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Sergeants Distance Education Program

8015A

WARFIGHTING TACTICS (8015A) Course Introduction

Scope

This course takes the doctrine you learned in MCI Course 8014 Introduction to Warfighting and teaches you how to apply this doctrine to squad tactics.
In war, tactics focuses on the application of combat power to defeat an enemy force in combat at a particular time and place…tactics can be thought of as the art and science of winning engagements.

MCDP 1, Warfighting
Importance of Tactics to All Marines

The Marine rifle squad is the foundation of the Marine Corps. You as a Marine NCO can well realize your role as the leader of Marines in your squad. Because all units exist to help the squad seek out, close with, and destroy the enemy, tactical thought is important, even if you are not an infantryman. In a world where Marines are deployed to many low-intensity conflicts, all Marines need to understand warfighting and tactical thought. Before you know it, you may be called on to be a rifle squad leader.

Course Layout

This course will teach you the NCO’s role as a tactical decision-maker, the basics of an operations order, offensive tactics, defensive tactics, and squad patrolling. Each study unit is designed to give you the tools to take the theory you learned in MCI Course 8014 Introduction to Warfighting and apply it to tactical decisions.
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Course Introduction

Course Introduction, Continued

How to Study This Course

Like MCI Course 8014 Introduction to Warfighting, this course will not tell you what to do in combat. This course will help you plan an operation, communicate your plan, and execute your plan. Read the text critically and compare the concepts and examples given here with those from your own experience. Think about how you can use these to tools to train yourself and your unit, then do it.
All Marines, regardless of occupational specialty, will be trained in basic combat skills. At the same time, unit skills are extremely important.

MCDP 1, Warfighting
References

The following references were used in the writing of this course. MCWP 3-1, Ground Combat Operations. FMFM 6-3, Marine Infantry Battalion. MCWP 3-11.1, Marine Rifle Company/Platoon. FMFM 6-5, Marine Rifle Squad. MCWP 3-11.3, Scouting And Patrolling. MCRP 3-11.1B, Small Unit Leader’s Guide to Weather and Terrain. MCWP 3-35.3, Military Operations on Urbanized Terrain (MOUT). MCRP 5-12A, Organizational Terms and Grapics

Table of Contents

The following is a table of contents for this course. Study Unit -1 2 3 4 5 -Title Course Introduction Introduction to Tactics Squad Offensive Tactics Squad Defensive Tactics Security Patrols Urban Patrolling Review Exercise Page i 1-1 2-1 3-1 4-1 5-1 R-1
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Course Introduction

Course Introduction, Continued

Estimated Study Time

You will need about 12 hours and 45 minutes to complete this course. They include the time you will need to study the text, complete the exercises, and take the final exam. You earn four retirement credits for completing this course. You earn reserve retirement credits at the rate of one credit for each 3 hours of estimated study time. Note: Reserve retirement credits are not awarded for the MCI study you do during drill periods, if you are awarded credits for drill attendance.

Reserve Retirement Credits

Summary

The table below summarizes all-important “gateways” needed to successfully complete this course. Step 1 2 3 For more information… Enroll in the program Receive your program Refer to the Program material Introduction Complete the selfArrange to take the Refer to the Program paced text final examination Introduction Pass the final Receive a course Refer to the Program examination completion certificate Introduction When you… Then you will…

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Course Introduction

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Course Introduction

STUDY UNIT 1 INTRODUCTION TO TACTICS Overview

Estimated Study Time

1 hours, 50 minutes

Unit Scope

Theory is the basis for all the decisions we as warfighters make. However, knowing the theory is only half of the battle. All the theory in the world is useless unless you know how to apply it to the battlefield. This study unit discusses the relationship between theory and tactics and will introduce the role of the Marine NCO as the tactical decision-maker. This unit discusses how your commander’s intent impacts your tactical decisions. This unit will also cover the process of relating your tactical thoughts to your subordinates. You will learn about the various techniques for getting and receiving orders and what formats are used in what situations.

Learning Objectives

After completing this study unit, you should be able to · · · Identify how warfighting theory affects tactical decisions. Identify how tactical decisions are communicated with an operations order. Identify how to transfer an operations order into an order for your subordinates.
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Study Unit 1

Overview, Continued

In This Study Unit

This study unit contains the following lessons: Topic Lesson 1 Tactics: Theory to Practice Lesson 2 Operations Orders Lesson 3 Receiving, Transcribing, and Issuing Orders See Page 1-3 1-11 1-37

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Study Unit 1

LESSON 1 TACTICS: THEORY TO PRACTICE Introduction

Estimated Study Time

20 minutes

Lesson Scope

“In tactics, the most important thing is not whether you go left or right, but why you go left or right.” —General A.M. Gray, 29th CMC

This lesson will discuss how the theory you learned in MCI Course 8014 Introduction to Warfighting affects decisions on the battlefield. The squad leader is responsible for deciding which way to go and, more important, for understanding why go that way. This lesson will also discuss how your commander’s intent establishes the boundaries for your tactical decisions.
Learning Objectives

After completing this lesson, you should be able to · · · Identify how theory affects the application of combat power. Identify what the squad leader must know as a tactical decision maker. Identify how commander’s intent affects tactical decisions.

In This Lesson

This lesson contains the following topics: Topic Introduction Warfighting Theory Small Unit Leader The Impact of Commander’s Intent Lesson 1 Exercise See Page 1-3 1-4 1-6 1-7 1-7

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 1

Warfighting Theory

Review from MCI Course 8014

In MCI Course 8014 Introduction to Warfighting you studied the Marine Corps’ theory of warfighting from MCDP 1 Warfighting. That course focused on the why: Why should you · · · Take one hill instead of another? Give your subordinates mission type orders? Employ combined arms?

You also learned about the three levels of war in MCI Course 8014. Remember, the lowest level of war where combat power is applied directly against the enemy is the tactical level.
Definition of Tactics

According to MCDP 1-3 Tactics, tactics is the art and science of winning engagements and battles. Tactics include the use of firepower and maneuver, the integration of different arms, and the immediate exploitation of success to defeat the enemy. By this definition, tactics involve the actual concepts and methods used to accomplish a particular objective. In short, tactics is the application of combat power to defeat the enemy: the actions and counteractions taken against the enemy force.

Importance to Tactics

The relationship between warfighting theory and tactics is that theory is the why and tactics is the how. The tactical decisions and actions taken in combat need to be based on the Marine Corps’ warfighting theory. We should not attack an enemy position simply because it is there, but because taking this position gives us control of key terrain, degrades the enemy’s will to fight, or allows us to achieve our commander’s intent. Losing the connection between warfighting theory and tactical decisions leads to conflicting orders, low morale, and, most important, unnecessary casualties.
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Study Unit 1, Lesson 1

Warfighting Theory, Continued

Applied to Tactical Thought

In MCI Course 8014 Introduction to Warfighting, you learned the importance of Marines using combined arms when attacking the enemy as part of warfighting theory. If you are tasked with attacking an enemy position on a hilltop, how you employ combined arms is tactics. For Example: Deciding to suppress the hilltop with five minutes of artillery followed by machinegun fire while you maneuver close to the objective is a tactical decision.

Historical Example: Failing to Apply Theory

During the Vietnam War, tactical decisions were not always made according to the Marine Corps’ warfighting theory. Confusion and conflicting orders were the result. On multiple occasions, Marines were often tasked with covering the same ground or seizing the same terrain, only to withdraw and have to seize the terrain again. This cycle led to low morale, confusion among the Marines, and excessive casualties.

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 1

Small Unit Leader

Tactical In a modern combat environment, the squad leader becomes the most Decision-Maker important man on the battlefield. Only one officer and staff NCO is in each

platoon. They cannot be everywhere on the battlefield. Therefore, the squad leader, usually the senior man on the scene, will have to make the decisions. Squad mission success and the lives of the squad members depend on the squad leader’s decision-making ability.
Maneuver Warfare

A maneuver warfare mindset requires decisions to be made quickly and at the lowest level possible. In a rapidly changing environment, the squad leader has no time to wait for a decision from the platoon commander. The squad leader is responsible for making and acting on a decision, so his unit can continue to press the enemy and keep the enemy’s forces off balance. The squad leader must understand the unit’s mission, his commander’s intent, and the situation around the squad at all times. The squad leader will not be able to make the correct decisions if he is not fully aware of his surroundings. The squad leader needs to be proactive in finding this information and must relay this information to his subordinates.

Critical Information

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 1

The Impact of Commander’s Intent

Review of Definition

Commander’s intent is what the commander wants accomplished, when the mission is concluded, and why. This goal is more than just saying that the commander wants a hilltop secured; it is why the commander wants the hilltop secured.

Provides Guidance

The commander’s intent sets the framework within which the subordinates need to work. If the subordinate knows the desired end state of the battlefield, he can easily adapt to the changing situation around him. Returning to the example of the order to attack a hilltop, if the subordinate is told to attack the hilltop to secure a pass so follow-on forces can continue their mission, the subordinate can correctly adjust to the changing situation. He may find that the enemy is overlooking the pass from a different hill, and he must secure the other hill to meet the commander’s intent.

Effect on Tactical Decisions

It creates the framework that all subordinates must operate within. In essence, the commander’s intent builds a football field for the subordinates to act in. They are free to move anywhere within the boundaries, but they cannot operate out of bounds. Thus the subordinates are allowed to make the necessary tactical decisions to support the commander’s intent. They are restricted from making any tactical decisions that run against the commander’s intent.

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 1

Lesson 1 Exercise

Estimated Study Time

5 minutes

Directions

Complete the following items. Check your answers against the correct answers at the end of this lesson. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. You should always consider theory before making tactical decisions. a. b. c. d. True, because all tactical decisions must be based on the book answer. True, because theory, the why, should drive tactical decisions, the how. False, all decisions should be made solely on the enemy’s actions. False, only the enemy and the terrain should dictate tactical decisions.

Item 1

Items 2

For a squad leader to make the correct tactical decisions, they must know the a. b. c. d. battalion’s mission, the squad’s task, and the company’s location. company’s mission and the battalion commander’s intent. commander’s intent, the squad’s mission, and the current situation. enemy’s location, the squad’s task, and the company’s mission.

Item 3

Which statement best describes the influence of the commander’s intent on tactical decisions? a. b. c. d. It paints the picture of the commander’s desired end-state. It describes how the commander envisions the mission concluding. It provides information a subordinate can refer to but is not necessary. It creates the framework that all subordinates must operate within.

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 1 Exercise

Lesson 1 Exercise

Correct Answers

The table below provides the correct answers to the exercise items. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Item Number 1 2 3 Answer b c d Reference Page 1-4 1-6 1-7

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 1 Exercise

LESSON 2 OPERATIONS ORDERS Introduction

Estimated Study Time

40 minutes

Lesson Scope

While the focus of this course is on tactical thought, Marines need to know how to explain their tactical decisions to their subordinates. This lesson will focus on some tools to help you explain your plan to your subordinates and ensure they fully understand their tasks. After completing this lesson, you should be able to · · · · Identify the purpose of an operations order. Identify the three different formats for operations orders. Identify how each format of an operations order is used. Identify the purpose of each paragraph in a five-paragraph operations order.
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Learning Objectives

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2

Introduction, Continued

In This Lesson

This lesson contains the following topics: Topic Introduction Five Paragraph Order Types Five-Paragraph Order Situation Paragraph Mission Paragraph Execution Paragraph Administration and Logistics Paragraph Command and Signal Paragraph Lesson 2 Exercise See Page 1-11 1-13 1-14 1-16 1-17 1-21 1-24 1-28 1-31 1-32

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2

Five Paragraph order

Purpose

The purpose of the operation order is to convey a plan to accomplish that mission. The operation order is a continuing process with the accomplishment of the mission as its main goal. All five paragraph orders are built around the six troop leading steps (BAMCIS) and are the sequence by which a leader receives, plans, and executes his mission. The development of the order begins at the receipt of the mission, continues through combat, and transitions to anticipation of the next mission. While the order is the method for explaining your tactical decision making, it goes one step farther; it involves the method and intent of the order. The numerous types of combat orders range from a simple “follow me” shouted by a fire team leader to the complex document required to plan and execute a Marine air-ground task force (MAGTF) operation. However, all successful orders contain certain key characteristics: · · · · · Clarity - Clearly conveys the intent to all subordinates Completeness - Contains all information necessary to accomplish the mission Brevity - Short and to the point without sacrificing completeness Trust - Mission-type orders that do not infringe on subordinate initiative Affirmative format - Always uses positive statements to avoid confusion. For example, “you will stay in the assembly area” instead of “you will not go into the attack.”

Organization

Characteristics

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2

Types

Types

While there are numerous formats and techniques for operations orders, the three standard formats are: · · · Five-paragraph order Warning order Fragmentary order

Format

All operations orders follow the same basic format, the format of the fiveparagraph order. The warning and fragmentary orders are scaled down versions of the five-paragraph order. The five-paragraph order is the backbone of the Marine Corps process for giving operations orders. It is very thorough and contains all the information a subordinate will need to execute a mission. The order gets its name from the five paragraphs that comprise the order. This order is generally referred to by the acronym SMEAC, which stands for: · · · · · Situation Mission Execution Administration and Logistics Command and Signal

Five-Paragraph Order

The format of each of these paragraphs will be explained later in this lesson.
Warning Order

A warning order, issued upon receipt of a mission, is essentially a “heads up” to your subordinates that gives them advance notice of the contemplated action. A warning order contains as much information as is currently available and whatever instructions are available at the time. They can be oral or written, but they at least contain a mission statement and the time of execution. The purpose of the warning order is to allow your subordinates time to plan for the mission. While you are preparing the tactical plan and writing the order, your subordinate leaders can ensure the Marines have the proper equipment, have sufficient chow, and conduct rehearsals for the upcoming mission. Warning orders are used extensively at all levels of command.
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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2

Types, Continued

Warning Order Example

Here is an example of a squad leader’s warning order: “There is an enemy squad in the vicinity of Company Objective A. At 1800, we will attack to seize the objective. We will move to the attack position at 1700. Fire team leaders ensure your Marines have all their ammunition and equipment and conduct rehearsals. The order will be given at my fighting hole at 1400.” This example contains a mission statement, a projected time to depart and the tasks the subordinate leaders need to accomplish. While more information can be added to the warning order, this is the minimum information you should provide your Marines.

Fragmentary Order

Often referred to as a “FragO,” the fragmentary order is used to provide changes to existing orders or to prepare for a follow-on mission. A “FragO” is used in time-critical situations to provide specific instructions to the unfolding situation. A “FragO” contains a mission statement, an execution plan, and any other part of the order that has changed. The following is an example of a simple squad “FragO”: “Approximately one fire team sized unit withdrew from the Objective A during the attack. They are preparing a hasty defense and are planning to delay our advance. Our mission is to attack to clear the enemy from Objective B to allow the platoon free movement through the area. We will attack on line with 2nd Fire Team as the base unit. The attack will commence at 2100. There are no other changes.” This order contains more information than the warning order. Also remember that this type of order is used when you are conducting a follow-on mission during an operation. This order contains a mission statement, the execution plan, and any changes to the initial order.

“FragO” Example

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2

Five-Paragraph Order

Background

The five-paragraph order is the essential part of the Marine Corps’ order writing process. All Marines from every MOS are taught its format. This format, designed to be delivered orally, is usually delivered using a terrain model or operational graphics. (You will be taught how to deliver the order later in this lesson.) Although the five-paragraph order can be used at any level, it is primarily used at the company level and below. Although not an official part of the five-paragraph order, the order begins with an orientation paragraph. The orientation paragraph has no set format, usually describes the terrain model, and identifies the · · · · · · Direction of north Present location Unit objectives Key terrain Weather forecast Astronomical data (sunset, moonrise, etc.)

Orientation

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2

Situation Paragraph

Organization

The first official paragraph of the five-paragraph order is the situation paragraph. This section contains the overall status and disposition of both friendly and enemy forces. The situation paragraph contains three subparagraphs: · · · Enemy forces Friendly forces Attachments/detachments

Enemy Forces

The company commander, who received a brief from the unit’s intelligence shop, gives you the information in the enemy forces subparagraph. The focus of this information is on facts that could pertain to mission accomplishment. The enemy forces subparagraph is further divided into three sections: · · · Composition, disposition, and strength. Capabilities and limitations. Enemy’s most probable course of action (MPCOA).

Enemy Composition

Enemy composition information is obtained directly from next higher commander’s order. The best way to convey this information is through SALUTE which stands for · · · · · · Size – the size of the enemy force Activity – the last known activity of the force Location – the last known location Unit – the type of unit or the designation, if known Time – the last time the enemy was observed Equipment – the weapons and vehicles the enemy has

Enemy Capabilities

The enemy capabilities section should highlight what courses of action the enemy is capable of conducting and how long it would take them to conduct this action. This section also discusses the enemy’s potential weaknesses and vulnerabilities. The focus should be on the enemy’s ability to react and counter the mission you are planning to conduct.
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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2

Situation Paragraph, Continued

Enemy MPCOA

The enemy MPCOA is a concise statement of the enemy’s most probable course of action within your sector. The statement describes the enemy’s objectives and how they will likely fight a battle. One tool that can help determine this information is DRAW-D which stands for · · · · · Defend - the enemy employs all means and methods available to prevent, resist, or destroy an attack. Reinforce - one unit augments the capabilities of another similar unit. Attack - offensive operation characterized by coordinated movement supported by fire. Withdraw - a force in contact disengages from an enemy force. Withdrawal is a form of retrograde. Delay - forces under pressure trades space for time by slowing down the momentum without becoming decisively engaged. Delay is a form of retrograde.

DRAW-D lays out the options the enemy can take. When you combine DRAW-D information with any pertinent intelligence about the enemy, you can establish the enemy’s MPCOA.
Friendly Forces

The friendly forces subparagraph in the situation paragraph is friendly forces information taken directly from the higher commander’s order. This subparagraph is further divided into sections that contain the higher commander’s intent and the missions and locations of higher, adjacent, supporting, and security units. When writing this paragraph, remember HASS which stands for · · · · Higher Adjacent Supporting Security
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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2

Situation Paragraph, Continued

Friendly Higher

The most important aspect the friendly higher section contains is the higher commander’s intent. For a squad leader, receiving an order from his platoon commander, this will be the company commander’s intent. This information is imperative because every Marine should know the intent of the commander two levels up. This knowledge will allow any small unit leader to make decisions in combat that support not only his commander’s intent, but the next higher commander’s intent as well. The friendly higher section also contains the mission and the location of the next higher unit. Again, for a squad leader receiving a platoon mission, this will be the company’s mission and the location of the company’s main body.

Friendly Adjacent

The friendly adjacent section contains the missions and locations of the adjacent units, units that surround your area of operations and may impact your mission. An adjacent unit does not have to be the same size as your unit. For instance, a platoon on the far left of a company in a battalion defense will have a different company adjacent to it on its left flank. The friendly supporting section addresses the non-organic units providing fire support or combat service support to your unit. Generally these are either indirect fire assets or crew-served weapons. The friendly supporting section describes the type of support the assets are providing, direct support of your unit or general support of the higher unit. You must understand that the friendly supporting section addresses only nonorganic units. Therefore, in the company commander’s order the machinegun section is not listed as a supporting unit because they are organic to the company. However, in the platoon order, the machinegun section would be listed as a supporting unit.

Friendly Supporting

Friendly Security

The friendly security section addresses the missions and locations of any security units operating in your zone. This information can either be broken out separately or included with the “supporting units” section. Security units are listening posts, reconnaissance teams, or patrols that are operating in your zone and can influence your mission.
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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2

Situation Paragraph, Continued

Attachments and Detachments

The attachments and detachments subparagraph covers any non-organic units that are attached or any organic units that are detached. At the squad level, there are usually never any detachments, but there are many cases when a machinegun or assault team can be attached to a squad. If there are no attachments or detachments, be sure to specify so to prevent confusion.

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2

Mission Paragraph

Importance

The mission statement is the shortest but most important paragraph of the five-paragraph order. The mission statement is the heart of the order and must stand alone without references to any document other than a map. The mission statement expresses the unit’s primary task and purpose by addressing the “five Ws”: · · · · · Who (Unit) What (Task) When (Time) Where (Location) Why (…in order to…)

Contents

Task Versus Purpose

The mission statement describes the task and the purpose. Of the two, the purpose is the most important. The situation may change, which changes the task, but the purpose still describes the commander’s desired goal. The purpose is always preceded by the words “in order to.” This phrase signals to all individuals receiving the order that they are about to get the purpose for the mission.

Mission Type Order

Remember what you learned about mission type orders in MCI Course 8014 Introduction to Warfighting. To allow the subordinate unit leader to exercise initiative and operate with a maneuver warfare mentality, the order must clearly state the purpose of the task, as well as the task itself. Knowing the purpose is what allows the subordinate unit leader to make adjustments on the battlefield as the situation changes.
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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2

Mission Paragraph, Continued

Standard The Marine Corps uses several standard tasks. Some offensive tasks and their Offensive Tasks meanings are to attack to

· · · ·

Destroy the enemy – kill personnel or destroy vehicles/buildings Clear terrain – push the enemy off a particular piece of ground Seize terrain – push the enemy off and retain control of a piece of ground Secure terrain – similar to seize in that you push the enemy off and retain control of a piece of ground, but for only a limited time

Standard The Marine Corps uses several standard defensive tasks as well. All of these Defensive Tasks tasks are centered on first establishing a defense and determining how the

defense should be focused. Some examples and their meanings are establishing a defense to · · · · · Retain terrain – to protect and hold a piece of terrain Disrupt the enemy – to cause enemy casualties and break up their formations Delay the enemy – to slow the enemy’s movement Block the enemy – to prevent the enemy from moving in a specific direction Attrit the enemy – to cause enemy casualties
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Mission Paragraph, Continued

Sample Purposes

The Marine Corps also uses some standard terminology for the purpose statement. Some of the terms and their meanings are · · · · · · · · · Allow – to let friendly forces do something Cause – to lead to a specific result Create – to make something happen (to create a breach in the enemy’s line) Deceive – to trick the enemy Deny – to prevent the enemy from doing something Enable – to allow friendly forces to do something Prevent – to stop the enemy from doing something Support – to aid another unit’s mission Surprise – to shock the enemy

Remember, this list is not all inclusive, but list, combined with the sample tasks, provides a baseline for writing orders.
Example Mission

At 1900, 2nd Squad attacks to clear the enemy forces in the vicinity of company objective A to prevent the enemy from delaying further operations. Notice that this example has answered all of the five Ws: · · · · · Who – 2nd Squad What – attack to clear (task) When – at 1900 Where – Company Objective A Why – in order to prevent the enemy (purpose)

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2

Execution Paragraph

Organization

The execution paragraph contains the “how to” information of the order. It lays out the plan for conducting the mission. While the mission statement is the heart of the order by establishing the purpose, the organization paragraph is the meat of the order by detailing how the purpose will be achieved and further explains the purpose by explaining the commander’s intent. The execution paragraph contains the following subparagraphs: · · · · Commander’s intent Concept of the operation Tasks Coordinating instructions

Commander’s Intent

Remember the importance of commander’s intent from MCI Course 8014 Introduction to Warfighting. The commander’s intent describes the commander’s desired end state of the operation. Remember how this information allows subordinates to act in a changing environment in the absence of additional orders. At the company level and below, the order conveys the commander’s intent throughout because the commander personally writes the order and focuses on the elements he finds the most vital. For orders at platoon level and below, the intent is generally the same as the mission purpose and is usually the same as the company commander’s intent.

Concept of the Operation

The concept of the operation details how the mission will be conducted. The concept of operations is where the order giver walks subordinates through the plan from beginning to end, explaining all the steps in between. The concept of operation subparagraph is further broken down into the following sections: · · · Scheme of maneuver Fire support plan Obstacle plan
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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2

Execution Paragraph, Continued

Scheme of Maneuver

In the scheme of maneuver section, using either a terrain model or a map graphic, the commander explains the plan. The plan is described in general terms without identifying specific units. The scheme of maneuver must be brief and in a logical order, beginning with the current location, continuing through each phase of the operation, and concluding at consolidation. In an offensive order, the scheme of maneuver contains the · · · · · Form of maneuver – how the unit will move Distribution of forces – who is the main effort and who is supporting Direction of movement – literally, north, south, east, or west Tactical control measures – boundaries and phase lines Consolidation – how the unit will reform after the attack

Offensive Scheme of Maneuver

Defensive Scheme of Maneuver

In a defensive order, the scheme of maneuver contains the · · · · · Defensive techniques – what kind of defense will be established Distribution of forces – who is in what position and who is the main effort Direction of fires – which way you are going to shoot Planned engagement areas – where you will try to engage the enemy Security plan – where the listening posts will go
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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2

Execution Paragraph, Continued

Fire Support Plan

The fire support plan subparagraph describes how the commander plans on using fire support to complement the scheme of maneuver. The fire support plan paragraph is not only for indirect fires, but can also detail how direct fire weapons like machineguns will be used for support. The following information should be included in the fire support plan: · · · · · · Purpose/concept of fire support – how the fire works with maneuver Priority of fire – what unit has the priority for indirect fires Preplanned targets – the location and description of any pre-designated targets Firing units – what firing units are in support and their locations Control measures – any permissive or restrictive control measures Allocation of targets – what are priority targets for fire support assets

Tasks

The tasks section is where each subordinate unit is given its specific mission to be accomplished and the main effort is designated. Each unit is included in its own separate paragraph. Each task statement becomes the subordinate units’ mission statements; so they must be worded to answer the five Ws. If a subordinate unit is given multiple tasks, they are further broken into subparagraphs, and if there is a priority within these tasks, it must also be stated. The subordinate tasking statements are given in a logical sequence from the start of the mission until the consolidation. These statements also need to include any tasks the commander thinks may arise.
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Execution Paragraph, Continued

Coordinating Instructions

This paragraph is the place to put the information that does not fit anywhere else in the order. Any information that is applicable to two or more subordinate units goes in the coordinating instructions section. Some items commonly addressed in this section are the · · · · · · · · · Order of movement and planned formations – who moves where and how do they move Consolidation plan – how the unit will reform after the attack Grids for control measures – where on the ground all control measures are Target precedence – mainly for crew-served weapons and rockets, a list of what targets should be engaged first Reporting requirements – what information must be reported to higher MOPP level – what the NBC gear requirement is Timelines – the time specific event will happen Safety Any other tasks that apply to two units

This list is by no means complete. The best way to treat the coordinating instructions paragraph is to include any information that you think must be given to subordinates that is not stated somewhere else in the order.

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2

Administration and Logistics Paragraph

Contents

The administration and logistics paragraph contains all the information required for the subordinate units to coordinate their initial supply, resupply, recovery of equipment, and evacuation of the wounded and prisoners of war (POWs). The administration and logistics paragraph covers the “Five Bs”: · · · · · Beans – Chow Bullets – Ammunition Batteries – Communication resupply Band-aids – Medical evacuation (MEDEVAC) Bad Guys – Enemy POWs (EPWs)

As the title suggests, the administration and logistics paragraph is broken into two subparagraphs: · ·
Administration

Administration Logistics

The administration subparagraph focuses on three main topics: · · · Evacuation of wounded (MEDEVAC) Handling of EPWs Civil-military cooperation
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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2

Administration and Logistics Paragraph, Continued

MEDEVAC Plan

The section that addresses the evacuation of the wounded must be thorough and complete. Too often leaders pay little attention to this subparagraph because we do not suffer casualties in training. The MEDEVAC plan needs to be well thought out and implemented. Concerns that should be addressed are · · · The location of the corpsman The location of the company aid station Who will · Serve as litter bearers · Call for the MEDEVAC · Be put in charge of executing the plan

At the platoon level, the platoon sergeant is often in charge of executing the plan. Remember, this plan will be implemented when the unit is consolidating after an engagement, and the unit leaders will be busy positioning their Marines and preparing for further enemy contact.
Handling EPWs

The section that addresses the handling of EPWs is also a plan that will be implemented during consolidation and needs to be well thought out. MCI Course 8016 Warfighting Techniques teaches the proper procedures for handling EPWs. The basic information that must be included in the order is · · Who will be the handling team Location to where EPWs are going to be evacuated

Civil Military Cooperation

The civil military cooperation section details any restrictions or limitations that exist when operating in a certain area, including restrictions on types of ammunition, etc.
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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2

Administration and Logistics Paragraph, Continued

Logistics

The logistics subparagraph covers the initial supply the Marines will need to accomplish the mission and the plan for resupply. The key issues that must be considered when planning logistical needs are · · · The length of the operation The potential for resupply during the operation Any special ammunition that may be required to accomplish the mission

Duration of the Operation

The length of time the mission will take directly impacts the logistical planning. Obviously, a lot more supplies are required to conduct a three-day reconnaissance patrol than a two-hour security patrol. The amount of supplies the Marines need before commencing the mission is spelled out in the logistics subparagraph. Resupply capabilities is another issue that can greatly impact the need for logistical planning. If the unit will be able to resupply during the operation, they will need to carry fewer supplies up front. The resupply capability does not have to be someone delivering food, water, and ammunition; it could be the ability to draw water from local sources or other means to reduce what the Marines need to carry. The resupply capability information is also stated in the logistics subparagraph. The last key issue to consider in the logistics subparagraph is the ordinance that is required to accomplish the mission. If the mission is a security patrol, the ammunition requirement is different than if the mission is to conduct a vehicle ambush. The mission and the commander’s plan directly impact the special ordinance information. All ammunition required must be discussed in the logistics section.

