point.aresh et al. #esides around workouts.E. but small enough so that there is no feeling of satiety. sweet sports drinks may be employed 3#rooks.to training. Atherton. the larger their post-workout meal should be. This can be done by providing ade. balanced meal will do the trick nicely. 7ahey. 6 ennie. Dost-workout. A simple. because if the proper nutrients aren't there.=4. higher 7% . )ating immediately upon waking is necessary to ensure optimal functioning. The si%e of the meal should be large enough to provide ade. 'mith. The larger drain the athlete caused in the session. water alone would suffice.

Athletes can easily sweat out multiple liters of water over the course of an intense training session and in order for their bodies to function. . lowered endurance 35raft et al. In terms of actually speeding up recovery between sessions. Intersession methods help speed up recovery between separate training sessions.aking sure one is properly hydrated before.perceived rates of e$ertion. If athletes are reluctant to drink. while intrasession methods work to speed up recovery between work sets inside of a single session. 7or a highly active athlete. one can also speed up physical and mental recovery through a number of restorative methods. consuming roughly 0 liters 3< gallon4 of water per day is a good guideline. that water needs to be replaced. estorative methods can be broken down into two categories/ intersession and intrasession. . #eco'er( +ethods: In addition to applying proper nutritional principles and getting a solid E-9 hours of sleep per night 3the absolute two most important and most effective recovery practices4. and even heat stroke. The following table describes a few intersession methods that genuinely have some value. 81<14. 75 . and after e$ercise is of great importance. very few methods show any real benefits as far as speeding up the restoration of muscle function goes. during.ost methods that are commonly prescribed have no actual effects or are merely placebos. sweet sports beverages during and after workouts work very well to rekindle thirst and rehydrate.

which aids in nutrient transport to damaged muscles. Aeproult. (ater immersion is also very rela$ing. increase blood flow. . 811=4. 6 2ing. but the few that do are simple and fairly effective. it falls under the category of active recovery. .ere immersion in water has been shown to both reduce muscle edema and increase blood blow without any increase in energy e$penditure 3(ilcock.84. tai chi. 'leep disturbance has been shown to alter glucose metabolism and appetite 3'piegel. 6 Ginges. All in all. The length and e$ecution of massage is dependent upon the practitioner. but it should probably be kept to under an hour. 'leep Though it has already been mentioned. but it will not immediately restore function. the importance of sleep cannot be overstated. <.. As long as it involves moving around but isn't causing more fatigue. *ole. and allows athletes mental down time in which to recoup. there aren't a lot of methods that actually work. decrease neural plasticity and learning 3(alker 6 'tickgold. -oodpaster. *ronin. 6 Han *auter. The best water to immerse one's self is near body temperature or colder.assage. (ater Immersion . 7ink. 811@4. cleaning house. As for prescription. All active recovery methods speed up the rate of muscle glycogen resynthesis 3*hoi. <. This includes going for a walk. Geep tissue massage should not be used as a recovery method.. athletes need their sleep. and reduce muscular soreness from e$ercise. as applied by a skilled practitioner..4. as it alone re.uires recovery time. They have also been shown to decrease cortisol levels in stressed individuals 3"in. 81-B1 minutes of easy activity per day while keeping one's heart rate under <81 beats per minute should be ade. increase rela$ation 3measured via parasympathetic nervous activity4.+ethod Active ecovery 8escri tion@6rescri tion Active recovery includes any form of e$ercising that is not physically ta$ing in the least.assage . Intrasession recovery methods help one recover from e$ertion between work sets and allow one to sustain higher levels of output for longer. <. or anything similar. !aps 3<1-B1 minutes4 after training are also beneficial. however it does not affect e$ercise-induced decreases in muscle function 3(eerapong. 2ume. Athletes are advised to go to sleep and wake up at the same time each day and get between E-. #oth of these benefits should lead to an increase in the rate of recovery. 7) .04 and help increase blood flow. 81104. 811@4. #aynard.uate. can decrease muscle stiffness. 81-B1 minutes is typically good for most forms of massage. Guration of immersion is up to the athlete. and reduce cognitive performance 3Han Gongen. 6 5olt. Again..aislin. 6 *ostill. hours per night depending on their personal needs. massage is good at facilitating recovery and making one feel better. In order to perform and recover.

and rela$ing one's muscles aids in the clearing of metabolic waste and speeds up ATD resynthesis. or use their hands to physically shake the individual muscle groups loose. 2owever.+ethod 6rescri tion@8escri tion *old Aaying a cold compress on the abdomen between work sets has been shown to enhance *ompresses performance 3Horobyev. and recover from it all too. proper nutrition is vital in ma$imi%ing their performance. 'imilarly. training is a very ta$ing activity. and trying to rela$ one's muscles can go a long way in recovering between work sets. breathing deeply. eat. and speed up ATD resynthesis. The mechanism through which this works may be an increase in nervous output caused by the fight or flightIsurvival 3sympathetic4 response. Wra . sleep. : Though it's commonly glossed over by a majority of young athletes. &ne can shake the limb itself. regardless of the foods they're received from. deep breathing allows for psychological recovery.uickly as possible. just getting enough calories with the right balance of macronutrients will suffice. In short/ train. if one wants to prevent health problems and keep themselves going over the long run. 77 . -eneral ela$ation Aaying down. Though none of the above methods need be applied 3e$cept for sleep4. train more often. repeat. &ne should not neglect it. Aaying down allows for easier blood flow to clear metabolic waste. increase blood flow. e. train longer. one can train harder. concerning health and performance longevity. half is recovery. If concerned solely with performance. they will greatly enhance the effectiveness of any given training program. The body is put under high levels of stress and e$pected to adapt. #y supplying the body with proper nutrition and helping along it along with recovery methods. . 'haking #y properly applying intersession and intrasession recovery methods. one can ensure they're recovering 3and therefore progressing4 as . getting their nutrients from healthy sources 3as outlined in this chapter4 will go a long way. <. 'imply lying prone and placing an icepack over the solar ple$us for a couple of minutes between sets should do the trick. Training is only one half of the pu%%le.ually important.anually shaking one's limbs and rela$ing their muscles helps relieve tension. The other.E94.

The cerebellum also pre-programs ballistic movements. and even physiological changes such as shifting muscle fiber type 3#acou et al. conscious input decreases and the movement becomes more or less >automatic.hort Ter$: In the short term. but as familiarity with the skill increases cerebral corte$ activity declines and control of the movement is left up to the cerebellum 3. they've probably heard the phase. upon which all movements 3sporting actions included4 are based. there is more conscious input given to performing it 3which is bad. the ability to e$press physical .0 seconds cannot be consciously changed during their performance 3Thomas. movements lasting less than 1. parents.ader. a high level of competency is not possible without repetition. <. >'ports are <1C physical and .? (hile the author wouldn't go that far 3sports are ultimately decided by physical ability4. as conscious input can disrupt the movement4. The implications of the above are that as an ability is being learned.=4. the athlete is said to have entered the %one. skill ac..ualities. At the outset of the learning process large amounts of activity can be seen in the cerebral corte$.? (hen a movement is so well-practiced that an athlete is essentially able to shut off their conscious input and let their subconscious do the work. or sports in general. .uisition. <. nervous system functioning and the mental game play a big role in athletic success. . as the %one represents a merging of action and awareness resulting in a total focus on a single task and the peak of that athlete's performance potential 7* . the nervous system is responsible for movement. The goal of all athletes should be to be able to enter the %one.E14. And like all other skills. are learned just like all other skills.7 The +ind If one has spent enough time around coaches.otor skills. but as proficiency increases.1C mental. and since the functioning of the cerebellum is largely beyond consciousness. 811=4.

811. 811E4. one should strive to stop thinking and instead focus their attention on their body as a whole as well as the rhythm and action of their breaths. and they go about accomplishing this task through mindfulness and meditation. focusing on breathing into the belly rather than into the chest. and on only the instant they're inhabiting. 'u. 6 5ryscio. (hile breathing deeply. &thers however. fight depression. In Fen #uddhism. 6 2uang. lower blood pressure 3Anderson. 6 *okely. specifically meditation.uires is years 3usually a decade or more4 of constant practice with feedback coming from an e$pert 3)ricsson. the common form of mediation is known as Fa%en. and so on until they no longer need to count to keep themselves in the moment. especially if performed following a training session or prior to bed. Though the author wouldn't advise everyone to try and become a Fen master. 7or these people. one needs to find a .14. etc.uieting the chatter of their thoughts and are unable to let their conscious grip slip away. 811. on their breathing. As proficiency increases.4. The path to mastering a skill is fairly straight forward. they can count every other breath.4 are born with the ability to >let go? and allow their mind and body to sync up harmoniously. and then every fourth. 'imple enough.4. <. 'ome people 3talented athletes. 81-B1 minutes per day of this can go a long ways. practitioners focus on doing away with all interfering thoughts and focusing solely on the moment.uiet area and seat themselves comfortably. musicians..3*sik%entmihalyi. Though the author does not necessarily believe in or condone all of the teachings of Fen #uddhism. In order to enter the %one. but it can also reduce physical and mental stress 3Mang. Fen #uddhists have the goal of living entirely in the moment. In order to help one's self focus. and breathe deeply through the nose. and even combat substance abuse 3*hiesa 6 'erretti. one must have mastered their skill and must also be able to >let go? mentally and give themselves over fully to the moment. one needs to close their eyes. 7- . he would suggest that athletes employ meditation in their daily routine. have difficult . In order to meditate. artists. the head slightly bowed. 81194. Aiu. and the hands in the lap. Among many other practices. All it re. In Fa%en. They focus on their body. he does like its focus on being in the moment. special training means are necessary. rela$ their body. on the other hand. Drietula. 5eeping the back straight. is a little bit more difficult. !ot only can it help remove e$cess interference in athletics and everyday life. and then every third. right+ Aetting go. they can count each breath.

'cattered throughout the various regions of the brain are a type of cell known as mirror neurons. Though the neuroscience in support of this concept is relatively new. and visuali%ing their goals for decades. If one performs these actions before every. the athletes will come to associate these cues with the upcoming work. it's no stretch to assume that athletic performance is the same.irror neurons fire both when performing a movement as well as when watching another e$ecute said movement 3 i%%olatti.. 2inson. then come competition time. even if they are at a different venue. preferably4. both immediately prior to actually performing them and at odd times *" . or even most working sets. they may find their performance is flat. 7adiga.? or something similar.editation aside.984. 6 7ogassi. 811B4. motor learning is also somewhat state-dependent. social. then they would probably be interested to know that even things like drug tolerance and withdrawal can be classically conditioned 3'iegal. especially as it relates to refle$es. 7or this reason. Athletes should also take time to . athletes have been watching other athletes. it's important that if one trains in one specific setting 3the same place. it's thought humans can learn movements merely by watching. or purely cognitive in nature.=4. In this way.. *ontinuing with the topic of motor learning. and the cues will signal the mind and body to prepare itself for the intense physical activity yet to come. If they aren't. and their body and mind will prepare itself for action. but watch others 3with good form4 do the same. the athlete will be able to repeat their procedure as usual. but they can also learn by watching or even thinking about them. watching game film. 6 . In time. with the same people. The cue can be something as simple as taking three deep breaths and mentally stating. This >setting? can be environmental. 7rom here. In order to prevent a loss of performance when competing in a new venue. it is suggested that athletes develop easily replicable cues that they perform prior to engaging in training 3before each set. -allese. This is a basic e$ample of classical 3Davlovian4 conditioning in action. efle$es reinforced or e$tinguished in one setting will not necessarily display the same level of conditioning in other settings 3'iff. or even visuali%ing them. 5rank. in the same mental state4 they're able to replicate most of the factors when it comes time for competition.uietly think and visuali%e themselves performing their sporting movements. >Aet's do it.c*ully. If one wants to perfect their sporting skill they should not only perform it with regularity. If one doubts the effects of conditioning on sports performance. it's a given that people learn through performing actions. . <. <.

