"Nei Jing Tu", a Daoist Diagram of the Internal Circulation of Man Author(s): David Teh-Yu Wang Reviewed work(s): Source

: The Journal of the Walters Art Gallery, Vol. 49/50 (1991/1992), pp. 141-158 Published by: The Walters Art Museum Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20169078 . Accessed: 13/12/2011 04:01
Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at . http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org.

The Walters Art Museum is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to The Journal of the Walters Art Gallery.


5 x 54. Yin and Yang. of a human body in yoga pos and abdomen Tu age.Neijing Tu. the five elements. as Medicine). the syncretic fusion of Daoism with The macro-microcosmic of this configuration numerous consists of motifs that possess multiple illustrates significance. con Such anatomical. analyses provide issues presented partial answers to the iconographie to pro by the rubbing.-a.c. and philosophical physiological. The P. by accompanied at this lore. by in a this is re is little was browsing books metaphysical significance of the diagram. are closely related gan). anatomical and and the Celestial Stems were to Daoist philosophy. a Daoist Circulation of Man David Teh-Yu Wang Diagram of the Internal The Daoist con diagram Nei Jing Tu not only depicts the vital and the the circulation the cept of of force (qi) forma tion of the internal elixir in Daoist physiological alchemy. 25). 96.d. practice of physiological The Nei Jing Tu was analyzed in 1933 by Von Erwin Rousselle1 Although Rousselle's and in 1983 by Joseph study makes reference Needham. facing our left. the Yellow Emperor. on the wall.2 to Daoist to look at the subject physiological alchemy. the Huangdi neijing suwen was in existence by the Western Han (206 b. diagram work Huangdi of Internal Yellow Classic (The Emperor's neijingsuwen This is the oldest extant medical book. in a temple at an unidentifiable Mountain: has never had painting in the world. over. Huangdi. which Among were acquired in Beijing in 1932-33. studio at its principle. the Dao] of the Dao known (dan dao) is broad yet deli and are of in those blocked Internal the world.2 cm) and its rare subject matter. Roberts. by The Walters that was Daoist Priest found ing was Gaosong This ture.4 concepts (tian More pre physiological Nei Jing man") thorax. paintings I noticed that The Origin The of the Diagram as "Diagram of compound Nei the Internal title Nei Jing Tu can be understood of Man. impressive size (129. laid of the foundation for the the cepts development Man.c. tion. and taking actually waxing waning clearly secret TheJournal of the Walters Art Gallery 49/50 (1991/92) 141 . breathing expelling are in (tuna). I looked for long. It is an illustration of the Daoist alchemy. The are of bones. In Needham's it tends book. one cribed to Huangdi. Art Gallery hundred was recently Chinese rubbings given more Jing but also Buddhism. shows of ("diagram of the internal circulation a cross-section in profile of the head. the Nei Jing Tu is only men tioned briefly.3 The philosophical in such foundations of this medical book. in the Huangdi neijing suwen for the first time. Gaosong was painting hung fined and minute ies." The Circulation and each of them is given. in order to clarify the macro-microcosmic and the paint (Suyun daoren) Liu Chengyin. 3). and painting I to out and that breathing began comprehend as well as out and in (huxi). and networks of veins in Mountain. hexagrams. junctures painting of arter notations style. nu merology.46) This is because both its work of (figs. The present article is intended vide a more of the complete interpretation iconogra phy. When roots of on the other anywhere cate the true Gold Elixir in perceiving [the essence agram chance. hand. Because circulating copies the Dao (Way) whose from Elixir]. and [of learning this di I. is thought to ascertain it may not be possible its exact Although in the famous medical iconographie Walters The Laurance than four by the rubbings." of the Internal Circulation of "Diagram sented rubbing was made from an engraving in hanging itself a transcription of a painting to the inscription in the lower scroll format. embodied concepts as Dao. 1-3). first appears of the legendary rulers in the dawn of Chinese civiliza to to have reigned from 2696 2598 B. within the context of a study of Daoist These physiological only alchemy. from the angle of Chan meditation. one titled at the is of particular interest top Nei Jing Tu (no. According a certain Pure-Cloud corner left-hand (fig.

rubbing no. . Fig. 142 . 96. Nei fing Tu (A Daoist from stone Man). 3. Baltimore. . 2.46.mma??>' Fig. of of the Internal Circulation Diagram the Walters Art Gallery. 1. Detail of figure 1. .-V h i' Fig. Detail of figure 1. stela.

of this information Cloud and is in mentioning be the one of. to the there is a halo as well as behind an oblong from in rubbing. surrounding of the by isolate are example. was made. schematic In the painting. but in the painting. one carries and the other "Yin") Another short line after (ban) printing plate Daoist in the capital [i. In the rub ed. not only are the figures and buildings in an aesthetically much less satisfactory depicted manner. published painting of the Neijing its location (fig. Temple (Baiyun guan) The White Cloud Daoist is the Beijing]. wording although in however. Fig. wheel also the image variations in the details the woman section less. 4). 4. The Nei Tu written engraving caption Jing in big characters the subject matter. [painting] it on [I. all of it was added when the apparently. painting. A but the water is is much more more schematic and and more elaborate in the lower central is shown painting usually 143 . short as a inscription ban was ("wooden surely rubbing stone Temple. Neifing "Ne Ging Tu. the spin seat plants It might original on appear which the that the painting engraving was is closer based. location unknown [from E. 2). in two there rows. the painting may well be a copy of the rubbing. Taoistisches Meditationsbild mit Beschriftung. 'Die Tafel des inneren Gewebes' ein Rousselle. largest temple Perfection in (Quan zhen) sect of Daoism Complete Beijing. I dare and keep I therefore ing plate (zi) for popular Daoist inscribe two engrave circulation. according corner right-hand (fig. or a work Walters rubbing bears as the long inscription scription the date mentioning of engraving. rough. woman. fig.] Pure-Cloud engrave (Followed character and by "Cheng" Priest Liu Chengyin in reverence [this] the seals. the painting. more pecially which captions are minor The correctly the are convey discrepancies captions written poems discussed and below. The major difference the painting between and that painting lines There For ning she is standing. in the painting that are not found in the rub captions These considerations that bing. a Tu.6 stele The that may engraving still be on the in the White stele was made Cloud in the sixth lunar month in the upper Rousselle without could to an inscription in 1886. in than the the similar in contents. are trees to there five naturalistic the left of the bing.. are two the two are Tu. Neverthe m?ndala. This painting seen by Liu Chengyin. hanging scroll.(yingxu) cosmos. are ten coin-growing in pictorial the rubbing the head body the the representation lies in the fact region in the These space. a copy there derived from the Walters rubbing. alone. point to the possibility to the painting is the work closer the original." Temple seat Daoist in the of the China.5 (1148-1227) the printing plank" made from or a Although plate "wooden is referred block"). The the caption Nei Jing Tu as well the short in by Liu Chengyin. in those names Moreover. the of the there rubbing?es six viscera. more Gold self as well If one than half as the ebb and flow understands of the main not this.e. In the painting." Sinica. 22]. subsect as the chief monastery established by Qiu Changchun in the to the is stored this inscription reads: "The in the White Cloud as well of the Longmen . rubbing. 207-216. the White None Temple. 8 (1933). one essentials this (xiaoxi) then of of the grasps the true to my a print Elixir. clearly identifies Other there versions.

