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Manageme nt

School of Management Thought.

 It refers to the various approaches
developed over time to time on managerial
 Each school tries to explain the nature and
content of management, but with different
belief, view and formats
 Different authors have categorized the
schools into different groups.

 Stogdill into 18 groups

 Koontz, O’ Donnell into 11 approaches.

 So there is neither unanimity over the

number of approaches nor clarity about what
a particular approach suggests.
 This situation is called as Management
Theory Jungle by Koontz.
Empirical Approach
 Also known as Case Approach or
Management Experience Approach
 Management is considered as a study of
managers in practice.
 Study successful managers experiences
 Attempts to duplicate by drawing general
Human Behaviour Approach
 Also known as human relations / leadership
/ behavioural science approach
 Management is getting things done through
others, managers should understand
human behaviour.
 Emphasis greater productivity through
motivation and good human relations.
Social Systems Approach
 Organization is a cultural system
composed of people who work in
 Social relationship exist between the
members of the organization
 Cooperation among group members is
necessary for the achievement of
organizational objectives.
Socio -Technical systems Approach
 An organization is a combination of
 Social system – system governed by social
 Technical system – consisting of
technological forces like physical setting of
work, rules , procedures etc
 Any change in one of the systems must be
made in consideration with the other only.
Decision theory Approach
 Management is a decision making function
 Managers of the organization are rational
decision makers and problem solvers.
 Quality of decisions affect the
organizational effectiveness.
Systems Approach
 A system - An assemblage of things
connected or interrelated so as to form a
complex unit which is wholly composed of
parts and subparts which is orderly
 Management acts as different systems
Social system Dynamic system
Open system Adaptive system
Contingency Approach
 Otherwise known as Situational Approach.
 There cannot be a particular management
action which is suitable for all situations.
 It emphasis that the action for a problem /
cause should be in accordance with the
analysis of external environment.
Management Science Approach
 Also known as Mathematical or
Quantitative Measurement Approach
 Management is regarded as a problem
solving mechanism, with the help of
mathematical tools and technique.
 Management can be described in terms of
mathematical symbols and data.