Resupply Capabilities

Special Ordinance

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2

Command and Signal Paragraph

Contents

The command and signal paragraph contains the instructions and information relating to the functions controlling the unit. The command and signal paragraph consists of two paragraphs: · · Signal Command

Signal

The signal subparagraph specifies the signal instructions to be used during the operation. The instructions include the · · · Primary and alternate signal plans Priority for using different methods of communications Times when the signal plan will change

The signal subparagraph is organized to contain, at a minimum, the · · · ·
Command

Communication plan (including primary and alternate call signs and frequencies) Visual signals required to conduct the concept of the operation Challenge and password and a running password Brevity codes and code words

The command subparagraph identifies the location of all the key leaders as required. At a minimum, the command subparagraph contains the · · · Location of the higher commander Order giver’s location before, during, and after the battle Succession of command of the unit leaders (i.e. 1st fire team leader, 2nd fire team leader, etc.)

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2

Lesson 2 Exercise

Estimated Study Time

10 minutes

Directions

Complete the following items. Check your answers against the correct answers at the end of this lesson. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. What is the primary purpose of an operations order? a. b. c. d. Convey a mission and a plan to accomplish that mission Relay standard information to subordinate leaders Develop the tactical plan to be used to accomplish a mission One time session to explain the plan to subordinates

Item 1

Item 2

Identify the three formats of operations order. a. b. c. d. Situation, mission, execution Fragmentary, five-paragraph, warning Alert, five-paragraph, FragO Five-paragraph, plan, warning
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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2 Exercise

Lesson 2 Exercise, Continued

Items 3 Through 5

Matching: In the space provided, place the letter of the purpose of the order from column 2 that matches the type of order in column 1. The answers in column 2 may be used only once. Column 1 Types of Orders ___ 3. ___ 4. ___ 5. Five-Paragraph Order Fragmentary Order Warning Order Column 2 Purposes of Orders a. Provides subordinates a “heads up” about a mission. b. Quickly tasks a subordinate for a follow-on mission. c. Provides detailed guidance on the plan for fire support. d. Gives the commander’s guidance for the operation. e. Gives detailed information on an upcoming operation.

Items 6 Through 8

Matching: In the space provided, place the letter of the use of the order from column 2 that matches the type of order in column 1. The answers in column 2 may be used only once. Column 1 Type of Order ___ 6. ___ 7. ___ 8. Five-Paragraph Order Fragmentary Order Warning Order Column 2 Use of Order a. Used by commanders to inform their subordinates of an upcoming mission. b. Used by commanders to sit all their subordinates down and give them a detailed plan. c. Used by commanders to develop their tactical plan. d. Used by commanders to quickly task their subordinates with a follow-on mission.
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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2 Exercise

Lesson 2 Exercise, Continued

Item 9

The five-paragraph order is usually used at the _________ level and it is designed to be given to subordinates _________. a. b. c. d. squad level and below; orally platoon level and below; orally platoon level and below; written company level and below; orally

Items 10 Through 14

Matching: In the space provided, place the letter of the purpose of the order paragraph from column 2 that matches the order paragraph in column 1. The answers in column 2 may be used only once. Column 1 Order Paragraph ___ 10. ___ 11. ___ 12. ___ 13. Situation Mission Execution Administration and Logistics ___ 14. Command and Signal Column 2 Purpose of Paragraph a. Lays out the plan for conducting the mission b. Lays out the purpose of the mission. c. Lays out the status and disposition of forces. d. Lays out the plans for controlling the unit. e. Lays out the plan for providing the 5 Bs.

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2 Exercise

Lesson 2 Exercise
Correct Answers

The table below provides the correct answers to the exercise items. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Item Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Answer a b e b a b d a d c b a e d Reference Page 1-13 1-14 1-14 1-15 1-14 1-16 1-15 1-14 1-16 1-17 1-21 1-24 1-28 1-31

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2 Exercise

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2 Exercise

LESSON 3 RECEIVING, TRANSCRIBING, AND ISSUING ORDERS Introduction

Estimated Study Time

25 minutes

Lesson Scope

In Lesson 2, you learned the format for operations orders used in the Marine Corps. This lesson will focus on the process of receiving an order from your commander and converting this information to prepare an order for your subordinates. After completing this lesson, you should be able to describe the process to · · · Identify the process to receive an operations order. Identify the process to transcribe an operations order. Identify the process to issue operations order.

Learning Objectives

In This Lesson

This lesson contains the following topics: Topic Introduction Receiving an Order Transcribing an Order Issuing an Order Lesson 3 Exercise See Page 1-37 1-38 1-40 1-44 1-46

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 3

Receiving an Order

Two Main Responsibilities

The two main items that need to be taken from the commander’s order are that you, as the recipient of the order, · · Must understand the mission, the tasks, the plan, and all the specifics of the commander’s order Need to extract information from the commander’s order to write the order you will give to your subordinates

Hold Questions

When receiving an order, the commander should tell all subordinates to hold all their questions until the end of the order so the commander can continue the order, possibly answering the questions along the way, without interruptions. However, take good notes and be sure to write down any questions so you do not forget them at the end of the order. Several things that can be accomplished to ease the actual process of receiving the order are to · · · · · · Always have laminated paper and non-water soluble markers to receive orders in bad weather. Always have a map handy to refer to during the receipt of the order. Develop a style of shorthand that allows for quick, yet understandable, writing. Listen to the entire order to ensure that you understand the entire operation. Arrive at the order early and sketch the terrain model so you can sketch the scheme of maneuver on the graphic instead of writing it down. Schedule a time, if possible, to use the commander’s terrain model to issue your order.
Continued on next page

Techniques for Getting the Order

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 3

Receiving an Order, Continued

Understanding the Order

You ensure that you fully understand the commander’s order by · · · Taking thorough notes throughout the order Paying attention to all parts of the order Asking questions

It is absolutely imperative that, when you leave the order, you fully understand all aspects of the operation because you will be giving the order to your subordinates. As a subordinate unit leader, the responsibility is on you to understand the commander’s intent and plan and to ensure that all of your Marines are fully informed before the line of departure is crossed.

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 3

Transcribing an Order

Purpose

To ensure the information the commander gave you is successfully passed on to your Marines, you must know how to transcribe the information in the commander’s order into the order you issue to your subordinates. In several instances information from the commander’s order is copied directly into your order. The transformation process is explained below. The orientation paragraph in your subordinate’s order is almost identical to the commander’s orientation. The subordinate’s order contains all the information in the commander’s order but may have additional control measures and objectives that apply only to the subordinate commander. The subparagraph containing the information on the enemy situation is identical between the two orders. Since all of the subordinate units are involved in the mission, they all need the full information on the enemy forces, regardless of their role in the mission.
Continued on next page

Orientation

Enemy Situation

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 3

Transcribing an Order, Continued

Friendly Situation

The friendly situation subparagraph contains most of the information in the commander’s order, but the organization differs in the following manner: · Higher – in the subordinate’s order, this information comes directly from the commander’s mission statement and intent. For example, in a squad order, this will contain the platoon’s mission and the platoon commander’s intent. Adjacent – this information comes directly from the task statements for the other subordinate units. For example, in a squad order, this will contain the other squads’ tasks. Supporting – this information carries directly over from the commander’s order but should be tailored for the level of support. For example, if an artillery battery is in direct support of the company, they are not in direct support of a platoon, and this needs to be clearly articulated. Security – this also comes directly from the commander’s order and should include all the security units the commander discussed. Attachments – this information will come from the commander’s task statements. If a non-organic unit will be attached to the subordinate unit, the commander will detail this in the execution paragraph.

·

·

· ·

Mission

The mission statement in the subordinate’s order is copied verbatim from the task statement the commander gave to the subordinate leader in the execution paragraph.
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Study Unit 1, Lesson 3

Transcribing an Order, Continued

Execution

The subordinate commander writes the majority of the execution paragraph from scratch. However, the commander must fit within the guidelines established by the commander’s order. The execution paragraph is created in the following manner: · Commander’s intent – the subordinate commander creates this; however, below the company level, the intent is usually copied from the higher commander’s intent and must fit within the subordinate unit’s task. Scheme of maneuver – the subordinate commander has free reign to develop his scheme of maneuver as long as it fits within the higher commander’s intent and the subordinates task statement. Fire support plan – the subordinate commander can tweak this section as needed, but below the company level, this information is usually copied from the higher commander’s order. Tasks – the subordinate commander creates these from scratch for his subordinates; they must fit within the subordinate’s scheme of maneuver. Coordinating instructions – Most of this section is copied directly from the commander’s order and will have any additional information that is applicable to the subordinate order.

·

·

· ·

Administration and Logistics

The administration and logistics paragraph takes the information from the commander’s order and tailors it as needed to adapt it for the subordinate unit. The majority of the logistic information remains the same as in the commander’s order, and the administration information is tied directly into the commander’s plan.
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Study Unit 1, Lesson 3

Transcribing an Order, Continued

Command and Signal

The command and signal information is also very similar to the commander’s order. Identical to the commander’s order are the · · · · Radio procedures Frequencies Challenge/passwords Brevity codes

The signal plan for executing the scheme of maneuver is also the same but may contain any specific signals the subordinate unit requires. The command paragraph is elevated one level. For example, a platoon order gives the company commander and platoon commander locations, while a squad order will give the platoon commander and squad leader locations.

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 3

Issuing an Order

Preparation

Remember what you first learned about the five-paragraph order: that it is designed to be given orally. The best written order will not be executed properly if the order giver does not fully prepare to give the order properly. The two ways to use a terrain model are · · The subordinate commander can try and use the commander’s terrain model to issue his order If the higher commander’s terrain model is not available, then the subordinate commander will need to have one built. Designate a Marine to build the terrain model while you are writing an order and, to ensure success, be sure that it · · · Is orientated to the ground and direction of movement Accurately depicts all the essential terrain Clearly depicts all trails, roads, vegetation, etc.

Terrain Model

Index Cards

Create a handful of laminated index cards that contain basic map symbols on them. Also have a few blank ones that you can write on as needed. Use these cards in conjunction with your terrain model to ensure the subordinates fully understand the situation and the scheme of maneuver. One of the worst crimes seniors in the Marine Corps commit is they do not give their subordinates enough time to plan. Proper use of the warning order can alleviate this, but subordinates still require the entire order with enough time left to prepare their Marines for the operation. Remember, a good order now is better than a perfect order too late!
Continued on next page

Timeliness

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 3

Issuing an Order, Continued

Delivery

Several things the commander can do to ensure the order is successfully delivered to his subordinates are to · · · · · Make sure the order is clear. An order that can be misunderstood will be. Make sure all subordinate leaders, including leaders of any attachments, are present. Not read the order. Refer to the order, but use the terrain model to walk through it. Repeat the mission statement to ensure everyone has it. Always conduct a back brief with your subordinates. A back brief is where your subordinates explain to you the overall plan, their mission, and the role they will play in the operation.

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 3

Lesson 3 Exercise

Estimated Study Time

10 minutes

Directions

Complete the following items. Check your answers against the correct answers at the end of this lesson. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. What are your two main responsibilities as the recipient of a commander’s order? a. Must thoroughly understand the commander’s order and extract information from it for your subordinates’ order b. Hold questions until the end of the commander’s order and sketch the terrain model c. Write questions to ask the commander at the end of the order and refer to your map to understand the order d. Take thorough notes throughout the commander’s order, including questions you must have answered, and designate someone to build a terrain model

Item 1

Item 2

When you receive an order from your commander, your unit’s mission statement comes from which section of the commander’s order? a. b. c. d. Task statement of the mission paragraph Mission section of the execution paragraph Task statement of the execution paragraph Commander’s intent in the execution paragraph

Item 3

When you give an order to your unit who, at a minimum, must attend? a. b. c. d. Organic subordinate unit leaders. All subordinate leaders, including attachments. All subordinate leaders with the entire unit. Only the individuals who are available at the time.
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Study Unit 1, Lesson 3 Exercise

Lesson 3 Exercise, Continued

Correct Answers

The table below provides the correct answers to the exercise items. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Item Number 1 2 3 Answer a c b Reference Page 1-38 1-41 1-45

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 3 Exercise

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 3 Exercise

STUDY UNIT 3 SQUAD DEFENSIVE TACTICS Overview

Estimated Study Time

2 hours, 35 minutes

Unit Scope

This study unit will introduce you to the purpose and characteristics of the defense as an integral element of the Marine Corps warfighting doctrine. Lesson 1 explains the specifics of the organization of the rifle squad in the defense, including defensive security measures, communications considerations, and weapons employment. Lesson 2 expands on some of the basic concepts as you are introduced to the organization of the defense at the company level, basic defensive techniques, and some considerations for conducting the defense. After the defensive concepts, tactics, and techniques taught in lessons 1 and 2, you will compile all the knowledge of the defense together in lesson 3. You will have all the knowledge necessary to plan all phases of the defense and to write a defensive operations order. Also, the basic concepts for planning and employment of the reserve and counterattack will be discussed, along with several other defensive operations. By the end of the study unit, you will understand that defensive operations require flexible planning and execution at the company level from all unit leaders.
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Study Unit 3

Overview, Continued

Learning Objectives

After completing this unit, you should be able to · · · · · · Identify defensive techniques at the squad and platoon level. Identify the three echelons of a defensive area. Identify techniques for defensive formations. Identify how to write a defensive operations order. Identify the components for conducting the defense. Identify techniques for defensive operations.

In This Study Unit

This study unit contains the following lessons. Topic Lesson 1 Fundamentals of the Defense Lesson 2 Defensive Scheme of Maneuver Lesson 3 Conduct of the Defense See Page 3-3 3-33 3-45

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Study Unit 3

LESSON 1 FUNDAMENTALS OF THE DEFENSE Introduction

Estimated Study Hours

40 minutes

Lesson Scope

The mastery of defensive concepts, tactics, and techniques is crucial to achieving success on the modern battlefield. Innovative defensive tactics, techniques, and procedures continue to develop and will continue to enhance our combat effectiveness in the defense. The common denominator within these concepts is that they are not effective at all if combat leaders are not masters of the basic defensive fundamentals and techniques. This lesson will concentrate on these important defensive fundamentals focusing primarily on the squad and platoon levels. After completing this lesson, you should be able to · · · · · · · · · Identify the purpose of the defense. Identify the characteristics of the defense. Identify the definitions for defensive mission. Identify the organization of a fire team in the defense. Identify the considerations of the fire team defensive plan. Identify considerations for individual fighting positions. Identify the organization of the rifle squad in the defense. Identify the considerations of the rifle squad defense plan. Identify the different active security measures in the defense.
Continued on next page

Learning Objectives

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 1

Introduction, Continued

Learning Objectives, continued

· ·

Identify the passive security measures in the defense. Identify the considerations for employing weapons systems in the defense.

In This Lesson

This lesson contains the following topics: Topic Introduction Purpose of Defense Characteristics of Defense Key Terminology Fire Teams in the Defense Rifle Squads in the Defense Active Security Measures in the Defense Passive Security Measures in the Defense Weapons Employment in the Defense Lesson 1 Exercise See Page 3-3 3-5 3-6 3-9 3-13 3-16 3-19 3-22 3-24 3-26

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 1

Purpose of Defense

General

The purpose of the defense is to defeat an enemy attack. Specifically, the purpose of defense is to · · · · · Develop more favorable conditions for offensive operations Gain time for other preparations Allow a higher commander to concentrate forces elsewhere Control key enemy forces as a prelude to offensive operations Retain key or decisive terrain or to prevent the enemy’s capture of terrain

Specifics

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 1

Characteristics of Defense

Planning and Conducting Defensive Operations

Consider the characteristics of the defense when planning or conducting defensive operations. · · · · · · · · · · Preparation Disruption Concentration Flexibility Proper use of terrain Security Mutual support Defense in depth Coordinated obstacle planning Coordinated fire planning

Preparation

You must make the most thorough preparations for combat that time allows by · · · · Analyzing METT-TSL and understanding the tactical situation thoroughly Identifying potential friendly and enemy strengths and weaknesses Developing a defensive plan Posting local security to provide early warning of an enemy attack

Disruption

In the defense, you focus on countering your attacker’s initiative. To prevent your attacker from concentrating overwhelming combat power against your defense, you must · · · · · Patrol aggressively Plan counterattacks Use integrating fires and obstacles Retain key or decisive terrain Disrupt the enemy attacks as far from friendly positions as possible using direct and indirect fires

Concentration

You must be able to concentrate combat power at the decisive time and place. You may have to accept risk in one part of the defense to mass combat power in another.
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Study Unit 3, Lesson 1

Characteristics of Defense, Continued

Flexibility

Your defense should be flexible enough to deal with a variety of enemy courses of action. This flexibility results from · · · · · · A detailed estimate of the situation An understanding of the unit’s mission Aggressive reconnaissance and security Organization in depth Retention of a reserve Using alternate positions, supplementary positions, and a reserve to react to various contingencies

Proper Use of Terrain

In defense, take maximum advantage of terrain by placing troops and weapons in positions that offer · · · · Good observation sites Fields of fire Cover and concealment Control of enemy avenues of approach

Security

Adopt security measures to cause the enemy to attack · · With limited information on the defense Under unfavorable conditions

Use active and passive security measures to protect units against · · Ground observation Surprise from any direction
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Study Unit 3, Lesson 1

Characteristics of Defense, Continued

Mutual Support

Position units so they can reinforce each other · · By fire Through movement

Where gaps exist, emphasize · · · ·
Defense in Depth

Timely exchange of information Coordinated · Surveillance · Fires Final protective fires Patrolling

Organize defense in depth to preserve the integrity of the defense by · · · · · Planning fires throughout the depth of the defensive area Conducting combat patrols Establishing sentinel posts or listening posts (SPs/LPs) Organizing supplementary and alternate positions Shifting fire into threatened areas

Coordinated Obstacle Planning

Using obstacles significantly enhances the strength of your defense. Plan obstacles by reinforcing natural obstacles with constructed obstacles to turn, fix, or block enemy movement. Carefully plan and closely integrate the fires of infantry weapons, artillery, naval gunfire, and close air support into the defensive scheme and obstacle plan.

Coordinated Fire Planning

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 1

Key Terminology

Sector of Fire

Sector of fire is an area that is required to be covered by the fire of · · · An individual A unit (squad or fire team) A crew-served weapon

The area is wedge-shaped, enclosed by two lateral limits and a forward front. Leaders use overlapping, adjacent sectors of fire to provide the best · · Distribution of available firepower Coverage of the area to the front

Leaders assign responsibility for and ensure distribution of fires across the platoon and squad front.
Lateral Limits

Lateral limits are readily identifiable objects or terrain features to indicate the line of sight along each side of the sector of fire. Features should be located near the forward limit of the sector of fire so that all fire team members assigned to cover the sector use the same limiting features. Aiming stakes, useful during periods of limited visibility, can be used as indicators of lateral limits once the sector of fire is determined.

Forward Limits Forward limits, also called trigger lines, give the squad leader a positive

means of control for small arms fire. Forward limits are established at the range at which a specific weapon will open fire on the enemy. Select an identifiable terrain feature to locate the forward limit. For rifles and squad automatic weapons, forward limits may extend up to their maximum effective range.
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Study Unit 3, Lesson 1

Key Terminology, Continued

Fighting Positions

Fighting positions, as shown below, are locations on the ground from which an individual, a unit (squad or fire team), or a crew-served weapon may deliver fire. Before selecting a fighting position, carefully examine the assigned sector of fire from the prone position to ensure that it can be covered effectively. A good fighting position · · · Allows for good fields of fire Maximizes available cover and concealment Facilitates the unit leader’s exercise of control

Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 1

Key Terminology, Continued

Primary Fighting Position

A primary fighting position, as shown below, is the best available position from which the assigned sector of fire can be covered. Individuals, fire teams, squads, and crew-served weapons are assigned primary positions. An alternate fighting position, as shown below, is assigned to a crew-served weapon or unit when the primary position becomes unsuitable for mission success. The alternate fighting position is located so that crew-served weapons or units can continue to fulfill its original task. A supplementary fighting position, as shown below, is a secondary position that does not cover the same sector of fire as the primary position. A supplementary fighting position enhances a unit’s flexibility by guarding against attack from various directions.

Alternate Fighting Position

Supplementary Fighting Position

Continued on next page
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Study Unit 3, Lesson 1

Key Terminology, Continued

Principal Direction of Fire

A principal direction of fire (PDF) is the specific direction within the sector of fire normally assigned to an automatic weapon or M203 grenade launcher and designated as its primary fire mission. Only a weapon, not units, are assigned a PDF. Each weapon is assigned only one PDF. PDF is used to · · · Cover a gap in a final protective line of a machinegun Cover a specific terrain feature endangering the battle position and which may be serving as an enemy vantage point Protect a crew-served weapon or an adjacent unit by firing across its front

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 1

Fire Teams In the Defense

Organization of the Ground

Squad leaders · Organize fire teams in the defense by specifying each fire team’s · General location · Sectors of fire which should overlap to ensure mutual support and complete coverage of the entire squad sector of fire · PDF for the squad automatic weapon (SAW) · · Select identifiable features to indicate lateral and forward limits of the sector of fire Point out the general location on the ground where fighting positions should be established (fire team leader generally determines exact location)
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Study Unit 3, Lesson 1

Fire Teams In the Defense, Continued

Fire Team Defensive Plan

The fire team is the basic fire unit of the rifle platoon. Fire team leaders formulate their defensive plans to cover their assigned sectors with the heaviest possible volume of fire, as shown in the figure below. Their fire plans should include assignment of · · · Individual sectors of fire, which all together should cover the entire fire team sector of fire Individual fighting positions, lateral limits of which are the same as the lateral limits for the fire team The PDF for the SAW—when it is impractical for the automatic riflemen to cover the entire squad sector of fire with their SAWs, they are only assigned their fire team’s sector of fire

Fire team leaders forward information to the squad leader in the form of fire team fire plan sketches.

Fire Team Fire Plan
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Study Unit 3, Lesson 1

Fire Teams In the Defense, Continued

Individual Fighting Positions

Individual fighting positions should be constructed so they · · · · Protect the individuals in all directions Allow individuals to fire their assigned sectors Are concealed from enemy observation Can be observed and supported by the fires of at least two other positions

Individual fighting positions may be a one-man hole, but the two-man hole is the preferred method. The two-man hole allows for added security and the execution of a rest plan. Individual fighting positions should be at intervals of 10–25 meters, according to mission, enemy, terrain, and ability to cover the assigned frontage.

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 1

Rifle Squads in the Defense

Organization of the Ground

Rifle squads, as shown below, are organized in the defense by specifying squad sectors of fire and squad primary fighting positions. Squads can · · Physically occupy a front of about 100 meters Defend 200–250 meters of frontage (generally speaking)

The platoon commander · · · · Selects terrain features to indicate lateral and forward limits of the squad’s sector of fire Selects the general location of the squad fighting positions Designates PDF for specific SAWs that are critical to the defense of entire platoon May assign supplementary fighting positions to protect the flanks or rear of the platoon’s defensive position

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 1

Rifle Squads in the Defense, Continued

Rifle Squad Defensive Fire Plan

Squad leaders formulate the squad defensive fire plans for the purpose of assigning primary fighting positions and covering the sector of fire. The plan includes the assignment of · · · · Fire team sectors of fire Fire team fighting positions PDF for the SAWs The squad leader’s fighting position

Squad leaders are not assigned individual sectors of fire because their primary duty during the conduct of the defense is to direct and control their unit’s fires.
Positioning of Fire Teams

Squad leaders distribute their fire teams to physically occupy the assigned fighting positions and to be able to cover the squad sector of fire. Fire teams are positioned abreast of each other and face the expected direction of enemy attack to deliver the heaviest volume of fire. Fighting positions may be staggered to take advantage of terrain; however, fire teams should not be isolated or their fires masked. The SAW is · · The primary weapon of the squad’s defense An infantry platoon’s · Organic machinegun · Primary weapon against dismounted infantry

Squad Automatic Weapon

Platoon commanders designate general fighting positions and PDFs for specific SAWs. Squad leaders assign a PDF for each SAW not assigned by the platoon commander and select the exact fighting position for each SAW. The remainder of the fire team is positioned around the SAW.
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Study Unit 3, Lesson 1

Rifle Squads in the Defense, Continued

Support for Crew-served Weapons

Fire team fighting positions are selected · In coordination with the location of the crew-served weapons in the squad fighting position. Crew-served weapons are always placed in the defense first; the infantry are positioned to protect and augment these crew-served weapons. To provide close-in protection. When crew-served weapons are positioned within a squad position, squad leaders take the additional task of providing protection for the weapons system.

·

Position of the Squad Leader

Squad leaders are usually positioned · · Slightly to the rear of the fire teams In the center of the squad fighting position

The squad leaders must be positioned so that they can · · · Observe their squad’s sector of fire Observe and control their squad’s fighting position, particularly the positions of the fire team leaders Maintain contact with the platoon commander

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3-18

Study Unit 3, Lesson 1

Active Security Measures in the Defense

Fundamentals

In the defense, infantry units attempt to surprise the enemy and initiate contact so that enemy plans are interrupted. To capitalize on the element of surprise, infantry in defensive positions must remain undetected. Infantry platoons must conceal the location and preparation of their positions through the use of camouflage techniques and a strict adherence to noise and light discipline. Platoons provide their own local security throughout the execution of the defense through · · · Patrolling Using SPs/LPs Assigning Marines to provide local security close to the defensive positions while the defense is being prepared

Actions taken to enhance a unit’s security that directly affect the enemy include SPs and/or LPs, stand-to, and patrols.
Purpose of SPs/LPs

SPs/LPs are designed to · · Provide continuous observation of the most likely enemy avenues of approach into the defensive positions Detect enemy presence before the enemy can determine the size, location, and disposition of the defense.

During occupation of the defense, SPs/LPs are the first element emplaced within the defensive position. When moving the defensive position, SPs/LPs are the last element to withdraw.
Continued on next page

MCI Course 8015A

3-19

Study Unit 3, Lesson 1

Active Security Measures in the Defense, Continued

Positioning of SPs/LPs

SPs/LPs always consist of a minimum of two Marines that have direct communication with the platoon headquarters. SPs/LPs are positioned in accordance with METT-TSL. SPs are positioned during the day, generally one terrain feature forward of the defense. LPs are positioned · · · At night or during periods of limited visibility Closer to the defense to maintain positive control To enhance the ease of relief or withdrawal

SPs/LPs Considerations

When positioning SPs/LPs, consider that they · · · · · · · Must be situated to allow observation of designated area Should take advantage of natural cover and concealment to protect the Marines manning it Are located within small arms range of the platoon positions Have concealed routes to and from them Avoid positioning on obvious terrain features such as hilltops Should have primary and alternate means of communication to report what they see and hear Should plan for special equipment to include binoculars, compass, night vision devices, trip flares, etc.