Dan is "elixir". of coined longevity the word enchymoma from The prefix of this word to producing opposed (wai dan)? For nei dan the Greek indicates chumos. ing Heavenly Chart of the Regeneration quantu (Complete wood-block 1920s [fromj. head is conceived as a mountainous land scape with summit in rapids. this later painting. of the possible origins of the very name of chem one istry discussion itself. a stands prominently caption above reads: above "A the grain The Internal Elixir in Daoist Physiological Alchemy What is the "Dao (Way) of the true Gold Elixir" ex in Liu Chengyin's colophon? Within Daoist life and of there is a practice of prolonging achieve xian immortality. (798-after by Lu Dongbin the Daoist patriarch who was later included among Eight plet the of millet contains the world" pounded tradition hoping to Immortals can be found and of this cou (xian). lead.immortality. Two major approaches are adopted by the Daoist immortality. not letting the body follow natural processes of aging. in a poem formed a couplet This sentence originally a very important 862). Xiuzhen successful than an of the Vault: The Head Above acters attain have were not pose diagram. Primary Vitalities). in figure 2 there are four small char xian shou "yan longevity and to f?" ("To prolong that do and Buddhahood")9 xian immortality the head in dual the painting. Nei dan is a procedure for cultivat ing physiological elixirs chemical Needham word alchemy. The Nei Jing trates how physiological is cultivated alchemy ly. adept One for this aspiration (wax dan. chemical tangi This elixirs. fig. in China. thought more is well Needham's coinage Though I will simply use "internal elixir" in my students of Chinese culture are because familiar with this term. that the painting from the rubbing. "internal elixir") is inward the whole practice lies in the idea of and insubstantial. Its anatomical significance is clearer when Tu illus internal it is stud ied together with the Complete Chart of theRegeneration a woodblock print dat of the Primary Vitalities (fig. physiology. Fig. one can furnace prevent to produce the dete an Using fulfill the aspiration of body and therefore for longevity and immortality." that it is within its second and third the body. 5). nei dan is rioration an internal elixir. mercury. the from 1920s. The counterpart in the neck region: "[One] cooks rivers in a Yi^l?-sheng-\o\uvsie caul mountains 144 . Science and Civilisation Needham. 1588]. while can not the term be connected only with syllables current but also with in modern still chyme. V:5. 5. A dot the center. "external for longevity elixir") and is out ward the ble process and material. the production of the elixir of life or through and of such cinnabar.8 out. a sort of material (yili suzong zang shijie). Therefore. broadsheet. exoteric The (net dan. some and in question Several in collations might more the text exist captions to. The aesthetically engraving. other method one's internal body elixir as an (nei alchemical dan). nature?Daoist This caption and states Buddhist?of the pur this and I believe been were made derived added in. practice substances involves of as the obtaining alchemy. "juice.

In between these two mountains lies a stone Net" to by a large mountain is furnished with the existence. a combination "Nine-Peak water the "Nine-Peak Mountain" of Mt. world. which is identified with Mt. or "Prefecture of the Rising Sun" term Two indicate that this dot is the "Hall of also the hand. and rivers in a two the mountains cauldron. the Vulture own dawn by the rising are nine peaks on top of the skull (above the highest one is the dot of "ball of mud") given the "Nine-Peak Mountain" caption (jiufeng shan). them them. In Chinese." together as well refer to "Nine Mountains below. The water at the be identified is also known as the as the to be The The boy stringing up foot of the mountain. the four continents.c. Meru as the pri of the Rising Sun" is therefore interpretable mordial is dot this understood paradise.23 to identify. attempt plows an the field this important poem by the Neijing Tu.11 Ball captions of Mud" (niwan gong). among is Mt. cosmology. However. the continent the Nine-Peak Mountain that might partially stand for Mt. other [secret mysticism. to this of 290 Zhuang) According Crookback has the complexion of a is a physical mountain in this of Jambudvipa. she is asked though she is very old. Meru in Daoist tradition as an influence from Buddhist it has been noted that.D. (Gathering hand. To the There right of the Nine-Peak the entire "Summit Mountain diagram of Big Mountain" (jufeng ding). "in a small cauldron. is separated from the Summit of Big water.24 In the diagram. iron are Mt.dron" (i. this mysticism. sepa The Vulture Meru child her one's even secret.15 of dominating caption the valley terrace named "Spiritual Terrace of Melancholic The head is sometimes referred (yulou lingtai). Meru.21 On scribed in Daoist in this world center of the other and. Kunlun origin. Kunlun nine levels. Ling shan is another appellation of the Fenglai Mountain. Kunlun texts as the central mountain and is located amid the brain. there is no one will acquire of] with the rushing Mountain. might as a general and Eight Seas" in Buddhist terminology to reference this world. or the "unconscious into a pri ness" of the uncreated world. peak may of the Vulture Peak is referred to in Chinese as Lingshan hui On the other at the Spiritual Mountain).10 Quotations from appear throughout let us be content with not ox sown.14 To may be related Book of Master story. Mt. cosmology. this dot is colored red. according firsthand of the Nei Jing Tu painting observation (fig.17 This mountain is also known in Daoist literature as the cosmic paradise dwells. In Buddhist there cosmology. Vulture as is known Peak shan (Spiritual Vulture Lingjiu also be The jiu (vulture) may be omitted and the as well be referred to as Ling shan (Spiritual on the summit The Buddha's Mountain). The blue-eyed with his However. state that resembles the undifferentiated condition. rated by oceans from Peak (Gridhrak?ta) is at the center. eyebrows hang heaven down foreign arms.18 Because culture where the Mother nine of the West Chinese the number in ancient interpretation: where coins of gold coins. may Yellow River. a whole The and . by the opinion that this summit might be the Summit of can Peak.20 A grain [One] contains the world. Kunlun always stands for the maximum. this "Big Mountain" as the the interpreted Fenglai Mountain.25 preaching Mountain). the ninth having an ever smaller and ever narrower five immortal mountains vana blissful mordial indicates one enters that. Daoist concept A. are nine mountains eight seas. Meru." bansheng danzhong zhu shanchuan) Lu Dongbin time being. Moreover. 4).19 is represented by nine peaks here..13 The term "Prefecture form. leg in the eastern sea occupied endary mountain by the Immortals in Daoist mythology. Kunlun identified with Mt. illuminated one has a vision of the brightness sun. Kunlun16?a cosmic the mountain better known in fengshui (geomancy) theory as the ori munion 145 . monk supports If [one] Beside aspires to this mysticism. a paradise. Meru is de of the the [secret of] mysticism. Presumably to Rousselle's also as a rising sun. Kunlun appears and Mt.e. on In the Buddha preached Mt. When she mentions that it lies in being free from After one frees oneself from one's existence. Mt. to have is believed by the fourth century. hence. Mountain I would like to venture Therefore.12 The niwan was adapted of "nirvana" in the third or the fourth homophonic permutation of niwan (shengyang fit). engraves of millet cooks on the stone.26 In any case. by meditation. Mt. old man's sheng-volume The white-headed to earth. it to an anecdote from Zhuang Zi (the B.22 Obviously. At the (Sumeru). a Woman the best of my knowledge. The from the Buddhist century and nir eight is sometimes seas. of which Mt. Daoist adept as Mt. is harder "Summit of Big Mountain" The most famous single summit within Chinese cul ture which Buddhist should be the summit of the Vulture the Lotus Peak Sutra. For the reading this poem as arteries dragon gin of all the mountain (longmo). this Summit of refers to a place where Big Mountain spiritual com takes place.