811@4. As with actual training. even unconsciously. increased psychological arousal has been shown to increase both strength and power production 3(einberg. &n a session to session basis. concrete goal to strive for also helps performance 37ord et al. they can be as simple as >be fast. definite goals and competition can cause some athletes to try too hard. "ackson. It's also important to only watch those with good form as well as picture one's self performing with optimal form so as to ensure proper recruitment patterns are reinforced. #oth can be combined with visuali%ation e$ercises in which one pictures themselves performing the work set or movement perfectly at high intensity. rela$ed. and actually wreck their performance. a stopwatch to deliver a time. 6 'eaboune. 81114. 2owever. if an athlete has enough on their mind already. It's difficult to judge the true intensity of a performance without a finish line to cross. <. <.? or >. it is important that the administration of self talk or instruction be limited by the capacity of individual athletes as performance will decrease if the attention demands of a task e$ceed the attention capacity of an athlete 3'chmidt 6 (risberg. including input from as many senses as one can manage. 7inally. As with instructional and self talk applications however. Instruction can focus on recruiting certain muscle groups or hitting certain positions in a given movement. 811B4. 'elf talk can increase arousal levels. athletes may. can have similar benefits.B: 'iff. and even alter muscle tone. 811@4 via mental mechanisms and form alterations. be powerful. In other words.uency will result in faster gains.ues are used. having someone perform alongside of them.? or anything relevant to the task. the more impact they will have. or a hurdle to leap. don't add to it with arousal techni. fre. perhaps even at an intensity higher than they're capable of. it's important that athletes have a definite goal to strive for in order to ma$imi%e their performance. If self talk techni. Iredale. An effective way to increase psychological arousal for athletes is to use self talk or instructional training.9@: Tod.c-uigan. 7or this reason.throughout the day.. As such. end up not giving full effort. . change relative muscle contributions. but there is a point of diminishing returns. *1 . loose. the more realistic one's visuali%ations.uick. the mind can play a large role in determining ma$imal performance levels. 6 -ill. 7or instance. it's important to make the visuali%ations as realistic as possible. e$cessively alter their forms. 'trange.ues. *ompetition. Again. 2aving a visible. #oth decades of cumulative e$perience as well as literature support the use of visuali%ation in increasing sporting skill 3Aiggett 6 2amada.

the need for belonging.5nowing which mental techni. In his hierarchy of needs. e$pertise is gained through deliberate practice. to push their limits. This means that it's not enough to put in an intense training session here or there. Giscipline.otivation to obtain these is necessarily high as the lack of any one of them will result in death. . . In chess. . air and sleep. to eat healthy. 'trengthening tissues and refining proper motor patterns to a level satisfactory for elite sporting competition takes a lot of practice over a long time. and just plain difficult is something few are born with. If one wants to fit in with a group. Gepending on the perceived importance of the goal. This is one e$ample of where coaching can be more of an art than a science and it takes e$perience to know who will respond best to what. motivation levels will differ. Drietula. business. Anyone can work themselves hard a hand full of times. cannot e$ist without motivation. the path isn't a short one. #ut those who make it in the end. chief amongst which is discipline 3)ricsson.=4 outlines a number of needs in order of their typical importance 3from most to least4/ physiological needs. costly. they'll never reach their full potential. they'll be motivated to get food. however. is not enough for most to reach the highest levels of mastery. music. and virtually all other fields.uires not just practice. they might be motivated to change the way they dress. water. #ecoming an e$pert usually takes at least a decade. the need for esteem. safety needs. who push themselves. and depending on one's area of interest. but intense practice in which one constantly challenges their limits and operates outside of their comfort %one.. act. If one is hungry. but ordinary practice. or to do whatever it happens to take to achieve their goals. but to do so consistently for years on end. those who persevere. :ong Ter$: ome wasn't built in a day and neither are athletes. athletics. 811E4. but it's the ability to do so for years or even decades that sets the truly great apart. )ven then. The ability to consistently make one's self do things that are uncomfortable. can take considerably longer. and perfect their skills. eat right.aslow 3<. 6 *okely. To become an e$pert in a given field re. 'afety *2 . and the need for self-actuali%ation.ues to apply to which athletes and when comes down to knowing one's athletes and understanding their mental states. Dhysiological needs include food. even over time. and who ultimately succeed all share a few common traits. and talk. If one doesn't have the discipline to make themselves train nearly every day.otivation is the drive to complete a goal. they'll be motivated to train hard. And if one wants to become a great athlete.

valuable. the first step to building motivation 3and discipline4 is making sure that the four most important needs in the hierarchy are met. or whatever. 'elf-actuali%ation is the need to fulfill one's potential and become the best they can possibly be. The need for esteem includes the need to be seen as and to feel competent. egardless. This is the fourth most important need along the hierarchy. &nce one has a good support system. #ecoming a great athlete falls under self-actuali%ation. . and is in no danger of dying from one thing or another. these are what people seek out ne$t. there's the need for self-actuali%ation. they can focus on fulfilling self-actuali%ation with no pressing distractions. After food.aslow 3<.needs include shelter and protection from danger. more important. it's hard to focus on selfactuali%ation when other. and worthwhile. self-esteem. regardless of whether that's a family. people then need to be a part of something larger than themselves. There are e$ceptions however. and as such. church. And finally. team. the motivation to accomplish the goal will usually 3in most people4 be weaker than the motivation to achieve the goals beneath it on the pyramid. group. After their survival and safety are taken care of.9E4 identified <@ characteristics that self-actuali%ing people shared. These characteristics include/ *3 . The need for belonging is the basic need people display to be part of groups. the starving artist who forgoes food and lives in poverty in order to e$press himself being one of them. needs are unmet. As such.

*onse. such as race. is e$perienced as if for the first time. and even how to interact with each other. they are able to detect the deceitful and the fake. no matter how common. 'elf-actuali%ers do not think such jokes are funny. make mistakes and have frailties. as part of life. They accept natural events.ost humor is an attempt to make fun of a perceived inferiority of a person or a group of people. They often appear different from and act different from the crowd. even of ordinary things. rather than simply doing something for the goals the activity can fulfill. 8ee ties 2ith relati'el( fe2 eo le: Although they care deeply about others. Table Taken from Aarsen 6 #uss 381194 3> %> 5> )> 7> *> -> 1"> 11> 12> 13> 1%> 15> Though some are born with the characteristics listed above. religion. Affinit( for solitude: They are comfortable with being alone. how to dress. ontaneit(: Their behavior is marked by simplicity and honest naturalness. They appreciate the ordinary and find pleasure and awe in the mundane.? They are special e$periences that appear to be very meaningful to the person who has one. They trust their impulses. they have relatively few very good friends. se$.? for which every event. !nde endence fro$ culture and en'iron$ent: They do not go in for fads. they can and need to be consciously developed in most. and they accept this fact. #y attempting to emulate the characteristics above. 'elf-actuali%ers remain detached from culture-bound rules. They are more likely to be creative because of their fresh perceptions. Creati'it(: *reativity can be thought of as the ability to see connections between things U connections that no one else has seen before. *% . as the characteristics lend themselves to being able to focus on and accomplish tasks with minimal e$ternal and internal interference.uently. They prefer to follow their self-determined interests. and vision. 4enuine desire to hel the hu$an race: All self-actuali%ers tend to have a deep and sincere caring for their fellow humans. 8e$ocratic 'alues: They respect and value all people and are not prejudiced in terms of holding stereotypes about people based on superficial characteristics. They do not put on airs or strain to create an effect. one can put themselves in a better position to accomplish their goals. and age. what they find funny are e$amples of human foolishness in general. . including themselves. They treat others as individuals. Continued freshness of a reciation: They have a >beginner's mind. sometimes called the >oceanic feeling. +ore fre7uent eak ex eriences: A peak e$perience is a momentary feeling of e$treme wonder. Acce tance of the$sel'es/ others/ and nature or fate: They reali%e that people. not as members of groups. They tend to prefer privacy and allow only a select few people to really know them. Instead. even disasters. Abilit( to discri$inate bet2een $eans and ends: They enjoy doing something for its own sake. 6roble$1focus: They have an interest in the larger philosophical and ethical problems of their times.1> 2> Efficient erce tion of realit(: They do not let their own wishes and desires color their perceptions. #esistance to enculturation: *ultures tell us how to behave. 6hiloso hical sense of hu$or: . awe. Detty issues hold little interest for them.

uite a few athletes really dislike weight *5 . This. because while friendships and failures may cause a slowing of progress in the short term. there are plenty of strategies for building and maintaining motivation for one's athletic goals. and to help them continue to do so. but not all of them love the training that might go into it. the benefits of enjoying one's training are obvious. The most effective goals are those that are concrete. and start over. &nce the lower needs are fulfilled. 7or a sprinter whose end goal is to run P<1 seconds in the <11 meter dash. raise the bar a little higher. &bviously. some people end up neglecting or alienating those close to them or they may be so focused on perfection 3an impossible goal4 that they end up getting down on themselves or losing self esteem. belonging. In addition to the goals being concrete. and even safety in order to pursue it. and achievable. 81184. or maybe a great athlete. #ono. their goal is to become a better. virtually nobody likes long sprints in practice and . or refining their body composition. however. one makes themselves accountable. jumping further or higher in certain drills. which in itself will provide e$tra motivation. the more motivation they'll have to complete it.@1. ather than just state that one wants to be a great athlete. Assuming it does. #y telling others. &nce they meet those goals. (hile some people can and do put self-actuali%ation further down the pyramid. Thoreson. 811<4. 7or instance. 6 Datton. &ne would e$pect this to generali%e over to other tasks 3training4. high. and realistic 3Aocke 6 Aatham. they're necessary for support and learning in the long term.In the pursuit of self-actuali%ation. most are unable to function this way and need to keep their baser needs fulfilled. they need to sit down and identify the steps necessary to reach the end goal. The ne$t step is breaking down the steps necessary to achieve each of the aforementioned steps. The more important one judges a goal to be. These things should be avoided at all costs. they can reassess. they also need to be taken seriously and judged to be worth the effort 3Aocke 6 Aatham. To show that one takes a goal seriously. one of the best strategies is to inform others about it. it's just a matter of taking things one small goal at a time. . people tend to perform tasks 3jobs specifically4 better and more often when they enjoy them 3"udge. their first goal might be to run P<<.ost athletes love their sports. In addition to proper goal-setting. 7rom there. The first step in building motivation is having a goal for it to apply to. high. such as getting stronger in select lifts. In order to do that they may set up mini-goals. is vague. if one is reading this book. The importance of thinking the goal is worthwhile is self e$planatory. 'ome people care about their self-actuali%ation so much that they forsake their esteem. 81184.

