FIRE SUPPORT HANDBOOK

July 2004

FIRE SUPPORT HANDBOOK

The Distance Learning & Technologies Department (DLTD) publishes and distributes this manual. For additional copies or proposed changes contact Director, Marine Corps Institute Attn: Operations Marine Corps Institute 912 Charles Poor Street SE Washington Navy Yard DC 20391-5680 http://www.mci.usmc.mil 1-(800) MCI-USMC

TABLE OF CONTENTS SUBJECT
Indirect Fire
U.S. Artillery and Rocket Characteristics U.S. Mortar Characteristics Artillery/Mortar Template Artillery/Mortar Call For Fire Suppression of Enemy Air Defense Illumination Smoke Final Protective Fire Naval Gunfire Template NGF Guns Up Ready to Fire Report Naval Gunfire CFF 1 3 5 6 12 13 16 19 21 22 23

Close Air Support
U.S. Attack Fixed-Wing Aircraft U.S. Attack Rotary-Wing Aircraft Close Air Support CAS Check-In Brief CAS Multi-Mission “9-Line” Brief In Flight Report NATO Forward Air Controller to Attack Aircraft Briefing AC-130 Call-For-Fire Landing Zone Brief Aviation Brevity Terms 26 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36

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TABLE OF CONTENTS, Cont. SUBJECT
Threat Capabilities
Threat Armor Threat Armored Vehicles Threat Attack Helicopters Threat CAS Aircraft/Air Defense Threat Missiles World Artillery, Mortars, and Rocket Launchers Ordnance Selection Guide 37 38 39 40 41 42 44

Fire Support Planning
Fire Support Coordination Measures Common Military Symbols Fire Support Coordination Measures Graphics Targets Positions, Frames, Unit Sizes Unit Types Weapons, Points, Maneuvers/Obstacles Quick Fire Plan Target List Worksheet Scheduling Worksheet 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54

Mission Templates
Artillery/Mortar SEAD Smoke Naval Gunfire GURF Report 55 56 57 58 59

Communications
Communications Frequency Chart 61

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U.S. ARTILLERY and ROCKET CHARACTERISTICS
Caliber Model Projectiles 105mm1 M102 HE, HC, WP, ILLUM, APICM PD, VT MT, MTSQ, CP, Delay 11,400 105mm1 M119A1 HE, HC, WP, ILLUM, APICM PD, VT MT, MTSQ, CP, Delay 11,500 155mm M198 HE, HC, WP, ILLUM, DPICM, M825 SMK, FASCAM, Copperhead PD, VT, MT, MTSQ, ET, Delay 155mm M777 HE, HC, WP, ILLUM, DPICM, M825 SMK, FASCAM, Copperhead PD, VT, MT, MTSQ, Delay 155mm1 M109A5/A6 HE, HC, WP, ILLUM, DPICM, M825 SMK, FASCAM, Copperhead PD, VT, MT, MTSQ, ET, Delay 227mm HIMARS DPICM 227mm1 MLRS DPICM 607mm1 ATACMS APAM

Fuses

ET

ET

ET

Maximum Range (m) Range of RAP (m) Range of DPICM (m) Minimum Range (m)

18,300 22,0002 30,100 18,000 28,2003

30,000

18,200 21,7002 30,000 17,900 28,1003

32,0001 45,000 60,000

32,0001 45,000 60,000

165,0001 300,000

15,300 10,500

19,500 14,100

40,000 N/A

8,000 15,000

10,000 13,000

25,000 70,000

U.S. ARTILLERY and ROCKET CHARACTERISTICS, (Continued)
Caliber Maximum Rate of Fire (Rounds/min) Sustained Rate of Fire (Rounds/min) Illum Time (sec) HE Burst Width (1 Round) FPF 105mm1 10 105mm1 10 155mm 4 155mm 4 155mm1 4 227mm 6/20 sec 227mm1 12/40 sec 607mm1 2/20 sec

3

3

2

2

1

75 35 210 6 guns

75 35 210 6 guns

120 50 300 6 guns

120 50 300 6 guns

120 50 300 6 guns 150 3 guns 100 100

Notes:

1. U.S. Marine Corps units do not possess these weapons systems. However, Marine Corps units may operate with Army units equipped with these weapons. 2. With M795 HE, M825 smoke ammunition 3. BBDPICM M864 See page 3 for additional information on projectiles and fuses under Legend.

U.S. MORTAR CHARACTERISTICS
Caliber Model Projectiles Fuzes Maximum Range (m) Minimum Range (m) Maximum Rate of Fire (Rounds/min) Sustained Rate of Fire (Rounds/min) Illumination Time (sec) HE Burst Width (1 Round) FPF
Notes:

60mm M224 HE, WP, ILLUM MO 3,5002 75 30

81mm M252 HE, WP, RP, ILLUM MO 5,6003 70 35

120mm1 M285 HE, WP, ILLUM MO 7,200 200 15

20

15

5

25 28 90 3 tubes

60 35 35 1 tube

70 75 75 1 tube

1. U.S. Marine Corps units do not possess these weapons systems. However, Marine Corps units may operate with Army units equipped with these weapons. 2. With M720 ammunition 3. With M821 ammunition MT-Mechanical Time MTSQ-Mechanical Time Superquick PD-Point Detonating RAP-Rocket Assisted Projectile RP-Red Phosphorus SMK-Smoke VT-Variable Time WP-White Phosphorus

Legend BBDPICM-Base Bleed DPICM DPICM-Dual Purpose Improved Conventional Munitions CPHD-Copperhead ET-Electronic Time HE-High Explosive ILLUM-Illumination MO-Multi-option fuze (VT, PD, Delay)

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ARTILLERY/MORTAR TEMPLATE
“_____ this is _____, (AF / FFE), (POLAR / SHIFT),____________________, over” (Target #/KN PT) Break transmission for FDC read back “Grid: ____________________, over” Polar: “Dir______ Dist______ U/D______ VA______, over” Shift: “Dir______ R/L______ +/-______ U/D______, over” Break transmission for FDC read back Target Description: Method of Engagement: “___________________________________________” “___________________________________________” (See page 6)

Method of Fire and Control: “_______________________________________, over” (See page 7) Break transmission for FDC read back Message to Observer “MTO_______________, _____________________, ________, _____________ (Firing Units) (Change to CFF) (Rds i/e) (Target Number) _______________, __________, __________” Break “Direction ________, over” (PEr) (Angle T) (TOF) (If using a grid mission) Adjustments Spotting HOB RNG DEV L/R Correction +/U/D OT Factor/Notes

End of Mission “_____, _____, _____, __________, End of Mission, ________________, over” (L/R) (+/-) (U/D) (Target #) (Surveillance)

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ARTILLERY/MORTAR -- CALL-FOR-FIRE
I. II. OBSERVER IDENTIFICATION: Use callsigns from the CEOI WARNING ORDER: a. Type of Mission: (1) Adjust Fire (2) Fire for Effect (3) Suppress (Planned Target) (4) Immediate Suppression/Immediate Smoke (5) Suppression of Enemy Air Defense (SEAD) b. Size of Element to Fire: (1) Omission indicates a request for one artillery battery. (2) Larger units by stating the last letter of the battalion callsign. c. Method of Target Location: (1) Grid: No announcement. (2) Polar Plot: Announce the word “POLAR.” (3) Shift from a Known Point: Announce the word “SHIFT FROM.” followed immediately by the designation of the known point or by target number. --------------------------------------------OVER--------------------------------------------III. TARGET LOCATION: a. Grid: Six-digit grid, i.e., "Grid 123456." b. Polar: Direction (mils) and distance (meters) to the target from the observer’s position. c. Shift: Direction to the target (mils). Lateral Shift (left/right in meters). Range Shift (add/drop in meters). Vertical Shift (up/down in meters) if significant (≥35M). --------------------------------------------OVER---------------------------------------------IV. TARGET DESCRIPTION: A word picture of the target (i.e., the number and type of vehicles/personnel observed, what the target is doing, number of elements in the target, degree of protection, size, and shape [length, width, attitude]). V. METHOD OF ENGAGEMENT (Bold indicates standard): a. Type Adjustment: (1) Area Fire: Standard without request. (2) Precision Fire: Used only with destruction or registration missions. Observer announces “Destruction.” b. Danger Close: Announced when applicable. (See page 4) c. Mark: Used for orientation. d. Trajectory: (1) Low Angle: Standard without request. (2) High Angle: Upon request of observer or when required due to masking terrain. e. Ammunition: (1) Shell/Fuze desired in the Adjustment phase (HE/Q). (2) Shell/Fuze desired in the Fire for Effect phase. (3) Volume of fire desired in Fire for Effect stated in rounds per howitzer. f. Distribution: Type sheaf desired. (Circular, Parallel, Converged, Open, or Special [Linear, Rectangular, or Irregular])