" "gourd "pumpkin the primordial reassembles to it is tempting speculate "egghead" exaggerated head and belly iconography saint is to [Daoist] or a "re-membering. supporting can be readily answered by the relevant first question of meditation techniques taught by later patriarchs. the "Spiritual Terrace of Melancholic Net" might be a combination of both sources to Daoist and Buddhist suggest that the mind can produce the "internal everything ?including elixir. not deed Bodhidharma. whoever heaven with his arms? Although the the sun. by magically leaping as Taoist [Daoist] head. questions to use First. of archaic sym Accordingly. he is in the why portrayed raise four about this Indian monk? way as a thickly bearded customary is located im Third. A. Rousselle young nomenon or even indeed noticed He that this monk childish. in later Daoist texts. craggy the blissful primordial par epitomizes for which the nostalgic philo civilization. it interpretation though focuses on the white-headed old man only. the Bodhidharma's 146 . the mind web." and the were Laozi isolated For me." is One to earth" hang down eyebrows mei laozi laozi Rousselle took (Baitou chuidi).35 An egg-shaped pro trusion of the forehead is an iconographie attribute associated return with the Old Man of the Southern Pole star. he is. why is this monk. conceive the the brain resemblance in the shape of a to the wrinkly extent Below reads: with man. repre here as an embodiment Schipper on the cosmic of followed the Kristofer of teaching this identifica alternative Bodhidharma. beard the planets and the heavenly mansions .38 may however. related in the net of Indra. eyes" are opposed to tuotian).?m/nirvana) skull region adise before sophical wrinkly. the moon. the Immortal Old Man of the Southern is Pole-star. Meru. the others remain challenging. and "white (d. clear in the inter shape of brain tissue is particularly nal structure of the "Summit of Big Mountain." and by that the is due to young appearance suggesting spiritual attainment. Meru. It is a mirage in a noumenon but also in Buddha's realm.31 Referring at the Dao)." Needham that alone. why did the artist choose instead of an image of Buddha Bodhidharma that bet ter symbolizes Buddhism? if monk is in this Second. his right eye the his body.36 some of this of the typical Taoist kind a remembrance." body that the or of man. Mt. Plausible is. not only the physical and mythical body but also the this social body.33 laozi refer to the historical of Big Mountain. "Spiritual is another Daoist term for the mind in Zuangzi. depicts spiritual communion takes place in meditation.The standing "Summit Daoist Terrace" Terrace of Melancholic "Spiritual between the "Nine-Peak Mountain" Net. often by a river 'The white accepted in Chan Buddhist or used both with the identifications. one wonders why Bodhidharma Man of the below the Immortal Old mediately Southern Pole-star. the Xiaodao Lun reads: "Lao-tzu [Laozi] transformed the sun.. ca.29 this section where The Daoist only secondarily. and so forth. eyebrows. eyed "Blue the Old Man of the Southern caption supports Pole-star to his left heaven The old the blue stands a monk his raising his arms. each and Buddhas master." In the area of the forehead Mountain bank. In contrast. [Kunlun] mountain. adept conceives the human body as a microcosm in which many archei to an organ or a (shen)M dwell.37 literature the prefix for It is true sometimes as an the foreign monk "blue eyes. a other." might be related to both and Buddhist The terminology. this upper (ma. Daoists Because brain tissue is yearned. alias part body. is Laozi. hanging out of which can be Indra's all things hall. . each corresponding of the It is believed that Master Niwan. . The headed sits an old man caption old man's above below the Nine-Peak in yoga posture this figure reads: (biyan huseng to Rousselle. It has been that such a shape suggested to the undifferentiated primordial suggests a cosmos (hun tun): As in the tales of the hsien [xian] immortals who return hollow to paradise the gourd. the eighth archeus of the brain. The text of world. in which Indra's jeweled net is a faceted diamond reflects one an are everywhere. with Together the "ball of mud" above. literally as the historical Laozi of the fourth century B." This doctrine celestial in fact reflects the Huayan interpretation of indraj?la.D. from the characters the rest of the rubbing." bolism. produced. according Bodhidharma foreign monk.27 and the "Melancholic Net" might have been to "Indra-j?la. he related Laozi's mythic birth Laughing from the primordial chaos (hun tun) and expounded the mythic transformation of Laozi's body into the body of the histori to the classic Xiaodao Lun (On identification. His left eye became his his head the K'un-lun moon.c. inside a mystic Indeed. and."32 is rather the body represented Accordingly.30 tion and elaborated cal Laozi. 475). away this phe explained out that "the caption makes Finally. The "The blue-eyed foreign monk arms" shou Daoists mountain. sented Daoism. and the in terpretation would be justified only if the old man in the Neijing Tu is by first pointing to him [Bodhidharma] the reference possible. as we have seen. Kunlun is iden tified with Mt."28 As god Indra lives on Mt.

the dorsal median tract. Lead symbolizes Yang. results. My alterna tive will be given at the very end of this section. to lead. In the Daoist of microcosmic Now we can turn to the two rather the Primary Vitalities [physiological It first says that lead has the quality of true alchemy] ). the lead. sublime or distil). for mer being. The interaction be tween further True revolve lead and mercury explained: lead originates in physiological from fire and is the alchemy ancestor is to as a "vault" (qiong long) in sky is usually referred classical Chinese literature. The circulation of the This qi (vital energy) elixir are related and the formation of the internal to astronomy governed by the hexa as macro-micro is the body conceived the con furnace."39 He subsequently (chhih lung [chi long]). In Chinese medical the symbolic in the head. which the primary chhi [qi] has prepared during a period of 2160 years. simply refer to this figure as the "blue-eyed At any rate. assumes foreign symbol dots prominent region. The monk not only as a blue-eyed of mercury. The sun by the dots and moon symbolizing in the the sun and sky. and how mercury (true symbolizes in the central head stands for the moon's whiteness. Xiuzhen liyan caotu (Transmitted the Tried and Tested Method of Diagrams Illustrating Regenerating for lead in phys since and sub ascends mercury iological alchemy. limes while lead descends in the reaction process be tween mercury of the and lead. and the right eye. The red dragon (tan sha [dan sha]). facing the cliff in med itation. down to the earth arms reaching stands for the descent out to heaven are the monk's blematic double monk. zi (The The HuaVnan Book of the Prince of Huai'nan: of Compendium Natural of ca.43 The interaction between lead and mer cury is reiterated moon.45 147 . of The the Southern eyebrow of Pole-star of em hanging lead. The iconographie and implication significance the Old Man from his which has of grams. Not only cosmic but the whole cept of making If the "blue-eyed foreign monk" old man" cury and the "white-headed also involves process an into one's body alchemical stands and the foreign monk can be further ap a different that of the proached perspective. equates the human Philosophy) structure of the world: body with the cosmological "The head is round. that of true Yin." of the foreign as Bodhidharma does not "blue-eyed foreign monk" fully explain iconographie significance.41 Mercury and lead are two elements impor tant in preparing the elixir of life (wan dan). the ventral median tract. gives rise to the (red) flesh. but this is not is cinnabar common cinnabar. For the time thorough Iwill text construes in a rather mysterious.42 Nothingness [xumu supporting and the heaven' means arcs of the transformed the brain cap cross-beam sule. In Daoist is one of the syn literature. a woman The mutually semen of a man (and and the blood embrace intermingle)."44 Without venturing into detailed analogy vault and and moon The interpretation. yet abides within the of red blood. was able to open his "heavenly eye" (tianyan) in his forehead and that "anatomically. the lower position "blue-eyed foreign monk" the Immortal Old Man is justified. seminality].c. is (true) mercury? and origin. of the ascent significance: but also as a of mercury. 120 B. it is the Flowing Fluid of the Great Mystery ( thai hs?an liu i [ taixuan liuyi] ). the identification monk. yet explicit. to be complemented by the Old Man above. the lower one is ren mo. regeneration are all present. "blue-eyed foreign monk" and of old man" refers "white-headed onyms mercury. The concept cultivating mixture of mercury and lead in Daoist terminology can be best elucidated a text attribut by tenth-century ed to Dong Zhenzi. The upper rainbow-like bands meeting one is du mo. the 'blue-eyed for eign monk eye-socket to be Laozi appears very old because "eternal wisdom. We have seen from the aforementioned how lead (true Yang) quotation the sun's redness. and the the (white) All bones. whiteness. and mercury the the macro-microcosmic macro-microcosmic sun's moon's redness. and the shen (mentality) and the internal elixir is attained. ancestor The the It is the effulgence ancestor of is the of the of mercury the myriad red dragon (mercury) left profile of the face is silhouetted by two in the center. the mercury. Daoist terminology of physiological alchemy. and the ninefold of the qi is completed.e. while mercury When the Yin) archei. after a discussion of the head area. the shape of earth. these hap produces arise from and mar good match-making in the and happiness of children bearing What infinite things. And it is called the Vital Enchymoma [internal elixir] (hs? um chen tan of Emptiness zhendan] and ) . the between and lead and the interaction way mercury formation of the internal elixir. and the feet are square.Old Man believed he has acquired pointed out that Bodhidharma. the blood semen penings riages. be fully answered appears but the aforementioned to be a plausible identi cannot still questions with this identification. True mercury likes to fly up (i."40 Bodhidharma fication. the shape of heaven. but the formation of the amalgam of mercury and lead is also a dominant in internal elixir. the archeus of the moon. the left eye is ruled by concept the archeus of the sun. between the round comprehend how revolve one head can easily see the and the heavenly sun (lead) of the ching [jing.