it's a reinforcer. einforcement involves the delivery of a reinforcer after the performance of a desired behavior. Another thing that also works well for some is keeping a training journal. If an athlete can get the reinforcer any time they want. and is delivered only after the behavior is performed. it needs a few key characteristics. 811=4.training. A reinforcer is any event that increases the rate of a behavior and is delivered only after a behavior is performed 3. especially if they've just set a new personal best. 7or one. getting to listen to music. or any small item that one wants. words of approval or praise 3from one's self or others4. it can't be readily available.4. The effect can be magnified by keeping a journal online where others can view it. but to those viewing their journal as well. especially for failing to perform the desired behavior. In simpler terms.uency of certain behaviors.ual however. the athlete is not only accountable to themselves. one can also use operant 3'kinnerian4 conditioning to help themselves learn to like various aspects of training. the reinforcer works best if it's delivered immediately after the performance. the better. Through the use of reinforcement. This way. Two. The reinforcer can be anything from a coach's word of approval.uently. *ommon reinforcers include/ tasty food. they can make sure they work hard *) . but wanted to increase their willingness to perform 011 meter sprints more fre. to a tick mark in a journal. the mere act of filling out one's training journal. The smaller the gap in time between the performance of the behavior and the delivery of the reinforcement.uire it for doing other things. The operant conditioning procedure used is called reinforcement. !ot all reinforcers are e. to getting to listen to their I-pod for the remainder of the session. one can drastically increase the fre. As long as it motivates the athlete to perform the behavior. In order to ensure that proper training is applied even if discipline might be lacking. a new song for one's . to a cookie. eating right.DB player. To make sure that a reinforcer is as effective as possible. they probably won't be motivated to work for it. And the third thing is that the reinforcer should only be delivered after the performance of that one behavior. If one holds themselves responsible enough. one should try to get themselves to like training and all of its components 3resting. They should not be able to ac. and thus is less likely to get done.iller. if one doesn't like running 011 meter sprints. and by applying this carefully to one's sports training. or to make things easier even if the discipline is present. #esides just thinking positively about the actions. performing these tasks takes more discipline. acts as a reinforcer. etc. they could reward themselves with a reinforcer after each time they run one. 7or them.

and keep their attention where it needs to be/ on the big picture. it's important to use them sparingly. while others struggle with the habit for years. 811 meter sprint repeats are hard. A final long term psychological tool that can be applied is the occasional use of particularly hard sessions to put things into perspective. but they should have a basic grasp on anatomy. 7ree will is an ama%ing gift. These sessions are meant to be physically and mentally draining. the massive volumes involved and the fatigue they generate will lead to a breakdown in form. producing e$treme soreness. 'till. 'imilarly. &ne needs to be careful that they don't focus too much on the minutia however.uats can be difficult. regardless of what it is. but 0 sets of = reps will seem a lot easier after one does a cra%y session like <1 sets of <1 reps or @ sets of 81 reps. but 011 meter sprint repeats are even harder. once every few months or so just to remind the athletes what real hard work is. 2owever. their mental benefits outweigh any physical damage they may do. (hat makes some people be able to kick smoking on a whim. the author believes that people should understand what they're doing and why. Though it probably isn't necessary. 7or *7 .and stay on the right track. as too great of a breakdown can result in injury. Athletes should strive to understand the specifics of their sporting movements to help them perform optimally. vomiting. though it's not really a tool or practice. *oaches and athletes need to be careful here. the author believes strongly in athlete education. Those with more will power are able to more easily make and stick with difficult decisions. and there's no reason not to incorporate it into a plan. And last but not least. These type of sessions may actually be physically counterproductive. but some people use it in a far more directed manner. physiology. but why is one man strong enough to make his choice and stick with it while the other waffles and eventually gives in+ Inborn affinities aside. -etting one's self to do heavy back s. and sports science in general. and generally tearing an athlete down. A final word of warning. the answer is their varying strength of will. The same goes for biomechanics. This doesn't mean every athlete needs to know how their bodies function down to a cellular level. and in some cases may even be counterproductive. einforcement is a valuable tool for building and maintaining motivation. if not decades+ #oth have the choice. one should seek to cultivate a strong mind as well. It's also important that they're kept away from important competitions and that the athletes are given plenty of time to recuperate afterwards. 8ecision +aking: #esides cultivating a strong body.

those without this ability. they can always become stronger through repetition and overload. And just like some people are born stronger than their peers physically. people can build up their capacity to make even harder ones in the future. 'ome decisions are harder than others to make and stick to. . not just in athletics. some are born stronger than their peers in terms of will power. ** . then they need to start developing the ability to use their will power as soon as possible.uch like strength. 'till. &ne can think of making a decision as comparable to lifting a weight. #y working to build not just the mind. just as some weights are heavier and harder to lift. Aike most other tasks in life. #y making gradually more difficult decisions over time. there is hope. (hile it's true that some athletes are so prodigiously talented that they can dominate in their given sport without any consideration given to their mind. but in life. but the body as well. one can develop a well rounded athlete capable of pushing themselves are hard as they need to while simultaneously being able to keep their wits about them. If one wants to reach their full potential. will power is something that can be trained and has plenty of room for improvement. Wra . It's something that people learn and reinforce through practice. making hard decisions and then not going back on them is a skill. : 'ince the physical development of great athletes is so prominent. most need the focus and work ethic that proper psychological practices can instill. yet to do so would be a big mistake. it can be easy to overlook the mental aspect of sports and training. The same goes for making decisions and seeing them through. no matter how strong one is born.

and Telle% 3<. (ard. . and their level of competition. so one should see them as ultimate goals and should not get depressed about falling short of them. like sport form. "ust because one doesn't meet them doesn't mean they can't be great at the sport the standards are written for. their skill. Testing procedures will also be covered in this chapter. eed Athlete .uires depends on their sport. but in most cases. more is better. The following chapter will cover performance standards for a number of strength and power sports.tandards: The following standards have been pulled from booksIarticles written by high level coaches as well as sports teams' testing criteria and results. . some people will need to e$ceed the standards if they want to have any hope of competing at the highest levels.* . *- . !umbers indicated in the table are one rep ma$imums relative to bodyweight.uire e$tremely high levels of physical ability. 5eep in mind however.B times their bodyweight in a given lift. need an e$pert's eye to be properly assessed. )$actly how much physical ability one re. These numbers are for the best of the best speed and power athletes. high level competitive sports usually re.B? means the athlete can lift a ma$ of <. these standards are for or are set by professional athletes. but there are some tests that are easy to learn and apply for everyone. that these standards are merely guidelines. so ><.tandards: The following strength standards were outlined for world class speed athletes by Gintiman. 'ome things.. Again. &ne should keep that in mind while reading. And on the opposite side of the coin.tandards and Testing Though in the end it all comes down to how well one performs on the field.E4.

B <.@ <. This makes the times roughly 1..< <.91 seconds 1.a$ 3times bodyweight4 *lean .@ <.9 <. Test B1.@ meters 8.@ 1.7uat <.7uat <.@? and >8.@ Bench 6ress +ilitar( 6ress 1. 7ly 'print 3B1. This may make the speed numbers seem a little low for athletes on the -" .= 8. In the interest of saving space.@ 5ront ..1 8.natch 1.uats.E <1.< <. 8.1 <..9 seconds <@.= <..B meters B.:e'el Hery Door Door Average -ood )$cellent .B Clean 1. 8. 7urther speed and power standards for world class long jumpers were outlined in the J'AT7's >7undamentals of the Aong "ump? 3811.0 seconds <0. )ach event has a score from @1-<11 by ones.8 seconds B.E 1.E 5ull .0 1.@ 8.= <. seconds B. <. It should be noted that the sprint times are measured by running through two lasers with a < meter fly-in %one before the first one. eed and 6o2er Athlete .0 <.uat .0 seconds <@.9= seconds B.0 <.E 8. 'print 37AT4 #anking Average -ood )lite Average -ood )lite Average -ood )lite Average -ood )lite Average -ood )lite Average -ood )lite #esult B.9 <.= 1.@ seconds faster than if fully automatic timing were used.B <.. seconds 1.1? on 7ull '..= <...tandards: The upcoming numbers are from the J' #obsled 6 'keleton 7ederation's combine scoring table 3811..E seconds 1. <..@ 8.a$ 3times bodyweight4 .1 8eadlift <.8 <. and Geadlifts are not a typo.< 8.8 VThe repeating >8.1 1.4. 7ront '. the author is only going to list the standards for . accel4 <@1.uats.4.1 8. 'print 32T4 #road "ump 7ull '.< <.0 meters B.8 <.B <.1 and <11 points.

comparison.uestionable in some. but are composites of the top @ scores in each position. if not most. 7or a more accurate vertical leap 8< reps 80 reps B< reps BE reps 6ure 6o2er Athletes: The following are reported stats for some of the best shot putters in history. Hertical leaps are also measured in an inefficient way.hot Toss 5ull .. If one could e.@1 seconds =.7uat Clean <9.<= meters 9.=1 seconds 0.0< seconds 0. rint B.uats may be . rint =. 7ew if any of the numbers are verified. -1 . cases.1 seconds B. the following chart will include the average of the top @ scores in the 81<1 combine for the listed positions.E1 seconds 3"+ 5l( . rint 8. the numbers given below are not for one man. then by all means..B .@@ seconds B. 6oints <11 . so take them all with a grain of salt. as far as the author is concerned they seem reasonable.lighter side.'0? Bench 6ress =225 lbs> each is measured with two hands and the athlete is then allowed to jump and reach with one.1B seconds Broad <u$ B. 01 yard dashes are essentially hand times so there may be some inconsistencies. Again..1 3"+ .0E seconds 0. the annual !7A combine provides a great deal of information about what world class athletes are capable of.B@ meters B.=9 seconds )"+ .ual all of these numbers and is the correct si%e for the position..1 meters 811 kilograms <@1 kilograms $ B reps $ < rep <=.1 meters <E@ kilograms <B1 kilograms $ B reps $ < rep Though there's no scoring system.@? Broad <u$ <1'9? <1'8? <1'<? . &ne can compare themselves to players of different positions based upon their own si%e. seconds 3ertical :ea 01? B. though the depth on the s.@? 01? BB. but they are meant to apply to people in the neighborhood of 811-801 lbs. 'till. one should subtract B? from the vertical leap scores given below. they should probably be in the !7A or at least working their way there. 6osition *ornerback unning #ack Ainebacker &ffensive Aine %" Bard 8ash 0. In order to keep things simple. egarding the measurements used.

more powerful. 6 Daasuke.illet. They're reliable regardless of bodyweight and can be compared to one another to get an idea of what's going on with one's training as a whole.uena. while testing is not necessary. abilities which most team sports re.eight ='0? ='=? ='8? =' ='<? Weight 8=8 lbs 8E9 lbs B1= lbs 8. de Hillarreal. 811."4 is a great test of overall lower body power. 2owever. And best of all.hot 6ut E@'9? E0'E. Indicators are usually simple or familiar in nature and involve displays of power rather than strength.1 lbs @81 lbs 01@ lbs Bench 6ress 1#+ @@1 lbs @<9 lbs @E@ lbs =B9 lbs B@1 lbs Testing: As stated earlier in the chapter. )reline. (ith the way training works.4.7uat 1#+ Clean 1#+ 91@ lbs E=< lbs 9@1 lbs 991 lbs E01 lbs 09@ lbs 0@8 lbs 0. -apeyeva. Gue to it's more . they're simple to apply. The following are a few of the author's favorite indicators. Indicators are general movements that allow for the easy measurement of one or more . it can be helpful. or more reactive+ This is where indicators come in. 'ome lifts might be going up while others are going down and all the while one's bodyweight might be fluctuating too. 2ow does one know if they got stronger. As such. 3ertical :ea : The vertical leap 3also known as the countermovement jump or *. 81<14.uire. compare.'<1? <1' <<' .@? EB'<? E8'<.uad-dominant nature 32ubley 6 (ells." as -2 . decelerate 3-irard 6 .E@? =.9B4. and get results from.'B? 3ertical :ea B=? B@? B8? BB? B9? Broad <u$ <<'8? <<'8? . the vertical leap is a good predictor of the ability to change direction. and accelerate 3 e. (hile limb length and tendon attachment point differences mean that it's hard to use the *. -arcia. having tests and indicators can help to guide one's training and allow for the measurement of progress when not in season. or whatever.ualities. sometimes it can be difficult to determine if one is actually improving. <. court. the ultimate test is how well an athlete performs on the field.&a$e Jlf Timmerman (erner -unther 'ergei 'mirnov -reg Tafralis Andy #loom .@ lbs 8=@ lbs . track.