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V. METHOD OF FIRE AND CONTROL (Bold indicates standard): a. Method of Fire: (1) One weapon is standard for adjustment phase. (2) Battery/platoon right/left on request. (3) Time interval (5 seconds between adjusting rounds if using more than one weapon.) b. Method of Control (1) Fire when ready: Standard without request. (2) At my command (AMC)/By round at my command (BRAMC): Weapons fire at observer’s command until cancelled. (3) Cannot observe: Fire will not be observed. (4) Time on target: Rounds impact at a specified time. (5) Continuous illumination: FDC will determine when to fire. (See page 13) (6) Coordinated illumination: The firing of HE in coordination with illumination at optimum illumination. Observer may determine when illumination is fired or may use “At My Command” procedures. (See page 11) (7) Cease Loading: Used on missions with two or more rounds in effect. Causes the firing unit to stop loading rounds. (8) Check Firing: Temporary halt in firing. “Cancel check firing” resumes mission. (9) Continuous Firing: Firing as rapidly as possible at prescribed rate of fire. Continued until suspended by Cease Loading or Check Firing. (10) Repeat: Can be given during AF or FFE missions. (11) Followed by: Used to describe changes to subsequent volleys (HE followed by WP). (12) Request Splash: FDC will announce, “splash” 5 seconds before round impacts. (13) Do not load: FDC computes data, but no projectile is loaded. -------------------------------------------------OVER------------------------------------------------DANGER CLOSE The term DANGER CLOSE will be included in the Method of Engagement portion of the call-for-fire when the target is within 600 meters of any friendly troops for both mortars and field artillery, and 2000 meters when using MLRS. The creeping method of adjustment will be used exclusively during DANGER CLOSE missions when adjusting rounds toward friendly troops. Range or deviation changes are made by creeping the rounds to the target with corrections of no more than 100m. OBSERVER-TARGET LINE (OTL) The OTL is an imaginary straight line from the observer/spotter to the target. When determining direction to a target, you have determined it along the OTL. All corrections are made in respect to the OTL. RANGE CORRECTION During an adjustment on a target, the observer should establish a range bracket early in the adjustment. With the first definite range spotting, the observer should make a range correction causing the next round to be spotted opposite that of the previous round. If the first definite range spotting is SHORT, the observer should ADD to obtain an OVER spotting on the next round. Likewise, if a spotting is OVER, he should DROP to obtain a SHORT on the next round. The observer then splits each range correction in half, successively moving each round closer to the target. Use the following ranges to bracket: 800, 400, 200, 100, 50.

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DEVIATION CORRECTIONS
The distance in meters that the burst is to be moved (left or right) is determined by the WERM rule. Multiply the deviation in mils (from the spotting) by the Observer-toTarget distance in thousands of meters (the OT factor). The OT factor is determined by dividing your estimated range to the target by a thousand and expressing to the nearest whole number. Deviation corrections are expressed to the nearest 10 meters. A deviation correction of less than 30 meters is considered a minor deviation and should not be transmitted during this portion of the fire mission. The computed deviation correction is announced to the FDC as, “LEFT (RIGHT) so much,” the direction of the correction being opposite that of the spotting. Quick OT Factor Chart Range Below 1000m 1000-1400 1500-2500 2600-3400 OT Factor Do not express (900m = OT of .9, 800m = OT of .8, etc) 1 2 3

In the example above, the burst is approximately 45 mils from the target at a range of 1500 meters. Using the WERM rule we can determine that the burst needs to move 90 meters to the left: W=(R/1000) x M W=(1500/1000) x 45 W=(1.5~=2) x 45 W=90

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DETERMINING DIRECTION TO A TARGET
Determining direction is an essential skill for the FO. Direction is an integral part of terrain-map association, adjustment of fire, and target location. There are four methods to determine direction: a. USING A MEASURING DEVICE. Using a lensatic or M2 compass the FO can measure direction. The FO will add/subtract the GM angle to determine the grid direction to send to the FDC only when using a lensatic compass or if using a non-declinated M2 compasses. The FO can use other measuring devices such as an aiming circle or a laser device that can provide direction to the nearest mil. b. MEASURING FROM A REFERENCE POINT. By determining the angular deviation in mils between the reference point and the target, a direction can be computed by applying the deviation to the known direction. Use the RALS rule (right add, left subtract). Angular deviation can be determined by any instrument with a reticle pattern or by hand measurement. c. SCALING FROM THE MAP. Using a protractor or an OF fan (Observed fire fan), the FO can scale direction from a map to an accuracy of 10 mils. d. ESTIMATING. With a thorough terrain-map analysis the FO can estimate direction by visualizing the eight cardinal directions (N, NE, E, SE, S, SW,W, NW). Least accurate method. The FO should try to be as accurate as possible. The use of mils is preferred. All measured directions sent need to be expressed to the nearest 10 mils, prior to sending it to the FDC.

ESTIMATING ANGLES IN MILS WITH THE HAND

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SENDING THE CALL-FOR-FIRE
The standard call-for-fire is transmitted using field artillery radiotelephone procedures in three radio transmissions: a. Observer’s identification and warning order b. Target location c. Target description, method of engagement, and method of fire and control Example: Standard Call-for-Fire

OBSERVER (“SUMO”) Nightmare, this is Sumo, Adjust Fire, over Grid 123456, over 3 tanks and 3 BMPs in the open, DPICM in effect, at my command, over Example: Immediate Suppression

FIRE DIRECTION CENTER (“NIGHTMARE”) Sumo, this is Nightmare, Adjust Fire, out Grid 123456, out 3 tanks and 3 BMPs in the open, DPICM in effect, at my command, out

This is Sumo, immediate suppression, grid 123456, over

This is Nightmare, immediate suppression, grid 123456, out

The simplified call-for-fire (used only with suppress and immediate suppression/smoke missions) is sent in one radio call containing, at a minimum, the observer’s identification, warning order, and target location.

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MESSAGE TO OBSERVER
A MTO will be sent to the observer from the FDC, usually prior to the first subsequent correction. The observer will read back the MTO to the FDC. Bolded items are always announced. Four Standard Elements: 1. Unit(s) to fire: unit to adjust, unit to FFE; if same, unit is only stated once 2. Changes to CFF: changes in SH/FZ, trajectory, or anything else 3. Number of rounds in effect: number of volleys fired in FFE phase 4. Target number: assigned by FDC Additional information possibly included: 5. Probable Error in Range: if > 38meters, for precision fire if > 25meters 6. Angle T: if > 500 mils or if requested, expressed to nearest 100 mils 7. Time of Flight: announced for moving targets, high-angle, aerial observers, or when requested Standard Commands: 1. SHOT: reported by the FDC when rounds are fired, but only for initial volley of FFE 2. SPLASH: announced 5 seconds prior to impact, during high-angle and aerial observer missions, or when requested 3. ROUNDS COMPLETE: announced once all rounds of multiple volley fire (FFE) are complete SEQUENCE OF SUBSEQUENT CORRECTIONS 1. OT Direction: if > 100 mil change 2. Danger Close (Cancel): when entering (or leaving) danger close limits 3. Trajectory: low or high angle 4. Method of Fire: 2 guns in adjustment 5. Distribution: sheaf adjustment 6. Shell: to change during adjustment 7. Fuze: to change during adjustment 8. Volume of fire: to change number of volleys in FFE 9. Deviation: L/R ___ Meters 10. Range: +/- ____ Meters 11. HOB: U/D ____ Meters 12. Target Description: if changed 13. Mission Type and/or Method of Control: i.e., FFE, AMC 14. Splash: to receive notice 5 seconds prior to round impacting 15. Repeat: to apply same firing data as previous round ENDING THE MISSION Upon achieving the desired effects on target, the observer needs to transmit an end of mission statement to the firing unit, which is composed of four parts. Bolded items are always announced. Refinement: Allows observer to make corrections under the normal deviation and range restrictions. (Use if recording the target) Record as target: Tells the FDC to save the firing data for future missions End of Mission: Ends the current mission Surveillance: Should be brief but should provide casualty/damage information as accurately as possible Example (with refinements): “Left 10, add 20, record as target AB1001, end of mission, target suppressed, over” Example (without refinements): “End of mission, 2 tanks burning, infantry fleeing north, over”

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SUPPRESSION OF ENEMY AIR DEFENSE
SEAD Call-For-Fire:
“________this is________, SEAD, (Polar, Laser Polar, Shift from Known Point) , over” (FDC) (FO) “Grid to Suppress_____________, Grid to Mark_________________, over” (‘Negative Mark’ if Arty is not marking) “________________, Shell/Fuze (if other than standard), _________________________, (ADA system type) (Interrupted/Continuous/Non-standard, include timeline) CAS TOT____________, over” - MTO will follow from FDC - No adjustments are made - Schedule is fired - Send RREMS Notes: - HE/VT is standard suppression SH/FZ combination - WP/Q is standard mark SH/FZ combination - Timelines:

s=suppression round m=marking round - Suppression rounds impact every 30 seconds, unless instructed otherwise - WP mark impacts at -: 30 - ILLUM on deck mark impacts at -: 45 - Using non-standard, back end timeline can be controlled AMC