Marines manning the SPs/LPs must be aware of special instructions such as · · · · · Challenge and passwords When to engage the enemy Conditions for withdrawal Relief times Contingency plans for loss of communications
Continued on next page

MCI Course 8015A

3-20

Study Unit 3, Lesson 1

Active Security Measures in the Defense, Continued

Defensive Responsibilities

Once the squad leader positions and briefs the Marines, one Marine records and observes, while the other Marine · · · · Establishes security Prepares position to include range cards Rotates as observer every 20 to 30 minutes Briefs relief on any information or special instructions

Patrols

Patrols are a necessity in the defense. Actively patrol the front and flanks of units while in defensive operations to · · · · Deny enemy ability to conduct reconnaissance, surveillance, and infiltration Warn of an enemy attack Establish or maintain contact with the enemy Establish and relieve SPs/LPs

Patrol actions include · · Ambushes Observation of Dead space Gaps between units Gaps between lanes of fire Gaps between tactical and protective wire Open flanks

·

· · · ·

All patrols not initiated by higher command must be coordinated with higher commands.

MCI Course 8015A

3-21

Study Unit 3, Lesson 1

Passive Security Measures in the Defense

Definition

Passive security measures are those actions taken to enhance a unit’s security that do not directly affect the enemy. These measures include · · · · Cover and concealment Noise, light, and litter discipline Control of nonessential movement Proper radio-telephone procedures

Cover and Concealment

All Marines, their equipment, weapons, and fighting positions must blend in with the natural surroundings to avoid detection. Wear helmets and flak jackets during tactical operations, especially against an enemy with significant indirect fire power capability. Use · · · · · Camouflage paint Vegetation Dirt Burlap Any other means to breakup the outline of personnel or manmade objects

Check fighting positions · ·
Noise, Light, and Litter Discipline

From the enemy’s point of view, if possible To be sure they have at least 18 inches of overhead cover

During preparation, squad leaders inspect their squads and identify shortcomings in noise, light, and litter discipline. Marines should be reminded to · · · · Use a poncho to conceal any light necessary for planning or map reading Refrain from lighting cigarettes, squad stoves, or any light source during daylight or darkness without permission Use nonverbal means of communication to the maximum extent possible Collect and carry trash until it can be disposed of securely
Continued on next page

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3-22

Study Unit 3, Lesson 1

Passive Security Measures in the Defense, Continued

Control of Nonessential Movement

Well-camouflaged positions are easily compromised if the enemy’s attention is drawn to moving individuals or vehicles. Therefore, keep movement to a minimum and use covered and concealed routes between fighting positions. Also avoid prolonged standing near fighting positions. Communication wire and messengers are the preferred methods for communication in the defense. Communicate on the radio only when absolutely necessary. Messages should be clear, concise, and complete. Use authentication and encryption/decryption over unsecured radio nets.

Proper RadioTelephone Procedures

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3-23

Study Unit 3, Lesson 1

Weapons Employment in the Defense

Fundamentals

Defensive success depends on the positioning of Marines and weapons. To position their weapons effectively, all leaders must know the · · · Characteristics, capabilities, and limitations of their weapons Effects of the terrain Tactics used by the enemy

Position weapons where they · · ·
Rifles

Are protected Can avoid detection Can engage the enemy with accurate, lethal fires

Under the guidance of the squad leader, fire team leaders · · Assign positions and sectors of fire to each rifleman in the squad Position the riflemen to · Support and protect crew-served weapons. · Cover obstacles and gaps between units. · Provide security or observation.

Grenade Launchers

The M203 grenade launcher is the squad leader’s indirect fire weapon and provides illumination during periods of reduced visibility. The squad leader · · Assigns the M203 a principal direction of fire. Also assigns an individual sector of fire for the M16A2 rifle that should cover the fire team sector of fire. Positions the M203 to cover dead space in the squad’s sector of fire, especially dead space along machinegun FPLs and PDFs.
Continued on next page

MCI Course 8015A

3-24

Study Unit 3, Lesson 1

Weapons Employment in the Defense, Continued

Machineguns

The M240G is the rifle company’s primary weapon against dismounted enemy. The M240G provides a high volume of lethal, accurate fires to break up and repel enemy attacks. It has limited effect against armored vehicles. Position machineguns to · · · · Concentrate fires along likely avenues of approach Fire across a unit’s frontage Cover obstacles by fire Tie-in with adjacent units

Each machinegun is assigned a defensive mission, either a FPL or a PDF, to accomplish within its sector of fire. Machineguns are free to engage targets within their sector.
Anti-Armor Weapons

The AT-4, SMAW, and Dragon are the anti-armor weapons that support the rifle platoon and company. Position anti-armor weapons along likely enemy mechanized avenues of approach. The platoon commander approves sectors of fire and primary and supplementary positions for each anti-armor weapon. The anti-armor unit leader selects alternate positions. Each position should allow flank fire and cover and concealment.

MCI Course 8015A

3-25

Study Unit 3, Lesson 1

Lesson 1 Exercise

Estimated Study Time

15 minutes

Directions

Complete the following items. Check your answers against the correct answers at the end of this lesson. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. To answer the question below, select · · · · a if only 1, 2, and 3 are correct b if only 1, 3, and 4 are correct c if only 1 and 3 are correct d if all four are correct

Item 1

Which of the following statements best defines the purpose of the defense? 1. 2. 3. 4. Allows a higher commander to concentrate forces elsewhere. Gain time for other preparations. Defeat an enemy attack. Control key enemy forces as a prelude to offensive operations.
Continued on next page

MCI Course 8015A

3-26

Study Unit 3, Lesson 1 Exercise

Lesson 1 Exercise, Continued

Items 2 Through 11

Matching: In the space provided, place the letter of the definition from column 2 that matches the characteristics in column 1. The answers in column 2 may only be used once. Column 1 Characteristics ___ 2. ___ 3. ___ 4. ___ 5. ___ 6. ___ 7. ___ 8. ___ 9. ___ 10. Preparation Disruption Concentration Flexibility Proper utilization of terrain Security Mutual support Defense in depth Coordinated obstacle planning ___ 11. Coordinated fire planning Column 2 Definitions a. Ability to concentrate combat power at the decisive time and place b. Use active and passive security measures to protect unit against ground observation c. Accomplished through aggressive patrolling, planning counterattacks, integrating fires and obstacles d. Maximum advantage of terrain by placing troops and weapons in positions that offer good fields of fire e. Use of obstacles significantly enhances defensive strength f. Thoroughly prepare for combat in time allowed g. Using alternate and supplementary positions and a reserve to react to various contingencies h. Fires are planned throughout the depth of the defensive area i. Integrating the fires of infantry weapons, artillery, naval gunfire, and use of close air support in defensive scheme j. Position units so they can reinforce each other by fire and movement
Continued on next page

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3-27

Study Unit 3, Lesson 1 Exercise

Lesson 1 Exercise, Continued

Item 12

Which of the following are basic terms that allow leaders to communicate more effectively when planning a defense? a. Sector of fire, lateral limits, security patrols, fighting position b. Alternate fighting positions, forward limits, battle position, principal direction of fire c. Supplementary fighting position, lateral limits, forward limits, principal direction of fire d. Principal direction of fire, adjacent sectors, lateral limits, fighting position

Item 13

Which of the following is correct when organizing the fire team in the defense? a. The fire team leader generally determines the exact location. b. Fire team sectors of fire should not overlap but ensure mutual support and complete coverage. c. The platoon commander organizes fire teams in the defense by specifying the fire team’s general location. d. The fire team leader points out the general location on the ground of the fire team fighting positions to be established.

Item 14

To answer the question below, select · · · · a if only 1, 2, and 3 are correct. b if only 1, 3, and 4 are correct. c if only 1 and 3 are correct. d if all four are correct.

Which of the following are considerations when developing a fire team defensive plan? 1. Information is forwarded to the squad leader in the form of a fire team fire plan sketch. 2. Ensure that the lateral limits for each fire team are the same. 3. Fire plan should include assignment of individual sectors of fire and the assigned principle direction of fire for the SAW. 4. The fire team leader formulates his defensive plan from the squad leader’s defensive plan.
Continued on next page
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3-28

Study Unit 3, Lesson 1 Exercise

Lesson 1 Exercise, Continued

Item 15

Which of the following is correct when constructing individual fighting positions? a. Individual fighting positions may consist of either one-man or two-man holes. b. Every position should be observed and supported by the fires of every other position. c. Every position should be concealed from enemy observation and provide protection from flanking assaults. d. The interval between positions is always 10–25 meters and based on the squad leader’s guidance.

Item 16

Which of the following is correct when organizing a rifle squad in the defense? a. Rifle squads can physically occupy a front of about 100 feet and defend 200 to 250 feet of frontage. b. May assign primary fighting positions to protect the flanks or rear of the platoon’s defensive position. c. Organized in the defense by specifying platoon battle areas and primary squad fighting positions. d. Fire team leader designates principal directions of fire for specific SAWs that are critical to defense of entire platoon.

Item 17

Which of the following is correct when determining where the squad leader should be positioned in the defense? a. A position close to the company’s headquarters to receive further missions. b. A position where the squad leader can maintain contact with the platoon commander. c. A position where the squad leader can observe the engagement area. d. A position usually slightly to the front of the fire teams.
Continued on next page

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3-29

Study Unit 3, Lesson 1 Exercise

Lesson 1 Exercise, Continued

Item 18

What are the active security measures that can be used in the defense? a. b. c. d. Sentinel posts/listening posts, stand-to, patrols Sentinel posts/listening posts, patrols, noise discipline Sentinel posts/listening posts, cover and concealment, stand-to Sentinel posts/listening posts, counter-reconnaissance, patrols

Item 19

List three passive security measures that can be used in the defense? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

Item 20

To answer the question below, select · · · · a if only 1, 2, and 3 are correct b if only 1, 3, and 4 are correct c if only 1 and 3 are correct d if all four are correct

Which of the following are considerations when employing weapons in the defense? 1. Position weapons where they have protection and can engage the enemy with accurate, lethal fires. 2. Position riflemen to support and protect crew-served weapons. 3. Grenade launchers are assigned a principal direction of fire and cover dead space. 4. Anti-armor weapons are positioned along likely mechanized avenues of approach

MCI Course 8015A

3-30

Study Unit 3, Lesson 1 Exercise

Lesson 1 Exercise Solutions

Correct Answers

The table below provides the correct answers to the exercise items. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Item Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Answer d f c a g d b j h e i c a c d d b a Cover and concealment Noise, light, and litter discipline Control of nonessential movement Proper radiotelephone procedures d Reference Page 3-5 3-6 3-6 3-6 3-7 3-7 3-7 3-8 3-8 3-8 3-8 3-9 – 3-12 3-13 3-14 3-15 3-16 3-18 3-19 3-22

· · · ·

20

3-24 – 3-25

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 1 Exercise

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 1 Exercise

LESSON 2 DEFENSIVE SCHEME OF MANEUVER Introduction

Estimated Study Hours

30 minutes

Lesson Scope

In Lesson 1, you were introduced to the purpose and characteristics of the defense as an integral element of the Marine Corps warfighting doctrine. The basic concepts were established including the organization of the Marine rifle squad in the defense, defense security measures, and weapons employment. In Lesson 2, you will learn about the organization of the defense at the company level, basic defensive techniques, and the considerations for conducting the defense. After completing this lesson, you should be able to · · · · · Identify the three echelons of a defensive area. Identify the three basic defense techniques. Identify the characteristics of a perimeter defense. Identify the characteristics of a linear defense. Identify the characteristics of a reverse slope defense.
Continued on next page

Learning Objectives

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3-33

Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Introduction, Continued

Lesson Content

The following table lists the topics covered in this lesson. Topic Organization of the Defense Defensive Formations Lesson 2 Exercise See Page 3-35 3-36 3-42

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Organization of the Defense

Three Echelons

The defensive area is divided into three echelons: · · · Security area Main battle area (MBA) Rear area

Security Area

The security area · · · Is the furthest forward of the three echelons Is the area forward of the forward edge of the battle area (FEBA) Extends forward to the positions assigned to the security forces

Main Battle Area

The MBA is · · The area extending from the FEBA to the rear boundary of the forward subordinate units Organized by assigning battle positions or defensive sectors to subordinate units

Battalions, companies, and platoons defend the MBA from sectors or battle positions within a regimental sector.
Rear Area

The rear area extends from the rear boundary of the MBA to the rear of the area of responsibility of the next lower level of command.

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3-35

Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Defensive Formations

Three Basic Techniques

Many techniques can be used in the defense to capitalize on the abilities of infantry forces. No single best technique exists for defending successfully. The ideal solution is often a combination of different techniques and is generally based on the commander’s estimate of the situation. The three basic defensive techniques are · · · Perimeter defense Linear defense Reverse slope defense

Perimeter Defense

Perimeter defense is · A defense without an exposed flank with · Forces deployed along the perimeter of the defended area oriented in all directions · Interlocking and overlapping fields of fire Used when securing an isolated objective such as a · Bridge · Landing zone (LZ) · Assembly area · Patrol base Effective · During semi-independent operations · During resupply · When a unit is isolated by the enemy and must defend in place
Continued on next page

·

·

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Defensive Formations, Continued

Perimeter Defense Illustration

The figure below illustrates a platoon perimeter defense.

Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Defensive Formations, Continued

Linear Defense

A linear defense (illustrated below) · · · · Calls for interlocking and overlapping observation and fields of fire to prevent penetration across a unit’s front Generally deploys a company’s bulk of combat power well forward to achieve interlocking sectors of fire between platoons Must have sufficient resources available to provide adequate combat power across the frontage to detect and stop an attack Relies on · Fighting from well-prepared mutually supporting positions · A high volume of direct and indirect fires Uses a reserve, usually no larger than a platoon, to · Reinforce forward units · Give depth to the defense to block penetrations and counterattack to regain key terrain

·

Continued on next page
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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Defensive Formations, Continued

Advantages of the Linear Defense

Advantages of a linear defense are that · · · Defensible terrain is available in the forward portion of the company’s sector It can take advantage of a major linear natural obstacle (river, ridgeline, etc.) Natural or manmade obstacles neutralize the mobility of a mounted enemy, forcing him to attack dismounted

Linear defense is effective when · · ·
Disadvantages of the Linear Defense

Defending against an enemy that is mainly infantry Conducting a security mission such as counter-infiltration Specific terrain along the forward edge of the battlefield must be retained

Disadvantages of the linear defense are the · · · Lack of flexibility and the difficulty in seizing the initiative and seeking out enemy weaknesses Difficulty of repositioning forces (laterally and in depth) to reinforce areas or to prevent a penetration Lack of planning for obstacles, indirect fires, and effective contingencies resulting in failure of the linear defense
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Defensive Formations, Continued

Reverse Slope Defense

The reverse slope defense is organized to use a topographical crest to mask the unit from the enemy’s observation, direct fire, and supporting indirect fire. Although some units and weapons may be placed on the forward slope, the crest, or the counter-slope (a forward slope of a hill or the rear of a reverse slope), most of them are positioned on the reverse slope. Moving to the reverse slope removes the enemy’s standoff advantage. Units may adopt a reverse slope position when · · · Enemy fire makes the forward slope untenable Lack of cover and concealment on the forward slope makes it untenable The forward slope is exposed to enemy direct fire weapons beyond the effective range of your unit’s weapons

Advantages to the Reverse Slope Defense

The key to the reverse slope defense is control of the topographical crest by fire and observation forward of the topographical crest. The terrain protects the unit from long-range direct fire and reduces the effects of indirect fire due to the inability of the enemy to adjust his fires. Friendly units have the advantage of surprise and the masking effects of the slope on the communication assets. Disadvantages of the reverse slope defense are that · · It limits the ability of friendly units to observe the enemy and engage him at the maximum effective range by direct fire The enemy has the advantage of attacking downhill if they gain the crest.
Continued on next page

Disadvantages of the Reverse Slope Defense

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3-40

Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Defensive Formations, Continued

Reverse Slope Defense Illustrated

The figure below illustrates the reverse slope defense.

MCI Course 8015A

3-41

Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Lesson 2 Exercise

Estimated Study Time

10 minutes

Directions

Complete the following items. Check your answers against the correct answers at the end of this lesson. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. List the three echelons of the defensive area. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

Item 1

Item 2

List the three basic defense techniques. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________
Continued on next page

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3-42

Study Unit 3, Lesson 2 Exercise

Lesson 2 Exercise, Continued

Items 3 Through 7

Matching: In the space provided, place the letter of the terms from column 2 that matches the characteristics in column 1. The answers in column 2 may be used more than once. Column 1 Characteristics Column 2 Terms

a. Reverse slope defense ___ 3. Used when securing an b. Linear defense isolated objective such as a bridge, LZ, assembly area, or c. Perimeter defense patrol base ___ 4. Technique calls for interlocking and overlapping observation and fields of fire to prevent penetration across a unit’s front ___ 5. Organized to use a topographical crest to mask the unit from the enemy’s observation and direct fire ___ 6. Used when defending against an enemy that is mainly infantry ___ 7. Terrain protects the unit from long range direct fire and reduces the effects of indirect fire due to the inability of the enemy to adjust his fires

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3-43

Study Unit 3, Lesson 2 Exercise

Lesson 2 Exercise Solutions

Correct Answers

The table below provides the correct answers to the exercise items. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Item Number 1 · · · · · · Answer Security area Main battle area Rear area Perimeter defense Linear defense Reverse slope defense c b a b a Reference Page 3-39

2

3-40

3 4 5 6 7

3-40 3-42 3-44 3-43 3-44

MCI Course 8015A

3-44

Study Unit 3, Lesson 2 Exercise

LESSON 3 CONDUCT OF THE DEFENSE Introduction

Estimated Study Hours

40 minutes

Lesson Scope

The unit leader must thoroughly plan all phases of his defense. Without prior planning, the occupation is confused, takes an inordinate amount of time, and often results in poor security. All occupation plans should logistically support the defensive concept and provide for the security of the force. A unit occupying the defense must take full advantage of cover, concealment, limited visibility periods, and available time in preparing and conducting the defense. After completing this lesson, you should be able to: · · · · · · Identify the information covered in the attachment paragraph of the defensive operations order. Identify the missions that units can assume while conducting defensive operations. Identify details outlined in the coordinating instructions of the defensive operations order. Identify the phases of conducting the defense. Identify the actions that occur during the reconnaissance phase of the defense. Identify the principles for movement while occupying the defense.
Continued on next page

Learning Objectives

MCI Course 8015A

3-45

Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

Introduction, Continued

Learning Objectives, continued

· · · · · · ·

Identify the considerations for occupying a defensive area. Identify the actions that must be taken while fighting the defense. Identify the purpose of the reserve. Identify the primary missions of the reserve. Identify the purpose of the counterattack. Identify the two types of counterattacks. Identify the other types of defensive operations.

In This Lesson

This lesson contains the following topics: Topic Introduction Writing the Defensive Operations Order Conduct of the Defense The Reserve The Counterattack Other Defensive Operations Lesson 3 Exercises See Page 3-47 3-52 3-57 3-59 3-61 3-64

MCI Course 8015A

3-46

Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

Writing the Defensive Operations Order
SMEAC

The defensive operations order has five main paragraphs, similar to the operations order discussed in Study Unit 1, represented by the acronym SMEAC. However, some other considerations will be discussed that pertain directly to defensive operations and should be thoroughly planned out and briefed when writing your defensive operations order. · · · · · · · · · Situation Situation: Attachments Mission Execution Execution: Concept of Operation Execution: Tasks Execution: Coordinating Instructions Administration and Logistics Command and Signal

Situation

The situation paragraph consists of the · Environment. Include the · Weather and its effect on friendly units while occupying defensive positions and on masking the movement of enemy units. · Times of sunset and sunrise and their effects on your unit’s ability to observe enemy movement and to be observed by the enemy. · Key terrain in the defense area that dictates what defense technique will lead to success and includes dead space and possible gaps in the defense due to unfavorable terrain. · · Enemy forces. Include identification, location, strength, probable course of action of enemy forces, and all possible directions of enemy attack. Friendly forces. Include the location and mission of units operating to the left, right, front, and rear of your unit and the location of primary, alternate, and supplementary positions. Supporting forces. Include the location of units providing fire support for your unit, your unit’s priority of fire, and the type of direct and indirect fire those friendly units are providing. Security. Identify the location of local security (SPs/LPs) your unit provides for early detection of enemy forces including patrols.

·

·

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

Writing the Defensive Operations Order, Continued

Situation: Attachments

The attachment paragraph consists of the · Location of all attachments to include unit leaders that are supporting your unit in the defense. Some of the attachments that you need to be concerned with are the communications detachments, forward observers, heavy machinegun section, mortars section, and reconnaissance units. Effective attachment and detachment times. Be sure you brief when the supporting units are attached and when they detach back to their parent units.

·

Mission

The mission for your unit is briefed in the format of · · · · · When Who What Where Why

Be sure all units, including your attachments, are given a specific mission before occupying the defense. Some missions that units can assume in the defense and their meanings are · · · · ·
Execution

Retain terrain, to protect and hold a piece of terrain Disrupt the enemy, to cause enemy casualties and break up their formations Delay the enemy, to slow the enemy’s movement Block the enemy, to prevent the enemy from moving in a specific direction Attrit the enemy, cause enemy casualties, and repel their attack

The execution paragraph of a defensive operations order contains the minimum required information to execute your mission in the defense.
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

Writing the Defensive Operations Order, Continued

Execution: Concept of Operations

The concept of operations includes the · · Scheme of maneuver, which outlines the type of defense technique (linear, perimeter, or reverse slope) your unit will occupy in the defense Fire support plan, which is the commander’s plan on integrating all the indirect fire assets available to him with his defensive scheme of maneuver

Execution: Tasks

The subordinate element tasks are the mission statements for the elements and key personnel. Coordinating instructions contain instructions common to two or more elements and coordinating details and control measures applicable to the unit as a whole. At a minimum, coordinating instructions in the defensive operations order include · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · Priority of work to Establish local security (SPs/LPs) and specify level of alert Position automatic and heavy weapons and assign their sectors of fire to include FPLs and PDFs Assign sectors of fire for all other weapons systems and emplace aiming stakes Designate primary positions and begin entrenching Establish and register FPFs (mortars and artillery) to cover dead space Clear fields of fire Prepare range cards and fire plan sketches Lay and bury communications wire Emplace obstacles (wire, mines, booby traps) Mark/improve marking for direct fire control measures Prepare alternate and supplementary positions Establish a rest plan Rehearse engagements Stockpile ammunition, food, and water Dig trenches between positions
Continued on next page

Execution: Coordinating Instructions

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3-49

Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

Writing the Defensive Operations Order, Continued

Execution: Coordinating Instructions, continued

Coordinating instructions (continued) · · · · Percentage alert during hours of darkness Establishing routes to and from SPs/LPs Commencement of stand-to MOPP level

Administration and Logistics

Administration and logistics deals with · Food. When will your Marines and the attachments eat? How is security going to be maintained? Always plan for resupply of food and water when conducting defensive operations and how the resupply will occur without comprising your security. Arms and ammunition. Plan on extra ammunition and resupply for defensive operations. How many rounds will each Marine and weapons system have? How are the attachments going to transport their ammunition? Uniforms and equipment. The defense requires extra uniforms for night operations and weather considerations. Extra equipment may also need to be planned for entrenching multiple defensive positions. Method of handling the wounded, the dead, and prisoners. Be sure that each Marine is briefed on the location of the corpsmen and the aid station in the defense. Is there a secured area within the defense to conduct decontamination, if necessary?
Continued on next page

·

·

·

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

Writing the Defensive Operations Order, Continued

Command and Signal

The command plan should, at a minimum, address the · · Location of command post before, during, and in the event of enemy penetration Chain of command throughout the occupation of the defense

The signal plan should, at a minimum, address the · · · · · · Brevity codes (when to commence and cease fire and to commence and cease the FPF) Monitoring of land lines (to SPs/LPs and the company radios) Call signs (outlined in the operation order for day and night and times when the daily call signs change) Frequencies (primary and alternate frequencies for all adjacent and higher units) Challenge and password (primary and alternate) Use of hand and arm signals and other visual aids

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

Conduct of the Defense

Components

Conduct of the defense includes · · · · · · · · Preparation for combat Reconnaissance Movement into the defense Occupation of the defense Location of the enemy Actions on enemy contact Fighting the defense Reorganization

Preparation for Combat

Once the unit leader receives his mission, he makes a tentative plan and issues a warning order to his subordinates. A critical element of defensive planning is managing available time. Because there is never enough time to prepare the defense, unit leaders must make the best use of time available. Examples of time restraint issues are that · · Fighting positions identified and prepared during hours of limited visibility may not be completely effective during daylight hours The initial estimate of time available should include the amount of daylight needed for subordinate leaders to identify and conduct initial preparations on their primary positions Unit leaders may also establish a detailed time schedule for completing key actions/events in the priority of work. Thus, subordinate units progress with establishing the defense uniformly across the unit’s frontage
Continued on next page

·

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

Conduct of the Defense, Continued

Reconnaissance

After a tentative plan has been formulated and before occupying a defensive position, the commander normally halts the unit short of the position, establishes local security, and assembles his leaders for a reconnaissance of the position. As with any tactical operation, the reconnaissance plan is developed to confirm or deny the concept of the defense as developed by the commander in his tentative plan. The reconnaissance may be conducted in many different ways based on the unit leader’s estimate of the situation. The time available will have a major impact on the reconnaissance; in an amphibious assault or in other extreme cases, a map or aerial reconnaissance may be the only means available to the unit leader. During the reconnaissance, the unit leader confirms · · · · · Enemy avenues of approach Dead space in front of the positions Location of the SPs/LPs Primary, alternate, and supplementary positions for subordinate units Major weapons systems designated in the defensive plan

Additional Reconnaissance Concerns

The size of the reconnaissance party depends on the reconnaissance plan that considers such factors as speed, time available, and the need for security. Normally the key leaders involved in the reconnaissance include the commanders, unit leaders, guides, and the unit leaders of attached units/weapons. When considering the make-up of the reconnaissance party, unit leaders must also consider the key leaders who should remain with the main body of the platoon in the event that the unit must fight while the reconnaissance party is away. In addition to key personnel, additional Marines may be required to provide communications and security.
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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

Conduct of the Defense, Continued

Movement into the Defense

When the reconnaissance of the defensive position is complete, security elements (SPs/LPs) and guides for the platoons may be left in position as the unit leaders return to the company. Unit leaders · · · Make final preparations for movement Complete and issue their defensive orders Conduct final inspections and rehearsals

The company moves forward as a unit or by platoons/squads to occupy their positions. At a designated release point, the company commander releases control of the platoons to the platoon commanders, who link up with their respective guides and move their platoons forward to occupy their positions.
Principles for Movement

During movement, the platoon applies the basic fundamentals for movement: · · · · · Move along covered and concealed routes Avoid likely ambush sites Enforce camouflage, noise, and light discipline Maintain all-around security, to include air sentries Use formations and movement techniques based on METT-TSL
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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

Conduct of the Defense, Continued

Occupation of the Defense

Unit leaders walk the defense to reexamine the sectors of fire and confirm their positions before the digging starts and make face-to-face coordination with adjacent unit leaders. Leaders should continually inspect their positions while they are being established and immediately correct deficiencies. Additionally, leaders should · · · · · · · · · Confirm sectors of fire and check interlocking fires and dead space Assume the firing positions behind key weapons to confirm clear fields of fire, complete coverage sectors, and mutual support Check range cards Complete defensive fire plan sketch and deliver to next higher commander Look at weapons, positions, and obstacles from the enemy point of view Check the dissemination of information Ensure automatic and heavy weapons systems are properly protected by the infantry and integrated with the obstacle plan Check security and alert plan, patrol plan, radio watch, and logistics. Reconnaissance routes to and from alternate positions and/or supplementary positions.