in the case of this particular chart. 'print coach 7rank Gick has a chart in which he correlates standing triple jumps to sprint speed. 2owever. left. tendon insertion points. tendon attachment points.uadriceps and far more on the hip e$tensors 3 obertson 6 7leming. right. As with the *. The drop height from which the depth jump is performed is dependent upon the ability of the athlete being tested. but there is far less emphasis on the . <. The 'A" is a good predictor of overall lower body power. Aimb lengths. 811.9E4.uads and plantar fle$ors. Athletes should use the bo$ that allows them to rebound highest. It's a test of mostly hip and plantar fle$or power that relies more on reactivity and is therefore more applicable to sprint speed.a predictor of ability between athletes 3unless their anthropometry is very similar4. it can be used by individuals to track progress over time. so the 'A" should not be used as a predictor of ability between athletes 3unless their anthropometry is very similar4."." when height is accounted for. #ayrak. Broad <u$ : The broad jump 3also known as standing long jump or 'A"4 is a test of lower body hip power. The standard number of bounds per set is three and athletes can choose to go either right. Also. but is a better predictor of early acceleration ability than the *. 8e th <u$ : The depth jump is another good test of general lower body power with a larger focus on the . It's similar to the vertical leap. but it can be used to track individuals' progress over time. 8119: 5ale. so does sprinting ability." largely tests voluntary concentric strength. whereas the *.4. right or left. The following numbers are supposed to correlate for speed athletes only. limb lengths. Asci. Acikada. and height play significant roles in determining performance. left depending on their preference. 'trength athletes may be able to -3 . and skill at the movement all affect the outcome. the depth jump can provide a measure of reactive strength as well.". Bounding: #ounding from a stand still is to the 'A" roughly what the depth jump is to the *. as with trying to use any non-specific task to predict ability in between individuals." 3#issas 6 2avenetidis. This allows it to more accurately predict sprint performance than the *. it does not accurately apply to all populations.

<1 E. and so if one meets them they're probably doing alright for themselves. and calves.bound. 'I 3*.E1-<<. the greater reactivity one has in their glutes. : The standards listed in this section are for the best of the best. A D* 'I of B or above indicates e$ceptional reactivity.81-<1. It's not even necessary that one be good at any of the tests.E1 <<.81-E. measurements are heavily dependent upon the . (ay two is by subtracting one's countermovement jump height from their ma$imum depth jump rebound height.01 #eacti'e .uads and calves..81 .91 =. they will not be able to run as fast." U '"4 has been shown to be a good predictor of late acceleration.<1 <<. 'I Wra . 6osterior Chain #eacti'e . 81194. And as for the tests. Gespite it's relation to sprinting speed however.<1 E. reactivity.. the more reactive the athlete is. (ay one is by subtracting one's s. they can provide useful feedback when -% .=@ <1. 6roCected 1""+ Ti$e =seconds> <1.B1-<8.91-E.trength !ndex: A posterior chain reactive strength inde$ 3D* 'I4 can be calculated by recording a best broad jump score and then a best standing triple jumping score..trength !ndex: eactive strength inde$ 3 'I4 can be calculated in two ways. The higher their 'I numbers. top speed.@1-. and structure of a sprinter.@1-9.ualities. That is not a typo.E1 <8. hamstrings. The higher the number. 'till. There is some overlap in the jump scores.81 <8. they're just useful tools to help coaches keep track of progress across various strength .91-<B.81-<1. but without the skill.91-<8.1-9.uat jump 3a jump without a countermovement4 height from their countermovement jump height.tanding Tri le <u$ =$eters> .11 9. 'I indicates how much one is able to take advantage of their stretch refle$ and reactive ability. and speed endurance 3'mirniotou et al.@1 E.81-<<. as long as they're good come game time. &ne then needs to divide the standing triple jump score by their broad jump score.

It is recommended that coaches test their athletes and develop their own standards and testing scores over time.competition isn't an option. 5eeping detailed logs of all players under their care over time will help immensely in this task. -5 .

The thick soles and elevated heels of most modern day athletic shoes prevent optimal movement patterns. though of course. as do the slightly more unorthodo$ Hibram @ 7ingers fitted shoe. Those running barefoot have shorter stride lengths when compared to shod runners. This can e$plain the high incidence of impact-related injuries sustained by runners and other athletes annually. the less shoe there is and the thinner and flatter its sole. Jnshod or minimally shod runners tend to land on their forefoot or midfoot when running.uite fit into the previous eight chapters. is a catch-all for everything that didn't . over time. but the elevated heels and cushioning systems lead to altered gait patterns. and therefore both performance and health. 7orefoot or midfoot running results in much lower impact forces than heelstriking. but make up for it with lower impact forces and shorter contact times 3'. !ot only do the infle$ible soles prevent the muscles of the feet from performing their job.4. This can largely be attributed to the lack of over-striding that appears in heelstriking runners. it will all still be training-related. In an attempt to outsell their competition. To promote optimal foot function. aised heels should be avoided at all costs. 811. The things covered truly are miscellaneous in nature and include a broad range of categories. As a rule of thumb. the better. while those in modern shoes heelstrike 3come down on their heels first4 3Aieberman et al.uadrone 6 -allo%%i. shoe companies have devised all manner of fancy cushioning systems which. but other factors as well. have become e$cessive to the point of becoming performance detriments. the author would suggest minimalistic shoes while training. -oing barefoot -) .+iscellaneous *hapter . 81<14. 7ootwear not only changes impact forces and touchdown mechanics. regardless of footwear. 5oot2ear: 7ootwear is a big problem area amongst the athletic population. 'pikeless cross country waffles work very well.

but plain old barbells with metal plates. it's probably better to keep one's shoes on if at all in doubt. the most important piece of e. As such. . and with a little ingenuity. all one really re. or even s. and other furnishings that can easily be used for shock training or other drills. but they come with chairs. but again. in order of importance. The most important e. one's environment and improvising from there. the chance of injury can be high.uat rack.uires is a basic barbell and enough plates to provide loading. 'o simply. they're not necessary.uipment that they can have at their disposal is a flat. and anything else they could want to do. open area in which to sprint. one needs to be careful to ease themselves into it. even more can be thought up. nothing could be further from the truth. #eyond that. This includes fields. In order to get a great strength training workout. jump.uipment is actually the simplest and cheapest and most of it can be found for free. &ne stray piece of glass can ruin months of training. cut. It takes time for the body to adapt to the new loading patterns caused by the drastic changes in footstrike and if one neglects to reduce either the volume or intensity of their training. but there's the fear of ha%ards hidden in the grass or on the track.uipment one needs. Thankfully. E7ui $ent: (ith the number of fancy fitness gadgets peddled on TH or in maga%ines and the vast e$panse of speciali%ed machines covering nearly every gym floor. all the e. it's just a matter of using what's available in . it's easy to start thinking that one needs e$otic e. but even they're not really that important. Gumbbells also have their place. As far as sportsmen are concerned. and are the third and final important >must have? as far as weights are concerned. The range of e$ercises a barbell allows one to perform is staggering. especially for those on a budget 3the author included4. while they allow one to perform several beneficial movements with some degree of safety. or even long hallways. a s.achines and the like are strictly unnecessary. basketball courts.uipment to succeed. bleachers. is/ -7 eally. the other thing sportsmen really benefit from is access to weights. #eyond having open space in which to move.uat stands would be useful. !ot only are most of these areas readily available and free to access. tracks. (hile making the transition from shod to unshod 3or less shod4.works the best of all. !ot single-use machines or gimmicky contraptions.

uired for this project are/ 11 table sa2 11 o2er drill 2ith 1 1@%D 2ood boring bit A hilli s head scre2dri'er bit 11% 2x*s 11) #TA2E rigid tie angle connectors 3or similar design4 12ood glue 1cla$ s or 'ises 12ood scre2s 12 1x3)D black i es % 1x)D black i es 2 1x1D black i e -" degree elbo2s % 1D gal'ani?ed floor flanges &nce the materials are ac. head down to their local hardware store. a power drill with a few bits. patience. wooden racks can not be stored outside. and build themselves a rack.1A flat/ o en area in 2hich to run/ Cu$ / and train0 1A barbell 2ith enough lates0 1A s7uat rack 18u$bbells =loadable so si?e is ne'er a roble$> (hile one pretty much has to find an open area and has to purchase weights. and plumbing supplies. And just as a note. Jsing only a table saw. all one needs is some open space. 8$9s. "ust as a note though. The materials re. and at a much cheaper cost than picking up a finished product at a store. before one gets all e$cited and goes to buy supplies. sturdy rack capable of supporting more than enough weight to keep them in business for years. clamps. and for most people. -* . wood glue. the dimensions of the rack can be modified as space limitations necessitate. and a lot of elbow grease. the author would suggest that one take matters into their own hands. 'o unless one has room inside for a homemade rack. screws. 'o instead. one can build themselves a long lasting. Durchasing an adjustable rack with safety catches can run from @11 to a few thousand dollars.uired. they should stick with one made from metal.uat rack doesn't necessarily have to come from a store. common brackets. this is well out of their price range. a s.

epeat three times. -- . Mou will end up with four separate pieces. !ot everyone has such high ceilings at their disposal. (ood glue and clamp the B' pieces together and the @' pieces together. 'tep 8/ Take one 8$9 and cut it into a @' length and a B' length. epeat three times.The rack in it's current form is around 9. 'ecure them together with clamps and allow to dry.@' tall. !ow for the instructions/ 'tep </ Aiberally apply wood glue to one flat side of a 8$9 and then stack another 8$9 on top of it. Mou will end up with 0 separate pieces.

1"" .'tep B/ Taking the doubled up full length 8$9s from step one. drill holes through the center of each board with the center of each hole =? from the center of the hole below it. There is one rigid angle tie for each corner. meaning 9 per half and <= total. 'tep 0/ Jse the rigid tie angle connectors to secure the cut and glued 8$9s together as shown in the diagram below. epeat once.