and the moderation lowing of saliva (Yin. in collected essays by Fazang 148 . circuits along the front axis of the torso from the perineum through the point below the teeth of the lower jaw. as "jade juice" saliva is mentioned (yu yi). slightly Rousselle took Fa Zang as Dharmagupta. Because the saliva. several important techniques ceptionally certain were adapted by the Daoist role was played important such as saliva and adept. this part of the rubbing Sweet Spring and Cold Peaks. with two pool of qi is rectangular in the front.47 Those who have some experi ence with Daoist know that alchemy physiological can pro rolling up the tongue against the upper jaw ca. descends spinal column. proper is thus the "Golden Pool" (jin chi). Originating from a pool of ren mo on to the its the chin. the ultimate source of head body. An The ex two couplets further con to with allow complex the respect interpretations cou and in the The head captions figuration region.51 latter part of this stanza reads differently in the the five thousand words [i. If we follow China during the Sui Dynasty (605-618)." Obviously.] indirectly." shape rings a Daoist of the auxiliary qi. In the Bao Pu Zi by Ke Hong. is also conceived as the whole ing the head the artist ingeniously tifs and created an interchangeable the head. nevertheless.54 but name was he in Chinese arrived Fami.e. through to the "Golden it can be conducted control. while light spreads to on one The Sumeru the left reads: [Mt. and ends at the junc along tion above the teeth of the upper jaw. is another seven-character sentence: "wushi jingnei secrets are hid yin xuanguang (literally. Rousselle's trend of thought and take "Fa Zang" as a sini (643-712). there are two short of L? Dongbin's with the final lines inscriptions "If One reads: [one] aspires to this mysticism. trachea: "Because there overlapping derstood dian tract. duce saliva. trachea. given in the painting.49 originates The from "twelve-storied the quasi-anatomic are twelve pagoda. around which This two cascade captions originates read: from a hollow "larynx" or dot. quoted be found systematized in the Nei Jing in the eleven cannot Tu. left of the ren mo. semen. Accordingly. They Du the mo. Nearby. Ren mo. in shape. turn."50 To is called the Hall of trachea. The other reads: "Beside this mys ticism. Dharmagupta's painting by Rousselle. then the rear axis of the skull. which can emanci pate the creatures These from two the suffering are of also ceaseless found in rein the carnation. In the quest for immortality." "Ci Shi says: 'Between the eyebrows [from the ?rn?] white bright light often emanates. mercury) was believed the dispersals of semen (Yang. peace] bring about purification the white [i. in alchemy.e. which forms the essential preserve ingredients for the internal elixir. through the in the trachea.physiology main or vessels. the ven tral median tract. A. scion who lines he was of a Sogdian the third in the of Chang'an of the patriarch Huayan the Huayan teaching. in an dorsal along one another circuits coccyx.. plet on the right reads: "Fa Zang says: 'The blue eyes to the four large [i. of the is importance named the of swallowing "origin this juncture is given ascendence.'" by preserving swal seas secretions.53 These two "mysterious" lines only reiterate the importance of the practice of physiological To the alchemy. routes du mo and ren mo exist apart from they are two of of the sense. point seen that the head vault. These is conceived as the microcos not only the the heavenly two mo therefore its right is inscribed: "Hall of Sweet Spring and Cold Peaks" (ganquan Because is saliva swallowed lengfeng gong). Daoism. lead) of to the qi.D. one will acquire the [secret of] mysticism" (ruo xiang To ci xuan xuan hui de)." Below the caption: twelve-storied the thorax a twelve-storied "The Secret Methods pagoda" pagoda are stored in the It is (shi'er loutai cang mijue).. then itmay be Fazang cized Tang. Above this pool a cascade pours down from The a precipice. person's name.52 poem. from the eight of circulation anatomical upwards cannot the the twelve tracts be un me the the term. the world]. 300. and a microcosm. Lao Zi or poem: "Within Dao de Jing] the secrets are hidden. below the pago da. have mic run the qi circulates the head. the The is a corruption of "five thousand "fifty localities" words. The family the wording near the thorax. School. These tences originate from another poem by L? Dongbin. "the mystic sen two seven-character den in fifty localities"). associated with Lao Zi.e. through through two mo inside the entire microcosm. the front axis of the skull. through which the ren que -like46 gateways mo passes." It is then clear that L? Dongbin's poem refers to the practice of physiological which is. the torso.48 The pool of qi Pool" and is depicted of couplets is supplied though different. In the Nei Jing Tu the circula tions of these two major conduits of the qi are por as mo comes down to the du confined head. there is no other [secret of] mysticism" (ci xuan zhi wai geng wu xuan). The trayed over the top of the head as far as the junction above the teeth of the upper jaw. "thorax" (shiyan) and "the origin of the method of ascendence" purity" "the origin of ascending (shengfa zhiyuan)?or as (shengqing zhiyuan). We last goes up qi.. In compos used a variety of mo configuration of the left of the mountain.