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ILLUMINATION
COORDINATED ILLUMINATION
To start an illumination mission: Standard First CFF Transmission Standard Second CFF Transmission Third Transmission: “Suspected (target description), Illumination (2 guns, range and/or lateral spread), over” To adjust an illumination round: Dev 200M Range 200M HOB 50M - Use standard method to correct deviation and range. - Correction of ILLUM height-of-burst (HOB): If illumination burns on the deck1. Count the number of seconds the Illum burns on the ground. 2. Multiply the (number of seconds) x (Rate of descent (M/sec)) = Meter adjustment. 3. Express to the nearest 50M and send as an Up correction. If illumination burns out during descent1. Measure the number of mils above the ground where the Illum burned out. 2. Multiply the (number of mils) x (the OT factor) = Meter adjustment. 3. Express to the nearest 50M and send as a Down correction. - Adjust until target area is best illuminated, then send: “Illumination mark, over” “Coordinated illumination, over” Follow with standard CFF format - Adjust HE mission onto target and FFE (FDC controls timing of ILLUM) - Send RREMS for HE mission – ILLUM mission automatically ends Notes: - Precede all corrections with “HE” or “ILLUM” Example: “ILLUM, Add 200 HE, Right 60, Add 200, over” - If ILLUM is corrected, a new “illumination mark” must be sent. - Range and/or Lateral Spread will be applied along the OT line in an automated FDC only if the AFATDS has the observer’s location entered in the database. Default is the gun-target line (GTL). - Observer can control timing of ILLUM and HE missions by using AMC in each mission. No “illumination mark or “coordinated illumination” would be sent in this situation. Two separate missions. CONTINUOUS ILLUMINATION Due to the amount of ammunition expended, this is the least desirable method for illuminating the target area. Follow the directions above to initiate and adjust the illumination. After “illumination mark” send “continuous illumination.” The FDC will fire illumination continually while the FO adjusts HE. - Minimum corrections for ILLUM:

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EMPLOYMENT FACTORS FOR ILLUMINATING SHELLS
WEAPON SYSTEM PROJ INITIAL HOB (M) BURST DIAMETER (M) 800 800 1000 725 500 500 500 2500 500 500 BURN TIME (sec) 60 70-75 120 25 60 60 60 90 45 72 CONT. ILLUM (ROUND(S)/MIN) RATE OF DESCENT (M/S)

M314A2 105-MM M314A3 155-MM 60-MM M485A2 M83A3 M301A1 81-MM M301A2 M301A3 120-MM 5”/54 NGF M930 MK 88 MK 91

750 750 600 400 400 400 600 600 500 500

2 2 1 3 2 2 2 1 4 4

10 10 5 3 6 6 6 5 10 2

Illumination Employment Considerations
The amount of illumination required for a particular mission depends on the OT distance; the conditions of visibility; and the size, width, and depth of the area to be illuminated.
Number of Guns One Gun Two Guns (mortars) Two Guns Range Spread Two Guns Lateral Spread Four Gun Illumination Used Best When Effective illumination achieved with one round Area requires more than one round Target area has greater depth then width Target area has greater width than depth Diamond pattern for large area Announce Illumination Illumination, two guns Illumination, range spread Illumination, lateral spread Illumination, range and lateral spread

Illumination Range Spread Spread Used to add depth

Illumination Lateral Used to add width

Illumination Range and Lateral Spread Used to add depth and width

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SMOKE
Immediate Smoke: Provides obscuring, protecting, or marking smoke over small areas. “_____ this is ____, immediate smoke, grid ______, over” (FDC) (FO) - Any method of target location can be used - SH/FZ combination and volume based on unit SOP - Normally fired at target to be obscured - Observer can compensate/offset for wind if necessary Quick Smoke: Provides obscuring, screening, or deceiving smoke over larger areas. “_____ this is ____, adjust fire, over” (FDC) (FO) “Grid ______, over” “Screen (target description), L – Length of smoke screen in meters, M – MTL direction (0000-6390, expressed to nearest 10 mils), D I Wind Direction in relation to MTL R (Right Cross, Left Cross, Head Wind, or Tail Wind) T – Time (duration) of smoke screen in minutes, smoke in effect, over” Example: “Nightmare this is Sumo, adjust fire, over” “Grid 256985, over” “Screen infantry company dug in, length 800, MTL 0630, Tail wind, four minutes, smoke in effect, over.” Send OT direction after MTO for grid missions AF or FFE and any method of target location can be used

Friendly Forces

Enemy Location

Maneuver Target Line (MTL)
The MTL is a horizontal clockwise angle measured from grid north. Depending on the situation, the MTL can extend from the observer’s location to and through the target, or it can extend from the most vulnerable point along the route of march to and through the target. The MTL is determined to an accuracy of 10 mils.

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Adjustment Procedures: -Minimum Corrections: Dev 50 M Range 100 M HOB 50 M - Shell HE/Q is used to adjust - Request, “smoke” when splitting the 200M bracket White Phosphorous (WP) M110A2: - With fuze PD, adjust for range and deviation only - With fuze TI, adjust HOB to 20 meters Felt Wedge WP M825: - The following corrections can be made to the effects observed: Graze burst “Graze, up 100, repeat, over” Thick/dense, separated clouds “Up 50, repeat, over” Thin/uneven clouds “Down 50, repeat, over”

Smoke Munitions Data Time To Build Effective Smoke ½ min ½ min ½ min ½ min ½ min ½ min Average Obscuration Length (m/Round) Headwind/ Tailwind 50 100 – 200 40 – 50 40 40 40

Delivery System

Type of Round WP M825 RP WP WP WP

Average Burning Time 1 - 1 ½min 5 - 8 min 1 ½- 2 min 1 min 1 min 1 min

155 mm 81 mm 60 mm 5-inch/54

Crosswind 150 350 90 – 150 100 150 150

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Smoke Effects on Electro-optical Systems Spectral Region Electro-optical System
Viewers: - Daylight sights - Naked eye - Camera lens - Binoculars/standard optics - Battle space television - Manual command to line of sight (MCLOS) missiles (AT-3) - Night sights Viewers: - Semiautomatic command to line of sight (SACLOS) missiles (AT-4 and AT-5) - Night sights Sensors: - Laser designators - Laser range finders Viewers: - Passive thermal sights

Type of Smoke

Visible 0.40 - 0.75pm

All

All

Near infrared 0.75 - 4pm

All WP, RP, type III Infrared obscurant, dust WP, RP, type III Infrared obscurant, dust WP, developmental obscurants Oil smoke (attenuation only), developmental obscurants

Mid infrared 4 - 14pm

Far infrared 14 - 100pm Millimeter wave and lower frequency 1.00 mm X-ray and higher Frequency

Sensors: - Thermal imager - Terminal homing missiles (AT6) Radar Radio Microwaves

Directed electromagnetic pulse Nuclear weapons

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FINAL PROTECTIVE FIRE
PLANNING INFORMATION
- Final Protective Fire (FPF), in fire support operations, is continuous artillery and/or mortar fires on a preplanned target. A FPF is fired to stop and destroy an enemy force crossing into a defensive area. Artillery and/or mortar FPFs should be integrated with the maneuver direct fire FPLs/PDFs. - A FPF is fired at the maximum rate of fire until the firing unit is requested to stop, ammunition is exhausted, or the firing unit is forced to move. - The regimental commander normally allocates artillery FPFs to the maneuver battalions, which may allocate them to the company level. - The battalion commander normally allocates battalion mortar FPFs to the company level. - Authority to shoot an FPF is that of the lowest maneuver commander in whose area the FPF is placed or his authorized representative. - The FO has the responsibility to adjust in the FPF when the tactical situation permits. The FO may adjust one gun or all guns designated to fire the FPF. - The FPF is cancelled when it is no longer required. - A unit cannot be laid on both an FPF and a priority target. - The FPF data table below is neither precise nor restrictive; it is merely derived from the bursting diameter of rounds.

FPF PLANNING DATA

SIZE

NUMBER OF PIECES OR GUNS

LENGTH

WIDTH

120 MM 81 MM 60 MM 105 MM

6 (PLATOON) 1 (SQUAD) 8 (PLATOON) 4 (SECTION) 3 (SECTION) 3 GUNS 6 GUNS 4 GUNS 6 GUNS 8 GUNS

360 75 280 140 90 105 210 200 300 400

60 35 35 30 35 35 50 50 50

155 MM

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Establishing a FPF
Standard first CFF transmission Standard second CFF transmission Third transmission: “FPF, Length _______, Attitude _______, Danger Close, Delay, over” - Attitude indicates the direction of the axis of the sheaf, from 0000-6300. - Fuze delay should be used in adjustments in order to reduce friendly casualties. - Creeping fire should be used while adjusting the FPF Mortar and Artillery Manual FDC - Entire unit fires one volley, centered on initial grid sent - Begin adjusting with Flank piece, whose round impacted, closest to the FPF line - Adjust to within 50 meters, and then send final correction: “Number _______, drop _______, number _______ is adjusted, number _______ repeat over.” - FDC makes the adjustment, but does not fire the –50 corrected data - This procedure is continued until all guns are adjusted

Automated Artillery FDC
- The unit fires one round with a selected howitzer (normally centerpiece). The FO observes and corrects the round just as in an adjust fire mission. That round represents the center of the linear sheaf - Final correction should include, “end of mission.” This indicates to the FDC that the adjustment phase is complete - The FDC processes the mission but does not fire it. Data is determined for each howitzer. The howitzers receive individual piece data and remain laid on the FPF when not in other missions

Non-Adjusted FPF
Standard first transmission (use fire-for-effect, vice adjust fire) Standard second transmission Third transmission: “Establish as FPF, Attitude _______, Danger Close, Delay, over” - Essential for FDC to be automated. If not possible, FO should consider the proximity of the FPF to friendly troops