This should yield four 0' long pieces.'tep @/ Take the two remaining 8$9s and cut them in half. 'tep =/ Dlace the 0' pieces between the two frames as shown in the diagram and secure them in place with wood screws. 1"1 . width-wise.

uipment. screw together a B=? pipe. 'tep 9/ Take a step back and enjoy your finished product. Assuming one has the necessary tools at their disposal. they should know how to operate power 1"2 .'tep E/ To make a hook. If it doesn't look something like the picture below. The author has built one of nearly identical design and it has held up under =11T pounds of loading. and a =? pipe.1 degree elbow. something went wrong somewhere in the process. screw a galvani%ed floor flange onto both ends of a =? pipe. the above power rack can be built for roughly S<11. a . If one does decide to build themselves e. a huge savings over purchasing a rack. And though it's made of wood. To make a safety catch. it's e$tremely sturdy.

even with the simplest tools. but enter their ne$t match with higher testosterone levels as well 3#ooth.4. )ven spectating while having one's chosen sports team win or lose can affect testosterone levels. Tharp. As such. they'd better make sure to bet on the right horse. 2aving said that however. as long as you played your best. The main implication of the above is that while giving one's best is truly all they can do. <.c*aul. Athletes who have just won a competition not only e$perience an increase in testosterone after the match.94. This means that if one is going to get emotionally invested in any contest on a regular basis. .9.a%ur. Winning/ :osing/ and Testosterone: The classic saying. &ne just needs to make sure they're winning on a regular basis. 6 Autter. In addition to the money and glory that winning may lead to.tools and should wear the proper protective gear when doing so. assuming that one cares about the outcome 3#ernhardt.. <. the only limit to what they can build. but not in one-sided contests. does it really matter if one wins or loses+ The answer is a resounding/ yes. 6 "oppa.. it does. but to the cognitive value attached to the victory 3'uay et al. it is true that all one can give is their best. 'helley. This means they'll benefit from increased confidence as well as any physical effects the testosterone might have. <. (inning sets one up for future wins and faster progress in the future. while it's important to find and go up against challenging competitors in order to push one's self. constantly thrashing people well below one's skill level probably won't be too beneficial either. &nce one has the hang of it. both physically and mentally. -ladue. but appear to apply to anything one is emotionally invested in an outcome as well.? is a favorite amongst parents and coaches everywhere. This increase in testosterone may be mediated by mood as its increase appears to be linked not just to the act of winning. it does matter if one wins or loses.. <. Gabbs. constantly losing won't do one any favors. !o matter what the mechanism by which the increase is caused..84. is their imagination. 7ielden. 6 5ittok.4. it can also result in increased testosterone levels 3. 1"3 . It should also be noted that the effects of winning and losing don't just apply when one is actually competing. >It doesn't matter if you win or lose. winning does lead to an increase in testosterone levels and these effects can be cumulative. but it's not necessarily true. but what are the repercussions of winning or losing+ 'ocial and economic reasons aside. 'ure.

ue properties that allow for interesting training effects. Aistening to music while training carries with it some very useful benefits that re. This means that. the greater resistance they provide. In a sense. music may be one solution for helping get la%y teams or players ready for their session. and lower perceived e$ertion while simultaneously facilitating a higher workload 3Thornby. they help add relatively greater load to the top portions of the lifts..4.eckel. .ou%ourides. 6 (alley. portions which are usually underloaded seeing as weight is usually limited by strength at the end of the the worst. Aistening to music while working out can increase anaerobic endurance and power 3'impson 6 5arageorghis. &..4. people like to listen to music while working out. Driest. increase aerobic endurance and positive intra-set affect 35arageorghis. 811.usic can also be used to increase the effectiveness of warm ups. As is obvious. 6 )liakim. (hereas the downward acceleration of a barbell or one's body will always be limited by gravity 3. 'ome athletes may not give enough effort while warming up. . one can perform harder for longer and have a more positive attitude towards the work while doing it. 'asso. 2aas. This means that when applied with movements like s. Bands/ Acco$$odating #esistance/ and 9'ers eed: Though their usage is unnecessary. this allows one to get more benefit from the entire movement rather than just at the point where leverage is 1"% .orrish.9< mIs4.uire little effort to obtain. 811=4. . 811=4.usic is almost ine$tricably linked with the gym environment.@4. elastic bands can provide higher rates of loading. 6 A$en.. but when one is seeking to increase absolute performance levels 3speed. elastic resistance bands have a number of uni. since the bands act like springs. in tasks of endurance. <. but athletes e$posed to music while warming up e$hibited higher heart rates than those who were not 3)liakim.usic is either being pumped in over a speaker system or individual gym-goers have their earbuds in and their .DB players switched to their favorite songs. . 'imilarly. 811E4. but it's not just a matter of preference. etc. As such. the further they're stretched. !emet. time to e$haustion. . The type of music that works best is still up for debate.+usic and 6erfor$ance: . the best choice appears to be loud music with a fast tempo 3)dworthy 6 (aring.uats and presses 3in addition to free weights4.

free weight training with the incorporation of elastic bands is still general work. The trouble of having the bands on hand and setting them up every workout can be distracting and might not be worth the benefits. but they're definitely not necessary. resistance bands shift the focus of a given rep from the point of worst leverage 3the bottom4 to the mid and end points. In addition to increasing peak power and force. the greater eccentric loading still needs to be taken into account when creating a program. this speed can be increased... 'kinner. As mentioned. eactive lifting is the resistance training e. The author thinks bands are a fun training device and that they can be alternated in with traditional resistance training if it stalls out. but by adding bands. It's all up to the individual though.. who are all about high power and force outputs. 6 .In terms of actual application. In addition to just loading up different portions of the breaking it's momentum in an instant at the bottom of the &. but is typically easier on the feet and ankles. 7or athletes. while in resistance band plus free weight lifting. (inchester.. eactive lifts involve letting a barbell free fall and then &. means that banded work gives slightly different results than free weights alone. The final real use for resistance bands is incorporating them into overspeed shock training. Gepth jumps and altitude landings with bands accelerating one towards the ground involve higher forces than stepping off of a bo$ of the same height without the bands. 6 Gayne. Traditional reactive lifting can only involve descent accelerations of . but it's slightly more specific to the needs of e$plosive strength and power athletes. this is very beneficial. It comes with most of the same benefits and drawbacks. one develops more force in the last @C of the eccentric phase and the first @C of the concentric phase..9< mIs4 and a greater relative load over a larger portion of the &. but this effect can be replicated 1"5 . Training with bands results in greater increases in peak power and peak force than free weights under similar loading conditions 3(allace.c#ride.9< mIs or less. This redistribution of effort allows for relatively greater loading 3as far as intramuscular tension is concerned4 over a larger portion of the &. A higher rate of loading 3from the bands >throwing? the bar down faster than . 81<14. . banded resistance training also increases two other things/ soreness and workout complication. The other problem is one of complication. And though this does go away once one acclimates themselves to it. resistance bands can be used to really focus on eccentric muscle action as well. The increased focus on the eccentric portion of the movement tends to create delayed onset muscle soreness.uivalent of shock training. 811=4. In traditional lifting. !u%%o.c-uigan. more force is generated in the first 8@C of the eccentric phase and the last <1C of the concentric phase 3Israetel.

it's important that the bands are released upon touchdown. As has been said. That sentence is basically postural manipulation in a nutshell. These methods are fairly advanced however. this causes a greater neural response than a traditional depth jump. If a muscle on one side of a joint is e$cessively la$. >If it's sagging.9< mIs. The author has had good e$periences with them in the past though. This will aid in allocating training properly and will help correct any postural issues that may arise from daily movement patterns. (hen using bands to shoot one's self at the ground. 811@4. The two otolith sensors in the vestibular system sense linear acceleration 3Gay 6 7it%patrick. resulting in greater neural and muscular output.? Aa$ muscle groups need to be strengthened and overly short muscle groups need to be trained in an elongated position. comes from an augmented perception of gravity.. !ot every single muscle group will be covered. In theory. the rate of acceleration is higher. The following charts are organi%ed by which joint the muscle actions deal with. +uscle@+o'e$ent +atrices: The follow charts detail which muscle groups work to create which movements around certain joints. (hen performing overspeed depth jumps. one needs to train it 3with an emphasis on its shortened position4 in order to bring the joint back into alignment. 1") . The real value in overspeed shock training. #y using this chart.merely by stepping from a higher bo$. one will be able to break down any given movement into its constituent parts and reason which muscle groups are doing what. and this is all theoretical. and it's not even known for sure by what mechanism they work. it's lagging. and during all other shock training that speed is . but the important ones will be.

.uscle #iceps #rachii Geltoid Infraspinatus Aatissimus Gorsi Dectoralis .inor Triceps #rachii F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F Abduction Adduction )$tension 7le$ion F F F F F . .uscles acting on the forearm.uscle #iceps #rachii #rachialis Dronator Kuadratus Dronator Teres 'upinator Triceps #rachii F )lbow )$tension )lbow 7le$ion F F F F F Dronation 'upination F . >J? means upper. and >A? means lower.. >.inor homboids 'erratus Anterior Trape%ius 7ibers J Trape%ius 7ibers .ajor 'upraspinatus Teres . 1"7 .? means mid. Trape%ius 7ibers A F F F F F F F F F F F F !ote/ 7or the trape%ius.uscles acting on the shoulder girdle 3scapulae4. .uscle Aevator 'capulae Drotraction etraction )levation F Gepression Jpward otation Gownward otation F F Dectoralis .edial otation Aateral otation !ote/ The posterior fibers of the deltoid create e$tension and lateral rotation. the anterior fibers create fle$ion and medial rotation.uscles acting on the shoulder.ajor Teres . .

agnus -luteus .inimus -racilis 2amstrings Illiopsoas Aateral otators Dectineus ectus 7emoris 'artorius Tensor 7acia Aatae F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F )$tension 7le$ion F F F F F F F Abduction Adduction F F F F F F .edial otation Aateral otation F F F F F 1"* . .uscles acting on the trunk.ultifidus &bli.uscles acting on the hip.uscle Adductor #revis Adductor Aongus Adductor .ues Kuadratus Aumborum ectus Abdominis F F F F )$tension F F 7le$ion Aateral 7le$ion F F F F F F F otation ..edius -luteus . .a$imus -luteus .uscle )rector 'pinae Illiopsoas .

If it's responsible for many motions. and medially rotates the humerus. .uscle )$tensor Gigitorum Aongus Dlantarfle$ion Gorsifle$ion F F )version F Inversion )$tensor 2allucis Aongus 7le$or Gigitorum Aongus 7le$or 2allucis Aongus -astrocnemius F F F F F F F F F F F F F Deroneus Tertius Deroneals 3Aateral4 'oleus Tibialis Anterior Tibialis Dosterior F F The above can also be used as stretching matrices. so to stretch it optimally one would e$tend. 1"- .uscles acting on the knee. adducts. abduct. and laterally rotate their humerus. the more one can reverse at once.uscles acting on the ankle.uscle -astrocnemius -racilis 2amstrings Kuadriceps 'artorius F F F )$tension 7le$ion F F F F F F 3#iceps 7emoris4 . . the pectoralis major fle$es.edial otation Aateral otation . 7or e$ample. In order to stretch any given muscle. The same can be done for any other muscle group by referring to the relevant chart.. the greater the potential stretch. all one needs to do is perform the opposite motion the muscle is responsible for.

keeping a detailed and 11" .uently while using compensatory acceleration and staying far short of failure. To get started. It takes little time. They have some wiggle room to let their sporting abilities slip and focus on building up their physical and neural . the program centers around using 91-9@C of one's < . the goal of the template is to e$pose athletes to heavy weights on a regular basis. *apitali%ing on the fact that motor learning happens best with fre. :ogging: This section doesn't refer to the plaid-clad stereotypical *anadian occupation of choice. usually allows for @-9 reps to be completed before failure4. )very B-0 weeks one should retest their < . and .igh 5re7uenc( . The intensity selected is high enough to see increases in coordination and >neural? strength gains. but it will get the job done. That's all there is too it. 'ince the relative intensity will be so low 391-9@C < .ualities. and lifting it fre.. but to the act of keeping a log in which to record one's training. but light enough to allow for high volume and fre. but that's largely dependent on diet anyways. (hen bar speed starts to slow down. The volume of specific and supplementary work during this time period does not even need to be cut and the strength gains will still be better than decent.trength Te$ late: Guring the off season one does not have to be in top sporting form all of the time. and readjust from there. for single repetitions with =1-<81 seconds of rest in between each rep.uency.uick strength gains. and is great for increasing strength to weight ratio. 3one repetition ma$imum4 while fresh. #esides training itself. places little strain on the muscles. (orking on a two days on. The format is straight forward. Training like this can and does work very well.uency. 7rom that point. one needs to pick a major lift for the lower body 3or two opposing lifts for the upper body4 and determine their < . #asically. simple. all one needs to do for weights on this program 3with the e$ception of supplementary work for smaller muscles and posture4 is lift 91-9@C of their < . one should see .uite frankly boring. one should focus on perfect form on every rep and should also lift as hard and fast as possible. the sessions ends. The one thing it's not particularly good for is increasing muscular si%e. This template can be used in the place of one's regular resistance training to rapidly speed up strength gains for a short period of time. one day off schedule.