Priority of Work

Once properly positioned, subordinate units follow the commander’s established priority of work. The priority of work is a list of tasks that the leader uses to control what gets done, by whom, and in what order during the preparation of the defense. Although many of these tasks are outlined in the unit SOP, the leader adjusts his priority of work based on his consideration of METT-TSL. The rifle platoon attempts to locate the enemy immediately upon occupation of the defensive positions. Locating the enemy is a continuous process achieved through the use of patrols, SPs/LPs, and the observation of individual Marines aided by night observation devices. Once the enemy movement is detected, the unit prepares to fight the defense.
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Location of the Enemy

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

Conduct of the Defense, Continued

Reporting Procedures

Upon observation of the enemy, the squad leaders and the platoon sergeant alert the platoon commander. The situation is reported to the company commander. Leaders and individual Marines return to their fighting positions and prepare to engage the enemy. Fighting the defense is the culmination of the conduct of defensive operations. All preparations lead to the positioning of weapons, the preparation of all individuals, and the location of obstacles and fire support. Unit leaders must be sure to · · · · · Initiate direct and indirect fires as planned Execute the defensive plan as rehearsed Communicate with adjacent units Report to the company commander Above all else, accomplish the commander’s intent

Fight the Defense

Consolidate and Reorganize

The enemy will not attack the defense when and where the defenders choose; the attacker chooses the time and location of the attack. The enemy will often attack several times, so our ability to consolidate and reorganize will determine the ultimate success of the defense over a period of time. To consolidate and reorganize, · · · · · · Reestablish security, replace mines and obstacles Receive casualty report; evacuate WIA/KIA Determine ammunition and weapons status Shift Marines to ensure maximum coverage of platoon sector Report to company commander Continue mission

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

The Reserve

Definition

A reserve is a portion of a body of troops, which is kept to the rear or withheld from action at the beginning of the engagement so they are available for commitment at a decisive moment. The purpose of the reserve in the defense is to preserve the commander’s flexibility. As stated earlier, the reserve should be large enough to be decisive when committed and should be used at the critical point in the battle. When a reserve is assigned, they are given prioritized missions for planning purposes. These missions are routinely “be-prepared” missions so the reserve should be positioned where it can best support the main effort and accomplish its “be-prepared” missions. The reserve can also assist with other missions not related to its primary defensive mission, such as resupply, patrolling, and the construction of obstacles. The commander who established the reserve normally makes the decision to commit the reserve. Timing, critical when committing the reserve, can often be the difference between victory and defeat.
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Purpose

Employment

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

The Reserve, Continued

Six Primary Missions

The reserve has six primary missions: · Reinforce the main battle area: The commander may choose to commit all or part of his reserve to bolster forward units that could achieve success but require more combat power. Add depth: The initial position of the reserve should be located near the most likely point of enemy penetration or near the main effort. This position would be on terrain that is in back of the forward units, while still allowing for mutual support to the flanks and the rear of those units. Block or contain penetrations: The reserve can block an enemy penetration by fire or by maneuver. If the enemy is successful in penetrating the defensive position, the reserve could be used to blunt this penetration and fix the enemy force in place. Protect flanks and rear areas: The reserve prepares supplementary positions to secure the unit’s flanks and rear. Hasty counterattack: The rapid execution of a hasty counterattack by the reserve may be the key to the defensive battle. Support a forward element by fire: The reserve is positioned where it can fire into unoccupied areas between forward units and on their flanks and rear. To be effective, the reserve’s position must be close enough to the forward unit’s position so that it can effectively engage enemy targets.

·

·

· · ·

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

The Counterattack

Definition

A counterattack is the primary means of breaking the enemy’s attack or denying him the ability to regain the initiative. The counterattack may be conducted by fire, maneuver, or a combination of both. The objective of the counterattack is normally the complete destruction of the enemy—to reinforce or achieve success, not to reinforce failure. A counterattack is an attack by part or all of a defending force against an attacking enemy force, for the specific purpose of · · · Regaining lost ground Cutting off or destroying enemy advance units Denying success to the enemy in achieving his goal for attacking

Purpose

The two types of counterattack are the · ·
Hasty Counterattack

Hasty counterattack Planned counterattack

The hasty counterattack is an active defensive measure not implemented in the commander’s original scheme of maneuver but available as a means of exploiting a weakness in the enemy’s assault. A hasty counterattack · · Is used to destroy the enemy penetration or eject him from the defensive position to regain control of the penetrated portion of the battlefield Is assigned as a “be-prepared” mission · Based on the commander’s estimate of the situation · Assigned to either a reserve force or an anticipated least engaged unit May be issued as a contingency mission to one or more subordinate units Is planned as the situation develops and may be issued as a fragmentary order (FragO)
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· ·

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

The Counterattack, Continued

Planned Counterattack

A planned counterattack is a defensive measure deemed necessary due to the commander’s estimate of the enemy situation, terrain, and his unit’s mission. It is planned before the battle and assigned to a subordinate unit as an “on order” mission. A planned counterattack · · · Is prepared and rehearsed in detail as the decisive blow against one or more courses of action Is assigned to a designated counterattack force as an order and is coordinated with forward units Has an established attack plan with objectives and direction of attack

When initiated, the counterattack force normally becomes the main effort and gets priority of all available supporting assets.
Planning a Counterattack

When planning a counterattack, consider the · · · · · · Enemy strength and mobility relative to the counterattack’s strength and mobility Initial disposition, assembly areas, coordination measures, and routes Coordination with front-line units Fire support plan Communications/signals Rehearsals

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

Other Defensive Operations

Four Categories

Other defensive operations include · · · · Least-engaged unit Passage of lines Relief in place Retrograde operations

Least-Engaged Unit

Least-engaged units (LEUs) are · · · Already assigned a primary defensive mission; under extreme conditions, they are further assigned to a reserve force Normally tasked by FragOs as the situation develops Can generally perform any of the missions of the reserve but by its very nature will be generally slower in its response

The decision to employ a LEU to counter a developing situation will be based upon the · · · · Specific enemy threat Terrain Distances to be traversed Condition of the men, equipment, and supplies within the subordinate units
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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

Other Defensive Operations, Continued

Passage of Lines

Passage of lines is an operation in which one unit passes through the lines of another unit that is stationary. A passage of lines is generally conducted when one unit’s mission requires a movement through terrain occupied by another unit. Examples of passage of lines operations are · · · Security operations Counterattacks Retrograde operations

When a unit moving · · Forward towards the enemy passes through a stationary unit, it is a forward passage Away from the enemy passes through a stationary unit, it is a rearward passage

Whenever possible, avoid a passage of lines because units are particularly vulnerable.
Relief in Place

A relief in place is an operation in which one unit replaces another unit and assumes the relieved unit’s responsibilities. The primary purpose of a relief in place operation is to maintain the combat effectiveness of committed units. Relief in place is a difficult operation to execute because it requires both control and flexibility. To simplify the relief and maintain operational security, certain equipment and supplies may be transferred between the two units.
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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

Other Defensive Operations, Continued

Retrograde Operations

Retrograde operations are an organized movement away from the enemy. Whether forced or voluntary, a higher commander approves the rearward movement. Retrograde operations are · Conducted to harass, exhaust, disrupt, or delay the enemy to · Gain time · Avoid combat under unfavorable conditions · Draw the enemy into an unfavorable position Used to · Reposition forces · Shorten lines of communications · Permit the use of forces elsewhere Are difficult: Delays and withdrawals are inherently risky

·

·
Types of Retrograde Operations

The three types of retrograde operations are · · Delays: Slow the enemy, cause enemy casualties, and stop enemy without becoming decisively engaged Withdrawals: Unit disengages from the enemy and repositions for some other mission. Withdrawals can be done while under pressure and not under pressure. In a withdrawal under pressure, the unit disengages and moves to the rear while in contact with the enemy. Retirements: Operations in which a force that is not engaged with the enemy moves to the rear in an organized manner. Retirements may · Follow withdrawals · Begin before contact with the enemy

·

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

Lesson 3 Exercise

Estimated Study Time

20 minutes

Directions

Complete the following items. Check your answers against the correct answers at the end of this lesson. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Which of the following statements is correct concerning the information that should be included in the attachment paragraph of a defensive operations order? a. The attachment paragraph should include information on when supporting units are going to link up with your unit. b. The attachment paragraph should include information on which attachments are going to be with the main effort. c. The attachment paragraph should include information on the exact times when supporting units are going to attach and detach to your unit. d. The attachment paragraph should include information on the location of all the attachments supporting every unit in the defense.

Item 1

Item 2

To answer the following question below, select · · · · a if only 1, 2, and 3 are correct b if only 1, 3, and 4 are correct c if only 1 and 3 are correct d if all four are correct

Which of the following are the missions that units can assume while conducting defensive operations? 1. 2. 3. 4. Prevent the enemy from moving in a specific direction Protect and hold a piece of terrain Cause the enemy casualties and repel their attack Cause the enemy casualties and break up their formations
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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3 Exercise

Lesson 3 Exercise, Continued

Item 3

Which of the following are details that must be addressed in the coordinating instructions? a. b. c. d. Establish routes to and from resupply points Percentage alert during hours of darkness Signal to commence and cease fire Designation of a force to act as the reserve

Item 4

Which of the following are phases for conducting the defense? a. Reconnaissance, location of the enemy, fighting the defense, reorganization, actions on enemy contact b. Reconnaissance, location of the enemy, occupation of the defense, emplacing of weapons systems, movement into the defense c. Preparation of the defense, reorganization, movement into the defense, employment of the reserve, actions on enemy contact d. Fighting the defense, location of the enemy, preparation for combat, counterattack, occupation of the defense
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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3 Exercise

Lesson 3 Exercise, Continued

Directions for Items 5 Through 7

To answer the following questions below, select · · · · a if only 1, 2, and 3 are correct b if only 1, 3, and 4 are correct c if only 1 and 3 are correct d if all four are correct

Item 5

Which of the following are actions that must occur during the reconnaissance phase of the defense? 1. The commander halts the unit short of the position, establishes local security, and assembles his leaders for a reconnaissance. 2. The unit leader should take all the key personnel with him for the reconnaissance and not plan for enemy activity while the reconnaissance is gone. 3. The unit leader should confirm enemy avenues of approach, dead space in front of positions, and the location of SPs/LPs. 4. Unit leaders make final preparations for movement, complete and issue their defensive orders, and conduct final inspections and rehearsals.

Item 6

Which of the following are principles of movement while occupying the defense? 1. Units should maintain all-around security to include air sentries. 2. Formations and techniques used should be based on the commander’s estimate of the situation. 3. Units should move along covered and concealed routes. 4. Unit leaders should enforce camouflage, noise, and light discipline.
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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3 Exercise

Lesson 3 Exercise, Continued

Item 7

Which of the following are considerations for occupying a defensive area? 1. Reconnaissance routes to and from alternate and supplementary positions. 2. Weapons, positions, and obstacles should be looked at from the enemy’s point of view. 3. The defensive fire plan sketch should be completed upon occupying the defense and delivered to the next higher commander. 4. Sectors of fire should be confirmed, and interlocking fires and dead space should be checked.

Item 8

Fill in the blanks as indicated below. Unit leaders must ensure the following actions are accomplished while fighting the defense: · · · · · Initiate direct and indirect fires as planned. ___________________________________________ Communicate with adjacent units. Report to the company commander. ___________________________________________

Item 9

Which of the following best describes the purpose of the reserve? a. The primary means of breaking the enemy’s attack or denying him the ability to regain the initiative. b. To preserve the commander’s flexibility. c. To establish local security and respond to enemy penetrations. d. To assist with other missions such as resupply, patrolling, and the construction of obstacles.
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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3 Exercise

Lesson 3 Exercise, Continued

Items 10 Through 15

Matching: In the space provided, place the letter of the type of primary mission from column 2 that best matches the definition in column 1. The answers in column 2 may be used only once. Column 1 Definition ___ 10. The initial position of the reserve should be located near the most likely point of enemy penetration or near the main effort ___ 11. The rapid execution of a hasty counterattack may be the key to the defensive battle ___ 12. The reserve is positioned where it can fire into unoccupied areas between forward units and on their flanks and rear ___ 13. The reserve can be used to blunt the enemy penetration and fix the enemy force in place ___ 14. The reserve can be committed to bolster forward units that could achieve success but require more combat power ___ 15. The reserve prepares supplementary positions to secure the unit’s flanks and rear Column 2 Type of Primary Mission a. b. c. d. e. f. Reinforce the main battle area Add depth Block or contain penetrations Protect flanks and rear areas Hasty counterattacks Support a forward element by fire

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3 Exercise

Lesson 3 Exercise, Continued

Item 16

A counterattack is the primary means of a. preserving the commander’s flexibility. b. breaking the enemy’s attack or denying him the ability to regain the initiative. c. maintaining the combat effectiveness of committed units. d. disrupting or delaying the enemy’s attack while conducting an organized movement from the enemy.

Item 17

List the two types of counterattacks. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________
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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3 Exercise

Lesson 3 Exercise, Continued

Items 18 Through 21

Matching: In the space provided, place the letter of the type of primary mission from column 2 that best matches the definition in column 1. The answers in column 2 may be used only once. Column 1 Definition ___ 18. An operation where a unit that is already assigned a primary defense mission, though under extreme conditions, is further assigned to a reserve force ___ 19. An operation which one unit passes through the lines of another unit that is stationary ___ 20. An operation in which one unit replaces another unit and assumes the relieved unit’s responsibilities ___ 21. An operation that calls for the organized movement away from the enemy Column 2 Type of Primary Mission a. b. c. d. Passage of lines Retrograde operation Least-engaged unit Relief in place

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3 Exercise

Lesson 3 Exercise Solutions

Correct Answers

The table below provides the correct answers to the exercise items. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Item Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Answer c d b a c b d Execute the defensive plan as rehearsed Accomplish the commander’s intent b b e f c a d b Hasty Planned c a d b Reference Page 3-48 3-48 3-50 3-56 3-57 3-58 3-59 3-60

· ·

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

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3-61 3-62 3-62 3-62 3-582 3-582 3-582 3-593 3-593 3-615 3-66 3-66 3-67

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3 Exercise

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3 Exercise

STUDY UNIT 4 SECURITY PATROLS Overview

Estimated Study Time

1 hour, 30 minutes

Unit Scope

To conduct patrolling missions effectively, you as patrol leader must first understand some general information about patrols and their organization. Also, you must be proficient in six individual patrolling skills. This study unit provides you with this basic information and introduces the basic patrolling skills you will need to help your unit accomplish patrol missions. After completing this study unit, you should be able to · · · Identify the considerations for planning a security patrol. Identify the considerations for conducting a patrol. Identify the items in a patrol order.

Learning Objectives

Unit Content

The following table lists the lessons covered in this unit. Topic Lesson 1 Planning the Patrol Lesson 2 Preparing the Patrol See Page 4-3 4-19

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Study Unit 4

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Study Unit 4

LESSON 1 PLANNING THE PATROL Introduction

Estimated Study Time

30 minutes

Lesson Scope

When assigned to conduct an infantry patrol, you must have a well-thought out and -organized plan. With this plan, you must then properly prepare for the patrol. This lesson will teach you proven methods to plan and prepare for a patrol, including how to write and issue a warning order and a patrol order. After completing this lesson, you should be able to · · · · · · · Identify the considerations for estimating the situation. Identify the military aspects of terrain. Identify the proper use of reverse planning. Identify the proper use of the half-rule. Describe the purpose of a patrol warning order. Identify the parts of a patrol warning order. Identify the items you must coordinate when planning a patrol.

Learning Objectives

Lesson Content

The following table lists the topics covered in this lesson. Topic Introduction Estimating the Situation Maximizing Available Time The Patrol Warning Order Coordination with Outside Organizations Lesson 1 Exercise See Page 4-3 4-4 4-8 4-10 4-14 4-16

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 1

Estimating the Situation

Process

Estimating the situation is · · · An analytical process for selecting the course of action that offers the greatest possibility of success A continuous and detailed mental process that should be followed no matter how quickly a decision must be made Best done by thoroughly analyzing the seven considerations denoted in the acronym METT-TSL: · · · · · · · Mission Enemy Terrain and weather Troops and fire support Time Space Logistics

Mission

One of the most important actions you as the patrol leader should do after receiving the operations order is to study the mission. You should carefully study the mission and all other information provided by the platoon commander, making notes as you study. When studying the mission, you should identify other significant tasks (implied missions) that must be accomplished for the patrol to accomplish its primary mission. These implied missions are further identified missions for the patrol’s elements and teams and may require special preparation, planning, personnel, and/or equipment.

Enemy

The more you know about the enemy, the better your chances for success. Study the locations, sizes, and dispositions of all known and suspected enemy forces that could affect your patrol’s mission. You must also know about the enemy’s capabilities, characteristics, strengths, and weaknesses. Although the operations order contains information about the enemy, it may not have enough information to suit your needs. If you have any additional questions, ask the Marine who issued the order.
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Study Unit 4, Lesson 1

Estimating the Situation, Continued

Terrain and Weather

Study the terrain over which your patrol will travel. Terrain and weather will affect all plans and actions and must be studied from the friendly and enemy viewpoints. The patrol’s plan of action must take full advantage of the terrain, especially since the terrain will influence your patrol’s formation and dispersion. The weather, current and predicted, will affect the visibility, movement, and fire support.

Troops and Fire Support

This is the quantity, level of training, and psychological state of friendly forces, to include the availability of weapons systems and critical equipment. When a commander considers troops and fire support available, he is developing his assessment of his combat power. The proper degree of troops and fire support are critical to the overall success of the mission. Once you understand the mission, you must ascertain the mission requirements to accomplish all assigned tasks.

Time

Time available is the time to plan, prepare, and execute operations for both enemy and friendly forces. Time begins the moment you receive your order. A leader should not waste this important resource. Plan your use of time as follows: · The half-rule or the one-third, two-thirds rule. For example, half of the available time goes to the commander and half goes to the subordinate units. Backward planning. Start with the last known action and progress backwards to present time. Start with the time for the crossing of the line of departure for offensive battle or from the time the defense must be established. Making a time plan. The goal is to give the subordinate unit enough daylight to conduct planning, reconnaissance, and preparation before the start of combat operations. It does more harm than good to present a perfect plan to subordinate units if they do not have the time to disseminate their own orders and prepare.
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·

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 1

Estimating the Situation, Continued

Space

This is the geographical operating area. The commander must consider the distance he must move in the required time. This is why time and space are considered in conjunction with each other. The commander should compute · How much time will be needed to move certain distances or how far from his objective he must begin to change formations in order to commence the assault With regards to weather or the enemy situation at hand and anticipate friction, such as obstacles or harassing fire from the enemy, which will slow down friendly units

·

Logistics

This is the science of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of forces. The aspects of military operations are listed below: · · · · Design and development, acquisition, storage, movement, distribution, maintenance, evacuation, and disposition of materiel Movement, evacuation, and hospitalization of personnel Acquisition or construction, maintenance, operation, and disposition of facilities Acquisition or furnishing of services

It is the 3B’s (beans, bullets, band aids) of the planning phase. On the small unit level, it is the most overlooked aspect of planning and has caused missions to fail. The initial fitting and continuous resupply of a unit is critical to mission success.
OCOKA-W

When studying terrain and weather, you must consider the military aspects of terrain. The military aspects of terrain are represented by the acronym, OCOKA-W as follows: · · · · · · Observation and fields of fire Cover and concealment Obstacles Key terrain Avenues of approach Weather
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Study Unit 4, Lesson 1

Estimating the Situation, Continued

Resources Available to Help Study Terrain

The following resources are available to help you study the terrain: · Map reconnaissance, the most common means of studying terrain, simply involves studying the map of an area. Although fast, easy to coordinate, and inexpensive, map reconnaissance is not the most effective means to study terrain. Aerial photography can be of great assistance when available. Aerial photographs give you an entirely different perspective of the terrain. Aerial reconnaissance, the study of terrain from the air (usually from a helicopter) is rarely available, but when you have it, it is extremely effective. Route reconnaissance, probably the most effective means to study terrain, involves actually walking the terrain you will be patrolling. Often, however, this option is not possible because of time constraints or the terrain is located in enemy territory.

· ·

·

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 1

Maximizing Available Time

Back Plan

To properly use the time allotted from the receipt of the platoon commander’s order until your departure from friendly lines, prepare a schedule that includes every event that must be done before departing friendly lines. When you prepare the schedule, work backward from the time of departure of friendly lines to the present. In a combat environment, sufficient time for planning is difficult to find. Therefore, you must use time in the most efficient manner possible. Use these four techniques: · · · · Issue a patrol warning order. Use reverse planning. Delegate tasks. Use the half-rule.

Techniques Available

Issue Patrol Warning Order

After you receive the operations order, you must issue a patrol warning order to your patrol members as soon as possible. Doing so allows your patrol members to be preparing for the patrol and gives them more time overall. Reverse planning can help you schedule the important events in your planning. As the patrol leader, you must plan your schedule around the time specified in the operations order. Time of departure (TOD) and time of return (TOR) are often specified in the operations order. When reverse planning, start planning with the last action that was assigned a specific time restriction in the operations order. From that point in time, plan backwards to the time you received the operations order. If you use the halfrule, you will also be able to figure out when you should issue your warning order.
Continued on next page

Use Reverse Planning

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 1

Maximizing Available Time, Continued

Delegate Tasks

Delegating tasks to others can save you valuable time. You must be selective about which tasks you delegate. For example, you should not delegate the task of conducting a map reconnaissance of your patrol route or the task of writing the patrol order. It is appropriate, however, for you to delegate the task of obtaining radios, frequencies, and call signs. One of the most frequently delegated tasks is that of constructing the terrain model. If you delegate this task to the patrol members, they will be familiar with the patrol route and surrounding terrain. The terrain model helps the patrol members visualize the patrol.

Use the HalfRule

Applying the half-rule gives the element leaders enough time to prepare their elements for the patrol. The half-rule simply means that you give half the time you have for preparation to your element leaders. For example, if you receive the operations order at 1300 and are directed to depart friendly lines at 2000 and return at 2300, you have a total of 7 hours to plan and prepare for the patrol. You should plan to give 3.5 of those hours to your element leaders for their preparation.

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 1

The Patrol Warning Order

Purpose

The patrol warning order is given to notify patrol members of an impending mission and provide them as much time as possible to prepare for the mission. When possible, issue the patrol warning order to all patrol members, including attached personnel. If this is not feasible, issue the patrol warning order to your element leaders. They, in turn, will issue the patrol warning order to their elements. Here is a sample warning order.

Scope

Sample

Continued on next page

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 1

The Patrol Warning Order, Continued

Format

The format of the patrol warning order includes four parts: · · · · Situation Mission General instructions Specific instructions

Situation

The situation part consists of a brief statement of the enemy and friendly situation. This statement includes only the information the subordinate leaders need to prepare for the patrol. The complete situation is in the patrol warning order. The mission statement should read exactly as you received it in the operations order.
Continued on next page

Mission

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 1

The Patrol Warning Order, Continued

General Instructions

The general instructions part contains instructions for all members of the patrol. These instructions cover the following items: · · · General and specific organizations. Assign general tasks to unit and teams. Give specific details of tasks in the patrol leader’s order. Uniform and equipment common to all. Specify camouflage measures to be taken and the identification to be carried (also, uniform to be worn). Weapons, ammunition, and equipment. Assign these items to units and teams. Subordinate leaders make further assignments to teams and individuals. Chain of command. Establish a chain of command when the patrol includes personnel from outside the squad. (Each element leader is assigned a place within the chain of command and sets up a chain of command within each element.) Time schedule. Address all events from the present until the patrol departs. Designate the place and uniform for receiving the patrol warning order, conducting inspection, and rehearsals. Receiving the patrol warning order. State the time, place, uniform, and equipment for receiving the patrol warning order. Tell your subordinate leaders when and where the order will be given, what to wear, and what equipment to bring. Inspections and rehearsals. Specify the time and place for inspections and rehearsals.
Continued on next page

·

·

·

·

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 1

The Patrol Warning Order, Continued

Specific Instructions

Specific instructions are for · Subordinate leaders. Give out all information concerning the drawing of ammunition, equipment, ordnance, water, and rations. Identify the personnel you want to accompany you on your reconnaissance. Also give guidance on any special preparation you believe will be necessary during the conduct of the mission. Special purpose teams of key individuals. Address requirements of designated personnel or teams, such as having point men, pacers, and navigators make a thorough map study and check their equipment.

·

MCI Course 8015A

4-13

Study Unit 4, Lesson 1

Coordination with Outside Organizations

Continuous Process

The most important point to remember concerning coordination is that it is a continuous process throughout the planning, preparation, and execution of the patrol. You should attempt to make all the coordination yourself. Start from the time you receive the operations order to coordinate the following: · · · · · Fire support Departure/reentry of friendly lines/areas Interaction with other units Logistical support Updated intelligence

Fire Support

The operations order briefed by the platoon commander should provide you with the fire support available and any restrictions on fire support. You should find out what artillery and mortar targets have already been planned along your route. You should make an overlay with these targets plotted, along with the patrol route and any additional targets (if necessary). Check with the small unit leaders occupying the areas through which your patrol will depart and return. Ensure these leaders know about the patrol, times of departure and reentry, and coordinate for guides from their units if required to lead the patrol through friendly obstacles. Determine the exact grid coordinates of the point of departure and return of the patrol. Exchange radio call signs, frequencies, and code words. Also during this time you should ensure your small unit leaders know where the initial rallying point is and the challenge and password. The operations order should have stated whether or not other friendly patrols would be in the area of operation. If so, it is extremely important for you to coordinate details with them thoroughly. Find out the location of other friendly units or patrols, so your patrol will not be restricted or endangered in its movement. Routes, timelines, call signs, and fire support plans are some of the most important factors you must coordinate.
Continued on next page

Departure/ Reentry of Friendly Lines/Areas

Interaction with Other Units

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4-14

Study Unit 4, Lesson 1

Coordination with Outside Organizations, Continued

Logistical Support

You must arrange with the appropriate supporting units for the delivery and pick up of the following items: · · · · Ammunition Water Food Any special equipment your patrol may require

Updated Intelligence

Before issuing the patrol warning order and again before departing on patrol, you should check the latest intelligence on the enemy activity that may affect your patrol. You should find out as much information about the enemy as possible. Specifically, you should determine the enemy’s pattern of operation: · · · · Has the enemy been conducting patrols? What type of weapons does the enemy have? What is the enemy's strength and disposition? Does the enemy use mines and boobytraps, etc.?

MCI Course 8015A

4-15

Study Unit 4, Lesson 1

Lesson 1 Exercise

Estimated Study Time

10 minutes

Directions

Complete the following items. Check your answers against the correct answers at the end of this lesson. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Mission is one of seven considerations for estimating the situation. What are the other six considerations? a. Enemy, terrain and weather, troops and fire support available, time, space, and logistics. b. Equipment available, terrain and weather, troops and fire support available, time, space, and logistics. c. Equipment available, terrain and weather, troops and fire support available, time, situation, and logistics. d. Enemy, terrain and weather, troops and fire support available, time, situation, and logistics.

Item 1

Item 2

What are the military aspects of terrain? a. Observation and fields of fire, key terrain, obstacles, camouflage, avenues of approach, and weather b. Orientation, camouflage, obstacles, key terrain, avenues of approach, and weather c. Observation and fields of fire, cover and concealment, obstacles, key terrain, avenues of approach, and weather d. Orientation, camouflage, obstacles, key terrain, avenues of approach, and weather

Item 3

Start your plan with the _______________________ is an example of proper use of reverse planning. a. b. c. d. first action item of most importance action of least importance last assigned action
Continued on next page

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4-16

Study Unit 4, Lesson 1 Exercise

Lesson 1 Exercise, Continued

Item 4

What is an example of the proper use of the half-rule? a. b. c. d. Use half your time for planning and half for preparing. Give half the time you have for preparation to your element leaders. Use half your time planning and preparing and half coordinating. Give half the time you have for planning to your element leaders.