[i. Fa Zang is the appellation usages. The light spreads been derived statement in the couplet that "the to [Mt. arms is unknown among the portraits his with typical raised to us."58 "[How can] Akanistha [highest] gods. The teaching (fa zang) became Laozi's teaching if the blue-eyed in disguise. As early as A. Mt. The Buddha's teaching takes place not embodied mind. contention was In the early in solidified of the Barbarians plets Buddha's Jing (Sutra on the Conversion the cou [by Laozi] ) . Buddhism marized Daoist teaching supported physiological A syncretic of Daoism and amalgam is illustrated in the head area. as the quotation says. a state reaches of blissful alchemy pri the monk having arms.62 into as well a in which to the top of Buddha's terrace golden the Bodhisattvas as pure and not head. the . hence. the iconography the later Chinese metamorphosis If my of Maitreya. Rousselle's iden star.. Mt. forth from the curl of white hair between his eyebrows that illuminated thousand worlds to the east. explanation and. peace light to Mt. young raising appearance the as his by the inclusive caption: "To prolong longevi ty and to attain xian immortality and Buddhahood. Buddha's question the captions teaching says so-and-so.64 Accordingly.55Accordingly.63 interpretation is correct. may also be the merely as an Pole-star Immortal Old Man of the Southern To archeus ment lead. eighth tification of him as the historical Laozi does bring out his broader went China Daoists believed that Laozi significance. the young countenance of of physiological mordial in his brain (the Hall of paradise. Buddhist alchemy. 166.] Sumeru indirectly" might from the Amit?yurdhy?na S?tra to portray is the blue-eyed Mile to the world. he should be a Bodhidharma. the "white-headed old man" is not conclude. in the Nei Jing Tu the foreign monk must be an image of Maitreya. Ball of Mud).the Tripitaka abandon the (Dazang jing) interpretation . Xiang Kai presented that after Laozi disappeared mentioning western passes.61 and fits into the context of the Lotus white have Sutra. When introduced into Buddhism there was a strong resistance from the Daoists. mainly sermon After Buddha's of a Mah?y?na sutra. Moreover. which is sum the adept Through meditation. he went to India. Fa Buddhahood Zang is a gener is a syn What al reference to the Buddha's teaching. what Amit?bha not so important. Sumeru. or nirvana. th-e he historical Laozi. Milefo. of is always portrayed cases. to a minor extent. The two couplets require a com plex su tras. of the brain. than a coincidence with the raised arms.000 worlds?" Maitreya (Ci Shi) asked. The golden worlds ten light illuminates When the infinite [the unlike of the ten golden teaching. where he a memorial beyond converted the the barbarians fourth a book century entitled and became this Daoist Huahu the Buddha. can also be read from a Daoist perspective. What is more is that. fo bringing peace I have identified the white-headed old Although man both as a symbol of lead in Daoist physiological the artist intends and as the Old Man of the Southern Pole alchemy the archeus of the brain. Not only did Daoist practices of physio Buddhist but logical alchemy appropriate teaching. rections appear."59 is an appellation for Maitreya. Meru far away but within in the amalgamated the realm Mt. as well The "blue-eyed as a symbol of the ele monk" is not foreign nent role in the Buddha's light] returned turned Sumeru.e. ?rn?] Buddha] between emanat the eye proclamation brows..60 as pointed merciful") out by Rousselle. available said before In another attaining usage. of Bodhidharma without single portrait a Bodhidharma thick beard. since in enlighten is not a there are other possibilities for Fa Zang in Chinese Buddhist for them. among Amit?bha before he attains Buddhahood. reaching downward omitting as the Avici far as the [the lowest] hell and upward . can be justified: Milefo face. emanate from the white [i.e. as a person's name. he "sent (The Immeasurable Doctrine). the Maitreya is closely identified with of the Laughing Buddha. Sutra of the Buddha : of Unlimited Longevity Spoken by Buddha) At the time.57 onym of Buddhist in question may have been derived The captions from the Lotus Sutra (Saddharmapunda?ka). eighteen as far as none of them. the Amit?yurdhy?na S?tra. mixture of Mile fo and a symbol of the element mer (and hence Laozi's) cury. light of the the ed white Superior from [the directions. I tend There to as an ment effect is too of Bodhidharma's extraordinary to attainment accept.56 Clearly. reading?not but also as only a as quotations of from Buddhist Laozi's preemi (Foshuo guan wuliang shoufo jing. was to India. Mile fo brought Even was to the it Laozi who spread the white world. Kunlun of the and Accordingly. Ma?jusri swered by saying: "Buddha's light is as shining as the Ci Shi ("he who is rays of the sun and the moon.D. sutras. from the Lotus Taking into account the quotations Sutra and. in question so-and-so and mean that that the Maitreya's addresses (Sumeru)." a beardless Rousselle's in most 149 . Buddha] Superior light the [?rn?] between the eyebrows and illuminate the Anantanirdesa an 18. di it marvelous beings all as claimed by Rousselle.

Mountain This is only another that poem explains of Primordial is forced Unity a sweet spring (saliva) will appear in of the qi is hence internal elixir is formed.The Macro-Microcosmic Body: The Torso Repeatedly. The central pass is jia ji (vertebral in the painting but not in the strait gate). from Southern the mountain in my opinion. two reins in classic medical literature are nei shen and and wai shen (the testes). known as "marrow path" in as the main con is regarded physiological alchemy. Semen (the kidneys) are as from the reins. Here. [the treadmill is] peddled When eastward.70 The is within the solid line ty. physiological one middle domen." Of par the qi sets out on its circulatory path through the body and to which it returns.e. As to have seen. bubbles up spring of Southern Mountain. the alchemy?the in the thorax.76 The flame is Yang. To the right of them there are three characters meaning "due field "inter (zheng dan tian). umn." "middle gate. since is the Water stands for the image of water. Because be attained." "One inch behind this is the ticular iconographie term wei l? is derived the sea. water stands for Divine Water of Primordial Unity ( taiyi shenshui). the four cardinal directions. The spinal column. Wei "world l? may cloaca" have in a cosmological the Eastern Ocean. and fire (qi of Yang) as Yin) descends in the abdomen cends from below (flames. water is rushing down inside the head below the Nine-Peak Mountain." where all lower pass. of the Southern the head.67 significance. The lowest pass is wei l?. the head. xuan Treadmill tach?). they are also the regions where There are three dan tian in internal elixir is produced. A cycle of the circulation completed. rubbing. the head is also referred as Mt.69 Because and qi of the primary vitali the jing (seminal essence) the kan trigram." and "lower gate. together with the at the center.65 below a perfected will equalization of such perfected Yin/Yang The Deep [Then] water of ten thousand feet should [be the emptied a sweet summit to] expose the bottom. The Daoist that when the divine water (qi of adept believes from the head. qi tlenecks for the circulation upper gate of qi along the spinal col is generally called yujing shan but is in the rubbing named appellation when the Divine Water to flow in reverse."73 The lower dan tian is locat "two and four-tenths of an inch below the navel. 3) a pool of divine water being spinal sent upward by the treadmill water-raising machine. Xinjiang. the "the eye of from a rock meaning interest is the the waters of the ocean converge. as These three gates are often simply addressed "upper gate. the water flows the machine In the rubbing.75 curved lines are de as emancipating the Supreme heat from picted Ultimate?emblems that represent. ed (fig. umn of qi."74 The to reverse essential the principle sequence we in physiological and see at thus the bottom alchemy achieve of reju the the crimson natural venation. metamorphosis are to mountain There three the gates or bot path. Above the caldrons are four diagrams of to the Supreme Ultimate the cardinal (tai ji) arrayed directions and connected into a lozenge. we Kunlun. name same in of the the south of range which is regarded as a major branch of Mt. it is the upper dan tian.66 The Two caldrons with flames rushing up are near the lowest gate. the appears anatomically depicted seem to verte lines stand for the horizontal zigzag duit for the circulation it is really shown as a mountain path flanked by a from There the conduit of is crags.71 between cosmic arcane upper one in the head. as the is it is the palace (ming tang). while the seminal fluid is Ying. as seen in the diagram)." and "tian" means "field" or of internal elixir" "region. The Divine Water Unity derives the kan trigram from the kan trigram (==). "Central At mountains Because Earth" the five elements cooks and the of Primordial niliu). blood regarded generated as the urino-genital which can be understood system. and the lower one in the ab The upper dan tian is located "in the space the eyebrows.. equalization. "Dan means nal elixir" or "vital heat."12 The middle dan tian is "in palace (jiang gong) or the golden gateway (Jin que) below the heart. continuously. Kunlun." Dan tian are considered the areas from which (jade capital mountain) of jade-reality). 150 . in cycle.68 Accordingly. This yuzheng shangguan (upper-pass "the of the is also pass cavity spiritual peak" captioned ( lingfeng zhixue). turns. should be Mountain. two inches behind chamber and three inches behind (dongfang). Although the spinal col to be (i. indicated near the coccyx. 'The kan water flows in reverse" (kanshui is radiated from the neigh life-giving warmth borhood of the lower dan tian. brae). yang (yin Yin-Yang Mysterious column Yin and Yang manipulating line reads: are clearly indicated by a girl and a boy the wei l? gate a Below this machine. given reverse process is summed up by the poem inscribed beside the Mysterious Yin-Yang Treadmill: the level of the neck we read and waters in a "[One] half-s?mg-volume caldron" and The "Cavity of two reins or kidneys" (ershenfu zhi xue).