Though how in-depth one wants to keep their journal is up to them. sleep patterns. 5eeping a journal not only helps one keep track of their progress over time. And the >!otes? section should contain things such as the perceived difficulty of various parts of the workout. cool down. and notes. and mental state. 5eeping a log in one's head is prone to failure at some point. and rest periods. sets. intensities. >(orkout? details the workout and can include e$ercises. >(arm Jp? details the warm up. conditioning work can be included here or in the >(orkout? section. soreness. To get one started. warm up. subjective physical well-being. but also helps them feel a sense of self efficacy and control. both of which will drive up motivation. 111 . it is strongly suggested that they do so on paper. The sheet will be broken down into five sections/ condition.accurate log is perhaps the best thing one can do to ensure progress. workout. and anything else that needs noting. >*ool Gown? includes what was done during the cool down. one's physical and mental condition post session. >*ondition? can include bodyweight. The human memory is far from perfect and it's nearly impossible to remember what one did on a given Tuesday two years prior. the author will provide a sheet which one can use to track their work. reps.

8ate: Condition: Ti$e:3start4 3end4 War$ . : Workout: Cool 8o2n: &otes: 112 .

*oaches need to be aware of this. 113 .Wra . music. : Though the information in this chapter was saved for last. and proper logging can make a big difference over the long term. and some people just can't stomach working out without good music to distract them. Daying attention to little things like footwear. it's still just as important as all of the work that came before it. These little things can make or break a practice. 'print work is damn near useless if done in hiking boots.

1" . is the e$pertise of the coach and the heart of the athlete. practice and theory are the same. If the author has done his job. it's a marathon. &ne should want to train and if they miss a session they should be itching to get to the ne$t one. the reader now has a road map to take them andIor their athletes from whatever level they may currently be at to as far as their time. The format of this book has been kept intentionally simple. It should be noted again that training is not a sprint. These traits can only come with time. *oaching is both a science and an art. 7or the coach. and sheer determination can drastically change training and it's up to the coach to know what each individual under his care needs or can handle. Aearning to work hard day in and day out is necessary if one wants to reach their potential. but a substandard program can go a long ways if the man doing it is dead-set on being the best. but in practice. In theory. Training needs to become an inseparable part of themselves. It's this type of determination. this long term determination should appear in their study habits. in terms of improvement rather than absolute ability. but it takes e$perience and wisdom to properly apply that knowledge. that results in long term improvements. and will power will allow. genetics. It's a science in that training is based upon concrete physiological and psychological principles. desires. It's an art in that people are not actually automatons. what things really come down to. and that will make them smart. &ne can know all of the information in the world. To see gains in physical and mental ability takes time. 7eelings. -ood coaches 11% . )ven a perfect program can only do so much if the trainee's heart isn't into it. but some background is necessary to apply the material within as thoroughly and accurately as possible. they're not. this type of drive to better themselves. In order to get good at something it takes endless repetition and people who are great at a given task tend to thrive on boredom.u$$ing Things . ome wasn't built in a day and neither is athleticism. Though the book can point one in the right direction and tell them how to get back on track should they ever lose their way.

but admittedly. The need for personal growth aside. all are great sources for the aspiring coach. believe in their abilities. &ne should always be pushing for improvements. (hereas athletes should strive to push their bodies and minds to the limits. and enjoy what they do. #efore one increases the weight or tries to run faster. If one takes anything away from this book it should be that proper progression from one step to the ne$t is everything. and to put it all together in an applicable format. coaches need to push their knowledge and wisdom. *oaches and athletes alike need to keep this mind. They should always strive to learn more.should always be seeking out new information.oger !elsen "r. . but not at the e$pense of proper motor patterns or safety. so it's imperative that they use it wisely. even if it is uncomfortable at the time. Deople only get one life. other coaches. one will need more study and more time. The author would advise one to just work hard. journals. it's a map with limits. In order to understand what they need to do. but that's okay. to understand more. 2opefully this book can act as a road map to get one going in the right direction. 115 . they need to make sure they're doing it right first. that's e$actly what every coach should be/ aspiring. it's important that one doesn't let their drive to succeed push themselves further than their bodies are ready for. #ooks. And no matter how much e$perience a coach has or how much they've accomplished.

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". -. 381194. . 5raemer. *ampos.E4. Journal of Applied Physiology 66304/ <B@8-<B@9. '. T... . H. #utterfield. !ew Mork/ 2arper 6 owe. "..organ. ports #edicine !73B4/ <0E-<@=.. 6 *ostill. #edicine and cience in ports and $%ercise !)394/ . *hoi. -oodpaster. 5. H.14... #... Dlyometric vs. Journal of trength and 'onditioning (esearch !.. .. 3811@4.. )ffect of passive and active recovery on the resynthesis of muscle glycogen..E4. *hampaign. . 3<. G. $uropean Journal of Applied Physiology ++3<-84/ @1-=1.. . ports peed. *. 3low8 The psychology of optimal e%perience. *raib. D. . G.. Influence of strength training on sprint running performance. (ard.8-. 7ields.pdf Gintiman. Toma. T....3B4/ . 7ink.comItechni. -enty.otor unit properties and selective involvement in movement.-<0E@. 'urrent -iology ... 6 'erretti. A. '. . 6 'taron. 3811.. *sik%entmihalyi. isometric training influences on tendon properties and muscle output.. T. A. *onnick.. 2agerman.. 3<.4. -raham-'mith.itchell. 6 Dearson.trackandfieldnews.. -anteaume. 3811E4.. 11* . (. 9evelopment of ma%imum sprinting speed WDG7 documentX. 3<.. G. A systematic review of neurobiological and clinical features of mindfulness meditations.. #urke.. T.uscular adaptations in response to three different resistance-training regimens/ specificity of repetition ma$imum training %ones. #.9=-. .=... -. #edicine and cience in ports and $%ercise !+3=4/EBE-E0B.E@4. T. 381184. 6 2er%og.#urgess.ueI<1. *ooper. Gelecluse.. Aeonard. etrieved from http/IIwww. 3811@4. 5.. (endeln. atamess. Gay.. 6 .04.urray.-7rankYGick. !. *roisier. 3<. *hiesa. Gifferential serial sarcomere number adaptations in knee e$tensor muscles of rats is contraction type dependent.. *urrent findings and implications for training. 5. 5. Gick. Auecke. . 6 7it%patrick. 6 7erret. 2opewell. The association between fle$ibility and running economy in sub-elite male distance runners. 7. Psychological #edicine 3)-published ahead of print/ 8E !ovember 811... 'trength imbalances and prevention of hamstring injury in professional soccer players/ a prospective study.53<@4/ @9B-@9=. #inet.4. ". 6 )dgerton. . The vestibular system. 5.. *ole. $%ercise and ports ciences (eviews &/ B<-9<. (. 3<.=4. . T. (. 7.9. . 3<. American Journal of ports #edicine &)394/ <0=. agg. . 2.. Illinois/ 2uman 5inetics #ooks...... 6 Telle%.

'. /euromechanical basis of kinesiology. 3<.illet.994.. $rgonomics 753<@4/ <@. Jse of an overhead goal alters vertical jump performance and biomechanics. 6 aevsky. 3811=4..... 7arina.Gursenev. )liakim. -irard. International Journal of ports #edicine 3)-published ahead of print/ B1 &ct 81194.. G. The optimal downhill slope for acute overspeed running. 5. )dworthy. -. 5. . International Journal of ports Physiology and Performance &3<4/ 99-.. 3811E4.. . )bben. Dhysical determinants of tennis performance in competitive teenage players. 'eptember 04. 3811B. )noka. T. #iomechanical analysis of the Eth (orld *hampionship in athletics. 'trength training of jumpers. /ew tudies in Athletics . 7ord. -uglielmo. I. (. Drietula.. !immo.. A. 6 7erguson."/ =8-=0.. 3811<4. 6 *okely. Journal of trength and 'onditioning (esearch !&3=4/ <9=E-<9E8. Journal of trength and 'onditioning . 11- . American Journal of Physiology. G.)3<-84/ 8@-=1. 3811<4. 7rancis. Ge Hito. and 'omparative Physiology !6"384/ BE=-B98. !emet.6384/B.. 3811. *.. Adams. -reco. -ray.53<4/ <8B-<8=.yer. *.. '. -. The effects of music tempo and loudness level on treadmill e$ercise. G. . <. Illinois/ 2uman 5inetics #ooks. . 381194. 'keletal muscle ATD turnover and muscle fiber conduction velocity are elevated at higher muscle temperatures during ma$imal power output development in humans. ..B. A. Journal of trength and 'onditioning (esearch . )ffects of strength training on running economy.E-<=<1.. 7erro. 6 (aring..4. *harlie's discussion on value of bench pressing Wmessage EX. The making of an e$pert.eckel. 6 Dagola.. The effect of music during warm-up on consecutive anaerobic performance in elite adolescent volleyball players.. Harvard -usiness (eview +53E-94/ <<0-<8<. )ricsson... -. 'wank. A.charliefrancis.. Integrative.E94. 5. ).essage posted to http/IIwww.. (egulatory. A.. )fficacy of moist heat pack application over static stretching on hamstring fle$ibility. G. ". 6 2ewitt.0-B.. 3811E4.ultury . 3<. 2. Gopirak.. 3811=4. ivera. International Journal of ports #edicine !+304/ B8<-B8@. Teoriya I Praktika 3i:cheskoi .. 6 )liakim.B. #. . 'mith.php+tZB0<<6highlightZ#ench TDressTstimulation 7unk. &.. . A. #yrnes. 3811@4. 381194. 6 . A. . . M. *hampaign. A.comIcommunityIshowthread. 6 Genadai. 6 Treolo.. .