Item 5

What are the two purposes of a patrol warning order? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

Item 6

What are the four parts of a patrol warning order? a. b. c. d. Situation, mission, general instructions, and specific instructions Situation, mission, execution, and administration Situation, mission, instructions, and general signals Enemy situation, friendly situation, mission, and preparation instructions

Item 7

Fire support must be coordinated when planning a patrol. What are the other four items that must be coordinated? a. Departure and reentry of friendly lines, interaction with other units, updated intelligence, and counterintelligence b. Interaction with other units, logistical support, updated intelligence, and billeting c. Departure and reentry of friendly lines, interaction with other units, logistical support, and instructions d. Departure and reentry of friendly lines, interaction with other units, logistical support, and updated intelligence
Continued on next page

MCI Course 8015A

4-17

Study Unit 4, Lesson 1 Exercise

Lesson 1 Exercise, Continued

Correct Answers

The table below provides the correct answers to the exercise items. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Item Number 1 2 3 4 5 Answer a c d b Notify patrol members of an impending mission. Provide patrol members with as much time to prepare as possible. a d Reference Page 4-4 4-6 4-8 4-9 4-10

· ·

6 7

4-11 4-14

MCI Course 8015A

4-18

Study Unit 4, Lesson 1 Exercise

LESSON 2 PREPARING THE PATROL Introduction

Estimated Study Time

35 minutes

Lesson Scope

You have finished your initial planning and issued a warning order to your subordinate element leaders. You have completed coordination with all outside organizations to ensure the success of your patrol. You are now ready to plan the patrol in detail. This lesson will teach proven methods for transforming a tentative plan into a detailed plan, including how to issue a patrol order, inspect the patrol, and conduct rehearsals. After completing this lesson, you should be able to · · · · · · · Identify the main paragraphs of the patrol order. Identify the information covered in the situation paragraph of the patrol order. Identify the format of the mission paragraph of the patrol order. Identify details and control measures included in the coordinating instructions of the patrol order. Identify factors that determine the selection of primary and alternate patrol routes. Identify the types of rallying points. Identify the considerations covered in the administration and logistics paragraph of the patrol order.
Continued on next page

Learning Objectives

MCI Course 8015A

4-19

Study Unit 4, Lesson 2

Introduction, Continued

Learning Objectives, continued

· · ·

List the guidelines for issuing the patrol order. Identify the purpose of inspecting a patrol. Identify how to conduct rehearsals.

Lesson Content

The following table lists the topics covered in this lesson. Topic Introduction Writing the Patrol Order Issuing the Patrol Order Inspecting the Patrol Conducting Rehearsals Lesson 2 Exercise See Page 4-19 4-21 4-31 4-32 4-34 4-35

MCI Course 8015A

4-20

Study Unit 4, Lesson 2

Writing the Patrol Order

SMEAC

The patrol order, like any operations order, has five main paragraphs. You will recall from study unit 1 that the five main paragraphs, represented by the acronym SMEAC, are · · · · · Situation Mission Execution Administration and logistics Command and signal

You can best understand how to effectively write a patrol order by studying the contents of each of these paragraphs.
Situation

The situation paragraph consists of the following: · · · Environment—the weather and terrain and how they impact on the patrol and enemy forces. Enemy forces—the identification, location, activity, strength, and probable course of action. Friendly forces—the mission of the next higher unit, the location and planned actions of units operating in the same and adjacent areas, and the fire support available to the patrol. Attachments and detachments—the attachments and detachments of patrols.
Continued on next page

·

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4-21

Study Unit 4, Lesson 2

Writing the Patrol Order, Continued

Mission

The mission is located in the task subparagraph of the operations order. The format is usually presented as follows: · · · · · When Who What Where Why

An example of a concise mission statement by a patrol leader is as follows: At 1400, 1st squad conducts an ambush patrol in the vicinity of grid 663954 in order to destroy enemy units in that area.
Execution

The execution paragraph contains the minimum required information necessary to execute the patrol’s mission. Focus this plan on exactly how the patrol should be executed and the tasks assigned to each element/team. The concept of operations is the “how” and includes the scheme of maneuver and the fire support plan. Subordinate elements’ tasks are mission statements for the elements and key personnel.
Continued on next page

Concept of Operations

Subordinate Elements’ Tasks

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4-22

Study Unit 4, Lesson 2

Writing the Patrol Order, Continued

Coordinating Instructions

Coordinating instructions contain instructions common to two or more elements and coordinating details and control measures applicable to the patrol as a whole. At a minimum, coordinating instructions include the following: · · Actions in the objective area (actions of elements, teams, and individuals in the actual accomplishment of the mission at the objective) Other actions that will take place in the objective area, such as · Occupation and security of the objective rallying point (ORP) · Conduct of the leader’s reconnaissance · Final checks on plans, personnel, weapons, and equipment · Fire support · Preliminary positioning of elements, teams, and key individuals · Signals and other control measures · Actions to take if prematurely discovered at the ORP or before the assault is launched · Movement from the objective to the ORP or alternate ORP · Redistribution of ammunition · Dissemination of information

Formations for Movement

You must plan formations for movement of your patrol to and from the objective area. You must plan the location of elements, teams, and individuals in the various formations your patrol will use. You should understand that various formations are adaptable to any size patrol. Each formation has certain advantages and may be varied to fit terrain and situation. You should also be aware that the patrol might change formations as the situation requires. The factors that will influence formation for movement are as follows: · Enemy contact—the most important consideration in organizing for movement. You must decide how the patrol should react if it makes contact with the enemy. Tactical integrity—the organization for movement maintains element and team integrity and aids control, security, employment at the objective, and reaction to enemy contact.
Continued on next page

·

MCI Course 8015A

4-23

Study Unit 4, Lesson 2

Writing the Patrol Order, Continued

Formations for Movement, continued

·

Employment at objective—in addition to other considerations, organization for movement must permit quick, easy employment at the objective. Control—some formations provide better control than others. You must decide exactly how important control is relative to other factors. The size of the patrol is an important factor to consider when deciding. The enemy situation—where is the enemy? How strong is he? What is the danger of ambush? Speed of movement—when must the patrol reach the objective? When must it return? You must understand that rate of movement is governed by the speed of movement of Marines carrying the heaviest equipment. Stealth—you must decide whether the patrol can move quietly or whether the formation chosen forces the flanks to move through noisy underbrush. You must ultimately decide which is more important, stealth or speed. Security—you must make assumptions about which direction contact with the enemy is likely to come and decide whether the patrol will have allaround security. You must assign elements, teams, and individuals. A carefully controlled combination of speed and stealth is usually best. Dispersion—you must disperse patrol members in such a way that a sudden burst of fire will cause the fewest casualties. Terrain—you must look at terrain and make assumptions on how it will affect the movement of the patrol. Visibility—you must consider visibility and whether the enemy can see the patrol. More importantly, you must ensure that you can observe and control the patrol members. Weather—you must consider how the weather will affect the ground and visibility.
Continued on next page

·

· ·

·

·

· · ·

·

MCI Course 8015A

4-24

Study Unit 4, Lesson 2

Writing the Patrol Order, Continued

Primary and Alternate Routes

As the patrol leader, you select the patrol routes based on map study, aerial photographs, reconnaissance, and consultation with others who have been over the terrain. You should select both a primary route and one or more alternate routes. Choose a route based upon the following: · · · Affords concealment from enemy observation Expects little or no enemy opposition Presents a minimum of obstacles to the patrol

For a night patrol, the route should be planned to avoid thick undergrowth, dense woods, and ravines. Whenever practicable, the return should be via a different route. Point out patrol routes to the patrol members by indicating the routes on a map overlay and by designating objectives and checkpoints.
Actions on Enemy Contact

Your patrol may make unexpected contact with the enemy either through chance or by encountering an ambush. The patrol must be prepared to break contact quickly. The organization for movement and your planned actions on enemy contact must support each other. During the preparation phase, you coordinate with the leaders of the units occupying the areas your patrol must depart and reenter (friendly lines/areas). In some instances, coordination is done at higher levels, and you are simply told where you are to depart and return. However, you should check with unit leaders to reduce the possibility of mistakes during passage of lines.
Continued on next page

Departure from and Reentry into Friendly Lines

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4-25

Study Unit 4, Lesson 2

Writing the Patrol Order, Continued

Types of Rallying Points

The three types of rallying points are as follows: · · · IRP (initial rallying point)—a point within the friendly area where the patrol can rally if it becomes dispersed. ERRP (en route rallying points)—points between friendly areas and the objective. ORP (objective rallying point)—a point located near the objective; used as a point where the patrol reassembles, makes final preparations, and reorganizes after completing its mission; and may be used as a release point from which elements and teams move into position.

Actions at Rallying Points

You must select locations for rallying points when studying the terrain. Always select initial and objective rallying points. If suitable areas for these two rallying points are not found during the map reconnaissance, select them by grid coordinates or in relation to terrain features. You should plan to select and designate additional rallying points as your patrol reaches locations while en route. Also, you should plan for selecting rallying points on both near and far sides of danger areas. · · If dispersed after departing the friendly area, but before reaching the first rallying point en route, your patrol rallies at the initial rallying point. If separated while en route, your patrol rallies at the previous rallying point.

The plan for actions at the initial rallying point and rallying points en route must provide for the continuation of your patrol as long as you have a reasonable chance to accomplish the mission.
Continued on next page

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4-26

Study Unit 4, Lesson 2

Writing the Patrol Order, Continued

Timeline

Be sure to note and address any changes to the timeline from the patrol warning order. Special consideration should be given to the following as listed in the table below: Time Considered Reach the objective Explanation Distance, terrain, and anticipated speed of movement as well as the friendly and enemy situation and the time when the mission must be accomplished Your leader’s reconnaissance, the movement of elements and teams into position, and actual accomplishment of the mission May differ from the time required to reach the objective. Prisoners or captured equipment may slow your patrol. Use of a different return route may change the time required. Take advantage of light and weather conditions that aid in departure and return Same considerations apply to an operational order whether it covers departure, return, or accomplishment of the mission

Accomplish essential tasks in the objective area Return to friendly areas

Time of day and weather Specified, if any, in the operational order

Rehearsals and Inspections

Conduct rehearsals and inspections to determine the physical and mental readiness of your patrol members. Coordinate with your platoon commander for use of a rehearsal area. The timeline must provide for inspections by subordinate leaders and you, the patrol leader.
Continued on next page

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4-27

Study Unit 4, Lesson 2

Writing the Patrol Order, Continued

Debriefing

Disseminate information among patrol members as often as possible. Write notes, thoughts, and observations. Convey communications completely, concisely, and accurately. Essential elements of information (EEIs) are the critical items of information vital for mission accomplishment. Other information requirements (OIRs) are valuable items of information but not vital for mission accomplishment. Always cover safety issues, including weapons, conditions, and hydration. Some commanders consider safety so important they make it a sixth paragraph of their operations order. Administration and logistics deals with · Food—when will your patrol members eat? What kind of food will be provided? Where will food be obtained? Always consider alternate means of resupply for long-range patrols. Arms and ammunition—the patrol warning order should specify the arms and ammunition needed to support the mission. Uniform and equipment—does the detailed plan require any additions or deletions to the uniform and equipment specified in your patrol warning order? Method of handling the wounded, the dead, and prisoners—does your patrol have an SOP for handling the wounded, the dead, and prisoners? The procedures for handling your wounded or dead patrol members and the capture of prisoners may vary, based on the nature of the operations being conducted. The methods you use largely depend on if the situation occurs en route to the objective, at the objective, or on the return to friendly areas.
Continued on next page

EEIs/OIRs

Safety

Administration and Logistics

· ·

·

MCI Course 8015A

4-28

Study Unit 4, Lesson 2

Writing the Patrol Order, Continued

Command and Signal

In the command paragraph, list the chain of command and succession of command for all phases of the patrol. Your location and that of your assistant patrol leader are planned for during all phases of the patrol: · · You, as the patrol leader, should position yourself where you can best control and direct the patrol, usually in the forward one-third of the patrol. Place your assistant patrol leader where he can best assist you in control during movement. Be ready to assign specific duties to him at sensitive times during each phase of the patrol.

Plan and Rehearse

In the signal paragraph, plan and rehearse the signals you will use. You may use the following: · Visual signals · Hand and arm signals · Pyrotechnics · Infrared equipment Audible signals · Voice · Radios

·

Situations for Using Signals

A good technique is to designate a primary and alternate signal for each event requiring signals. Some instances when signals may be needed are as follows: · · · · · Cease or shift supporting fires Start an assault Order withdrawal from the objective Signal “all clear” Stop and start the patrol
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 2

Writing the Patrol Order, Continued

Communications with Higher Headquarters

The essential details of communication with all units at higher headquarters are listed below: · · · · · Radio call signs Primary and alternate frequencies Reporting times (usually upon reaching checkpoints) Special code words Security requirements

Challenge and Password

You should designate a challenge and password to be used within the patrol outside of friendly lines/areas. List the challenges and passwords you will use in all phases of the patrol.

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4-30

Study Unit 4, Lesson 2

Issuing the Patrol Order

Guidelines

Once you have completed writing your patrol order following the standard five-paragraph order format, be sure you adhere to these guidelines: · · · Assemble the members of the patrol and issue your order. Issue the order in a clear, concise, and forceful manner. Be sure all patrol members are present if the tactical situation permits. Patrol members should remain attentive, take notes, and hold their questions until you complete your order. Receive a status report from your unit/team leaders on the preparatory tasks assigned to them when you issued the warning order. Before you give the order, give the patrol a brief orientation on the area of operations. Build a terrain model using dirt, rocks, twigs, etc., to help explain the concept of operations for movement to the objective area, actions at the objective area, and the return to friendly lines/area. Conclude with a question and answer period. Allow for as many questions as time permits. Be sure you give your patrol members a time check and announce the next event. If an event changed due to the number of questions or other reasons, state the new times for each event.

· ·

· ·

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4-31

Study Unit 4, Lesson 2

Inspecting the Patrol

Types of Inspections

The preparation phase of conducting your patrol involves inspecting and rehearsing. You have planned your patrol and issued your patrol order. Now you are ready to prepare your patrol members for the patrol. Inspections are vital to proper preparations for the patrol and mission success. You must conduct inspections even if you and your patrol members are experienced in patrolling. There are two types of inspections: · · Prerehearsal Final

Purpose

The purpose for inspections during planning and preparation is listed below: Determines the state of readiness―physical and mental―of the patrol members · Helps to guarantee mission accomplishment · Reassures gear and all required equipment is present and serviceable · Ensures all proper camouflage is applied ·

Prerehearsal Inspections

Prerehearsal inspections ensure completeness and correctness of uniform, equipment, and knowledge of the mission. Question each patrol member to make sure they know the following: · · · · The mission and planned actions of the patrol Individual tasks What other members of the patrol are to do at certain times during the patrol The challenges, passwords, codes, radio call signs and frequencies, reporting times, and other pertinent details
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 2

Inspecting the Patrol, Continued

Final Inspections

Conduct the final inspection just before departure to make sure nothing changed during rehearsals. Be sure all patrol members are verbally and physically ready to accomplish the mission. For large patrols, you may find it necessary to designate the element leaders to conduct inspections. You then spot check individuals and thoroughly inspect your element leaders.

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4-33

Study Unit 4, Lesson 2

Conducting Rehearsals

Purpose

Rehearsals, also vital to mission accomplishment, are done to · · · · Ensure the operational proficiency of your patrol. Check plans. Make necessary changes. Verify suitability of equipment.

Through rehearsals, everyone becomes thoroughly familiar with the actions they are to take during the patrol. Conduct rehearsals in three stages.
Three Stages

Conducting rehearsals is done in three stages as described in the table below: Stage 1 · · · · · 2 · · 3 · · · Description If the patrol is to operate at night, conduct both day and night rehearsals. Conduct rehearsals on terrain similar to that on which the patrol will operate. If time allows, rehearse all actions that the patrol is expected to execute. If time is limited, rehearse only the most critical phases. Always rehearse actions at the most critical phase, the objective area. Talk through each phase, describing the actions and having each member perform his duties. Walk through all phases of the patrol, using only the signals and commands that will be used during the patrol. When rehearsals are complete and you are satisfied with your patrol’s performance, make any final adjustments to your plan or patrol organization. Issue final instructions to the unit/team leaders, noting any changes made. Advise the platoon commander or higher headquarters that your patrol is ready to depart.

MCI Course 8015A

4-34

Study Unit 4, Lesson 2

Lesson 2 Exercise

Estimated Study Time

15 minutes

Directions

Complete the following items. Check your answers against the correct answers at the end of this lesson. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Situation is one of five main paragraphs of a patrol order. What are the other four? a. b. c. d. Mission, execution, administration, and signal Mission, execution, administration and logistics, and command and signal Mission, general instructions, specific instruction, and logistics General and specific instructions, command and signal, administration, and logistics

Item 1

Item 2

The situation paragraph consist of environment, a. b. c. d. enemy forces, friendly forces, attachments, and detachments. enemy forces, higher headquarters, and adjacent units. mission, friendly units, and timeline from planning through execution. situation, mission, and friendly forces.

Item 3

On a patrol order, how is the mission paragraph usually presented? a. b. c. d. When, who, what, how often, why When, who, how many, where, why When, who, what, where, why When, what, why, where, how
Continued on next page

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4-35

Study Unit 4, Lesson 2 Exercise

Lesson 2 Exercise, Continued

Item 4

Coordinating instructions contain instructions common to ____________ and coordinating details and control measures applicable to the a. b. c. d. the patrol as a whole; two or more elements. two or more elements; element leaders. two or more elements; patrol as a whole. element leaders specifically; patrol and attached units.

Item 5

List the three factors that determine the selection of a patrol route. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

Items 6 and 7

Matching: In the space provided, place the letter of the type of rallying point listed in column 2 that is defined in column 1. The answers in column 2 may be used only once. Column 1 Definition ___ 6. Column 2 Type of Rallying Point

___ 7.

The point within the a. Initial rallying point friendly area where the b. En route rallying point patrol can rally if it c. Objective rallying point becomes dispersed. The point near the objective to reassemble, make final preparation, and reorganize after completing mission.
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 2 Exercise

Lesson 2 Exercise, Continued

Item 8

What are the four considerations covered in the administration and logistics paragraph? a. Food, arms and ammunition, uniform and equipment, and safety b. Food, arms and ammunition, uniform and equipment, method of handling the wounded, the dead, and prisoners c. Food, uniform and equipment, method of handling the wounded, the dead, prisoners, and signal plan d. Uniform and equipment, arms and ammunition, signal plan, and the lost Marine plan

Item 9

List three of the seven guidelines for issuing the patrol order. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________

Item 10

What two types of inspections are required before beginning a patrol? a. b. c. d. Prerehearsal and post rehearsal Prerehearsal and final Initial and post rehearsal Initial and final

Item 11

What is the purpose of a prerehearsal inspection? a. Go over the plan before rehearsals. b. Check serviceability of weapons and equipment. c. Ensure completeness and correctness of uniform, equipment, and knowledge. d. Ensure everyone knows what to rehearse.
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 2 Exercise

Lesson 2 Exercise, Continued

Item 12

What is the purpose of a final inspection? a. Go over the plan one more time. b. Check serviceability of weapons and equipment. c. Ensure completeness and correctness of uniform, equipment, and knowledge. d. Ensure nothing changed during rehearsals.

Item 13

List the four purposes of conducting rehearsals. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 2 Exercise

Lesson 2 Exercise, Continued

Correct Answers

The table below provides the correct answers to the exercise items. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Item Number 1 2 3 4 5 Answer b a c c Affords concealment from enemy observation Where little or no enemy opposition is expected Presents a minimum of obstacles to the patrol a c b Reference Page 4-21 4-21 4-22 4-23 4-25

· · ·

6 7 8

4-26 4-26 4-28
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 2 Exercise

Lesson 2 Exercise, Continued Continued

Correct Answers, continued

Item Number 9

· · · · · · ·

10 11 12 13

· · · ·

Answer Assemble the members of the patrol. Issue the order in clear, concise, and forceful manner. Be sure all patrol members are present. Receive a status report from team leaders. Build a terrain model. Conclude with question and answer period. Give a time check and announce the next event. b c d Ensure operational proficiency. Check plans. Make necessary changes. Verify suitability of equipment.

Reference Page 4-31

4-32 4-32 4-33 4-34

MCI Course 8015A

4-40

Study Unit 4, Lesson 2 Exercise

STUDY UNIT 5 URBAN PATROLLING Overview

Estimated Study Time

4 hours

Unit Scope

Before conducting urban operations, Marines must be trained in fundamental combat skills to conduct urban operations. Training for this unique environment will reduce the number of casualties because properly prepared Marines will be able to fight more effectively. This study unit will introduce all the fundamental combat skills taught for fighting in urban terrain. Urban combat will require Marines to use their best initiative and judgment in applying techniques and procedures described in this study unit. After completing this study unit, you should be able to · · Identify the fundamentals for conducting Military Operations on Urbanized Terrain (MOUT) operations. Identify the principles for conducting MOUT operations.

Learning Objectives

Unit Content

The following table lists the lessons covered in this unit. Topic Lesson 1 General Information Lesson 2 Weapons Handling and Firing Techniques Lesson 3 Movement Techniques Lesson 4 Entry Techniques Lesson 5 Clearing Techniques Lesson 6 Firing Positions Lesson 7 Advancing/Patrolling Along City Streets See Page 5-3 5-11 5-23 5-35 5-45 5-71 5-81

MCI Course 8015A

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Study Unit 5

(This page intentionally left blank.)

MCI Course 8015A

5-2

Study Unit 5

LESSON 1 GENERAL INFORMATION Introduction

Estimated Study Time

20 minutes

Lesson Scope

Basic infantry organization does not change when the battlefield is moved into an urban area. However, infantry units may be tasked organized or reinforced down to squad level in order for small units to fight and win in this violent, three-dimensional battlespace. Several new terms that address organization and employment have been added to clearly define mission assignments. This lesson describes the platoon through fire team organization breakdown. Maps and photographs are available to help units overcome navigational problems peculiar to urban terrain. Additionally, the global positioning system (GPS) can help supplement navigational abilities in built-up areas. This lesson discusses specific navigation issues for urban operations.

Learning Objectives

After completing this lesson, you should be able to · · Identify the task organization of an infantry platoon in an urban environment. Identify the tools available to overcome navigational challenges of urban operations.

Lesson Content

The following table lists the topics covered in this lesson. Topic Introduction Task Organization Navigation Challenges Lesson 1 Exercise See Page 5-3 5-4 5-6 5-9

MCI Course 8015A

5-3

Study Unit 5, Lesson 1

Task Organization
Platoon Assault Force

A task-organized Marine platoon assault force consists of three elements: · · · An assault element (1st squad) A support element (2nd squad) A security element (3rd squad)

The exact number of Marines in the assault force and the weapons used are based on METT-TSL.
Squad Elements

The three elements are shown in the diagram below:

Platoon Assault Force Operation

Assault and support missions may alternate between squads. If the company is providing the security force, then the security element can assume another assault force mission. The platoon may be reinforced or have operational control of heavy weapons or armored vehicles.
Continued on next page

MCI Course 8015A

5-4

Study Unit 5, Lesson 1

Task Organization, Continued
Marine Squad

Each squad may be fire team organized tasked as shown below. Assault/support elements may alternate missions. Fire teams may be reinforced with heavy weapons and/or engineers. Weapons carried by fire team members are based on METT-TSL. For example, the support element may consist of all SAWs within the squad. The squad assualt force consists of three elements as shown in the diagram below:

Assault Element

The assault element consists of two teams as shown in the diagram below that alternate missions: · · Clearing team—initial entry team Covering team—provides support for lead team

MCI Course 8015A

5-5

Study Unit 5, Lesson 1

Navigation Challenges

Identified

Navigation in built-up areas presents a unique set of challenges. Deep in the city core, the normal terrain features depicted on commercial maps may not apply. Buildings become the major terrain features; units become tied to streets. · · · Fighting in the city destroys buildings, and rubble then blocks streets Street and road signs may be destroyed and switched or removed by the defenders Operations in subways and sewers present other unique challenges

Navigation Tools

There are many methods you can use to navigate through urban terrain. Using more than one method may increase your chances mission success while ensuring that you do not fall into enemy hands. Some of the possible navigational aids are listed below: · · · · · · Military maps City maps Special maps Compass reading and pace counting Electronic devices Aerial photographs

Military Maps

The military map is a topographical map. It delineates streets and highlights street names, important buildings, and other urban elements of a city. The scale can vary from 1:25,000 to 1:100,000 depending on the · · · Importance and size of the city Density of detail Intelligence information available

City Maps

City maps supplement or replace topographical maps as the basis of navigation. These maps enable units moving in the built-up area to know where they are and to move to new locations even though streets have been blocked or a key building has been destroyed. Once in the built-up area, Marines may use street intersections as reference points as they use hills and streams in rural terrain.
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 1

Navigation Challenges, Continued

Special Maps

Topographical engineers prepare special maps to help you navigate in builtup areas. Special maps are designed or modified to · · · Supplement military city or topographical maps as well as commercial maps. Provide information that is not covered on a standard military map. Emphasize road and bridge networks, railroads, and electric power stations.

Compass Reading and Pace Count

The techniques of compass reading and pace counting can still be used, especially in a blacked-out city where street signs and buildings are not visible. Note: The presence of steel and iron in a MOUT environment may cause inaccurate compass readings.
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 1

Navigation Challenges, Continued

Electronic Devices

Operations in built-up areas adversely affect the performance of some types of communications and electronic devices as the · · · GPS Position Location Reporting System (PLRS) Other data-distributing systems

These systems function by line of sight, just as some communications equipment. They cannot determine underground locations and positions within a building. These sytems can be employed on the tops of buildings, in open areas, and down streets where obstacles will not affect line of sight readings.
Aerial Photographs

Current aerial photographs are also excellent supplements to military city maps and can be substituted for a map. Recent aerial photographs show changes that have taken place since the map was made, including · · Buildings and streets destroyed due to rubble Enemy defensive preparations

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5-8

Study Unit 5, Lesson 1

Lesson 1 Exercise

Estimated Study Time

10 minutes

Directions

Complete the following items. Check your answers against the correct answers at the end of this lesson. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Which is the task organization of an infantry platoon in an urban environment? a. b. c. d. Security element, assault element, reinforcing element Assault element, covering element, support element Support element, assault element, breaching element Support element, assault element, security element

Item 1

Items 2 Through 6

Matching: In the space provided, place the letter of the type of unit task organization from column 2 that matches the item number of the tasks in column 1. The answers in column 2 may be used more than once. Column 1 Tasks ___ 2. ___ 3. Teams may be reinforced with heavy weapons. Teams may have operational control of heavy weapons or armored vehicles. Teams may alternate missions. Weapons carried by team members are based on METT-TSL. Exact number of Marines in the assault element is based on METT-TSL. Column 2 Type of Unit Task Organization a. Task organized Marine platoon b. Task organized Marine squad c. Task organized Marine fire team

___ 4. ___ 5. ___ 6.

Continued on next page
MCI Course 8015A

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 1 Exercise

Lesson 1 Exercise, Continued

Correct Answers

The table below provides the correct answers to the exercise items. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Item Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 Answer d b a c b a Reference Page 5-4 5-5 5-4 5-5 5-5 5-4

MCI Course 8015A

5-10

Study Unit 5, Lesson 1 Exercise

LESSON 2 WEAPONS HANDLING AND FIRING TECHNIQUES Introduction

Estimated Study Time

20 minutes

Lesson Scope

In an urban environment, a Marine often finds himself engaging targets at close ranges. Weapons carries provide a safe and effective method for handling the service rifle. After completing this lesson, you should be able to · · · · Identify the weapons carries for handling the service rifle. Identify the purpose of short stocking. Describe guidelines for short stocking. Identify the firing techniques used in an urban environment.

Learning Objectives

Lesson Content

The following table lists the topics covered in this lesson: Topic Introduction Weapons Carries Short Stocking Firing Techniques Lesson 2 Exercise See Page 5-11 5-12 5-15 5-16 5-19

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 2

Weapons Carries

Weapon Carries

Because of the types of close-range engagement a Marine may encounter in an urban environment, it is important to position your weapon in a variety carries to increase your changes hitting the target during an engagement. Some of the carries are listed below: · · · · Tactical Alert Ready Weak hand

Tactical Carry

The tactical carry is used when no immediate threat is present. The tactical carry is designed to · · Permit control of the rifle while moving. Allow quick engagement of the enemy.