6). the left stringing string is a cap up In addition. This boy is the Herdboy Constellation (Altair). Earth both to Constellation is cor (=). text.77 to qian (=) and dux zhen (==). to and the mercury approach the fiery clouds.D. efforts gives a needed very to interesting control the iron ox in the plowing the evil signi desire. The ken (==) here in the context of the sym bolic of correlation We of the eight must here trigrams. of the internal elixir northeast. Fire to li (==). These not belong to the neighborhood of the neck. the Thus. the substantial as the product puts to of physiological boy strings the attainment together coins of alche the by in sown the rejuvenated and allusion for the circulation body which permits of chhi [qi] and i [yi] in the the Yin tiger to drink from he iron harvests ox?an together the 151 . One the other. which in A. my. slightly four Supreme Ultimate of the the two are above the diagrams of the "due field of internal woman. 41]. and Wood sun (=). chuan).79 [internal related the ken trigram. the boy symbolizes not standing only an in the field astronomical of the ken body but In the abdomen five where is a bank with also the crystallization internal of the product elixir?as a of physiological fully rejuvenated trees with coins of alchemy?the below." The ox is represented It is particularly ox is not so if the farmer by the is taken into attended Herdboy. a metaphor no doubt can be raised." The Herdboy is de with in the rubbing "ball-and-link" "the boy engraves I cannot find such an allusion in any Nevertheless. elixir] of immortality is of Physiological (Bright Mirror chart Metal was distributed both tu" "Ming Jing In this Alchemy). At best. scene simply as tend to look at the plowing of steadfast effort in the cultivating of picted in tion. holding tion of (keshi ertong baguan the boy is illustrated the stars and coins. we see a inside a ring of waves representing the boy standing vital qi. being. 4). Two two-character captions can be seen along this (niulang qiaoxing). Similarly yet differ as literally in the painting a string of coins. should not "This Field" be understood is the "Field of the ken trigram" (ken tian). In the region approximately at the heart. seminal They are correctly found much lower in the ft ^ a a i painting (fig. the Herdboy enchymoma achieved. zongzhi (Principles 1668. To help illustrate this point. Then the herd and the smiles with pleasure. This in is the West since it is repro well known drawing duced shown Needham This interpretation: in the Secret of the Golden Flower.80 I would. (zhe tian). With such a correlation in the Nei Jing Tu as standing the Herdboy is depicted in the "Field of the ken trigram. Moreover. p. This is an interesting confla region growing a caption "the iron ox plows the field gold are sown. 6. as a rejuvenated being of the Inner Radiance of the formulated nal elixir by Peng Xiao theory. This field of internal elixir" ring stands for the spiral.81 A baby boy appearing from the abdomen as a rejuvenated is of the evil desire] [effort controlling paral in East lels the emphasis both and West placed of al the high moral character upon required ox is the motive chemists. I include a draw of the ing from the Taiyi jinhua zongzhi (Principles Inner Radiance of the Supreme Unity) (fig. the ring of the vital qi is a spiral made of hollow as coins in the paint dots which are clearly depicted ing. 947 to elucidate is entitled inter the Yang boy. Illustration [from Taiyi jinhua Supreme Unity). Buddhism fies the to Needham. the as holding convention. refer to a as the direction chart specially Fig. at this point symbolize the Yang within the Yin two captions fluid and its qi. must not be confused with the ox associated with the Herdboy. account?the coins" ently. coins. the power Intrinsically being.Flames of the should however. the iron ox here physiological alchemy. as indicated "Constellation of the by the caption Herdboy" "middle Inside (zhong dan tian). Even trigram so. Water both to kan (==) and to ken (==) and kun (~). in Chan Buddhist "iron ox" is used as a metaphor of immobility and that of a Buddhism fact about which therefore.78 on the a constellation To stone. According is a symbol of evil desire. near elixir" and at the level of the weaving captions erroneously placed Clearly the neck in the rubbing. pool of 'true' in dragon rejoicing.