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NAVAL GUNFIRE TEMPLATE
“_____ this is _____, Fire Mission, target number ________________, over” (assign from block) Break transmission for ship read back “Grid: ____________, Altitude ____________, Direction ____________, Polar: “Dir ____________ Dist ____________ U/D ____________ , Shift: “From reference point (target number) ____________, Dir ____________, R/L ____________ +/- ____________ U/D ____________, Include Target Description: Method of Engagement: Method of Control: ________________________________________ ________________________________________ (See page 23) ________________________________________, over” (See page 24) Break transmission for ship read back Pre-Firing Report “______________, _____________, Ready, _______________, Break…. Fire, over” (GTL) (LOF/illum only) (TOF) “First Salvo at _______________, _______________, _______________” (Point of Aim) (Summit) (Changes) Adjustments Spotting HOB RNG DEV L/R Correction +/U/D OT Factor/Notes

End of Mission “_____, _____, _____, Record as Target _______, End of Mission, ________, over” (L/R) (+/-) (U/D) (Target #) (Surveillance)

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NGF GUNS UP READY TO FIRE REPORT
Purpose: To report the capabilities of the NGF ship

Occasion: When ship comes on station and is ready to fire ELEMENT LINE A LINE B LINE C INFORMATION Callsign of ship and DTG of message assigning ship to the NGF mission “On station and ready” and DTG (local) end of NGF ship’s assignment Planned firing location (grid). If the ship will be firing from a track, the approximate center of the track Significant reduction in capability, including mount causalities and/or ammo shortages Ammo aboard, by type, available for NGF Any other information of value

LINE D LINE E LINE F

GUNS UP READY TO FIRE (GURF) REPORT LINE A: ___________________________________________________ LINE B:___________________________________________________ LINE C:___________________________________________________ LINE D:___________________________________________________ LINE E:___________________________________________________ LINE F: ___________________________________________________

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NAVAL GUNFIRE CFF
I.
II. OBSERVER IDENTIFICATION: Use callsigns from the CEOI WARNING ORDER/TARGET NUMBER: Announce, “Fire mission, target number” (Spotter assigns from target block)

--------------------------------------------OVER--------------------------------------------III. TARGET LOCATION a. Grid: Announce:

b.

Polar:

Announce:

c.

Shift:

Announce:

“Grid” “Altitude” (meters understood, measured from mean sea level) “Direction” (if method of control is spotter adjust) “Direction” (OTL) “Distance” (meters understood) “Up (or down)” (vertical shift, meters understood) “From reference point (or target number)” “Direction” (OTL) Lateral shift (if any, meters understood) Range shift (if any, meters understood) Vertical shift (if any, meters understood)

IV.

TARGET DESCRIPTION Include what the target is and what its doing, number of elements in the target or physical dimensions, attitude (mils understood), and degree of protection. METHOD OF ENGAGEMENT (Bold indicates standard) a. Danger Close: Friendly troops within 750 meters Send cardinal direction and distance from the target to nearest friendly unit b. Trajectory: (1) Full Charge (2) Reduced Charge (3) High Angle c. Ammunition: Shell/fuse desired in adjustment phase and FFE (HE/Q) d. Number of Guns: One or two guns e. Number of Salvos: Indicates number of rounds fired per gun (1) Send when entering FFE or if adjusting with more than one salvo (2) If omitted, ship will fire one salvo f. Special Instructions: (1) Interval: Used to cause FFE rounds to be fired with a specific time interval between each salvo Announce “interval” followed by a desired time interval (seconds understood). (2) Sustained Fire: Used if there is a specific period of time in which fire for effect salvos must be spread over. Include the number of salvos and period of time in which they are required to be fired. (3) Time on Target: Used when initial salvos in fire for effect are to impact at a specific time. (4) Coordinated Illum: Used to inform the ship that HE will be requested simultaneously, after adjusting illumination. (5) Continuous Illum: Used when spotter requires constant light on a target. Use with discretion.

V.

23

VI.

METHOD OF CONTROL (Bold indicates standard) g. Method of Control: (1) Spotter Adjust: Method standard (2) Fire For Effect (FFE): Used to enter into FFE phase without adjustments. Indicate number of salvos requested. Can be modified by the command, “cannot observe” when firing on a suspected target and when neither the ship nor spotter can see the target. (3) Ship Adjust: Used if the spotter believes the ship has a better view of the target. Use when possible. (4) At My Command: Used to control the firing of each salvo in adjustment, and the first adjustment in FFE. Ship will announce, “ready, over.” Spotter sends, “fire” when he is ready for the ship to fire. Remains in effect throughout the mission or when cancelled (announce, “cancel at my command”).

--------------------------------------------OVER--------------------------------------------PRE-FIRING REPORT a. b. c. d. e. Gun-Target Line (GTL): Firing direction of ship. Line of Fire (LOF): Used with illumination to indicate the illumination projectile trajectory. May be different from GTL. Ready/Time of Flight (TOF): Ship will report, “ready,” followed by TOF (seconds understood). Spotter reads back and announces, “break…fire, over.” First Salvo: Used in danger close situations. Ship will confirm the point of aim reported by spotter. Summit: Highest altitude above mean sea level of flight path. Standard for aerial observers, ground observers may request. Reported in feet for aerial observers and meters to ground units. Any Changes: Used if ship changes any portion of fire request.

f.

REPORT UPON FIRING SHOT / SPLASH- announced every volley in adjust and 1st FFE volley. No acknowledgement needed. ERROR CORRECTION a. b. Correction: Spotter has made an error in his transmission. Immediately transmit, “correction” followed by the corrected data Wrong: Error made during readback. Announce, “wrong” followed by the correct data

SEQUENCE OF SUBSEQUENT CORRECTIONS: 1. Direction: if > 100 mil change 2. Danger Close (Cancel): < 750 meters 3. Trajectory: Full/Reduced charge or High Angle 4. Shell: to change during adjustment 5. Fuze: to change during adjustment 6. Deviation: L/R ___ meters 7. Range: +/- ___ meters 8. HOB: U/D ___ meters 9. Number of Guns: If more than one in adjustment/FFE 10. Number of Salvos: If more than one used in adjustment/FFE 11. Method of Control: i.e. Ship Adjust, FFE
FIRE FOR EFFECT PHASE Enter the FFE phase when: a. b. Splitting the 100-meter bracket for a point target Splitting the 200-meter bracket for an area target

24

ENDING THE MISSION Upon achieving the desired effects on target, the observer needs to transmit an end of mission statement to the firing unit, which is composed of four parts. Bolded items are always announced. Refinement: Allows observer to make corrections under the normal deviation and range restrictions. (Use if recording the target) Record as target: Spotter assigns from target block. End of Mission: Ends the current mission. Surveillance: Should be brief but should provide casualty/damage information as accurately as possible. Fresh Target Shift (To shift to a higher priority target during a fire mission) 1. Spotter ID: omitted 2. Fresh Target, Target #_______ 3. Target Loc: Adjusted from last Salvo 4. Target Description: Always sent 5. Method of Engagement: omit if same 6. Method of Control: omit if same “Fresh Target, Target number ____, R/L ____, +/- ____, U/D ____, (Description), over.” Spotter can return to original target by using the fresh target shift format. New Target Shift (To conduct two simultaneous missions) 1. Spotter ID: omitted 2. New Target, Target # _______ 3. Target Loc: Sent from last Salvo 4. Target Description: Always sent 5. Method of Eng.: omit if same 6. Method of Control: omit if same “New Target, Target number ____, +/- ____, U/D ____, (Description), over.” Ship must have two mounts and an MK-86 gunfire control system. Spotter must preface each correction with target number. Naval Gunfire Capabilities RAP Reduced Fire Rate (M) Charge (max/sust) Max Range (m)
29,181 12,200 20/16

Weapon

Full Charge Max Range (m)
23,100

Ammo

Fuzes

5”/54

HE, ILLUM, WP, HC, RAP HE, HC, ILLUM, WP, RAP, ERGM, ICM (Mk 172)

Q, MT, CVT, VT, DEL

5”/62

82,000 (ERGM), 40,000 (Mk 172 ICM), 23,100 (Conv)

29,181

12,200

10/3-5 (ERGM) 20/10-12 (Conv)

Q, MT, CVT, VT, DEL, GPS

25

U.S. ATTACK FIXED-WING AIRCRAFT
Aircraft M/D/S Owning Service Ordnance Laser Capability LST AV-8B USMC LGBs(1) AGM-65 Maverick GP bombs CBUs 2.75’ rockets 5.00” rockets LUU-2 flares LUU-19 flares 25-mm cannon Same as above Yes LTD No Rockets TV NVG GPS FLIR Marking Capability Other Systems

AV-8B II+

USMC

No

No

Rockets

FLIR NVG GPS Radar CCD TV FLIR NVG GPS

AV-8B (with Lightening II pods) A-10

USMC

Army

AC-130H

USAF (SOF)

Same as above (off-board designator not required for LGBs) AGM-65 Maverick LGBs (1) GP bombs CBUs Rockets 30-mm cannon 105-mm howitzer 40-mm cannon 25-mm cannon