In tactical carry, the butt stock of the weapon is placed alongside the body at approximately hip level, and the barrel is angled upward approximately 45 degrees in the general direction of the enemy as shown below:

Continued on next page

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 2

Weapons Carries, Continued

Alert Carry

Engagement of the rifle is faster from the alert carry than from the tactical carry. The occasions to use alert carry are listed below: · · Enemy contact is likely. Accuracy is the primary goal.

In alert carry, the butt stock of the rifle is placed in the shoulder with the muzzle angled down approximately 45 degrees and pointed in the likely direction of the enemy as shown below:

Guidelines

When in alert carry, apply the guidelines listed in the table below: Rule 1 2 3 4 Action Keep both eyes open and scan for any threat with the weapon always in line with your line of sight. When you spot a threat, quickly snap your weapon into a firing position. Look over the rear sight aperture and align the tip of the front sight post center mass on the target. Once the target has been eliminated, return to the alert carry and continue to scan for targets.
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 2

Weapons Carries, Continued

Ready Carry

The ready carry is employed when contact with the enemy is imminent because it allows for immediate target engagement. In ready carry, the butt stock of the rifle is in the shoulder with the muzzle of the rifle pointed in the direction of the enemy as shown below:

Note: As in the alert carry, sight alignment and sight picture are achieved as the shot is fired. You should always strive for a clear tip of the front sight post and center mass hold.
Weak Hand Carry

Weak hand carries are acceptable when providing supporting fire. However, it is not the preferred position in close kill-or-be-killed engagements. Marines may carry their weapon on the weak hand side to · · Obtain maximum cover and fire. Avoid exposing themselves.

Note: Firing from the weak hand position may reduce your ability to fire accurately.

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 2

Short Stocking

Purpose

Rifles are short stocked to · · Increase their maneuverability in an enclosed area. Reduce possible “target indicators” (muzzles sticking around corners) for the enemy.

Descriptive Guidelines

The short stocking technique may be used in the tactical, alert, or ready carry as shown below:

Guidelines

When in short stocking, apply the guidelines listed in the table below: Rule 1 2 3 4 Action Hold the weapon in a manner as to reduce the weapon’s length without sacrificing too much accuracy. Position the stock so that the pistol grip is behind your head. Use your index finger or thumb to manipulate the trigger. Place the weapon’s handguard against your cheek to attain a firm stockweld.

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5-15

Study Unit 5, Lesson 2

Firing Techniques

Four Techniques

The speed and uncertainty of combat requires you to act without hesitation while achieving accurate target engagement. Firing techniques that will allow you to engage targets accurately in an urban environment while reducing your exposure to harm from the enemy are listed below: · · · · Pieing Aimed quick fire Pointing quick fire Instinctive shooting

Pieing

Pieing is an effective technique for clearing dead space inside rooms and buildings to gain security of hallways, stairwells, and mouse holes. It can be used in the ready carry position and the short stocking technique. When pieing, aim your weapon at a sector of a window, doorway, corner, or hallway and slowly move it at different angles until each sector is cleared of any threat. Note: As soon as you see a hostile threat, you can place immediate, accurate fire on the threat.
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 2

Firing Techniques, Continued

Aimed Quick Fire

In aimed quick fire, your initial focus remains on the target. As you bring your rifle up, your firing eye looks through or just over the rear sight aperture. Use the front sight post to aim at the target. Fire two quick shots. Your focus remains on the front sight post throughout the aiming process. Immediately after target engagement, scan the area for additional targets. The pointing system is based on the phenomenon that when you look at an object and simultaneously point a finger at it, your finger aligns itself on the point of focus of your eye with no conscious effort on your part. When you look at an object and simultaneously bring your rifle to your shoulder, your rifle in effect becomes an extension of the pointed finger. Focus on the target is not broken during the interval between initially seeing the target and discharging the rifle. Follow the guidelines listed below when a target appears: · · · · Keep both eyes open. Concentrate intensely on a small, specific focal point near the base of the target mass. Simultaneously bring your rifle to the hollow of your shoulder and hold your head high with the stock welded to your jaw. Your eyes should be 2 to 3 inches over the top of the sights, staring intently at the target. When you bring your rifle to your shoulder, fire two quick shots.
Continued on next page

Pointing Quick Fire

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 2

Firing Techniques, Continued

Instinctive Shooting

Instinctive shooting occurs in situations in which you are surprised and need to react immediately. Your weapon and body are quickly “pointed” and the target is engaged. You should engage the threat by using the tip of the front sight post; however, speed is more important. Note: Turn your body with your weapon to achieve a natural point of aim. Simply pointing your weapon will usually result in a miss. Once you have fired the first two shots and regained the initiative, quickly move your weapon to your shoulder and use the tip of the front post for sighting subsequent shots.

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 2

Lesson 2 Exercise

Estimated Study Time

10 minutes

Directions

Complete the following items. Check your answers against the correct answers at the end of this lesson. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each items. Matching: In the space provided, place the letter of the description of a weapons carry from column 2 that matches the type of weapons carry in column 1. The answers in column 2 may be used only once. Column 1 Weapons Carries ___ 1. ___ 2. ___ 3. ___ 4. Tactical carry Alert carry Ready carry Weak hand carry Column 2 Descriptions a. Used when enemy contact is likely and accuracy is the primary goal. Butt stock is placed in shoulder with muzzle angled downward. b. Employed when enemy contact is imminent. Sight alignment and picture are achieved as shot is fired. Butt stock is placed in shoulder with muzzle pointed in direction of the enemy. c. Used when no immediate threat is present. Permits control of rifle while moving and quick engagement of the enemy. d. Acceptable position when providing supporting fires. Not preferred position in close engagements.
Continued on next page

Items 1 Through 4

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 2 Exercise

Lesson 2 Exercise, Continued

Item 5

Read these four statements about short stocking a rifle, then answer the question below. 1. 2. 3. 4. Short stocking increases maneuverability in an enclosed area. Short stocking is a means to reduce the length of the weapon. Short stocking increases the possible “target indicators” for the enemy. Short stocking may be used in the tactical, alert, or ready carry.

Which of the following are all true? a. b. c. d.
Item 6

1, 2, 3 1, 2, 4 1, 3, 4 2, 3, 4

List the four firing techniques for urban operations. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 2 Exercise

Lesson 2 Exercise, Continued

Correct Answers

The table below provides the correct answers to the exercise items. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Item Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 Answer c a b d b Pieing Aimed quick fire Pointing quick fire Instinctive shooting Reference Page 5-12 5-13 5-14 5-14 5-15 5-16

· · · ·

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 2 Exercise

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 2 Exercise

LESSON 3 MOVEMENT TECHNIQUES Introduction

Estimated Study Time Lesson Scope

25 minutes

Movement techniques within built-up areas are the first fundamental skills that Marines should master. These movement techniques should be practiced until they become habitual. To reduce exposure to enemy fire, Marines should avoid silhouetting themselves, avoid open areas, and select their next covered position before moving. After completing this lesson, you should be able to · · · · · Identify the proper guidelines for crossing a wall. Identify the proper guidelines for observing around corners. Identify the proper guidelines for moving past windows. Identify the proper guidelines for moving past doorways and buildings. Identify the proper guidelines for crossing open areas.

Learning Objectives

Lesson Content

The following table lists the topics covered in this lesson: Topic Introduction Crossing a Wall Observing Around Corners Moving Past Windows Moving In or Near Doorways and Buildings Crossing Open Areas Lesson 3 Exercise See Page 5-23 5-24 5-25 5-26 5-28 5-30 5-31

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 3

Crossing a Wall

Guidelines

After reconnoitering the other side, quickly roll over the wall, keeping a low silhouette as shown below. The speed of your movement and a low silhouette deny the enemy a good target.

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 3

Observing Around Corners

Two Techniques

There are two techniques to reduce exposure to the enemy when observing around corners—short stocking and popping the corner as shown below:

Guidelines

The most common mistake Marines make at corners is to allow their weapons to extend beyond the corners before observing, thus exposing their positions. When observing around corners, follow the guidelines listed in the table below: Rule 1 2 3 Action Assume the prone position near the corner of the building or obstacle with your weapon short stocked and the muzzle pointed in the direction you are looking Raise your upper body onto your elbows and push yourself forward with your feet and legs without moving your elbows. Move your upper body with your weapon ready forward exposing your weapon, helmet, and a minimal amount of your face. This position will give you: · A low profile · The ability to observe around the corner · The immediate capability to engage targets with your weapon

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 3

Moving Past Windows

Basic Guidelines

The correct technique for passing a window is to stay below the window level as shown in the diagram below. Make sure you do not silhouette yourself in the window. Remain as close to the side of the building as possible. The most common mistake when passing a window is exposing your head to enemy observation from inside the room. Use the pieing technique described on page 5-28 to get past windows.

Continued on next page

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 3

Moving Past Windows, Continued

Basement Windows

Never run or walk past a basement window because you present a good target to the enemy inside the building. The most common mistake Marines make when passing a basement window is not being aware of the window. The guidelines to move past a basement window are listed below: · · Stay close to the wall of the building. Step or jump past the window without exposing your legs.

Diagram

The best technique to move past a basement window is shown in the diagram below:

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 3

Moving In or Near Doorways and Buildings

Pieing Technique

An alternate method to move past windows or doors is for the pointman to pie off the window as he approaches it. As the pointman approaches the window, the second Marine steps out to provide security to the direct front. The technique is continued as outlined in the table below: Personnel Pointman · · Second Marine · · Action Continues to cover the opening by pieing while using the near edge for cover Sectors off the part of the interior that can be viewed from the outside Moves with the pointman Maintains security to the front, as the pointman clears the inside corners of the opening

Diagram

The pieing technique is illustrated in the diagram below:

Continued on next page
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Study Unit 5, Lesson 3

Moving In or Near Doorways and Buildings, Continued

Guidelines for Doorways

Do not use doorways as entrances or exits because they are normally covered by enemy fire. If you must use a doorway as an exit, follow the guidelines listed below: · · · · Preselect positions. Use speed. Keep a low silhouette. Use covering fires.

Moving Outside Marines and small units may not always be able to use the inside of buildings a Building as a route of advance. If you should move on the outside of buildings, use the

guidelines listed below: · · · · ·
Moving Inside a Building

Use smoke, covering fire, and cover and concealment to hide movement. Hug the side of the building. Stay in the shadow. Present a low silhouette. Move rapidly to your next position.

When moving within a building that is under attack, always avoid silhouetting yourself against doors and windows. If forced to use a hallway, move by hugging the wall to avoid presenting targets to the enemy.

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 3

Crossing Open Areas

Description

Although they can be crossed if you apply certain fundamentals, natural kill zones for enemy crew-served weapons are open areas: · · · Streets Alleys Parks

Avoid open areas as much as possible.
Guidelines

To properly cross an open area, follow the guidelines listed below: · · · · Use smoke to conceal your movement. Run the shortest distance between buildings. Move along the far building to the next position to reduce the amount of time you are exposed to enemy fire. Make a visual reconnaissance before moving to another position. · Select the position that offers the best cover and concealment. · Select the route that you will take to get to that position. Be careful not to mask your supporting fire when moving from position to position. When you reach your next position, be prepared to cover the movement of other members of your element.

·

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 3

Lesson 3 Exercise

Estimated Study Time

10 minutes

Directions

Complete the following items. Check your answers against the correct answers at the end of this lesson. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. When crossing a wall, two important guidelines for denying the enemy a good target are a. b. c. d. a good reconnaissance and speed of movement. speed of movement and a low silhouette. a quick roll and a low silhouette. a low silhouette and good reconnaissance.

Item 1

Item 2

What is a common mistake Marines make when peering around corners? a. b. c. d. Raising too high on elbows when assuming a prone position Exposing weapon, helmet, and a minimal amount of their faces Assuming the prone position too close to the corner of the building Allowing their weapon to extend beyond the corner before they look
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 3 Exercise

Lesson 3 Exercise, Continued

Directions for Items 3 and 4

For items 3 and 4, select · · · · a if only 1, 3, and 4 are correct. b if only 1, 2, and 3 are correct. c if only 1 and 3 are correct. d if all four are correct.

Item 3

Which of the following guidelines apply when moving past windows? 1. 2. 3. 4. Stay below the window level. Silhouette yourself in the window. Remain as close to the side of the building as possible. Use the pieing technique to get past windows.

Item 4

What are the common mistakes that Marines make when moving past basement windows? 1. 2. 3. 4. Stepping past basement window while exposing legs Not remaining close to the wall of the building Not being aware of basement windows Running past basement windows

Item 5

What are the guidelines Marines should adhere to when exiting doorways? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 3 Exercise

Lesson 3 Exercise, Continued

Directions for Items 6 and 7

For items 6 and 7, select · · · · a if only 1, 3, and 4 are correct. b if only 1, 2, and 3 are correct. c if only 1 and 3 are correct. d if all four are correct.

Item 6

Which of the following guidelines apply when moving along the outside of a building? 1. 2. 3. 4. Present a low silhouette. Move rapidly to your next position. Stay in the shadow. Keep off the sides of buildings.

Item 7

Which of the following guidelines apply when crossing an open area? 1. 2. 3. 4. Use smoke to conceal your movement. Run the shortest distance between buildings. Move along the far building to reduce exposure by enemy fire. Cover the movement of other members of your element.
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 3 Exercise

Lesson 3 Exercise, Continued

Correct Answers

The table below provides the correct answers to the exercise items. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Item Number 1 2 3 4 5 Answer b d a c Preselect positions. Use speed. Keep a low silhouette. Use covering fires. b d Reference Page 5-24 5-25 5-26 5-27 5-29

6 7

· · · ·

5-29 5-30

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 3 Exercise

LESSON 4 ENTRY TECHNIQUES Introduction

Estimated Study Time

25 minutes

Lesson Scope

Urban patrolling has dangers peculiar to the terrain. One of the more critical areas is entering buildings. Marines should enter a building with minimum exposure. This lesson describes guidelines for properly gaining access to different structures. After completing this lesson, you should be able to · · Identify the methods for gaining entry in upper building levels. Identify the proper guidelines for gaining entry in lower building levels.

Learning Objectives

Lesson Content

The following table lists the topics covered in this lesson: Topic Introduction General Guidelines Upper Levels Lower Levels Lesson 4 Exercise See Page 5-35 5-36 5-37 5-40 5-42

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 4

General Guidelines

Entering a Building

General guidelines for entering a building are listed below: · · · · · Select an entry point before moving toward the building. Avoid windows and doors. Use smoke to conceal your advance to the building. Emply demolitions, tank rounds, etc. to make new entrances. Precede the clearing team’s entry with a grenade: · Enter immediately after the grenade explodes. · Be covered by the covering team.

Hand Grenades

Combat in built-up areas (mainly during the attack) requires the extensive use of hand grenades. Throw a grenade before entering rooms or negotiating staircases and mouse holes. Throwing grenades usually requires the use of both hands and employs both the overhand and underhand methods of throwing. The preferred technique is the hard-throw, skip/bounce technique, which involves throwing the grenade hard enough that it bounces or skips around, making it difficult to pick up. The least-preferred technique involves allowing the grenade to cook-off for 2 seconds, and then throwing it so the enemy cannot grab the grenade and toss it back. This technique is appropriate for actual combat, but not for training.

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 4

Upper Levels

Start at the Top

Clearing a building from the top down is the preferred method. Gravity and the building’s floor plan become assets when throwing hand grenades and moving from floor to floor. An enemy forced to the top of a building may be cornered and fight desperately or escape over the roof. An enemy forced down to the ground will withdraw from the building, thus exposing himself to friendly fire.

Means to Gain Upper Level Entrance

Use various means to reach the top floor of a building: · · · · · · · Ladders Drainpipes Vines Helicopters Roofs and windows of adjoining buildings Shoulders of another Marine to pull yourself up. Grappling hook attached to the end of a scaling rope · Scale a wall. · Spring from one building to another. · Gain entrance through an upstairs window.
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 4

Upper Levels, Continued

Quickest Method

Ladders offer the quickest method to gain access to upper levels of a building. Although ladders may not permit access to the top of some buildings, they may offer security and safety through speed. You can build ladders with · · Materials obtained through supply channels Resources that are available throughout the urban area

Least-Preferred Grappling hooks are the least-preferred method for gaining entry to upper Method levels of buildings. Grappling hooks should be used only as a last resort and

away from potential enemy positions. However, grappling hooks may potentially be used in concealed locations that connect enemy positions. Part Grappling Hook · · · · Function Sturdy Portable Thrown easily Equipped with hooks that can hold inside a window

When throwing the grappling hook, stand as close to the building as possible. You are less likely to be exposed to enemy fire and you do not have to throw the hook as far. Once the grappling hook is inside the window or on the roof, pull on the rope to obtain a good hold before beginning to climb. · Five-eighths of an inch to 1 inch in diameter · Long enough to reach the objective window · Knotted at 1-foot intervals to make climbing and holding easier
Continued on next page

Scaling Rope

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 4

Upper Levels, Continued

Scaling Walls

When forced to scale a wall during exposure to enemy fire, use all available means of concealment. When scaling a wall with a rope, avoid the following: · · Silhouetting yourself in windows of uncleared rooms Exposing yourself to enemy fire from lower windows

Climb with your weapon slung over your firing shoulder so you may quickly bring it to a firing position. A preferred firing position is hooking a leg over the wall and straddling the ledge while keeping a low silhouette.
Rappelling

Use rappelling as an entry technique to descend from the rooftop of a tall building into a window.

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 4

Lower Levels

Last Course of Action

You should clear buildings from the top down; however, it may be impossible to enter a building at the top. Therefore, entry at the bottom or lower level may be the only course of action. When entering a building at the lower level, avoid windows and doors because both can be easily boobytrapped and covered by enemy fire. Create a new entrance to avoid boobytraps: · · · · · Demolitions Artillery Tank fire Antiarmor weapons fire Similar means

Guidelines

To follow through on the effects of the blast and concussion, you must enter quickly after creating the entrance.
Existing Windows

When existing windows are the only entrances available and you are unable to create new entrances, use variations of the techniques: · · · Supported entry Non-supported entry when interior security has been established Unsupported entry

Supported Entry

To gain lower level entry, the supported entry technique is illustrated in the diagram below:

Continued on next page
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Study Unit 5, Lesson 4

Lower Levels, Continued

Non-Supported Entry

The non-supported entry technique is illustrated when interior security is established in the diagram below:

Unsupported Entry

To gain lower level entry, the unsupported entry technique is illustrated in the diagram below:

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 4

Lesson 4 Exercise

Estimated Study Time

10 minutes

Directions

Complete the following items. Check your answers against the correct answers at the end of this lesson. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. The preferred method of clearing a building is from the top down because a. b. c. d. gravity and the floor plan become assets when throwing grenades. the enemy will have you trapped on the roof and the upper levels. it is easier to scale a building than to enter through a doorway. there may not be any means to reach the roof and upper levels.
Continued on next page

Item 1

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 4 Exercise

Lesson 4 Exercise, Continued

Items 2 Through 5

Matching: In the space provided, place the letter of the entry technique in column 2 that best matches the description in column 1. The answers in column 2 may be used only once. Column 1 Description ___ 2. Quickest method to gain access, offers security and safety through speed ___ 3. Least-preferred method to gain access, should be used away from potential enemy positions ___ 4. When using a rope, should avoid silhouetting in windows of uncleared rooms and exposure to enemy fire from lower windows ___ 5. Used to descend from a rooftop into a window Column 1 Entry Technique a. b. c. d. Grappling hooks Ladders Rappelling Scaling walls

Item 6

List three means of gaining entry at the lower level of buildings without using doors and windows. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________
Continued on next page

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 4 Exercise

Lesson 4 Exercise, Continued

Correct Answers

The table below provides the correct answers to the exercise items. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Item Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 Answer a b a d c Demolitions Artillery Tank fire Antiarmor weapons fire Reference Page 5-37 5-38 5-38 5-39 5-39 5-40

· · · ·

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 4 Exercise

LESSON 5 CLEARING TECHNIQUES Introduction

Estimated Study Time

30 minutes

Lesson Scope

This lesson will discuss the basic clearing techniques. However, you may have to modify the fundamentals depending on the various situations and building/room layouts that you encounter. After completing this lesson, you should be able to identify the proper guidelines for clearing techniques. The following table lists the topics covered in this lesson: Topic Introduction Two-Man Stacked Clearing Exiting Two-Man Split Clearing Cross-Method Clearing Three-Man Clearing Four-Man Clearing Single-Man Clearing L-Shaped Hallways T-Shaped Hallways Stairwells Lesson 5 Exercise See Page 5-45 5-46 5-50 5-51 5-55 5-56 5-57 5-58 5-59 5-61 5-63 5-64

Learning Objectives

Lesson Content

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 5

Two-Man Stacked Clearing
Precautions

Be extremely careful within the areas you are clearing when using a stacked type of position; you may be concentrating in a danger area where you could be exposed to the following: · · · Fires penetrating walls Explosive effects · Boobytraps · Grenades thrown by the enemy Protective capabilities (or lack thereof) of the materials comprising the · Walls · Floors · Ceilings · Doors

Before Entering The covering team is positioned to provide security as the clearing team a Room begins to enter and clear a room. As shown below, before entering a room,

shooter # 2 is behind shooter # 1 (stacked position). This positioning is the same whether the door is already open or whether there is no door. Shooter #1 determines the direction in which the door opens, then quickly informs shooter #2 and forces the door open.

CAUTION:

Be aware of fire from enemy soldiers within the room and boobytraps. Do not expose yourself to enemy fire through the door.
Continued on next page

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Introduction, Continued

Entering A Room

Once the door is open, a hand grenade is immediately thrown into the room. Shooter #1 maintains cover for shooter #2 as he prepares to throw the grenade into the room. After the grenade explodes, follow the guidelines listed in the table below: Personnel Shooter #1 · · · · · · Action Steps across the threshold Clears his immediate area Engages targets from the ready carry position Follows immediately behind shooter #1 Buttonhooks Clears his area

Shooter #2

Note: If you have no grenades, the procedures remain the same except for throwing the hand grenade.
Diagram

The diagram below illustrates the set up after the grenade explodes:

Continued on next page

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Introduction, Continued

Clearing a Room

Both shooters clear the immediate area along their respective walls, starting from the nearest corner and continuing to the farthest respective corner, using the pieing technique to systematically clear the room by sector as shown in the diagram below:

Then, as shown in the diagram below, the shooters · · Establish a dominant position in the room, one step away from the wall and two steps into the room. Clear the room by sector, pieing to the opposite side of the room.

Continued on next page

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Introduction, Continued

Alternative Method to Clear a Room

Because of room size, entering the room through a narrow opening, or any number of situational factors, shooter #1 may enter a room without shooter #2 immediately following him. The guidelines for each shooter are listed in the table below: Personnel Shooter #1 · · · Shooter #2 · · · · WARNING: Action Positions himself inside the room to the left or right of the door Quickly scan the entire room Gives the command to shooter #2, “Next man in, left (right)!” Shouts, “Coming in, left (right)!” Enters the room Positions himself up against the wall to the left (right) of the entrance as designated Scans the room

All members must tell each other where they are to avoid committing fratricide.

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Exiting

Room

Once a room has been cleared, the clearing team yells, “Clear!” to inform the covering team. Before leaving the room to rejoin the covering team, the clearing team · · · Yells, “Coming out!” Waits to hear the covering team yell, “All clear!” Moves out of the room.

Staircase

When moving up or down a staircase, the appropriate team · · · Yells, “Coming up!” or “Coming down!” Waits for the other team’s response, “All clear!” Moves to rejoin its element

Building

When exiting a building, the clearing team or assault element · · · Yells, “Coming out!” Waits for the support force or covering team response, “All clear!” Exits the building

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Two-Man Split Clearing

Opening a Door Before opening a door, shooter #2 positions himself from Split Positions · Opposite shooter #1 on the other side of the door

· ·

Away from the wall in a safe position that allows shooter #1 to open the door In a position to immediately move to a wall position opposite shooter #1

Note: No matter what method is used to open the door, shooter #2 should get in a position on the side of the door opposite shooter #1.
Diagram

The diagram below shows the position of shooter #2 before opening a door:

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Two-Man Split Clearing, Continued

Entering a Room from Split Positions

When Shooter #1 is ready to open the door, shooter #2 immediately moves to a kneeling position against the wall. Shooter #1 kicks the door open from a standing position. · · If the Marines have hand grenades, then shooter #2 immediately throws a grenade into the room (as discussed earlier in this lesson). If the Marines do not have grenades, the stand/kneel positioning of the shooters places the shooters’ weapons at different levels as shown below.

Each shooter can engage targets inside the room while staying out of the other shooter’s line of fire. The shooters scan the room for targets.
Continued on next page

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Two-Man Split Clearing, Continued

Clearing a Room from Split Positions

If no grenade was thrown and the initial scan of the room is complete, shooter #1 yells, “Move!” As shown below, both shooters should · · · Pivot from their respective positions toward each other. Pie while maintaining eye-muzzle-target contact (shooter #2 is kneeling; shooter #1 is still standing). Clear their respective sectors of fire.

If a grenade was thrown, after the explosion, shooter #1 yells, “Move!” Both shooters should · · · · Pivot from their respective positions toward each other. Immediately enter the room. Buttonhook (shooter #2 goes from kneeling to standing as he pivots). Clear their respective sectors of fire.

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Two-Man Split Clearing, Continued

Entering a Room Together from Split Positions

If no grenade was thrown and after scanning is completed, · · · Shooter #2 stands up and yells, “Ready!” Shooter #1 yells, “Move!” Both shooters enter the room together as shown in the diagram below:

· ·

Pass through the doorway together and immediately face respective corners, using the adjacent wall for cover Buttonhook their respective area as shown in the figure below:

At this point, clearing the room is the same as discussed earlier in this lesson.

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Cross-Method Clearing

Entering and Clearing Rooms

When employing cross-method clearing, two Marines position themselves on either side of the entryway as shown below. Each Marine · · · · Faces into the room covering the corner of the room opposite his position On a prearranged signal, alternately enters the room and crosses quickly to the opposite corner while covering the half of the room towards which he is moving Once in the near corner, assumes an outboard kneeling position to reduce his silhouette and continues to maintain coverage of his half of the room May change the position of his weapon to best cover the room

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Three-Man Clearing

A Room

Clearing a room with three men involves the same procedures used by the two-man clearing team, with a third Marine following immediately (stacked) behind shooters #1 and #2 as shown below: · · Shooter #3 moves to one side of the door and establishes a center sector of fire coverage. If the split position is used, shooters #2 and #3 are placed on the opposite side of the door.

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Four-Man Clearing

A Room

When four Marines are used to clear a room, outside security should be established by another element. The two-Marine clearing team procedures are used for the initial entry into the room. Shooters #3 and #4 (split position example) stack up opposite shooters #1 and #2 as shown below.

Shooters #3 and #4 follow shooter #2 into the room: · · Shooter #3 crosses the threshold and establishes a center sector of fire coverage Shooter #4 follows shooter #3 and establishes a center sector of fire coverage opposite shooter #3.

If the stacked position is used to enter a room, all shooters stack up on the same side of the door and follow each other in with the same positioning.

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Single-Man Clearing

A Room

Single-man clearing is the least-preferred method of clearing a room. However, this may be the only method available, such as when gaining access to an upper story window. To gain entry to the room, follow the guidelines listed below: · · Shoot, kick, ram, or break a window. Throw a grenade into the room, if one is available and no restrictions apply, and take cover. Immediately after the grenade explodes · Cross the threshold, using the buttonhook technique. · Scan the room for targets. · Engage targets with two shots as they appear.