the region other constituents. in mission heat. and the true to the throat and Yang qi is sent by her spinning-wheel trachea (note a ribbon-like band of qi going up from the spinning-wheel). ing the Herdboy the internal the field internal The cera the Earth in elixir. relies on the earth yet spring of the from the fruits my own field. The Divine Water is added to the qi at the trachea before region of vital heat. were?to that ouranic fortified whence. Each of the six vis upwards from the reins and the down from the brain and heart. a shen [archeus]. Meeting [i.82 is the Weaving of the Herdboy so shunted out and upwards 'as the sparks brain?liberated. the they meet at the Yellow Court of the heart) and form. descend they will of the reverted [internal elixir] if in audi again an (huan about wandering isles in the sea. that will in which live to ten sprout two captions: "The archeus of is [called] Mysterious (xuan ming).89 blissfully the immortal Of particular interest is the usage of the "field" in this context. alias Brightness Girl one reads similar cultivation Palace must leys. alias Attainment Splendor of Immateriality liver is [called] Containing Weaving the reins (xu cheng) Dragon . it is sent down then makes It is believed to the central the "conjunction that when the should mally the Herdboy the element Earth nor symbolizing with the ken trigram. An examination the Weaving Girl indicates that when meet and are harmonized. (Yang) chhi [true Yang qi] to transmute the chhi [qi] of the viscera into shen [the archei] with all their ascensory the yuan chhi ence and with the manufacture power. are in color. like gold and to round in balls jade. Ordinarily the visceral chhi [qi] 152 . and Water nourishing of the ken trigram. Majesty Illumination (wei ming). the internal elixir is formed and one can be revitalized.. stood But the Herdboy here as merely associated of This interpretation to the no brings our attention tion of the greater and a lesser circulation of the qi. Needham Sojourn an of the functions of the gives explicit interpretation archei of the viscera in physiological alchemy: Once has some been of formed the enchymoma the adept [internal elixir] can use its Chen [i. We have seen how the treadmill sends essence up the jing qi (seminal is sent up through the the Divine Water and de to the formation a is assigned (shen) and is indi specific archeus cated only by name and cognomen. The lesser circulation involves mainly the viscera.88 To the left of the thorax region a poem the practice of Daoist physiological alchemy: I exclusively grows thousand The flowers are The a cultivate spiritual years.86 they will the spleen return or the in this but circuit.87 The umn and circulation involves the spinal col greater the brain. to the of the cycle as it In physiological she is named the Girl (cha nu) as a alchemy Pretty of true Fire li the element ( trigram. Between the heart and lower abdomen regions a go round case each in perpetually one is converted their into girl is seen by a spinning Girl Constellation (Vega). in the "due field of elixir" (zhengdan tian). terminology . Although the "field" here clearly refers to the "field of internal elixir" (dan tian).e. The boy inside the circle of qi therefore assumes a triple status. down to the Yellow Courts through the internal elixir is symbolized by a glory ema from Ultimate Supreme field where a pack of the four of the diagrams ox tai The the ( ji). alias the left. symbol Yang) em we have seen in the chart anating from the reins. One reads to the of the heart "The archeus of the heart is right region: [called] Essence of Internal Elixir of Spirit (shou ling). In this context also symbolizes the element Water (true together with Fire and Water of the Herdboy Yin). symboliz the crystallization of Constellation. the primordial emperor. in Chinese Constellation wheel. the shen shui their [divine water]. Obscurity " alias Conception of Baby (yu ying) and "The archeus of the spleen is [called] Always There (changzai)."85 Again.e. the Central irrigation upper val of the Soul (hun ting)."and "The archeus of the Smoke (long yan).83 As the Alchemy. the Once one the practice attains the Great Way a xian immortal would become on earth or on (dad). region. alias the Above (han ming).90 "fit tian" (punya ablastemic enchymoma tan) [huan dan]. with internal elixir. She counterpart legend. (huang ting. one reads machine water-raising The seminal essence). more in the as brain with qi]. Then it joins the face."84 To Keeper three captions: "The archeus of the gall-bladder is alias [called] Dragon Brightness (longyao)." "The archeus of the lung is [called] White (hua hao). The reins are symbolized by the Weaving Girl. three scends where nating gates. that is. the term is also from Buddhist adopted or "field of merit") ksetra. nearby plowing coins of gold are sown further refers to sums up the "golden" internal elixir of immortality." with the ken hexa not be under by to ac cen complish tral region of vital of Physiological "Bright Mirror is correlated Constellation Herdboy gram. Yellow depend upon Court]..ternal elixir of immortality." (dan yuan). fly upwards'. This of heart semen saliva and reins" is transmitted is showered (jiji). abdomen houses of internal the six major viscera related elixir.

from the Chan point of view. encompass philosophy. logical simultaneously gorical. icono and con assuming both material representative.To consists gram: The the left of the abdomen exclusively iron sown. product tinued [Daoism]. or even triple.96 The idea of the Three (1271-1368) Teachings in the late Qing Dynasty when the Walters rub bing was made. can be and weaving said of the old girl. the Immortality. are based. configuration also possess is rendered. . but a new It is noted scope. from the they passed purely to experimental observational in their philosophy. or." Without the halo and m?ndala seen seems in the rubbing shape.95 As Conclusion times (220-420). for pragmatic the ab de-emphasizing more Pragmatism a figurative. the diagram this anthropomorphic is couched in terms of a the diagram being of the first the to undergo the process an inter of landscape painting tain paths. we have at our disposal an illustrative in char substantial diagram essentially acter. Confucianism. Chinese Daoism might have influenced India in the Yoga through (ninth through H?thayoga on Even without elaborating quence of Chinese physiological yoga. substantialism provides the fundamental heavily. of yoga associated with sixth centuries) and thirteenth centuries). and rivers in a The A boy grain [One] of millet cooks the mountains cauldron. ox region of the following the field where is a poem that caption in the dia of are the material xmn-immortality here on this earth. Indian also contributed to Daoism. there is no one will acquire [secret of] Daoist influence Buddhism. of course. moun consisting are ac and peaks in which people an is more of microcosm equation a macrocosm symbolized by a barbarians. The blue-eyed foreign with his arms.94 On the other hand. that Daoists and not especially epoch of Chinese the [secret of] mysticism. alle and physiological alchemy are two parallel as such that Some. The diagram to macrocosm of ponds. Moreover. Such boy. . as is the "external elixir. banks. and symbolic. as Buddhahood in everyone and everything. their emphasis on Nature. in the otherworldly Isles of The cultivation of the elixir for life. Buddhism. imported "totalism" of the Huayan School. portrayed a macro-microcosmic Indeed. mature on from Daoism in matters to in its early introduction of vocabulary. since century on. of the internal elixir. if one follows the Daoist approach in tak as Laozi the of the the then Buddha. process character. Even in the half-sheng-volume The white-headed to earth. as in the is ideas also discernible. even plows coins gold up if etherealized. to lose in the painting.98 se the chronological alchemy and Indian diagram to some The thought?a stract and ancient of Chinese are known thinking thought. on meditation with Daoist it has been noted that the Chan in order to experience emphasis communion the Dharmak?ya is close to the (reality body) of acquiring method the Dao. contains the world. microcosmic This paper has discussed how the macro Most motifs in this diagram graphie ceptual existence. man. variety. argue phenomena. tive. the conversion that when he looked at the Liu Chengyin mentioned as Nei Jing Tu he experienced "waxing and waning well as the ebb and flow of the cosmos."97 Such is open to objection. it might may be found well be found in Daoist physiological alchemy." Although Rousselle's this aspect too study emphasizes previous to such substantialism circulation that the inter body concept are of of the human landscape. Buddhism imagination only borrowed from the fifth sutras also plagiarized Buddhist a matter of fact. Needham." is undoubtedly substantial.91 development Tantrism of (fourth later forms foreign ox. or even aspect hence assuming it is fully possible alchemy to for a Daoist yoga of physio extent. old man's contains Buddhist concepts diagram a syncretic which reveal fusion with phrases Buddhism. yet it fur pretation. dual. The most representative figure in this was Liao who pro (1852-1932). and Daoism The of the ideas of the Three interflow syncretic was particularly in the Yuan strong Teachings con . On the other hand. significance. other mysticism. substantial.92 so with the Daoist It is particularly With philosophers. syncreticism Ping a was "The of Buddha Taoism posed. than on which some of my interpretations landscape. passes. ing predecessor 153 . nishes us with a historical background of the content of the rubbing. aspires eyebrows hang down monk supports heaven If [one] Beside to this mysticism. monk. Wei-Jin have been called the Three Teachings. nal It is owing texture and as utilitarianism is the essence of Chinese Moreover. this mysticism.93 Due to this pragmatic thought. It is well known that Buddhism borrowed and heavily China. stringing coins. This Daoist formation engraves on the stone.