Yes

Yes

Rockets Laser IR marker

Yes

No

No

Yes

GLINT, IZLID 105-mm High Explosive (HE), 40-mm ZIRC/MISCH LTD-1688 only GLINT 105-mm HE, 40-mm ZIRC/MISCH Codable LTD

FLIR LLLTV Radar GPS

AC-130U

USAF (SOF)

105-mm howitzer 40-mm cannon 25-mm cannon

No

Yes

FLIR ALLTV Radar GPS

F-14 (With LANTIRN)

USN

LGBs GP bombs 20-mm cannon Aerial mines LUU-2 flares

No

Yes

Laser WP Rockets

FLIR GPS NVG Radar

F-15E

USAF

LGBs GP bombs CBUs 20-mm cannon

No

Yes

Laser

FLIR Radar Air-to-Air Missile

(1) Although these aircraft can carry and release LGBs, they require off-board designation for terminal guidance. (2) GPS on some aircraft LGBs=Laser Guided Bombs CBUs=Cluster Bomb Units

26

U.S. ATTACK FIXED-WING AIRCRAFT, (Continued)
Aircraft M/D/S Owning Service Ordnance Laser Capability LST F-15E USAF LGBs GP bombs CBUs 20-mm cannon AGM-65 Maverick LGBs (1) GP bombs CBUs 20-mm cannon AGM-65 Maverick LGBs GP bombs CBUs JDAM 20-mm cannon AGM-65 Maverick LGBs (1) GP bombs CBUs 20-mm cannon No LTD Yes Laser FLIR Radar Air-toAir Missile Radar GPSs (2) Marking Capability Other Systems

F-16 (without LANTIRN)

USAF

No

No

WP rockets HE rockets

F-16 C/D (with LANTIRN)

USAF

No

Yes

Laser WP rockets HE rockets

FLIR GPS NVG Radar

F-16 (with Lightening II)

USAF

Yes

Yes

Laser IR Marker WP rockets

LGBs YesYesLaser FLIRAGM-65 w/LDT w/TFLIR WP rockets (w/pod) Maverick pod pod HE rockets GPS AGM-84 SLAM NVG AGM-88 HARM Radar JDAM IR JSOW Pointer GP bombs (FA-18D) CBUs only Aerial mines LUU-2/19 flares 2.75’ rockets 5.00” rockets 20-mm cannon Mk 77 Firebomb SLAM ER (1) Although these aircraft can carry and release LGB’s, they require off-board designation for terminal guidance. (2) GPS on some aircraft LGBs=Laser Guided Bombs CBUs=Cluster Bomb Units

F/A-18

USN USMC

27

U.S. ATTACK ROTARY-WING AIRCRAFT
A/C M/D/S Owning Service Ordnance Max Range (m) 3750 8000 7200 67500 182200 8000 67500 3000 8000 67500 3000 Max RDS Laser Capability LST No LTD Yes Marking Capability Other Systems

AH-1W

USMC

AH-64A

USA

AH-64D (including Longbow)

USA

BGM-71 (TOW) AGM-114 (Hellfire) 5.0” rockets 2.75” rockets 20-MM cannon AGM-114L 2.75” rockets 30-mm cannon AGM-114L 2.75” rockets 30-MM cannon

8 8 16 76 750

Laser Rockets

FLIR, NVG GPS, IR Pointer, DVO, CCDTV

16 76 1200 16 76 1200

Yes

Yes (1)

Laser Rockets

FLIR NVG

Yes

Yes (1)

Laser Rockets

676 No No Rockets 2.75” rockets 7500 500 .50 cal 1830 5000 machinegun 1000 7.62-MM (GAU-17) Yes Yes Laser 16 8000 USA AGM-114L Oh-58D Rockets 76 6Hellfire (Kiowa 500 7500 2.75” rockets Warrior) 1830 .50 cal machinegun (1) The AH64 helicopters cannot designate laser codes 1711 to 1788. (2) The AH-1W can designate codes 1111-1788, but has max effectiveness from 1111-1488. IMD=Improved Data Modem UH-1N USMC

FLIR, NVG GPS, IDM (1) Radar FLIR, NVG GPS

FLIR, NVG

28

CLOSE AIR SUPPORT Terminal air control (Types 1-3):
Type 1 2 Used When visual acquisition of attacking aircraft and target under attack are necessary. When visual acquisition of either attacking aircraft or target at weapons release is not possible or when attacking aircraft are not in a position to acquire the mark/target prior to weapons release/launch. When risk assessment indicates that CAS attacks impose low risk of fratricide.

3 Notes: -

Control type will be broadcast upon aircraft check-in. Multiple control types can be in effect at one time (i.e. Helicopters under Type 2 and fixed wing under Type 1). Observer maintains flexibility to change the type at any time within guidelines established by supported commander.

Type 1 Execution
Step 1 Action Visually acquire the target Step 7 Action Attack aircraft will provide “IN” call indicating maneuvering for weapons firing solution Attack aircraft will visually acquire target or mark Visually acquire the attacking aircraft

2 3

Send a CAS briefing to attack aircraft Attack aircraft will verify target coordinates correlate with expected target area Attack aircraft will read-back Line 4, Line 6 and any restrictions

8 9

4

10

5 6

Aircraft will provide an “IP Inbound” call Mark/designate the target

11

Ensure attack will not affect friendlies by visual acquisition and analysis of attack aircraft geometry/nose position to determine weapon impact point Provide a “Cleared Hot” or “Abort” based on the above procedures being met

Type 2 Execution
Step 1 Action Controller or observer will see the target Step 5 Action When using GPS/INS guided weapons, attack aircraft will confirm that briefed target location and elevation have been accepted by the munition Aircraft will provide an “IP Inbound” call Attack aircraft will provide “IN” call indicating maneuvering for weapons firing solution Provide a “Cleared Hot” or “Abort”

2 3

4

Send a CAS briefing to attack aircraft Attack aircraft will verify target coordinates correlate with expected target area Attack aircraft will read-back Line 4, Line 6 and any restrictions

6 7

8

Type 3 Execution
Step 1 Action Send a CAS briefing to attack aircraft Step 4 Action Give “Cleared to engage” when attack aircraft have sufficient situational awareness Monitor the engagement by all means available Attack platform will provide “attack complete” to controller

2

3

Attack aircraft will verify target coordinates correlate with expected target area Attack aircraft will read-back Line 4, Line 6 and any restrictions

5

6

29

CAS CHECK-IN BRIEF
(Aircraft Transmits to Controller) Aircraft: “__________________________ this is __________________________” (Controller Callsign) (Aircraft Callsign) 1. Identification/ Mission Number: “_____________________________________” Note: Authentication and appropriate response suggested here. The brief may be abbreviated for brevity or security (“as fragged” or “by exception”). 2. Number and Type of Aircraft: “_______________________________________” 3. Position and Altitude: “______________________________________________” 4. Ordnance: “_______________________________________________________” 5. Time on station (TOS): “____________________________________________” 6. Abort Code: “_____________________________________________________” (If applicable) Remarks: “________________________________(NVG, LST, special mission info)

(Aircraft Transmits to Controller) Aircraft: “__________________________ this is __________________________” (Controller Callsign) (Aircraft Callsign) 1. Identification/ Mission Number: “_____________________________________” Authentication and appropriate response suggested here. The brief Note: may be abbreviated for brevity or security (“as fragged” or “by exception”). 2. Number and Type of Aircraft: “_______________________________________” 3. Position and Altitude: “______________________________________________” 4. Ordnance: “_______________________________________________________” 5. Time on station (TOS): “____________________________________________” 6. Abort Code: “_____________________________________________________” (If applicable) Remarks: “________________________________(NVG, LST, special mission info)

30

CAS MULTI-MISSION “9 LINE” BRIEF
Do not transmit line numbers. Units of measurement are standard unless otherwise specified. Lines 4, 6, and any restrictions are mandatory readback items (indicated by boldface type). Controller may request read-back of additional items as required. Controller: “__________, this is __________, type _________ control __________” (Aircraft) (controller) (1, 2, or 3)

1. IP/ BP (IP/BP to Target) 2. HEADING (Deg Mag) 3. DISTANCE (IP in NM BP in Meters) 4. TARGET ELEV (FT MSL) 5. TARGET DESC (General) 6. TARGET LOCATION (LAT/LONG OR Grid or Offsets or Visual) 7. MARK (WP, laser, IR) CODE 8. FRIENDLIES (From Target, Dir & Dist in Meters ) 9. “EGRESS…” (Card Dir and/or CP) REMARKS: Restrictions (FAH OR ALT) Threats, ACA (SEAD GTL)… TOT AMPLIFYING INFORMATION (AS REQD) CODE

Offset L / R

Offset L / R

Marked By

Marked By

31

IN FLIGHT REPORT
Aircraft: “____________________ this is ___________________ INFLTREP, over” (Controller Callsign) (Aircraft Callsign) Note: Authentication and appropriate response suggested here. The brief may be abbreviated for brevity or security (“as fragged” or “by exception”). 1. Callsign: “________________________________________________” 2. Mission Number: “________________________________________” 3. Location: “_______________________________________________” (LAT/LONG, UTM grid, place name) 4. Time On Target: “_________________________________________” 5. Results: “ _________________________________________________” REMARKS: “________________________________________________________” (Target area weather, significant sightings, EEIs…)