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L-Shaped Hallways

Clearing

After entering a room or building, Marines may encounter an L-shaped hallway that should be cleared. Each shooter takes a dominant position. Shooter #2 aims his weapon to cover the dead space as shown in the diagram below:

Step 1

Shooter #2, with his weapon covering the dead space, pies as far as possible and moves forward to increase his angle of fire further into the dead space.
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L-Shaped Hallways, Continued

Step 2

Shooter #1 moves accordingly with Shooter #2. Shooter #2 stops pieing just before he reaches the position where he cannot cover the dead space. Shooter #1 stops short of the hallway and goes to a kneeling position as shown in the diagram below:

Step 3

Shooter #1 shouts, “Ready!” Shooter #2 then shouts “Move!” Both shooters move simultaneously to clear the hallway. Shooter #2 remains standing. Shooter #1 remains kneeling as he pivots around the corner of the wall into the hallway as shown in the diagram below:

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T-Shaped Hallways

Clearing

After entering a room or building, Marines may find a T-shaped hallway that should be cleared. Both shooters approach the T-shaped intersection together, pieing their individual sectors while maintaining eye-muzzle-target contact. Move to dominant positions without entering the intersection as shown in the diagram below:

Step 1

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T-Shaped Hallways, Continued

Step 2

Shooter #1 clears his sector of fire and then shouts, “Ready!” Shooter #2 clears his sector of fire and then shouts, “Move!” Both shooters buttonhook into their next positions as shown in the diagram below:

Clear their immediate areas along their respective walls, starting from the nearest respective corner and continuing to the farthest respective corner as shown in the diagram below:

Establish dominant positions that give them control of the hallway and doorways leading into the hallways.
Continued on next page
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Stairwells

Clearing

After entering a building, Marines may encounter stairwells that need to be cleared and traversed. · Shooter #1 leads upstairs, one step ahead of shooter #2 as shown below.

·

Upon reaching the point, before he can be engaged from above, shooter #1 turns around and covers overhead. From this point, shooter #1 ascends the stairs, moving backward while covering behind and above. Shooter #2 follows shooter #1 upstairs, one step behind and to the side of shooter #1. When shooter #1 turns to cover overhead, shooter #2 remains oriented to the front, covering directly up the stairwell. Shooter #1 determines the speed of movement. Both shooters pie as much of an area as possible before ascending each step.

·

·

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Lesson 5 Exercise

Estimated Study Time

10 minutes

Directions

Complete the following items. Check your answers against the correct answers at the end of this lesson. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. The steps for conducting two-man stacked clearing are listed below in scrambled order. Place the steps in proper order and answer the question below. (1) Shooter shouts, “Coming in, left (right)!” (2) Shooter scans the entire room. (3) Shooter quickly scans the entire room and commands, “Next man in, left (right)!” (4) Shooter positions himself inside the room to left or right of the door. (5) Shooter positions himself against the wall to the left (right) of the entrance designated. Which of the following lists the correct sequence of steps to conduct a twoman stacked room clearing? a. b. c. d. 2, 1, 4, 5, 3 5, 3, 2, 4, 1 3, 5, 2, 1, 4 4, 3, 1, 5, 2
Continued on next page

Item 1

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Lesson 5 Exercise, Continued

Directions for Items 2 and 3

For items 2 and 3, select · · · · a if only 1, 2, and 3 are correct. b if only 1, 3, and 4 are correct. c if only 1 and 3 are correct. d if all four are correct.

Item 2

Which are the proper guidelines for clearing a room from split positions? 1. 2. 3. 4. Shooters pivot from their respective positions toward each other. Shooters throw grenades immediately upon entering room. Shooters clear their respective sectors of fire. Shooters pie while maintaining eye-muzzle-target contact.

Item 3

Which are the proper guidelines for clearing a room using the cross method? 1. Each Marine may change the position of his weapon to best cover the room. 2. On a prearranged signal, each Marine alternately enters the room and crosses quickly to the opposite corner. 3. Once in the near corner, each Marine assumes an outboard kneeling position to reduce his silhouette and continues to maintain coverage. 4. Each Marine faces into the room covering the corner of the room opposite his position.

Item 4

If the split position is used when conducting a ____________clearing, then shooters # ____________ are placed on the opposite side of the door. a. b. c. d. three-man; 2 and 3 two-man; 1 and 2 three-man; 1 and 2 three-man; 1 and 3
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Lesson 5 Exercise, Continued

Item 5

Carefully read the statement below. Select a if the statement is true. Select b if the statement is false. When four Marines are used to clear a room, outside security should be established by another assault element. a. True b. False

Item 6

Which of the following is the least-preferred method of clearing a room? a. b. c. d. Two-man stacked clearing Cross-method clearing Single-man clearing Four-man clearing
Continued on next page

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Lesson 5 Exercise, Continued

Directions for Items 7 and 8

For items 7 and 8, select · · · · a if only 1, 2, and 3 are correct. b if only 1, 3, and 4 are correct. c if only 1 and 3 are correct. d if all four are correct.

Item 7

Which are the proper guidelines for clearing an L-shaped hallway? 1. Each shooter takes a dominant position. 2. Shooter #2 aims his weapon to cover the dead space and pies as far as possible. 3. Shooter #2 remains standing, and shooter #1 remains kneeling as both pivot around corner of the wall into the hallway. 4. Both shooters move simultaneously to clear the hallway.

Item 8

Which are the proper guidelines for clearing a T-shaped hallway? 1. Both shooters establish dominant positions that give them control of the hallway and doorways leading into the hallways. 2. Shooter #1 approaches the T-shaped intersection followed by shooter #2 while maintaining eye-muzzle-target contact. 3. Both shooters move to dominant positions without entering the intersection. 4. Both shooters clear their immediate areas along their respective walls, starting from the nearest corner and continuing to the farthest respective corner.
Continued on next page

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Lesson 5 Exercise, Continued

Item 9

Which shooter determines the speed of movement while clearing stairwells? a. b. c. d. Shooter # 2 determines the speed of movement. Shooter #1 determines the speed of movement. Moving quickly should not compromise the shooter’s security. Both shooters have to cover each other’s movements.
Continued on next page

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Lesson 5 Exercise, Continued

Correct Answers

The table below provides the correct answers to the exercise items. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Item Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Answer d b d a a c d b b Reference Page 5-49 5-53 5-55 5-56 5-57 5-58 5-59 5-61 and 5-62 5-63

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LESSON 6 FIRING POSITIONS Introduction

Estimated Study Time

25 minutes

Lesson Scope

Whether a unit is attacking, defending, or conducting retrograde operations, its success or failure depends on the ability of individual Marines to place accurate fire on the enemy while least exposed to return fire. This lesson provides guidelines for hasty firing positions used in urban patrolling. After completing this lesson, you should be able to · · Identify the guidelines for hasty firing positions in and around buildings. Identify the guidelines for hasty firing positions when position or cover is not available.

Learning Objectives

Lesson Content

The following table lists the topics covered in this lesson: Topic Introduction In and Around Buildings Without Position or Cover Lesson 6 Exercise See Page 5-71 5-73 5-77 5-78

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In and Around Buildings

Hasty Firing Position

A hasty firing position is one that is normally occupied in the attack or the early stages of the defense. In this position, you can place fire on the enemy while using available cover for protection from return fire. You may occupy voluntarily or may be forced to occupy because of enemy fire. A hasty firing position is one that lacks preparation before occupation. Some of the more common hasty firing positions in a built-up area involve firing from · · · · · Corners of buildings Behind walls Windows Unprepared loopholes Peak of a roof
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In and Around Buildings, Continued

Corners of Buildings

The corner of a building provides cover for a hasty firing position if used properly. You should be capable of both right-handed and left-handed firing of your weapon (using the “short stocking” technique) to be effective around corners. Short stocking your weapon will prevent the muzzle from protruding and keep the weapon ready to fire the instant you make visual contact with the enemy. Furthermore, short stocking reduces your exposure as a target. When firing around corners of buildings, you should be in a prone position as shown below. A common mistake when firing around corners is firing from the standing position. If you do so, you expose yourself at the height the enemy would expect a target to appear and risk exposing the entire length of your body as a target for the enemy.

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In and Around Buildings, Continued

Walls

When firing from behind walls, you should fire around cover—not over it. In this situation, you should be able to fire from the right or the left shoulder. When firing from behind cover, you should remain far enough back from that cover so that your weapon does not extend beyond it. This ensures that no enemy on the other side of the wall can get control of the barrel of your weapon.

Windows

In built-up areas, windows provide convenient firing ports. You should avoid firing from the standing position because most of your body is exposed to return fire from the enemy. You could also be silhouetted against a lightcolored interior beyond the window, an obvious indicator of your position, especially at night when your muzzle flash can easily be observed. To properly fire from a window, as shown below, you should be · · Well back into the room to prevent the muzzle flash from being seen Kneeling to limit exposure and avoid silhouetting yourself

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In and Around Buildings, Continued

Loopholes

You may fire through a hole torn in the wall and avoid windows. As with firing from windows, you should stay well back from the loophole so the muzzle of the weapon does not protrude beyond the wall and your flash is concealed. The peak of a roof provides a vantage point for snipers. It increases their field of vision and the ranges at which they can engage targets. Objects used to reduce the size of the exposed target are listed below: · · · A chimney A smokestack Any other object protruding from the roof of a building

Roofs

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Without Position or Cover

No Position Available

When you are subjected to enemy fire and none of the positions mentioned are available, you should try to expose as little of yourself as possible. When in an open area between buildings (a street or alley) with no cover available and the enemy is firing on you from one of the buildings, lie prone as close as possible to a building on the same side of the open area as the enemy. Then to engage you, the enemy must then lean out of the window and expose himself to return fire.

No Cover Available

When no cover is available, you can reduce target exposure by firing · · · From the prone position From shadows While presenting no silhouette against buildings

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Lesson 6 Exercise

Estimated Study Time

10 minutes

Directions

Complete the following items. Check your answers against the correct answers at the end of this lesson. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Firing from the standing position is a common mistake when firing around corners because a. you expose yourself at the height the enemy would expect a target to appear. b. firing from the prone position does not allow you enough time to maneuver. c. the muzzle of your weapon will protrude and you will be exposed as a target. d. you are not using the “short stocking” technique.

Item 1

Item 2

List the two guidelines to properly fire from a window. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________
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Lesson 6 Exercise, Continued

Directions for Items 3 and 4

For items 3 and 4, select · · · · a if only, 1, 3, and 4 are correct. b if only 1, 2, and 3 are correct. c if only 1 and 3 are correct. d if all four are correct.

Item 3

Which of the following are guidelines for establishing a hasty firing position behind a wall? 1. 2. 3. 4. Remain far enough back so your weapon does not extend past the wall. Always fire from around cover—not over it. You should be able to fire from both the right and left shoulders. Ensure that your muzzle can be seen to warn other team members of your firing position.

Item 4

Which of the following are guidelines to reduce target exposure when no cover is available? 1. 2. 3. 4. Firing from the prone position Firing from the kneeling position Firing while presenting no silhouette against buildings Firing from shadows
Continued on next page

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Lesson 6 Exercise, Continued

Correct Answers

The table below provides the correct answers to the exercise items. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Item Number 1 2 Answer a Stay well back into the room to prevent the muzzle flash from being seen. Kneel to limit exposure and avoid silhouetting yourself. b a Reference Page 5-74 5-75

·

·

3 4

5-75 5-77

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LESSON 7 ADVANCING/PATROLLING ALONG CITY STREETS Introduction

Estimated Study Time

25 minutes

Lesson Scope

During MOUT operations, skills for advancing/patrolling along city streets will be required. The platoon, squad, or fire team mission may be such that building-to-building clearing is neither required nor desired until contact with the enemy has been made. This lesson discusses advancing/patrolling along urban streets in these types of situations. After completing this lesson, you should be able to · · · · · · · Identify the advantages of a single-column patrol. Identify the advantages double-column patrol. Identify sectors of responsibility by position in a formation. Identify the procedures for alternate bounding. Identify the procedures for successive bounding. Identify procedures for crossing an intersection. Identify two reactions to enemy contact.
Continued on next page

Learning Objectives

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Introduction, Continued

Lesson Content

The following table lists the topics covered in this lesson. Topic Introduction Unit Organization Double-Column Formations Crossing an Intersection Reacting to Enemy Contact Lesson 7 Exercise See Page 5-81 5-83 5-85 5-90 5-94 5-95

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Unit Organization

Patrol Elements The platoon’s three-squad organization or the squad’s three-fire team

organization is already structured to conduct an advance/patrol down an urban street. The typical patrol is organized into elements: · · · ·
Security Elements

Assault Support Security Command and control

Security is divided by responsibilities: · Front · Flank · Rear The platoon or squad can move down the street in a single or double column.

Single Column

The single column is the least-preferred advance/patrol method of moving along an urban street. The occasions to use a single column are listed below: · Move rapidly along a street · Street movement is restricted · Contact with the enemy is considered unlikely The same principles apply as in the double column, except that the single column does not provide 360 degrees of security.
Continued on next page

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Unit Organization, Continued

Double Column

The double column is the preferred method for moving along an urban street. To conduct a double column, you should have at least two squads or fire teams. The characteristics of a double column are listed below: · · · Flexible but can make control more difficult Provides 360 degrees of security Allows for · Mutual support · Interlocking sectors of fire

The two squads or fire teams move down the sides of the street, using the walls of the buildings for cover and concealment. The point men for the two columns should always stay abreast of each other and not move in front of or behind the opposite column. The Marines following in trace of the point men stagger themselves accordingly. The platoon or squad leaders move where they can best control their units.

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Double-Column Formations

Sectors of Responsibility

Every Marine moving in a column is responsible for security for a particular sector. The two columns provide mutual support for each other and the greatest all-around security. Teamwork and coordination between the two columns are vital. The table below shows the sectors of responsibility for members of each column. Position Point Men · · · · · · Second Cover Men · · · · · · Fourth Cover Men · · Last Two Marines in Squad · · Sectors of Responsibility Stays to the direct front Pies off windows and doorways Stays in line with one another Stays immediately behind the point men Provides guidance to their respective point men from the leader of the unit Covers the 45-degree oblique angle across from one another Stays to the direct front when the point man is pieing Checks for the enemy Stays to the far-side of flank security One covers the upper level of buildings, windows, doors, and stairwells Another covers the lower level of buildings windows, doors, and stairwells Alternates providing security on upper level and lower level windows, doors, and stairwells Provides rear security (if the last man in the column) Interlocks sector of fire with the lead Marine in the next fire team in the column Provides rear security for each of their formations Moves in bounds so one Marine is always providing active security to the squad’s rear
Continued on next page

Cover Men

Third and Fourth Cover Men

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Double-Column Formations, Continued

Squads

Squads in double-column formation advancing/patrolling along an urban street carry weapons at tactical alert or ready carry, on the basis of safety and enemy contact factors and overlapping sections of fire to cover windows, doors, alleys, etc. from ground level to upper floors. The diagram below illustrates proper patrolling in a double-column formation.

Continued on next page
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Double-Column Formations, Continued

Fire Team

Like a squad, a fire team in double-column formation advancing/patrolling along an urban street carries its weapons at tactical alert or ready carry on the basis of safety and enemy contact factors, overlapping sections of fire to cover windows, doors, alleys, etc. from ground level to upper floors. The diagram below illustrates the proper patrolling by a fire team using doublecolumn formation.

Continued on next page

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Double-Column Formations, Continued
Alternate Bounding

In alternate bounding, the two rear-security Marines alternate being the last Marine in the squad. The guidelines are listed in the table below:
Personnel Last Marine Next-to-Last Marine · · · · · · · · · Action Have his weapon at the ready. Be in the kneeling position along the wall of the building. Move in trace of the unit until he has moved approximately 10 to 15 meters. Step out one pace from the wall at this point. Assume a good kneeling firing position. Announce, “Set!” Rise from his position. Turn around. Move next to the wall to catch up with the column.

Last Marine

Marine Covering the Rearward Movement of the Last Marine

Note: The Marine moving back does not step out and mask the other Marine’s field of fire. · Assume the rear guard position. · Move back to the wall as the Marine passes by his position.

This process is repeated continuously. The rear fire team leaders coordinate the movements of the rear guard to keep them abreast of each other and ensure the column does not move too fast and leave the rear guard behind.
Diagram

The alternate bounding process is identified in the diagram below:

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Double-Column Formations, Continued

Successive Bounding

In the successive bounding method, as shown below, the last Marine in the squad continues to be the rear guard after bounding. The same procedures are employed as in alternate bounding. The guidelines for successive bounding are listed in the table below: Personnel Rear-Guard Marine Action · Bounds abreast of the Marine providing cover · Turns around · Drops to a good kneeling position · Provides rear-guard security · Announces, “Set!” · Moves behind the rear-guard Marine · Continues to cover 10 to 15 meters before repeating the process Coordinates the movements of the rear guard as in alternate bounding

Covering Marine

Rear Fire Team Leader
Diagram

An illustration for successive bounding is shown in the diagram below:

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Crossing an Intersection

General Information

Four-way intersections are very dangerous areas that should be crossed quickly. Security at an intersection is extremely important for the protection of crossing units. When crossing an intersection, the same procedures apply to both single- and double-column formations. When moving, the point men notify the unit leaders, through the cover men, of an approaching intersection. Crossing the intersection will force the three elements of a unit moving along a city street to rotate positions and assume appropriate responsibilities. Once the squads and three fire teams have crossed the intersection, the fire teams have rotated. This rotation is convenient because it alternates the lead units, which may become fatigued during MOUT operations.

Approaching an Intersection

The diagram below illustrates the formation of movement upon approaching an intersection.

Continued on next page

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Crossing an Intersection, Continued
First Fire Team

The guidelines for the first fire team—in the two columns—are listed in the table below: Personnel Lead (1st) Fire Teams Action · Simultaneously set security around the corners of the building. · Provide mutually supporting security: · Direct front · Building on the far side of the intersection · Intersection nd Middle (2 ) Fire Provide mutually supporting flank and rear security. Teams Rear (3rd) Fire · Move forward on order. Teams · Cross the intersection. · Assume the lead (1st) fire teams’ forward security.

First Fire Team Diagram

The diagram below illustrates the activity when the first fire team crosses an intersection:

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Crossing an Intersection, Continued
Second Fire Team

The guidelines for the second fire team are listed in the table below: Personnel 1 Fire Teams
st

Action Now the middle fire teams · Continue to provide intersection security. · Assume rear security. Now the rear fire teams · · Cross the intersection on order. Position themselves to provide rear and intersection security to support the covering of the last fire teams.

2nd Fire Teams

Second Fire Team Diagram

The diagram below illustrates the activity when the second fire team crosses an intersection:

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Crossing an Intersection, Continued
Third Fire Team

The guidelines for the third fire team are listed in the table below: Personnel Rear Fire Teams 1st Fire Teams Action Once the 1st fire teams Provide rear security. Cross the intersection on order. Bypass the 2nd fire teams to become the middle fire teams. · Provide mutually supporting forward and flank security. Become the rear security. · · ·

2nd Fire Teams
Third Fire Team Diagram

The diagram below illustrates the activity when the third fire team crosses an intersection:

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 7

Reacting to Enemy Contact

General Information

When a platoon or squad is moving along a city street, contact with the enemy could happen at any time—even if the area has been declared secure. If a unit engages or is engaged by the enemy, there are two basic options that Marines may follow: · · Immediately return fire and conduct a hasty clearing. Remain outside of the building(s) and fight from the street.

Hasty Clearing

The first and preferred option is to immediately return fire and conduct a hasty clearing. Conduct a hasty clearing of a structure to seek cover inside the building to which the unit was adjacent. Immediately return fire and enter buildings as quickly as possible. Apply the basic principles of entry as discussed earlier in this unit; however, speed is essential. Once inside, quickly scan the area and engage any threat. If no threat is present, acquire the enemy’s positions and deliver carefully aimed shots to achieve fire superiority. At this point, the situation is developed as rapidly as possible and an attack to clear the enemy may be ordered.

Fight From the Street

The second and least-preferred method is to remain outside of the building(s) and fight from the street. Do no use this option unless · Strict rules of engagement do not allow the occupation of buildings without being fired on from them first. · Buildings cannot be entered because of obstruction, obstacles, or boobytraps. In such cases, quickly acquire the target(s) and return fire to gain fire superiority and seek whatever cover may exist. Once fire superiority is achieved, an assault to clear the enemy may be conducted.

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Study Unit 5, Lesson 7

Lesson 7 Exercise

Estimated Study Time

10 minutes

Directions

Complete the following items. Check your answers against the correct answers at the end of this lesson. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. For items 1 and 2, select · · · · a if only 1, 2, and 3 are correct. b if only 1, 2, and 4 are correct. c if only 1 and 3 are correct. d if all four are correct.

Directions for Items 1 and 2

Item 1

When is a single-column patrol used? 1. 2. 3. 4. To move rapidly along a street When streets are restricted to a single column To provide a 360-degree security to all patrol members When contact with the enemy is considered unlikely

Item 2

When is a double-column patrol used? 1. 2. 3. 4. When at least two squads or fire teams are working together To provide a 360-degree security to all patrol members To allow for interlocking sectors of fire and mutual support For flexibility and easy control
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Study Unit 5, Lesson 7 Exercise

Lesson 7 Exercise, Continued

Items 3 Through 8

Matching: In the space provided, place the letter of the sector of responsibility in column 2 that best matches the position in column 1. The answers in column 2 may only be used once. Column 1 Position ___ 3. ___ 4. ___ 5. ___ 6. ___ 7. ___ 8. Point men Cover men Second cover men Third/fourth cover men Fourth cover men Last Marines in squad Column 2 Sector of Responsibility a. Moves in bounds so one Marine is always providing security to the squad’s rear b. Provides guidance to their respective point men from the leader of the unit c. Stays in line with one another d. Stays in the direct front where the point man is pieing e. Alternates positions, providing security on upper and lower level windows, doors, and stairwells f. Interlocks sector of fire with the lead Marine in the next fire team in the column
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Study Unit 5, Lesson 7 Exercise

Lesson 7 Exercise, Continued

Item 9

The steps for conducting alternate bounding are listed below in scrambled order. Place the steps in proper order and answer the question below. 1. The last Marine covering the rearward movement will assume the rear guard position. 2. The second to last Marine will step out one pace from the wall and assume a good kneeling position. 3. The second to last Marine will move in trace of the units until he has moved approximately 10 to 15 meters. 4. The last Marine will rise from his position and move to catch up with the column. 5. The last Marine in the formation will assume a good kneeling position and have his weapon at the ready. Which of the following lists the correct sequence of steps to conduct alternate bounding? a. b. c. d. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 5, 3, 2, 4, 1 3, 5, 2, 1, 4 4, 3, 1, 5, 2

Item 10

The steps for conducting successive bounds are listed below in scrambled order. Place the steps in proper order and answer the question below. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The covering Marine moves behind the rear guard Marine. The rear-guard Marine provides security as he announces, “SET!” The rear-guard Marine bounds abreast of the Marine providing cover. The covering Marine continues to cover for 10 to 15 meters. The rear-guard Marine turns around and assumes a good kneeling position.

Which of the following lists the correct sequence of steps to conduct successive bounding? a. b. c. d. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 5, 3, 2, 4, 1 3, 5, 2, 1, 4 4, 3, 1, 5, 2
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Study Unit 5, Lesson 7 Exercise

Lesson 7 Exercise, Continued

Item 11

For the following question, select · · · · a if only 1, 2, and 3 are correct. b if only 1, 3, and 4 are correct. c if only 1 and 3 are correct. d if all four are correct.

Which of the following are the proper procedures for the first fire team to cross an intersection? 1. The middle fire teams in the columns will provide mutually supporting flank and rear security. 2. The rear fire teams continue to provide security for the rest of the units. 3. The lead fire teams in the columns will simultaneously set security around corners of the building. 4. The rear fire teams move forward and cross the intersection to assume the lead fire team’s forward security.
Item 12

List the two basic options for Marines to follow if the unit is engaged by or engages the enemy. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________
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Study Unit 5, Lesson 7 Exercise

Lesson 7 Exercise, Continued

Correct Answers

The table below provides the correct answers to the exercise items. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Item Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Answer b a c b d e f a b c b · Immediately return fire and conduct a hasty clearing. · Remain outside of the building(s) and fight from the street. Reference Page 5-83 5-84 5-85 5-85 5-85 5-85 5-85 5-85 5-88 5-89 5-91 5-94

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WARFIGHTING TACTICS REVIEW LESSON EXAMINATION Review Lesson

Estimated Study Time

1 hour, 20 minutes

Introduction

The purpose of the review lesson examination is to prepare you for the final examination. We recommend that you try to complete your review lesson examination without referring to the text, but for those items (questions) you are unsure of, restudy the text. When you finish your review lesson examination and are satisfied with your responses, check your responses against the answers provided at the end of this review lesson examination. Select the ONE answer that BEST completes the statement or that answers the item. For multiple choice items, circle your response. For matching items, place the letter of your response in the space provided. Tactic’s relationship to theory is that a. b. c. d. tactics is the how and theory is the why. tactics is the why and theory is the how. all combat decisions are based only on tactics. no relationship exists between tactics and theory.

Directions

Item 1

Item 2

Because of the rapidly changing nature of combat, decisions are usually made by the a. b. c. d. platoon commander. squad leader. company commander. fire team leader.
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Review Lesson

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 3

Which statement best describes the influence of the commander’s intent on tactical decisions? a. b. c. d. It paints the picture of the commander’s desired end-state. It describes how the commander envisions the mission concluding. It provides information a subordinate can refer to but is not necessary. It creates the framework that all subordinates must operate within.

Item 4

Which of the following best states the purpose of an operations order? a. b. c. d. A method to brief subordinates of a tactical plan. A continuing process with mission accomplishment as its main goal. Convey a mission and a plan to accomplish that mission. A continuing process built around the six troop leading steps.

Items 5 Through 7

Matching: In the space provided, place the letter of the use of the order from column 2 that matches the type of order in column 1. The answers in column 2 may be used only once. Column 1 Type of Order ___ 5. Five-Paragraph Order ___ 6. Fragmentary Order ___ 7. Warning Order Column 2 Use of Order a. Used by commanders to sit all their subordinates down and give them a detailed plan. b. Used by commanders to quickly task their subordinates with a follow-on mission. c. Used by commanders to develop their tactical plan. d. Used by commanders to inform their subordinates of an upcoming mission.
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Review Lesson

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 8

The five-paragraph order is usually used at the _________ level and is designed to be given to subordinates _________. a. b. c. d. platoon level and below; in writing company level and below; orally squad level and below; orally platoon level and below; orally

Items 9 Through 13

Matching: In the space provided, place the letter of the purpose of the order paragraph from column 2 that matches the order paragraph in column 1. The answers in column 2 may be used only once. Column 1 Order Paragraph ___ 9. Situation ___ 10. Mission ___ 11. Execution ___ 12. Administration and Logistics ___ 13. Command and Signal Column 2 Purpose of Paragraph a. Lays out the plan for conducting the mission b. Lays out the purpose of the mission. c. Lays out the status and disposition of forces. d. Lays out the plans for controlling the unit. e. Lays out the plan for providing the 5 Bs.

Item 14

What are your two main responsibilities as the recipient of a commander’s order? a. Must thoroughly understand the commander’s order and extract information from it for your subordinates’ order. b. Hold questions until the end of the commander’s order and sketch the terrain model. c. Write questions to ask the commander at the end of the order and refer to your map to understand the order. d. Take thorough notes throughout the commander’s order, including questions you must have answered, and designate someone to build a terrain model.
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Review Lesson

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 15

Read the following statement below and then determine if it is true or false and why. In several places, information from the commander’s order is copied directly into your order. a. True, transcribe the order in combination with the higher echelon operation order and then complete your order. b. True, you will use those portions and others then develop the order that will be issued to your subordinates. c. False, nothing taken from the CO’s order is copied directly; it is merely taken to your subordinates level. d. False, what you are doing is simply reissuing the commander’s order to your Marines.

Item 16

Which of the following is a way to prepare to give an operations order? a. b. c. d. Prepare copies of the order for your subordinates. Ensure the entire unit is available. Bring a handful of laminated index cards Wait until you have all information, even if the order will be given late.