. ). ".. ...=4. . Dostactivation potentiation....B-<=11. Journal of cience and #edicine in port 3)-published ahead of print/ < &ct 811.3@4/ 8<EB-8<9<. 6 (ilson. 3<. The effect of resisted sprint training on speed and strength performance in male rugby players. .. 'tanton. G.. Journal of <rthopedic Physiotherapy 7"3<4/ 0-<1. 3811. 6 Drior. 2ortobagyi... Journal of trength and 'onditioning (esearch !&3<4/ 8E@-89B. -illeard.9B4.!3@4/ 899-8. 3<. 6 (ells. 2off. )ffects of concentric and eccentric training on muscle strength. Aambert.a$imal strength training improves aerobic endurance performance. -. A. 2ubley. 2elgerud. -. Journal of trength and 'onditioning (esearch !&394/ 12" .. 5. pine !+3<04/ <@.. cross-sectional area... Journal of Applied Physiology +. ".4... "..yer.4. ". #. A. 3<. -. Journal of Applied Physiology ++3=4/ 8<B<-8<BE.acGougall. ". 5. A.a$imal strength training improves work economy in trained female cross-country skiers.2amada. G. Imwalle. . 3<. T. 2amilton. (. 381114. 6 Dortas. . J. Gempsey. #oughen. 381184. #arnes. 6 2ewett. 7ord.. muscle fibre si%e and myofibrillar gene e$pression after immobili%ation and retraining in humans. 6 2odges.@. . 2igbie. 7raser.3=4/ 9E1-9EE. (arren.. -. Fheng.B-B10.4. . )vidence of altered lumbopelvic muscle recruitment in the presence of sacroiliac joint pain. fiber type. D.4. 381<14. . A work-energy approach to determine individual joint contributions to vertical jump performance. *ureton. G. 6 (isloff. T. *. 6 #ourke. -ran. '. *. . candinavian Journal of #edicine and cience in ports . (. 'ochrane 9atabase of ystematic (eviews 78 *G110@EE 2ides. 6 de !oronha. 6 Gohm... *hanges in muscle strength. 7actors associated with increased propensity for hamstring injury in )nglish Dremier Aeague soccer players. 3811E4.. 'trudwick. Journal of Physiology 5!7/ 8. 'tretching to prevent or reduce muscle soreness after e$ercise. *. 2enderson. ... #edicine and cience in ports and $%ercise &. ". 2erbert. 381114.E4..... -.. ". A... elationship between hip and knee kinematics in athletic women during cutting maneuvers/ a possible link to noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury and prevention... A magnetic resonance imaging investigation of the transverse abdominis muscle during drawing-in of the abdominal wall in elite australian football league platers with and without low back pain.. and neural activation. 'ale. A.. 3811B4. $uropean Journal of Applied Physiology and <ccupational Physiology 5"384/ 80E-8@0. 2ungerford. #. 3811. and twitch contraction time in human knee e$tensor muscles. 2off. 6 Tarnopolsky.. 2arrison. T. 6 2elgerud.

888B-88B1. Israetel, .., .c#ride, "., !u%%o, "., 'kinner, "., 6 Gayne, A. 381<14. 5inetic and kinematic differences between s,uats performed with and without elastic bands. Journal of trength and 'onditioning (esearch !73<4/ <;1-<;0. Ivy, "., *ostill, G., 7ink, (., 6 Aower, . 3<;E;4. Influence of caffeine and carbohydrate feedings on endurance performance. #edicine and cience in ports ,,3<4/ =-<<. "aggers, "., 'wank, A., 7rost, 5., 6 Aee, *. 381194. The acute effects of dynamic and ballistic stretching on vertical jump height, force, and power. Journal of trength and 'onditioning (esearch !!3=4/ <900-<90;. "in, D. 3<;;84. )fficacy of Tai *hi, brisk walking, meditation, and reading in reducing mental and emotional stress. Journal of Psychosomatic (esearch &)304/ B=<-BE1. "ohnson, &., .bada, *., Akosile, *., 6 Agbeja, &. 3811;4. Isometric endurance of the back e$tensors in school-aged adolescents with and without low back pain. Journal of -ack and #usculoskeletal (ehabilitation !!304/ 81@-8<<. "ones, -. 381194. 2ow the best of the best get better and better. Harvard -usiness (eview +)3=4/ <8B-<8E, <08. "udge, T., Thoreson, *., #ono, "., 6 Datton, -. 3811<4. The job satisfaction-job performance relationship/ A ,ualitative and ,uantitative review. Psychological -ulletin ,!=3<<4/ BE=-01E. 5ale, .., Asci, A., #ayrak, *., 6 Acikada, *. 3811;4. elationships among jumping performances and sprint parameters during ma$imum speed phase in sprinters. Journal of trength and 'onditioning (esearch !&394/ 88E8-88E;. 5ankaanpaa, .., Taimela, '., Aaaksonen, G., 2anninen, &., 6 Airaksinen, &. 3<;;94. #ack and hip e$tensor fatigability in chronic low back pain patients and controls. Archives of Physical #edicine and (ehabilitation =6304/ 0<8-0<E. 5arageorghis, *., .ou%ourides, G., Driest, G., 'asso, T., .orrish, G., 6 (alley, *. 3811;4. Dsychophysical and ergogenic effects of synchronous music during treadmill walking. Journal of port and $%ercise Psychology &,3<4/ <9-B=. 5elley, -. 3<;;=4. .echanical overload and skeletal muscle fiber hyperplasia/ a meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Physiology +,304/ <@90-<@99. 5ibler, (. 3811=4. 'capular involvement in impingement/ signs and symptoms. Instructional 'ourse 1ectures 55/ B@-0B. 5raft, "., -reen, "., #ishop, D., ichardson, .., !eggers, M., Aeeper, ". 381<14. Impact of dehydration 121

on a full body resistance e$ercise protocol. $uropean Journal of Applied Physiology 3)published ahead of print/ <8 "anuary 81<14. 5reider, . 3811B4. )ffects of creatine supplementation on performance and training adaptations. #olecular and 'ellular -iochemistry !773<-84/ 9;-;0. 5ubo, 5., 5anehisa, 2., 6 7ukunaga, T. 3811<4. )ffects of different duration isometric contractions on tendon elasticity in human ,uadriceps muscles. Journal of Physiology 5&)3Dt. 84/ =0;-=@@. 5ubo, 5., 5anehisa, 2., Ito, .., 6 7ukunaga, T. 3811<4. )ffects of isometric training on the elasticity of human tendon structures in vivo. Journal of Applied Physiology 6,3<4/ 8=-B8. 5ubo, 5., .orimoto, .., 5omuro, T., Mata, 2., Tsunoda, !., 5anehisa, 2., 6 7ukunaga, T. 3811E4. )ffects of plyometric and weight training on muscle-tendon comple$ and jump performance. #edicine and cience in ports and $%ercise &63<14/ <91<-<9<1. 5umagai, 5., Abe, T., #rechue, (., yushi, T., Takano, '., 6 .i%uno, .. 381114. 'print performance is related to muscle fascicle length in male <11-m sprinters. Journal of Applied Physiology ++3B4/ 9<<-9<=. 5umar, H., Atherton, D., 'mith, 5., 6 ennie, .. 3811;4. 2uman muscle protein synthesis and breakdown during and after e$ercise. Journal of Applied Physiology ,")3=4/ 818=-81B;. 5urokawa, '., 7ukunaga, T., !agano, A., 6 7ukashiro, '. 3811B4. Interaction between fascicles and tendinous structures during counter movement jumping investigated in vivo. Journal of Applied Physiology 653=4/ 8B1=-8B<0. 5yrolainen, 2., Avela, "., 6 5omi, D. 3811@4. *hanges in muscle activity with increasing running speed. Journal of ports ciences !&3<14/ <<1<-<<1;. Aarsen, ., 6 #uss, G. 381194. Personality Psychology89omains of ;nowledge About Human /ature &rd $d. !ew Mork/ .c-raw-2ill *ompanies, Inc. Aeetun, G., Ireland, .., (ilson, "., #allantyne, #., 6 Gavis, I. 381104. *ore stability measures as risk factors for lower e$tremity injury in athletes. #edicine and cience in ports and $%ercise &)3=4/ ;8=-;B0. Aehance, *., #inet, "., #ury, T., 6 *roisier, ". 3811;4. .uscular strength, functional performances and injury risk in professional and junior elite soccer players. candinavian Journal of #edicine and cience in ports ,6384/ 80B-8@<. Aehti, .., 5ivela, ., 5omi, D., 5omulainen, "., 5ainulainen, 2., 6 5yrolainen, 2. 3811;4. )ffects of fatiguing jumping e$ercise on m !A e$pression of titin-comple$ proteins and calpains. Journal of Applied Physiology ,")304/ <0<;-<080.

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Aeinonen, H., 5ankaanpaa, .., Airaksinen, &., 6 2anninen, &. 381114. #ack and hip e$tensor activities during trunk fle$ionIe$tension/ effects of low back pain and rehabilitation. Archives of Physical #edicine and (ehabilitation +,3<4/ B8-BE. Aemon, D. 3<;;=4. Is increased dietary protein necessary or beneficial for individuals with a physically active lifestyle+ /utrition (eviews 5730 Dt 84/ <=;-<E@. Aieberman, G., Henkadesan, .., (erbel, (., Gaoud, A., G'Andrea, '., Gavis, I., .ang'eni, ., 6 Ditsiladis, M. 381<14. 7oot strike patterns and collision forces in habitually barefoot versus shod runners. /ature 7)&3E8914/ 0BB-0B0. Aiggett, G. 6 2amada, '. 3<;;B4. )nhancing the visuali%ation of gymnasts. American Journal of 'linical Hypnosis &53B4/ <;1-<;E. Aocke, )., 6 Aatham, -. 381184. #uilding a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation. American Psychologist 5=3<<4/ E1@-E<E. Aockie, ., .urphy, A., 6 'pinks, *. 3811B4. )ffects of resisted sled towing on sprint kinematics in field-sport athletes. Journal of trength and 'onditioning (esearch ,=304/ E=1-E=E. Aoveless, G., (eber, *., 2aseler, A., 6 'chneider, G. 3811@4. .a$imal leg-strength training improves cycling economy in previously untrained men. #edicine and cience in ports and $%ercise &=3E4/ <8B<-<8B=. .ader, '. 3811=4. Human -iology. !ew Mork/ .c-raw-2ill. .aresh, *., (hittlesey, .., Armstrong, A., Mamamoto, A., "udelson, G., 7ish, 5., *asa, G., 5avouras, '., 6 *astracane H. 3811=4. )ffect of hydration state on testosterone and cortisol responses to training-intensity e$ercise in collegiate runners. International Journal of ports #edicine !=3<14/ E=@-EE1. .arkovic, -., "ukic, I., .ilanovic, G., 6 .etikos, G. 3811E4. )ffects of sprint and plyometric training on muscle function and athletic performance. Journal of trength and 'onditioning (esearch !,384/ @0B-@0;. .arshall, D., 6 .urphy, #. 3811;4. Gelayed abdominal muscle onsets and self-report measures of pain and disability in chronic low back pain. Journal of $lectromyography and ;inesiology 3)published ahead of print/ 8< &ct 811;4. .asamoto, !., Aarsen, ., -ates, T., 6 7aigenbaum, A. 3811B4. Acute effects of plyometric e$ercise on ma$imum s,uat performance in male athletes. Journal of trength and 'onditioning (esearch ,=3<4/ =9-E<. .aslow, A. 3<;9E4. #otivation and Personality. !ew Mork/ 2arper and ow.