Aircraft: “______________________ this is __________________INFLTREP, over” (Controller Callsign) (Aircraft Callsign) Note: Authentication and appropriate response suggested here. The brief may be abbreviated for brevity or security (“as fragged” or “by exception”). 1. Callsign: “________________________________________________ _________” 2. Mission Number: “___________________________________________________” 3. Location: “_________________________________________________________” (LAT/LONG, UTM grid, place name) 4. Time On Target: “___________________________________________________” 5. Results: “ __________________________________________________________” REMARKS: “________________________________________________________” (Target area weather, significant sightings, EEIs…)

32

NATO FAC TO ATTACK AIRCRAFT BRIEFING
MISSION C/S _____________________ ABORT CODE _______________ Note: 1.) A-J are mandatory brief items, (K-O are optional). 2.) Items A, D, G, H underlined are mandatory read back (even if “NONE”). 3.) Heading and bearings magnetic unless true is requested. A.) IP: _____________________________________________________” B.) C.) BEARING: “____________________________________________” DISTANCE : “________________________________Nautical Miles”

D.) TARGET LOCATION UTM OR LAT/LONG: “_______________________________________________________” E.) F.) TARGET ELEVATION: “___________________________________” TARGET DESCRIPTION: “_________________________________”

G.) MANDATORY HEADING: “_______________________________” H.) FRIENDLY FORCES: “___________________________________” I.) J.) ATTACK TIME TOT: “____________________________________” ATTACK CLEARANCE FAC C/S___________ TAD ____________

K.) TARGET INDICATION: REFERENCE PT [ ] SMOKE [ ]

LIGHT/MIRROR [ ]

LASER CODE: “______________________________________” DESIGNATOR TO TARGET LINE (DTL): “_______________” L.) M.) THREATS: “______________________________________________” WEATHER (IF SIGNIFICANT): “____________________________”

N.) HAZARDS “______________________________________________” O.) EGRESS “________________________________________________”

33

AC-130 CALL-FOR-FIRE
First Transmission “____________________ this is __________________, fire mission, over.” (Aircraft Callsign) (Observer) Second Transmission “My position __________________________, marked by _____________________, (Grid, BP, SBF, INT) (Beacon, IR Strobe, etc.) __________________________, _________________________________, (Direction to target in degrees) (Dist to target in meters as one number) __________________________, over.” (Target Description) Remarks: “_______________________________________________________, over” (Threats, danger close clearance, restriction, etc.”) As Required: 1.) Clearance: Transmission of the fire mission is clearance to fire. Danger close is 200m with the 105mm and 125m with the 40mm, 25mm. For closer fire, the observer must accept responsibility for increased risk. State “Cleared Danger Close” in remarks. This clearance may be preplanned. Adjust Fire: Adjust from impact by giving and cardinal/intercardinal direction and distance (meters understood).

2.)

Don’ts: 1.) 2.) 3.) 4.) Do not ask the gunship to identify colors. Do not reference clock positions. Do not pass run-in headings/no-fire headings. Do not correct left/right or short/long.

34

LANDING ZONE BRIEF
1. 2. MISSION NO. LOCATION COOR/RAD/DEM 3. 4. UNIT CALLSIGN FREQUENCY PRI UHF SEC UHF 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. LZ MARKING WIND DIRECTION/VELOCITY ELEVATION/SIZE OBSTACLES FRIENDLY POSITIONS: DIRECTION/DISTANCE ENEMY POSITIONS: DIRECTION/DISTANCE LAST FIRE RECEIVED: TIME/TYPE DIRECTION OF FIRE/DISTANCE CLEARANCE TO FIRE: DIRECTION/DISTANCE APPROACH/RETIREMENT (RECOMMENDED) PERSONNEL/EQUIPMENT OTHER ___________________ ___________________ _______/______/_____ ___________________ ________ FM _______ ________ FM _______ ___________________ __________/_________ __________/_________ ___________________

__________/_________

10.

__________/_________

11.

__________/_________ __________/_________

12. 13.

__________/_________

14.

__________/_________ __________/_________ ____________________

15. 16.

35

AVIATION BREVITY TERMS
Laser Operations
10 SECONDS: Standby for “LASER ON” call in approximately 10 seconds. LASER ON: Start laser designation. SPOT: Aircraft acquires laser spot. SHIFT: Shift laser illumination (slowly). TERMINATE: Cease laser illumination. Night IR CONTACT: Aircraft sights a specific reference point. ROPE: Call made by the exception of the terminal controller is to illuminate the aircraft with an IR pointer. SNAKE: Call made for the terminal controller to jiggle the IR beam on the target. SPARKLE: Mark the target with an IR pointer. Also used by an AC-130 to mark the target with 40mm. STEADY: Steady the beam. STOP: Stop the beam. TALLY: Enemy position/target is in sight; opposite of NO JOY. VISUAL: The terminal controller has the aircraft in sight, or the aircraft has a positive ID on the terminal controller’s or friendlies pos. Other Terms ABORT: Abort the pass. Do not release any ordnance. ANGELS: Height of friendly aircraft in thousands of feet. BENT: System indicated is inoperative. BINGO: Minimum fuel remaining for safe return to base. BLIND: No visual contact with friendly aircraft or ground positions; opposite of VISUAL. CHATTER MARK: Begin using briefed radio procedures to counter jamming. CLEARED HOT: Ordnance release is authorized. CONTINUE: Continue the pass. Aircraft is not yet cleared to release any ordnance. CYCLOPS: Any UAV. DASH: Aircraft position within a flight. Use if specific callsign is unknown. JOKER: Fuel state above BINGO at which separation/bug-out/event termination should begin. NO JOY: Aircrew does not have visual contact with the target/bandit/landmark. OFFSET (direction): Informative call indicating maneuver in a specified direction with reference to the target. PUSHING: Departing designated point. SMOKE: Smoke marker used to mark a position. WINCHESTER: All ordnance is expended. YARDSTICK: Visual reference to assist pilot in approx. distances.

36

THREAT ARMOR
THREAT T55AMV (Russia) T-62M (Russia) T-64B (Russia) T-72B (Russia) T-80U (Russia) T-90 (Russia) Type 59II (China) Type 85IIM (China) Main Gun (mm) 100 Max Rate of Fire (rds/min) 5-7 Max Range (m): Effective (m): 2500-4000 1000-2500 1500-4000 1200-2000 3000-5000 2000-3000 3000-5000 2000-3000 3000-5000 2000-4000 3000-5000 2000-4000 3000-5000 1500-3000 3000-5000 2000-3000 Optional Arms 7.62 12.7 AT-10 7.62 AT-10 7.62 12.7 AT-8 7.62 12.7 AT-11 7.62 12.7 AT-11 7.62 12.7 AT-11 2 x 7.62 12.7 7.62 12.7 Crew Rd Speed (km/h) 50 Rd Range (km) 390/600 w/extra tanks 450/650 w/extra tanks 500 w/extra tanks 500/900 w/external tanks 335/600 w/extra tanks 500/650 w/extra tanks 440/600 w/external tanks 700/900 w/external tanks

4

115

3-5

4

45

125

6-8

3

60

125

4-6

3

60

125

7-8

3

70

125

7-8

3

60

105

6-10

4

50

125

4-6

3

57

37

THREAT ARMORED VEHICLES
THREAT Type Main Gun (mm) Max Effective Range (meters) 2000 Optional Arms Total Personnel (crew/troops) Rd Speed (km/h) Rd Range (km)

BRDM –2 (Russia) BRM-3K (Russia) BTR-60 (Russia) BTR-70 (Russia) BTR-80A (Russia) BTR-94 (Russia) BTR-152 (Russia) BTR-D (Russia) BMD-1 (Russia) BMD-2 (Russia)

2X2 Wheeled Recon Tracked Recon 4 x4 Wheeled APC 3x3 Wheeled APC 4x4 Wheeled APC 4x4 Wheeled APC 3x3 Wheeled APC Tracked APC Tracked IFV Tracked IFV

14.5 30 Auto gun 7.62 14.5 14.5 AT3/4/5 30 gun

7.62

4/0

95

750

2500-4000 1000 2000 2000 3000-4000 2000-4000

7.62

6/0

70

600

N/A

2/8

80

500

7.62

2/8

80

600

7.62

2/8

90

800

23 gun

1500

7.62

3/10

80

800

7.62 7.62 73 Smooth AT-3 30 Auto gun AT4/5 30 Auto gun AT-5 73 Smooth AT-3 30 Auto AT-4/5 100 gun AT-10 30 Auto 7.62 2x 14.5 ATGM 25 Auto gun 12.7

1000 1000 800-1000 3000 1500 2000-4000

12.7 N/A 7.62

2/17 1/12 2/6

65 61 65

650 500 600

7.62 30mm GL 7.62 5.45 7.62

2/8

80

450

BMD-3 (Russia) BMP-1 (Russia) BMP-2 (Russia)

Tracked IFV Tracked IFV Tracked IFV

1500 4000 800-1300 3000 1500-4000 2000-4000 4000-5200 4000 1500-4000

3/7

70

500

3/8

65

600

7.62

3/7

65

600

BMP-3 (Russia)