Item 17

Commanders use tactical control measures to control the a. b. c. d. fire missions they must conduct. assembly of their units. maneuver of their elements in the attack. their combat service support elements.
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Review Lesson

Review Lesson, Continued

Items 18 Through 21

Matching: In the space provided, place the letter of the purpose of the order paragraph from column 2 that matches the order paragraph in column 1. The answers in column 2 may be used only once. Column 1 Order Paragraph ___ 18. ___ 19. ___ 20. ___ 21. Boundaries Attack position Final coordination line Restrictive fire line Column 2 Purpose of Paragraph a. Physical object of the attack b. Used to prevent friendly fire casualties c. Drawn along easily recognizable terrain features. d. Last covered and concealed position e. Used to cease and shift supporting fires

Item 22

Which of the following is a factor in determining a squad’s tactical formation? a. b. c. d. Time of day Vegetation Marines available Rules of Engagement

Item 23

You enter into the attack phase when you cross the a. b. c. d. phase line. line of departure. assembly area. final coordination line.

Item 24

The primary reason for conducting a mission analysis is to a. b. c. d. prepare your five-paragraph order. plan your scheme of maneuver. understand your implied task. fully understand your assigned task.
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Review Lesson

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 25

The best description of the process for estimating the situation is that it is a a. b. c. d. mental checklist for the unit leader. helpful reminder of what to think about. means to analyze any situation. method for developing a plan.

Items 26 Through 29

Matching: In the space provided, place the letter of the definition from column 2 that best matches the offensive fundamental in column 1. The answers in column 2 may be used more than once. Column 1 Offensive Fundamental ___ 26. ___ 27. ___ 28. ___ 29. Exploit success Retain the initiative Gain contact Concentrate superior firepower at a decisive point Column 2 Definition a. b. c. d. e. Similar to the concept of mass Gaining the high ground Locate the enemy Make the enemy react to us Dictate terms of the battle

Item 30

The base unit is used to a. b. c. d. develop the concept of operation. reconnoiter for the enemy. control the direction and speed of an attacking force. control the speed and volume of the unit’s fires.

Item 31

The three forms of offensive maneuver are a. b. c. d. Development, Envelopment, and Double Envelopment. Penetration, Envelopment, and Frontal Attack. Flank Attack, Penetration, and Double Envelopment. Deceptive Attack, Flank Attack, and Penetration.
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Review Lesson

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 32

Which of the following is a squad organic weapon? a. b. c. d. M16 Javelin Pistol Rifle

Item 33

What are the two tasks to be accomplished during final preparation? a. b. c. d. Rehearsals and inspections Mission analysis and order preparations Fire Support and Logistical Coordination Coordination and conducting IA drills

Item 34

Immediate action drills are a. b. c. d. for a generic situation that could arise. a way to practice rehearsals. for a specific action in a mission. the same thing as rehearsals.

Item 35

Rehearsals are similar to a. b. c. d. inspections. immediate action drills. weapons drills. a mission walk-through.

Item 36

A(n) _____ list is comprised of items that will make you decide to cancel a mission. a. b. c. d. go/no-go CCIR extract IPB
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Review Lesson

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 37

An emergency evacuation plan is used between the a. b. c. d. phase line and axis of advance. assault position and RFL. LOD and objective. FCL and the objective.

Item 38

The purpose of continuing actions is to ensure that a. b. c. d. a Marine will prevent blisters and infections. a Marine will survive in a field environment. Marines always look and act like professionals. Marines always maintain grooming standards.

Item 39

The main purpose of consolidation is to a. b. c. d. account for personnel. care for casualties and KIAs. redistribute ammunition and supplies. defend the objective you just seized.

Item 40

Actions to take during reorganization include a. b. c. d. gaining contact with the enemy. request hot chow and mail. redistribute ammunition and supplies. request immediate suppression targets.
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Review Lesson

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 41

To defeat an enemy attack is the purpose of the a. b. c. d. defense. offense. envelopment. SP/LP.

Items 42 Through 45

Matching: In the space provided, place the letter of the definition from column 2 that best matches the defensive fundamental in column 1. The answers in column 2 may be used more than once. Column 1 Defensive Fundamental ___ 42. ___ 43. ___ 44. ___ 45. Disruption Security Defense in Depth Fire Planning Column 2 Definition a. Identify friendly/enemy strengths and weaknesses b. Integrate artillery, naval gunfire and CAS c. Countering the attacker’s initiative d. Organizing supplementary and alternate positions e. Cause the enemy to attack under unfavorable conditions

Item 46

A sector of fire is _____ shaped, enclosed by _____, and a forward front. a. b. c. d. wedge; one lateral limit cone; two lateral limits cube; one lateral limit wedge; two lateral limits
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Review Lesson

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 47

Which of the following is correct when organizing the fire team in the defense? a. The fire team leader formulates the defensive plan to cover the assigned sector with the heaviest possible volume of fire. b. The exact location of the fire team is generally determined by the fire team leader. c. The platoon commander selects identifiable features to indicate lateral and forward limits of the sector of fire. d. The fire team leader points out the general location on the ground of the fire team fighting position to be established.

Item 48

Which of the following is a consideration of a fire team defensive plan? a. b. c. d. Integration of the fire support plan to cover forward dead space Interlocking fires with adjacent units to left and right Individual sectors of fire should all cover the fire team sector of fire FPF assignment for the fire team’s M240G

Item 49

Which of the following is correct when constructing individual fighting positions? a. Every position should be observed and supported by the fires of at least one other position. b. Every position should be concealed from enemy observation and provide protection from both frontal and flank assaults. c. Individual fighting positions should always be constructed for two-man positions. d. Fighting positions should be concealed from enemy observation and provide protection in all directions.
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Review Lesson

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 50

Squad sized defensive positions physically occupy a front of about _____ meters and defend _____ meters of frontage. a. b. c. d. 50; 150-200 100; 200-250 150; 250-300 200; 300-350

Item 51

Why are squad leaders not assigned an individual sector of fire? a. b. c. d. All other sectors of fire previously assigned Squad leaders moves amongst the individual fighting holes Squad leader directs and controls the unit fires Squad leader covers any squad dead space

Item 52

Which of the following is an active security measure? a. b. c. d. Stand-to On call target Individual fighting hole Noise discipline

Item 53

Which of the following is a passive security measure? a. b. c. d. Stand-to On call target Individual fighting hole Noise discipline

Item 54

Which of the following is necessary to position weapons effectively? a. b. c. d. Environment weapons will be used in Affects of the terrain Tactics used by the enemy Model of the weapons
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Review Lesson

Review Lesson, Continued

Items 55 Through 57

Matching: In the space provided, place the letter of the definition from column 2 that matches the echelon named in column 1. The answers in column 2 may be used only once. Column 1 Echelons ___ 55. Security area ___ 56. Main battle area ___ 57. Rear area Column 2 Definitions a. Organized by assigning battle positions or defensive sectors to subordinate units b. Area extending from the rear boundary of the main battle area to the rear of the area of responsibility of the next lower level of command c. Area forward of the forward edge of the battle area

Item 58

Which of the following are the three basic defensive techniques? a. b. c. d. Reverse slope defense, linear defense, and perimeter defense Reverse slope defense, area defense, and perimeter defense Linear defense, area defense, and perimeter defense Linear defense, area defense, and defense in depth
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Review Lesson

Review Lesson, Continued

Items 59 Through 64

Matching: In the space provided place the letter of the term from column 2 that best matches the characteristic in column 1. The answers in column 2 may be used more than once. Column 1 Characteristics Column 2 Terms

a. Perimeter ___ 59. Effective during semib. Linear independent operations, during resupply, or when a c. Reverse unit is isolated by the enemy and must defend in place ___ 60. Enemy has the advantage of attacking downhill if they gain the crest ___ 61. Main concern is lack of flexibility and difficulty in both seizing the initiative and seeking out enemy weaknesses ___ 62. Used when securing an isolated objective such as a bridge, LZ, assembly area, or patrol base ___ 63. Natural or manmade obstacles neutralize the mobility of a mounted enemy, forcing him to attack dismounted ___ 64. Terrain protects the unit from long-range direct fire and reduces the effects of indirect fire due to mobility of the enemy to adjust the fires
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Review Lesson

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 65

Which of the following is correct concerning the information that should be included in the attachment paragraph of a defensive operations order? a. Should include information on the location of all the attachments supporting every unit in the defense b. Should include information on when supporting units are going to link up with your unit c. Should include information on the different weapons systems supporting your squad d. Should include the location of all attachments to include unit leaders that are supporting your unit in the defense

Item 66

Which of the following is not a mission your unit can assume in the defense? a. b. c. d. Retain terrain Attrit the enemy Disrupt the enemy Observe the enemy

Item 67

Which of the following is a coordinating instruction in a defensive operations order? a. b. c. d. Assign on call targets Dimensions for a mine field Prepare range cards Fighting position layout
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Review Lesson

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 68

The following are components to the conduct of a defense in scrambled order. Place them in the correct order and answer the question below. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Fighting the defense Reconnaissance Occupation of the defense Location of the enemy Preparation for combat

Place the components in the correct order. a. b. c. d.
Item 69

5, 2, 3, 4, 1 2, 4, 3, 5, 1 5, 2, 4, 3, 1 2, 3, 4, 5, 1

Which of the following is correct concerning the conduct of the reconnaissance? a. The reconnaissance is generally conducted in the same manner based on the unit’s SOP. b. The leader confirms enemy avenues of approach, dead space, location of SPs/LPs, and fighting position during the reconnaissance. c. The size of the reconnaissance party should not be based on speed, time available, or security needs. d. The unit leader should consider not conducting a reconnaissance, if there is not enough time available.

Item 70

Which of the following are principles of movement while occupying the defense? a. Maintain security to the front and flanks b. Units should move in the most direct manner to quickly occupy the defense c. Units should actively seek to destroy enemy units at likely ambush sites d. Use formation and movement techniques based on METT-TSL
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Review Lesson

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 71

Above all else, what must a leader do when fighting the defense? a. b. c. d. Defeat the enemy If necessary, utilize the FPF Accomplish the commander’s intent Take mental notes for the after action report

Item 72

The purpose of the reserve is to preserve the commanders a. b. c. d. firepower. ability to counterattack. defensive options. flexibility.

Item 73

Which of the following is not a primary mission of the reserve? a. b. c. d. Reinforce the main battle area Hasty counterattack Add depth Combat support

Item 74

Which of the following best describes the purpose of the counterattack? a. Breaking the enemy’s attack or denying him the ability to regain the initiative b. Destroy enemy penetration or eject him from the defensive position c. Prepare supplementary positions to secure the unit’s flanks or rear d. Block an enemy penetration by fire or by maneuver

Item 75

Which of the following are the two types of counterattacks? a. b. c. d. Supported and planned Hasty and supported Hasty and planned On-order and planned
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Review Lesson

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 76

Which of the following are the four other types of defensive operations? a. b. c. d. Passage of lines, retrograde, counterattack, and relief in place Passage of lines, retrograde, least-engaged unit, and relief in place Passage of lines, least-engaged unit, withdrawal, and relief in place Passage of lines, retrograde, withdrawal, and counterattack

Item 77

Which of the following are the seven considerations for estimating the situation? a. Terrain and weather, situation, time, troops and fire support available, equipment available, space, and logistics b. Terrain and weather, situation, time, troops and fire support available, mission, equipment available, and logistics c. Terrain and weather, mission, time, space, troops and fire support available, logistics, and enemy d. Terrain and weather, time, mission, troops and fire support available, equipment available, space, and logistics

Item 78

The military aspects of terrain are represented by the acronym a. b. c. d. METT-TSL. BAMCIS. SMEAC. OCOKA-W.

Item 79

______ can help you schedule the important events in your planning. a. b. c. d. Reverse planning Delegating tasks Using the half-rule Back planning
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Review Lesson

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 80

Which of the following is the correct use of the half-rule? a. Unit leaders provide half of the time to their element leaders for preparations. b. Unit leaders spend half of the time preparing their Marines and the other half planning. c. Unit leaders provide half of the time to their element leaders for planning. d. Unit leaders spend half of their time planning and the other half coordinating.

Item 81

The patrol warning order is given to a. b. c. d. notify patrol members of an impending mission. notify higher command of an impending mission. prepare the SP/LP’s that friendlies will be in the area. prepare RFA/NFA to reduce friendly fire casualties.

Item 82

Which of the following are the four parts of a patrol warning order? a. b. c. d. Enemy situation, general situation, mission, and preparation plan Mission, situation, specific instructions, and general instructions Execution, mission, general situation, and administration and logistics General situation, specific instructions, mission, and execution

Item 83

Which of the following is not an item to include in your patrol coordination? a. b. c. d. Fire Support Updated Intelligence Requesting attachments Interaction with other units
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Review Lesson

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 84

The five main paragraphs in the patrol order are: Situation, Mission, _____, Administration and Logistics, and _____. a. b. c. d. Execution; Control Enemy; Fire Support Enemy; Terrain Execution; Command and Signal

Item 85

Which of the following is included in the situation paragraph? a. b. c. d. Concept of operations Specific instructions Attachments and detachments Administration and logistics

Item 86

Which of the following mission statements is in the correct format? a. At 2300, 3rd squad will conduct a recon patrol in order to detect enemy movement in vicinity of grid 548958. b. 2nd platoon will attack Company Obj A at 1100 in order to destroy the enemy. c. At 0400, 2nd squad conducts an ambush in the vicinity of Company Objective C in order to disrupt enemy movements. d. In order to defeat the enemy, 1st squad will conduct a search and destroy patrol in AOR Arizona at 0700.

Item 87

Which of the following is correct concerning details included in the coordinating instructions? a. b. c. d. Actions in the objective area Information necessary to execute the patrol’s mission Mission statements for attached units Concept of operations
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Review Lesson

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 88

When conducting a night patrol, which of the following is a route consideration? a. b. c. d. Enemy location and proximity Avoidance of thick undergrowth or dense woods Ability to see moon and stars for navigation Type and characteristics of weapons (enemy and friendly)

Item 89

What are the three rallying points? a. b. c. d. IRP, EERP, and BRP EERP, CAP, and DEP IRP, ORP, and LRP IRP, ERRP, and ORP

Item 90

Which of the following is correct concerning details included in the administration and logistics paragraph? a. b. c. d. Concept of operations Actions in the objective area Redistribution of ammunition Method of handling the wounded and dead

Item 91

Which of the following is a guideline for issuing the patrol order? a. b. c. d. Receive a status report Conclude without a question and answer period Give a time check and dismiss Issued to only key leaders

Item 92

The purpose for inspecting your patrol is to a. b. c. d. determine if the element leaders have done their job. determine the patrol’s state of readiness. check plans. verify patrol member head count.
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Review Lesson

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 93

Which is the task organization of an infantry platoon in an urban environment? a. b. c. d. Support force, assault element, and breaching element Security element, covering force, and assault element Assault element, support force, and security element Support force, assault element, and covering element

Items 94 Through 97

Matching: In the space provided place the letter of the term from column 2 that best matches the definition in column 1. The answers in column 2 may be used only once. Column 1 Definition ___ 94. Topographical map of a city that highlights street names and important buildings ___ 95. Maps that enable units moving in built-up areas to know where they have been ___ 96. Maps prepared by topographical engineers to help navigate built-up areas ___ 97. Techniques that can be used especially in a blacked-out city Column 2 Terms a. b. c. d. City maps Compass reading and pace count Military maps Special maps

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Review Lesson

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 98

Which are the four weapons carries for handling the service rifle? a. b. c. d. Tactical, ready, off hand, and alert Tactical, alert, strong arm, and ready Tactical, weak hand, ready, and alert Ready, weak hand, alert, and short stocking

Item 99

Short stocking is used to _____ maneuverability and _____ possible “target indicator” for the enemy. a. b. c. d. increase; increase increase; reduce reduce; increase reduce; reduce

Item 100

The following guidelines for short stocking are in scrambled order. Put them in the correct order and answer the question below. 1. Place the weapon’s handguard against your cheek to attain a firm stockweld. 2. Position the stock so that the pistol grip is behind your head. 3. Hold the weapon in a manner as to reduce the weapon’s length without sacrificing too much accuracy. 4. Use your index finger or thumb to manipulate the trigger. Which of the following is the correct guideline for short stocking? a. b. c. d. 1, 2, 3, 4 2, 4, 1, 3 3, 2, 4, 1 4, 2, 1, 3
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Review Lesson

Review Lesson, Continued

Items 101 Through 104

Matching: In the space provided place the letter of the term from column 2 that best matches the definition in column 1. The answers in column 2 may be used only once. Column 1 Definitions ___ 101. An effective technique for clearing dead space inside rooms and buildings. ___ 102. The focus of engaging targets is on the front sight post throughout the aiming process. ____ 103. Involves simultaneously pointing a finger while looking at a target while engaging targets. ___ 104. Involves quickly turning the body and the weapon to engage targets. Column 2 Terms a. b. c. d. Aimed quick fire Pointing quick fire Pieing Instinctive shooting

Item 105

The two important guidelines to consider when crossing a wall to deny the enemy a good target are keeping a low silhouette and a. b. c. d. good reconnaissance. covering fire. speed of movement. use of smoke.
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Review Lesson, Continued

Item 106

The proper position will allow you to a. b. c. d. observe around the corner. extend your weapon beyond the corner to allow you to engage the enemy. short stock your weapon. a high profile in case you have to move quickly.

Item 107

The correct technique for passing a window is to a. b. c. d. stay below the window level. use a smoke grenade to pass the window. fire three rounds in order to “recon by fire.” short stock the window.

Item 108

The use of doorways to enter or exit is discouraged because a. b. c. d. of possible boobytrapped. they are normally covered by enemy fire. it allows the enemy to observe your movement. it is a probable course of action according to the enemy.

Item 109

Which of the following is the correct guideline for crossing open areas? a. b. c. d. Make zigzag movements to avoid enemy fire Have 360 degree security when moving Send out an initial runner to check for snipers Run the shortest distance between buildings
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Review Lesson

Review Lesson, Continued

Items 110 Through 113

Matching: In the space provided place the letter of the term from column 2 that best matches the guideline in column 1. The answers in column 2 may only be used once. Column 1 Guidelines ___ 110. Offers security through safety and speed although does not permit access to the top of some buildings ___ 111. May be used on concealed locations that connect enemy positions ___ 112. All available means of concealment should be used when exposed to enemy fire ___ 113. An entry technique used to descend from the rooftop of a tall building into a window Column 2 Terms a. b. c. d. Scaling walls Grappling hooks Rappelling Ladders

Item 115

Which of the following would be effective in gaining entry in lower building levels? a. b. c. d. Blasting caps Rocket launcher SMAW Grenade

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Review Lesson

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 115

The steps for conducting two-man stacked room clearing are listed below in scrambled order. Place the steps in the proper order and answer the question below. 1. Shooter positions oneself against the wall to the left (right) of the entrance designated. 2. Shooter positions oneself inside the room to the left or right of the doorway. 3. Shooter scans the room. 4. Shooter shouts, “Coming in, left (right)!” 5. Shooter quickly scans the entire room and commands, “Next man in, left (right)!” Which of the following lists the correct sequence of steps to conduct two-man stacked room clearing? a. b. c. d. 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 2, 5, 4, 1, 3 1, 3, 5, 4, 2 2, 5, 1, 4, 3

Item 116

Which of the following guidelines is correct when conducting four-man clearing? a. When four Marines are used to clear a room, outside security should be established by another assault element. b. The three-man clearing team procedures are used for the initial entry into the room. c. Shooters Number Three and Four stack up behind Shooters Number One and Two using the split position. d. If the stacked position is used to enter a room, all shooters stack up opposite one another on either side of the door.
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Review Lesson

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 117

The steps for clearing an L-shaped hallway are listed below in scrambled order. Place the steps in proper order and answer the question below. 1. Shooter Number Two pies as far as possible with his weapon covering the dead space. 2. Shooter Number One stops short of the hallway and goes to a kneeling position. 3. Shooter Number Two aims his weapon to cover the dead space. 4. Both shooters move simultaneously to clear the hallway. 5. Shooter Number one moves accordingly with Shooter Number Two. Which of the following lists the correct sequence of steps to clear an Lshaped hallway? a. b. c. d. 5, 3, 2, 1, 4 3, 1, 5, 2, 4 2, 5, 1, 3, 4 1, 5, 2, 3, 4

Item 118

The steps for clearing a T-shaped hallway are listed below in scrambled order. Place the steps in proper order and answer the question below. 1. Both shooters move to dominant positions without entering the intersection. 2. Both shooters approach the T-shaped intersection while maintaining eyemuzzle-target contact. 3. Both shooters clear their immediate areas along their respective walls. 4. Both shooters buttonhook into their next positions. 5. Both shooters establish dominant positions that give them control of the hallway. Which of the following lists the correct sequence of steps to clear a T-shaped hallway? a. b. c. d. 2, 4, 3, 1, 5 2, 3, 5, 1, 4 2, 1, 4, 5, 3 2, 1, 4, 3, 5
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Review Lesson

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 119

Which of the following guidelines is correct when clearing a stairwell? a. The speed of movement is determined by Shooter Number One. b. Shooter Number Two always covers the overhead area. c. The security of the Marines will be compromised if they move too quickly. d. The speed of movement is determined by Shooter Number Two.

Item 120

When firing from behind walls, you should fire a. b. c. d. over the cover. around the cover. after creating a hasty loophole. at the lowest point possible.

Item 121

When no cover is available, which is a means of reducing target exposure a. b. c. d. utilize smoke. keep a high volume of fire on enemy positions. fire from the prone position. use fire and movement to escape the situation.

Item 122

Which of the following is an advantage to using a single-column patrol? a. b. c. d. 360 degree security Can be used with limited number of Marines Speed of movement Allows for a high volume of fire

Item 123

Which of the following is an advantage to using a double-column patrol? a. b. c. d. 360 degree security Can be used with limited number of Marines Speed of movement Allows for a high volume of fire

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Review Lesson

Review Lesson, Continued

Items 124 Through 128

Matching: In the space provided, place the letter of the position from column 2 that best matches the sector of responsibility in column 1. The answers in column 2 may be used only once. Column 1 Sectors of Responsibility ___ 124. To the direct front ___ 125. Checking for the enemy ___ 126. Alternately providing security on upper and lower levels of buildings ___ 127. Rear security of each of their formations ___ 128. Move in bounds so one Marine is always providing active security to the squad’s rear Column 2 Positions a. b. c. d. e. Second cover men Fourth cover men Last Marines in the squad Pointmen Third and fourth cover men

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Item 129

The steps for conducting alternate bounding are listed below in scrambled order. Place the steps in proper order and answer the question below. 1. The last Marine in the formation will assume a good kneeling position and have their weapon at the ready. 2. The second to last Marine will step out one pace from the wall and assume a good kneeling position. 3. The last Marine will rise from their position and move to catch up with the column. 4. The last Marine covering the rearward movement will assume the rear guard position. 5. The second to last Marine will move in trace of the units when moved approximately 10–15 meters. Which of the following lists the correct sequence of steps to conduct alternate bounding? a. b. c. d. 1, 5, 2, 3, 4 2, 3, 4, 1, 5 3, 1, 4, 2, 5 4, 5, 3, 1, 2

Item 130

The steps for conducting successive bounding are listed below in scrambled order. Place the steps in proper order and answer the question below. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The rearguard Marine provides rearguard security. Announces, “SET.” Drops to a good kneeling position. The rearguard Marine bounds abreast of the Marine providing cover. The rearguard Marine turns around.

Which of the following lists the correct sequence of steps to conduct successive bounding? a. b. c. d. 1, 5, 2, 3, 4 2, 3, 4, 1, 5 3, 1, 4, 2, 5 4, 5, 3, 1, 2
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Item 131

Crossing intersections forces the three elements of a unit to a. b. c. d. cover one another as an appropriate danger area. rotate positions and assume appropriate responsibilities. stop to determine if the enemy has set a kill zone. call higher and relay the unit’s current position.

Item 132

If a unit is engaged by the enemy or engages the enemy, the two basic options that Marines may follow are to remain outside of the building(s) and fight from the street or a. b. c. d. withdraw from the area and consolidate. immediately return fire and conduct a hasty clearing. assume the prone position and immediately return fire. immediately provide cover through the use of smoke.

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Review Lesson

Review Lesson

Review Lesson Solutions

The table below lists the answers to the review lesson examination items. If you have questions about these items, refer to the reference page. Item Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Answer a b d b a b d b c b a e d a b c c c d e b b b d c d e c a Reference Page 1-4 1-6 1-7 1-13 1-14 1-15 1-14 1-16 1-17 1-21 1-24 1-28 1-31 1-38 1-40 1-44 2-4 2-5 2-6 2-8 2-8 2-11 2-13 2-21 2-22 2-26 2-25 2-25 2-26
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Review Lesson

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Item Number 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59

Answer c b a d c d a c b d c a c e d b d a c d b c a d c c a b a a

Reference Page 2-30 2-32 2-35 2-43 2-41 2-45 2-46 2-47 2-47 2-49 2-50 3-5 3-6 3-7 3-8 3-8 3-9 3-14 3-14 3-15 3-18 3-17 3-19 3-22 3-24 3-35 3-35 3-35 3-36 3-36
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Review Lesson

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Item Number 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89

Answer c b a b c b d c a b d c d d a c b c d a c a b c d c c a b d

Reference Page 3-40 3-39 3-36 3-39 3-40 3-54 3-48 3-49 3-52 3-53 3-54 3-56 3-57 3-58 3-59 3-59 3-61 4-4 4-6 4-8 4-9 4-8 4-11 4-14 4-21 4-21 4-22 4-23 4-25 4-26
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Review Lesson

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Item Number 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118

Answer d a b c c a d b c b c c a b d c a a b d d b a c c b c d or b d

Reference Page 4-28 4-31 4-32 5-4 5-6 5-6 5-7 5-7 5-12 5-15 5-15 5-16 5-17 5-17 5-18 5-24 5-25 5-26 5-29 5-30 5-38 5-38 5-39 5-39 5-40 5-50 5-58 5-60, 5-61 5-62, 5-63
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Review Lesson

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Item Number 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132

Answer a b c c a d a e b or c c a d b c

Reference Page 5-64 5-75 5-77 5-83 5-84 5-85 5-85 5-85 5-85 5-85 5-88 5-89 5-90 5-94

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Review Lesson

Review Lesson

Review Lesson Solutions

The table below lists the answers to the review lesson examination items. If you have questions about these items, refer to the reference page. Item Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Answer a b d b a b d b c b a e d a b c c c d e b b b d c d e c a Reference Page 1-4 1-6 1-7 1-13 1-14 1-15 1-14 1-16 1-17 1-21 1-24 1-28 1-31 1-38 1-40 1-44 2-4 2-5 2-6 2-8 2-8 2-11 2-13 2-21 2-22 2-26 2-25 2-25 2-26
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MCI 8015A

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Review Lesson Examination

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Item Number 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59

Answer c b a d c d a c b d c a c e d b d a c d b c a d c c a b a a

Reference Page 2-30 2-32 2-35 2-43 2-41 2-45 2-46 2-47 2-47 2-49 2-50 3-5 3-6 3-7 3-8 3-8 3-9 3-14 3-14 3-15 3-18 3-17 3-19 3-22 3-24 3-35 3-35 3-35 3-36 3-36
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Review Lesson Examination

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Item Number 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89

Answer c b a b c b d c a b d c d d a c b c d a c a b c d c c a b d

Reference Page 3-40 3-39 3-36 3-39 3-40 3-54 3-48 3-49 3-52 3-53 3-54 3-56 3-57 3-58 3-59 3-59 3-61 4-4 4-6 4-8 4-9 4-8 4-11 4-14 4-21 4-21 4-22 4-23 4-25 4-26
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Review Lesson Examination

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Item Number 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118

Answer d a b c c a d b c b c c a b d c a a b d d b a c c b c d or b d

Reference Page 4-28 4-31 4-32 5-4 5-6 5-6 5-7 5-7 5-12 5-15 5-15 5-16 5-17 5-17 5-18 5-24 5-25 5-26 5-29 5-30 5-38 5-38 5-39 5-39 5-40 5-50 5-58 5-60, 5-61 5-62, 5-63
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Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

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Item Number 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132

Answer a b c c a d a e b or c c a d b c

Reference Page 5-64 5-75 5-77 5-83 5-84 5-85 5-85 5-85 5-85 5-85 5-88 5-89 5-90 5-94

MCI 8015A

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Review Lesson Examination