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.. A.. Journal of ports ciences .orphometric analysis of loading-induced changes in collagen-fibril populations in young tendons.. )ldredge. *hronic stretching and running economy. D.. 6 )vans. mood. 3811=4. *. *. #. 5. .c*aul.. &hio/ Thomson (adsworth. Principles of $veryday -ehavior Analysis. 6 2artmann.3@4/ B08-B0E. 5. 3811<4.3@4/ 8=1-8=@. .ichna. 2. G. losing.. Adaptation of tendon collagen to e$ercise. 3<.E4.. 5. 'ell and Tissue (esearch !&)384/ 0=@-0E1... Daradisis.84..904.4. G..9. Dosttetanic potentiation of human dorsifle$ors. A.. 3<. . 2ope. 3811<4. *ornwell. ). 6 2osakawa. 6 "oppa. &'Aeary.iyaguchi. 6 Gemura.9. !elson. . Dhysiological )ffects of )icosapentaenoic Acid 3$PA4 and Gocosahe$aenoic Acid 39HA4?A eview. 2. -. Inc. The high level swimmer articular shoulder comple$.9<4. Aongergan.6384/ <0. 6 2offman.atveyev.ason. -. 6 -lickman-(eiss. Kuintin.. 3<. 6 'ale. Daddon-"ones.. and testosterone.ichna. candinavian Journal of #edicine and cience in ports .&3B4/ <=<-<=@.. Fackin. ussia/ Drogress Dublishing . Gietary protein re. $uropean Journal of Applied Physiology +53@4/ 0==-0E<. 3ood (eviews International !!3B4/ 8. . 381194. -ladue.uirements and body protein metabolism in endurance-trained men. A...eredith. 3undamentals of ports Training.. 3<.<-B1E. Adaptation to chronic eccentric e$ercise in humans/ the influence of contraction velocity. A. 3811<4. ). *alifornia/ 'age Dublications.-<@.. 12% . &livier. 3811=4.. 3uture *isions8 The >npublished Papers of Abraham #aslow... ". Annales de (@adaptation et de #@decine PhysiAue 8 (evue cientifiAue de la oci@t@ 3ranBaise de (@@ducation 3onctionnelle de (@adaptation et de #@decine PhysiAue 5. 5... .=4. 3<.aslow. Journal of trength and 'onditioning (esearch !!3=4/ <EB@-<E0<. 6 oge%. Journal of Applied Physiology +&3=4/ 8<B<-8<B9. Aeveritt.iyashita... . 5.iller. 3<. (. A. . Hormones and -ehavior !)304/ 09=-@10. G. . ". 5inematic and postural characteristics of sprint running on sloping surfaces.. 6 Abernethy.. (. !. 6 *ooke. . 3<. International <rthopaedics . Thousand &aks.. !arayan.4. Journal of Applied Physiology ))3=4/ 89@1-89@=. *. 7rontera. #. (inning.. 5okkonen. '. 381194. . .oscow.. . -. elationships between muscle power output during stretchshortening cycle and eccentric ma$imum strength.

-. '. eeves. 6 7leming. G. #. 2olcomb. -allese. . -rain (esearch. Gefreitas.. Adverse effects of creatine supplementation/ fact or fiction+ ports #edicine . 2artman. 6 (allmann. -. 'cott. 5inetics of standing broad and vertical jumping.-8B. '.. ".. A. -uadagnoli. 3811B4. i%%olatti... ".. ". . 'iff. upertraining. #otor 1earning and Performance !nd $d. )..)8 0B=-0BE..984. 2ull. $%perimental Physiology 673E4/ 98@-9BB. #erninger. Journal of trength and 'onditioning (esearch 3)published ahead of print/ 8< "anuary 81<14. #eck.9E4..c*ully. *outurier. 2eroin \overdose\ death/ contribution of drug-associated environmental cues. (. *osta. 5rank.. .4.)394/ @@E-@=8. 2erda.. Acute effects of static and ballistic stretching on measures of strength and power. /. ". 6 *ramer. 381194. I... 6 7ogassi. Genver.Doortmans.. 6 Aambert%.. 381194. 381114. .. ...Auckland. $uropean Journal of Applied Physiology . . @th edition 125 . 5.. 3<..=4. D. ).. 381<14. upp.. Gifferential adaptations to eccentric versus conventional resistance training in older humans. T.. )reline. Dremotor corte$ and the recognition of motor actions. 'chmidt 6 (risberg 381114.. 'iegel. 3<. 2. ". 6 2opf. -apeyeva. 'printing and Hertical "umping Derformance in Drofessional 'occer Dlayers. anterior instability. '. Illinois/ 2uman 5inetics. ".. obbins. .uena. T..@4.uscles... obertson... The time course of musculotendinous stiffness responses following different durations of passive stretching.. 3<.. abita.. *. *hampaign. 'amuel. 6 'cheuermann... 6 . 'tout. Dersonal *ommunication. ". elationship #etween Dostactivation Dotentiation of 5nee )$tensor . . G.!3<4/ <. 2. 7adiga. A.. A. . H. 381<14. 2. muscular imbalance+ International Journal of ports #edicine .aganaris. G. 3<. #.. Harying amounts of acute static stretching and its effect on vertical jump performance. 'anadian Journal of port ciences . Aongo.. de Hillarreal."&384/ <=B-<E<. Journal of trength and 'onditioning (esearch !!3@4/ <088-<089. T. G. 6 7rancau$.. 'houlder problems in high level swimmers[impingement.C. ).4 &"3B4/ <@@-<E1. . cience !. Influence of training background on the relationships between plantarfle$or intrinsic stiffness and overall musculoskeletal stiffness during hopping. 'ognitive -rain (esearch &384/ <B<-<0<.... 6 !arici.. *olorado/ 'upertraining International. e. 2inson. Journal of <rthopaedic and ports Physical Therapy &+3<14/ =B8-=B.. 3811. 381194. 6 Daasuke. . 381194. -arcia. yan.. ubley. Journal of trength and 'onditioning (esearch !!3B4/ E9<-E9=.

6 T%iort%is... The effects of synchronous music on 011-m sprint performance. 'alvador.orin. . 6 *o..artine%.. ". 0th edition 'impson... .. 6 Han *auter.@-<<18. #rown. casein. 6 -allo%%i.uadrone. . Psychoneuroendocrinology !73@4/ @@<-@==. A. -.. 7ournel. Aeproult.. ports #edicine &&3<@4/ <<1B-<<8=. A...... . 6 5arageorghis.. Genver.@4... ... -. *ourturier. ". M. 3811... . 3<. Journal of trength and 'onditioning (esearch 3)-published ahead of print/ 88 &ctober 811.. Daradisis. 7. &. 6 2off. 3811. . -on%ale%-#ono."=3B4/ .. ". *. . #edicine and cience in ports and $%ercise 7"3=4/ <<@@-<<=8. )lite long sprint running/ a comparison between incline and level training sessions.oore. . 1ancet &573. G. . 2off. *.. ". 381194.9E-. #edicine and cience in ports and $%ercise 7"3=4/ <19E-<1. ". *. or soy protein isolate/ effects on mi$ed muscle protein synthesis at rest and following resistance e$ercise in young men. ). 381194.'iff. 'mirniotou. Ingestion of whey hydrolysate. ". .. '.a$imal strength training improves running economy in distance runners.. ". 'toa. Journal of Applied Physiology . 'piegel. 'mith. '.. 'toren..8. '. Facharogiannis. cience and port.4... *.. 3811=4. 3811. A. )...8.. *olorado/ 'upertraining International. 'lawinski. 3<. 'anchis.. 3<. '. *. 6 Herkhoshansky. 2elgerud. 3<.. 7. Journal of ports #edicine and Physical 3itness 7+304/ 00E-0@0. 6 2anon. Gorel. 'imon. Tarnopolsky.4.... upertraining. A. 3811B4. Thornby. H. '.4. . 6 . A framework for understanding the training process leading to elite performance.<994/ <0B@-<0B. 6 2elgerud. Thomas..4 Tang.4. 'uay.. 12) .artine%-'anchis. Journal of ports #edicine and Physical 3itness 763<4/ =-<B. ..E14. 5atsikas. #iomechanical and physiological comparison of barefoot and two shod conditions in e$perienced barefoot runners. ". 3<. H. #oston/ Aittle. H. Aarsen. 'toren.4.. Impact of sleep debt on metabolic and endocrine function. &. 'trength-power parameters as predictors of sprinting performance. 2ug. )ffect of distractive auditory-stimuli on e$ercise tolerance in patients with *&DG. 2aas. 381194. #jerkaas.4.a$imal strength training improves cycling economy in competitive cyclists... I. 6 Dhillips.. )ffects of competition and its outcome on serum testosterone. )."=3@4/ <8<B-<8<E. '. Journal of ports ciences !73<14/ <1. 5ujbida. Argeitaki. 5. G.. ). 6 A$en. cortisol and prolactin..ontoro. 'unde. 'hest .

(eerapong.. 6 -ill. 6 Ginges. ".. 2ungary/ International (eightlifting 7ederation. . (ang. Journal of trength and 'onditioning (esearch !"384/ 8=9-8E8.echanobiology of tendon. WDG7 documentX.. 3811. muscle recovery and injury prevention. \Dsyching-up\ enhances force production during the bench press e$ercise. The biological limits to running speed are 127 . 3811. 3undamentals of the 1ong Jump. American Journal of Physiology !. . ..4/ <@=B-<@98. (inchester. ".. *. 'endell. "ournal of 'port #ehavior 9/ <=@-<91. 381104.. A Te%tbook on Eeightlifting. > -obsled D keleton 3ederation 'ombine coring Table. Journal of -iomechanics &63. with sleep. ".. . Influence of physical activity on the strength of knee ligaments in rats.. Drime. 'trange.4. G.. A. 3811@4.4. . Horobyev. 3811=4.orgIdocumentsIAong"ump#rochureY118.. 6 5olt. J'AT7 7oundation. A. It's practice. 381<14. 6 Tomanek. 2ume.uat e$ercise. #udapest. .. 3<. 3811@4.4 &53B4/ 8B@-8@=.Auckland. Journal of trength and 'onditioning (esearch . #aynard.pdf J' #obsled and 'keleton 7ederation. Iredale.. G.E94. 3<. #. D. 6 . Acta <rthopaedica candinavica 7"384/ 8=<-8E8. Tod. 3811=4. etrieved from http/IIassets. that makes perfect/ implications of sleepdependent learning and plasticity for skill performance. etrieved from http/IIwww. 6 #undle.=E4. (allace. . G. . A..-=1B. ports #edicine . Tensile strength properties of achilles tendon systems in trained and untrained rabbits. -. (einberg. 3<. Hidiik. (eyand..c-uigan.aislin..C. G. The mechanisms of massage and effects on performance. 'linics in ports #edicine !7384/ B1<-B<E.63B4/@. 5.9@4.f.=. "ackson. )ffects of elastic bands on force and power characteristics during the back s. WDG7 documentX. 'ystematic interindividual differences in neurobehavioral impairment from sleep loss/ evidence of trait-like differential vulnerability.pdf Han Gongen. 6 'eaboune. D.. (adsworth.usoc.+394/ =<9-=80. . leep !=3B4/ 08B-0BB.. 3811@4.. 6 #ullock-'a$ton.orgIassetsIdocumentsIattachedYfileIfilenameI<@=B1I*ombineY7lyerY811. !. 3<. International Journal of ports #edicine . . T. (alker.Tipton.usatffoundation. ... 'child. . /.4. The effects of varying the length of the pysch-up interval on motor performance..7304/ E9B-E9E.E4.c-uigan. 6 'tickgold. ecruitment patterns of the scapular rotator muscles in freestyle swimmers with subacromial impingement. D.. 3<.

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IFd like to take a moment to give a special thanks to a few people.com And finally.uiries to the author can be sent to nelsenYroger]yahoo. 13" .Dersonal in. IFd like to thank tephanie Howitt for her ama:ing artwork and #arion 'ole for acting as a model. Thank you both for all your help.

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