Tracked IFV Tracked Multipurpose Vehicle Tracked APC 3x3 Wheeled APC Tracked APC

7.62

3/7

70

600

MT-LB (Russia) VTT-323 (N. Korea) WZ 551 (China) YW 531A/C (China)

1000

N/A

2/11

61.5+

500

1500 3000 2000

N/A

3/9

80

450

7.62

3/10

85

600

800-1600

N/A

4/10

42/66

500

38

THREAT ATTACK HELICOPTERS
THREAT Armament Options Cruising Speed (km/h) Range (km): Max Load Normal Load W/Aux fuel Crew/ Passengers

Mi-2 Hoplite (Russia)

23mm Gun 7.62/12.7 MG 57mm Rockets AT-3 SA-7b Twin 23mm Gun pod 2 x 7.62 or 1 x 12.7 MG 12.7 MG Pod 80mm Rocket pods 57mm Rocket pods AT-2/3 250/500 kg bombs Twin 23mm Gun pod 2 x 7.62 or 1 x 12.7 MG 12.7 MG Pod 80mm Rocket pods 57mm Rocket pods AT-2/3 250/500 kg bombs Twin 30mm Gun 12.7 (4 barrel) MG Twin 23mm Gun pods 80mm Rocket pods 57mm Rocket pods AT-2/6 250/500 kg bombs 30mm Cannon Twin 23mm Gun pod 4 x 57 or 80mm Rocket pod 500 kg Bomb 4 x AT-6/9 2 x 23mm Gun Pods 30mm Cannon 500 kg Bombs 80mm Rocket AT-16 AAM

194

580 340 790

1/6-8

Mi-8 Hip (Russia)

225

Unk 460 950

2-3/24

Mi-17 Hip (Russia)

240

Unk 495 1065

2-3/24

Mi-24 Hind (Russia)

295

Unk 450 950

2/8

Mi-28 Havoc (Russia)

260

Unk 475 1100

2/0

Ka-50 Hokum (Russia)

270

Unk 460 Unk

2/0

39

THREAT CAS AIRCRAFT
Threat MiG-21 Fishbed (Russia) MiG-25 Foxbat (Russia) MiG-23/27 Flogger (Russia) MiG-29 Falcrum (Russia) Su-17 Fitter (Russia) Su-24D Fencer (Russia) Su-25 Frogfoot (Russia) Su-27 Flanker (Russia) Armament Options 23mm Gun, 30mm Gun Bombs, Rockets Missiles, Bombs 23mm Gun 30mm Gun Bombs, Rockets 30mm Cannon Bombs, Rockets 2 x 30mm Guns Bombs, Rockets 23mm Gun Bombs (Inc. nuclear) Rockets 30mm Gun Bombs, Rockets ATGM’s 30mm Cannon Gun Pods Bombs, Rockets Combat Range (km) 465 – 925

1730

1150

630-1500

330 – 685

950

556

1500

THREAT AIR DEFENSE
THREAT M-1939 (Russia) KS-19M2 (Russia) S-60 (Russia) ZPU-4 (Russia) ZU-23 (Russia) Type 65 (China) ZSU-23-4 (Russia) 2S6M (Russia) ZSU-57-2 (Russia) # of Barrels & Caliber (mm) 1 x 37 1 x 100 1 x 57 4 x 14.5 2 x 23 2 x 37 4 x 23 2 x 30 SA-19 2 x 57 Max Effective Range (m) 3000 4000 (sight) 12600 (radar) 4000 (sight) 6000 (radar) 1400 3500 2500 2500 4000 8-10 km 12000 Mobility Towed Towed Towed Towed Towed Towed SP SP SP Crew 8 15 7 5 5 5-8 4 4 6

40

THREAT MISSILES
Max Effective AA Range (km) 5.5 6 4.5-5.2 5 Max Effective Altitude (km) 4.5 # Pods/Rails x # SAM’s Ready to Fire

THREAT

Mobility

SA-7b Grail SA-14 Gremlin SA-16 Gimlet SA-18 Grouse SA-3 Goa SA-5 Gammon SA-6 Gainful SA-8b Gecko SA-10 Grumble SA-11 Gadfly SA-13b Gopher SA-15b Gauntlet

Man-portable Man-portable

6 2-3.5 Man-portable Man-portable

3.5 18.3 2x1 1x1 3x1 2x2 4x1 4x1 2x2

29 250 25 15 90 36 5-7

N/A N/A SP 3 x 3 Wheel 4 x 4 Wheel SP SP BRDM-2 SP

29 15 12 27 22 3.5

12

6

2x4

41

WORLD ARTILLERY, MORTARS, AND ROCKET LAUNCHERS
Manufacturer/ Weapon Basic Range (Meters) BB/RAP Range (Meters) Rate of Fire Max Sust Countries Possessing

AUSTRIA GHN-45, 155mm towed BRAZIL ASTROS II, MRL CHINA WS-1, 320mm MRL Type 83, 273mm MRL Type 71, 180mm MRL WA 021, 155mm Towed Type 83, 152mm Towed Type 82/85, 130mm MRL Type 59-1, 130mm Towed FRANCE GCT, 155mm SP GCT, 155mm Towed MkF3, 155mm SP GERMANY PzH 2000, 155mm SP IRAN N10, 450mm MRP IRAQ ARABEL 100, 400mm MRL ARABEL 50, 262mm MRL ISRAEL 845, 155mm Towed M71, 155mm Towed ITALY PALMARIA, 155mm SP NORTH KOREA M1985, 240mm MRL M1987, 170mm SP M46, 130mm SP BM 11, 122mm MRL M1981, 122mm SP M1992, 120mm SP mortar

30,300

39,600

7/min

2/min

Iran, Iraq, Thailand

30,000 60,000 80,000 40,000 20,000 39,000 38,000 15,000 38,000

32/min 4/min 4/min 4/min 10/min 5/min 4/min 60/5min 10/min

Reload Reload Reload Reload Reload 2/min 2/min Reload 10/min

Saudi Arabia, Iran, Qatar None None None None Iraq Thailand Iran, Iraq, Oman, N Korea, Egypt, Lebanon Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia Cyprus Iraq, Kuwait, UAE None

30,000 30,400 27,500

23,000 24,000 20,000

29,000 32,000 25,000

6/min 3/18sec 3/min

2/min 6/min 1/min

30,000

40,000

3/10 sec

9/min

150,000

1/min

2/hour

None

100,000 50,000

4/min 12/min

Reload Reload

None Frmr Yugoslavia, Bosnia Serb Army, Croatia None Singapore, Thailand, South Africa Libya, Nigeria

24,000 23,500

39,000 30,000

5/min 5/min

2/min 2/min

24,700

30,000

3/20sec

4/min

43,000 40,000 27,500 20,500 23,900 8,700

12/min UNK 6/min 30/min UNK UNK

Reload UNK 1.1/mm Reload UNK UNK

Iran Iran, Iraq None PLO, Syria, Iran, Iraq, Uganda None None

42

WORLD ARTILLERY, MORTARS, AND ROCKET LAUNCHERS, (Continued)
Manufacturer/ Weapon RUSSIA/CIS FROG-7, MRL Basic Range (Meters) BB/RAP Range (Meters) 70,000 Rate of Fire Countries Possessing

1/min

1/hour

SMERCH, 30mm MRL 2S4, 240mm SP Mortar M240, 240mm T Mortar BM 27, 220mm MRL 2S7, 203mm SP 2S3, 180mm Towed 2S3, 152mm SP 2S19, 152mm SP 2S5, 152mm SP 2A36, 152mm Towed D-20, 152mm Towed BM 14, 122mm MRL

9,600 9,700

70,000 18,000 18,000 35,000 47,000 43,800 24,000 30,000 37,000 37,000 30,000 9,800

12/min 1/min 1/min 16/min 2/min 1/min 4/min 8/min 5/min 5/min 5/min 16/min

Reload 40/hour 38/hour Reload 2/min 1/2min 1/min 8/min 5/min 1/min 1/min Reload

37,500 30,400 20,600 24,700 28,400 28,400 17,230

20,400 BM 21, 140mm MRL 2S1, 122mm SP D-30, 122mm Towed 2S9, 120mm SP Mortar 2S23, 120mm SP Mortar 2B9, 82mm SP/T Mortar SOUTH AFRICA G-6, 155mm SP G-5, 155mm Towed UNITED KINGDOM FH 70, 155mm Towed FRMR YOUGOSLAVIA M-77, 128mm MRL 15,300 15,300 8,900 8,900 4,300 22,000 22,000 13,000 12,900

40/min 8/min 8/min 6/min 10/min 120/min

Reload 1.1/min 1.1/min 6/min 10/min

Frmr Warsaw Pact, Afghan, Algeria, Cuba, Egypt, Iraq, North Korea, Libya, Syria, Yemen Kuwait, UAE Iraq, Czech Republic IRA, Iraq, North Korea, Egypt Oman, Lebanon Afghanistan, Syria Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia India, Iraq, Egypt, Syria Hungary, Iraq, Libya, Syria None None Finland Algeria, China, Cuba, Egypt, Vietnam, Frmr Yugoslavia Algeria, Afghanistan, Cambodia, China, Egypt, Syria, N Korea, Vietnam China, Egypt, India, Iran, Iraq, North Korea, others None China Afghanistan None Hungary

30,800 30,200 24,700

39,600 39,000 31,500

3/21sec 3/min 3/13sec

4/min 3/min 2/min

UAE, Oman None Germany, Italy, Japan, Saudi Arabia Bosnia, Bosnian Serb Army, Croatia, Iraq, Serbia, Monte Negro

20,600

32/min

Reload

43

ORDNANCE SELECTION GUIDE
Target Personnel: In the open Weapon/Ordnance Mortar-HE/Q or VT Artillery-HE/Q, VT or time; DPICM NGF-HE/Q, VT or time Air-general purpose, fuel air explosive, cluster, firebombs, guns Mortar-HE/VT Artillery-HE/VT or time NGF-HE/VT or time Air-fuel air explosive, general purpose, cluster Mortar-HE/Delay Artillery-HE/Delay or HE/Q/VT mix NGF-HE/Delay Air-general purpose, rockets, guns, cluster Artillery-HE/CP, HE/Q, Copperhead NGF-armor piercing or HE/Delay Air-general purpose, guided weapons Mortar- HE/Q or VT Artillery- HE/Q, VT, or time; DPICM; Copperhead NGF-HE/Q or delay Air-guided weapons, general purpose, rockets, guns, cluster Artillery-DPICM, HE/VT, WP, FASCAM NGF-HE/Q or VT, WP Air-cluster, guided weapons, general purpose bombs Mortar-HE/VT, WP Artillery-DPICM, HE/VT, WP, smoke NGF-HE/Q or VT, WP Air-cluster, guided weapons, general purpose bombs, firebombs, guns Same as armored vehicles

In fighting holes

Under light cover

Under heavy cover

Armored vehicles

Field Artillery

Antiaircraft artillery: Automatic

Self-propelled

44

ORDNANCE SELECTION GUIDE, (Continued)
Missile launcher Mortar-HE/VT Artillery-DPICM, HE/VT NGF-HE/Q or VT Air-missiles, guided and cluster weapons, general purpose, firebombs Mortar-HE/Q or VT Artillery-DPICM, HE/VT NGF-HE/Q or VT Air-missiles, guided/cluster weapons, general purpose, fuel air explosive, guns, rockets Mortar-HE/Delay, WP Artillery-HE/CP or delay, DPICM, WP NGF-HE/CP or delay, HE/Q, WP Air-general purpose, guided bombs, rockets Mortar-HE/VT, WP Artillery-HE/VT or time, DPICM, WP NGF-HE/VT or time, WP Air-cluster, firebombs, general purpose, guided bombs, rockets Mortar-HE/Delay Artillery-HE/Delay or CP, FASCAM NGF-HE/Delay or CP Air-general purpose bombs Mortar-HE/Q or VT, WP Artillery-HE/Q or VT, DPICM, WP NGF-HE/Q or VT, WP Air-guided missiles and cluster weapons, general purpose, guns, rockets Mortar-HE/Delay, HE/Q or VT, WP Artillery-HE/CP or delay, HE/Q, WP NGF-HE/CP or delay, HE/Q, WP Air-guided bombs and missiles, general purpose

Radar Installations

Field fortifications

Supply depots/dumps

Land transportation: Roads

Trucks

Buildings

45

FIRE SUPPORT COORDINATION MEASURES
Permissive Battlefield Coordination Line (BCL) The BCL facilitates the expeditious attack of surface targets of opportunity between the measure and the FSCL. Coordinated Fire Line (CFL) The CFL is a line beyond which conventional, indirect, surface fire support means may fire at any time within the zone of the establishing headquarters without additional coordination. Fire Support Coordination Line (FSCL) The FSCL delineates the coordination requirements for the attack of surface targets beyond the coordinating measure. It applies to all fires using any type of ammunition against surface targets. Forces attacking beyond an FSCL must coordinate with all affected commanders in sufficient time to allow necessary reaction to avoid fratricide. Free Fire Area (FFA) An FFA is a specific designated area into which any weapon system may fire without additional coordination with the establishing headquarters. Restrictive No-Fire Area (NFA) An NFA is an area where no fires or effects of fires are allowed. Two exceptions are when establishing headquarters approves fires temporarily with the NFA on a mission-by-mission basis, and when an enemy force within the NFA engages a friendly force. Restrictive Fire Area (RFA) An RFA is an area in which specific restrictions are imposed and into which fires that exceed those restrictions will not be delivered without prior coordination with the establishing headquarters. Restrictive Fire Line (RFL) An RFL is a line established between converging friendly forces that prohibits fires, or effects from fires, across the line without coordination with the affected force. Airspace Coordination Area (ACA) An ACA is a three-dimensional block of airspace in a target area, established by the appropriate ground commander, in which friendly aircraft are reasonably safe from friendly surface fires. An ACA may be formal or informal.

46

COMMON MILITARY SYMBOLS Fire Support Coordination Graphics Permissive Restrictive

47

TARGETS

48

POSITION, FRAMES, UNIT SIZES

49

UNIT TYPES

50

WEAPONS, POINTS, MANEUVERS

OBSTACLES

51

52

TARGET LIST WORK SHEET For use of this form, see FM 6-20; the proponent agency is TRADOC SHEET _____ OF _____ LINE # TARGET # a DESCRIPTION b LOCATION c ALTITUDE d ATTITUDE e SIZE SOURCE / ACCURACY h WIDTH g REMARKS i

LENGTH f 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

(
LINE NO. ORGANIZATION AND CALIBER FIRING UNITS

)

SCHEDULING WORK SHEET
REMARKS

ARTILLERY/MORTAR TEMPLATE
“_____ this is _____, (AF / FFE), (POLAR / SHIFT),____________________, over” (Target #/KN PT) Break transmission for FDC read back “Grid: ____________________, over” Polar: “Dir______ Dist______ U/D______ VA______, over” Shift: “Dir______ R/L______ +/-______ U/D______, over” Break transmission for FDC read back Target Description: Method of Engagement: “____________________________________________” “____________________________________________” (See page 6)

Method of Fire and Control: “_______________________________________, over” (See page 7) Break transmission for FDC read back Message to Observer “MTO_______________, _____________________, ________, _____________ (Firing Units) (Change to CFF) (Rds i/e) (Target Number) _______________, __________, __________” Break “Direction ________, over” (PEr) (Angle T) (TOF) (If using a grid mission) Adjustments Spotting HOB RNG DEV L/R Correction +/U/D OT Factor/Notes

End of Mission “_____, _____, _____, __________, End of Mission, ________________, over” (L/R) (+/-) (U/D) (Target #) (Surveillance)

55

SEAD TEMPLATE
“________this is________, SEAD, (POLAR/SHIFT), ____________, over” (FDC) (FO) (Target #/KN PT)

“Grid to Suppress_________________, Grid to Mark marking) _________________, over” (‘Negative Mark’ if Arty is not

“____________________________, ______________________________ (ADA system type) (Shell/Fuze, if other than standard) ______________________________________________ (Interrupted/Continuous/Non-standard, include timeline) CAS TOT____________, over”

Timelines

56

SMOKE TEMPLATE
Quick Smoke “_______, this is _______, adjust fire, over” (FDC) (FO) “Grid __________, over” “Screen _______________________, (Target Description) Length: __________________ MTL: ___________________ DIR: ___________________

Time: ___________________, smoke in effect, over”

Friendly Forces

Enemy Location

57

NAVAL GUNFIRE TEMPLATE
“_____ this is _____, Fire Mission, target number ________________, over” (assign from block) Break transmission for ship read back “Grid: ____________, Altitude ____________, Direction ____________, Polar: “Dir ____________ Dist ____________ U/D ____________ , Shift: “From reference point (target number) ____________, Dir ____________, R/L ____________ +/- ____________ U/D ____________, Include Target Description: Method of Engagement: Method of Control: ________________________________________ ________________________________________ (See page 23) ________________________________________, over” (See page 24) Break transmission for ship read back Pre-Firing Report “_______________, _______________, Ready, _______________, Break…. Fire, over” (GTL) (LOF/illum only) (TOF) “First Salvo at _______________, _______________, _______________” (Point of Aim) (Summit) (Changes) Adjustments Spotting HOB RNG DEV L/R Correction +/U/D OT Factor/Notes

End of Mission “_____, _____, _____, Record as Target ________, End of Mission, ___________, over” (L/R) (+/-) (U/D) (Target #) (Surveillance)

58

GURF REPORT

LINE A (Call Sign):

_______________________________________

LINE B (Ship off-station): ________________________________________

LINE C (Firing Loc/Track): _______________________________________ LINE D (Reduced Cap): ________________________________________

LINE E (Ammo Avail/Type):_______________________________________

LINE F (Other):

________________________________________

59

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60

COMMUNICATIONS FREQUENCY CHART
Net (Type) TACP Local (VHF) TAR (HF) TAD 1 (UHF/VHF) TAD 2 (UHF/HF) FAC (A) (UFH/VHF) TAC (A) (HF/UHF) LF FSCC (VHF) BN FSCC (VHF) ARTY COF (VHF) MORTAR COF (VHF) NGF SPOT (HF) CO TAC 1 (VHF) CO TAC 2 (VHF) BN TAC 1 (VHF) BN TAC 1 (VHF) _________ Primary _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ Secondary _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ Callsign _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________

______

______

______

______

61

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