cosmology. 226. Ti N? 355-381. 194." is still Also Needham. as the Vulture Peak. p. 48(1956). of Feng-shui: see. 1976 of Buddhist ontology. 20. "Jardins de TExtr?me-Orient. 229-252. Note [facsimile 23. 17. For a much simpler (Stanford. Veith. 7. and to Immortality 8. Although Tu. Wang Commercial source 24. Yoga. very 11. (1937). 1989). see M. Whether stone I have issue that can be answered when open on p. which is well stated in the dual purpose of the dia gram?"To prolong and Buddhahood. of Chinese) Dictionary (Taipei) of L? in full. The sen as "After he had put life outside tence of concern is rendered him Notes "Ne Ging 1. as fig. Bulletin de l'?cole Fran?aise Container Gardens Stein. B. L? Dongbin. 60. 18. Yoshioka. half small cauldron. Junfang." 53-54. plank. (ca. and Buddhist l'?cole Fran?aise 14. 9-25. 1968). Chang. he could in the the rising sun per se is not directly mentioned (83). 1972). . Mt. 1983). Monk (Vasubandhu). E. 1926). Skinner. 114-116. A close copy of "The Taoist in K. See also Needham. and Spiritual Peak in short. Needham. Kunlun Earth Manual in geomancy. fiushe Puguang translated of the Higher into Chinese Subtleties). par. a sheng volume. The as that Buddhahood understood common not is discernible (quan) does The things. the Memories and Visions of Paradise: Exploring Universal Myth of a Lost Golden Age (Los Angeles. and when he had self. Symi?. vol.M. Stein has referred ed.. as Fig. For Mt." ty icance longevity and to attain immortali It is therefore not without signif while area the torso section em is is full of symbols concepts. Either perspective indi cates a syncreticism to Chinese particular thought. Cloud Temple is an to visit this the chance Granet. In Lu Dongbin's the N?fing Tu. 16. Tang Dynasty) "Gridhrak?ta Vulture Spiritual 25.A. 1968). Needham. in his discussion 227. V: 5. in the White Seidel." 177-353. J. 4. no.. 5:3b. trans. nevertheless. An article "Le Lo-feou de g?ographie ?tude Chan. bodying both Daoist Religion 353-430. P. 138-142. in R. Kentucky wrongly in the most huiyuan of the Essentials (The Convergence Pu Ji during the Song Dynasty. 114. is not marked. 250 of his "Taoist in person. Paris. culture. 1-139. Sinica. Detailed and Dwellings If the rubbing was taken from a wooden ever. 77-252. that the character consisting from the person of cient manner. World inMiniature. The stele in question. The most in alchemy study of physiological S?ence. XXXVT." in an an "country. Zhang Cloudy Bamboo 11:44 (ca. of course. 6. Schipper. 13." achieved the brightness of dawn. in its coverage ethics. meaning of Leftover) (Shou fu. the head exclusively Daoist. Each measurement and illustrated Explained (New York. "An introduction and less precise to Taoist The Review Introduction 20 (1956). Meditationsbild Taoistisches 207-216. M. in Chinese the study of the number nine La Pens?e Chinoise (rpt. for Daoist For in 58. V:5." as well as his Taoism: The Road 1978). Blofeld. Taipei. for example. "Taoist Monastic Life. the of the non-ego-like-self. H. volume. a of the Paradise discussion Lost in different cul general see R. also appears the rubbing Body. and the Buddhist are mainly a manifestation in the rubbing even ele of (1:2370) and Morohashi Tetsuji.17. is known Peak L?zu zhi (Records (Zhengtong Zhongwen [Daoist Tripitaka]. Zang. (London. and A. d'extr?me-orient. "man. 15. 1022).D. I. 22. Living 44-45. This Daoist can be legend of an early 20-century Zinian. (Boulder. Bulletin de 210. from "a consciousness suggested. Science. Science. the "Ne Ging stele Tu. Rousselle. Watson (New York. Rousselle. S?ence.] to Tang ). par. "Les Proc?d?s Ancienne. as noted by Liu Chengyin.. 9. Satchels) Yunji qi qian (The Seven A. Y. 1821). 1587." en miniature 42 (1942)." Monk Da Tang translated into Chinese 596-664). is also of relevance 1990). The Yellow Emperor's Classic S?ence and Civilisation in China 'Die Tafel mit des inneren ein Gewebes'. Shiyi ji (Records to this 30:lla-b. foreword 1964). seventy-two including Temple. 5:11a in the Both LX:48694). 82-83 (hereafter.Dao ments resides in Buddhism. to this respect. 9:96. it can be limited If this en interpreted to ego-form in to D. the brightness of dawn. The 1989). Religious in this respect. Masp?ro. Facets of Taoism: Essays (New Haven. Press traced ed. The World inMiniature: trans.J. 13. 11:100-121. Welch in Chinese Religion eds. then this wooden plank may be stored in of the Daoist Canon the Pavilion (canjingke). Magic (New York. 2." d'Extr?me-Orient. fournal par. 1973). it is called the 154 . psychology. Taoiste 229 Stein. 6. Chinese-Japanese neously Wudeng Lamps) is hence even Wudeng 12. 5. chap." Suzuki. Chuang Tzu). V:5. by Xuanzang Bianji." gives a rather detailed floorplan how locations. as the the transformation form the rising sun is clearly in psychological terms. 234.. in the rubbing. 1979). Heinberg. attack on civilization and nostalgia for paradise. 17 (1978). 19. (Berkeley. "fo" ("Buddhahood") three parts.Jung's to Zen Buddhism An Introduction (New York. Daozang da zidian is of two-sheng the cauldron poem. given huiyuan by Monk Dictionary) as derived ji-ten (The Complete this couplet is erro (1:2294). lun (Abhidharmakosa. de 'nourrir Asiatique. 1975). Corless. 113-129.1 The Nei fing Tu rubbing appears owe much to the erudite with regard to the gen study of Needham eral understanding of Daoist physiological alchemy. in R. he was able to achieve see his own aloneness. Huang of Internal Mediane Ibid. Zi (rpt. of Religion. Rousselle.Y." H. 27. Tablets (Dao of Beschriftung. Kunlun For tures. 41. History 3. history: vol. "Ne Ging Tu. 8 (1933). Brooks in Far Eastern Thought. . religieuse. famous Yoshioka. 131-148. is mentioned Ill. (Tokyo) from a Chan Buddhist book entitled of first the Five sentence Dai Kan-Wa the omnipotence of Daoism.. in 563-567 and by Xuanzang Param?rtha (Tripitaka of this work lies The importance 18:185-192. Kunlun. The Complete Works of Chuang Tzu. le principe vital' dans la 228 (1937). Ching Su Wen: 4-9.l." of Religions.T." C. R. (The Complete the Patriarch). ed. of Mt. Needham's English see C. (Cambridge. by Treasury in 651-654. indicates in a is written "west. 21.. Chinese Geomancy S. that. to the West in the Great of China of the Regions xiyu ji (Record (Sibu congkan chubian ed." and The Secret and Sublime: Taoist Mysteries also J. of the brightness is couched lightenment text. 1989). temple of the White Cloud Monastic Life. The Vision of Buddhism a country 10.G. 115. Watson. comprehensive is. V:5. 129-151. Berea College Berea." in the west. twenty-chapter contain this couplet.29248).

v. Kunlun is 29248. (New Scripture of the Lotus Blossom of the Fine Dharma inW. "archeus"). Sickman and A. "Spirit early 20th-century n. 22." two sentences comprise The by L? Dongbin. of the West) (Tao Zongyi. Necessity Boduan Although the significance 42. Needham.Zuo Si. 39. It would and in the related identification terpretation 34. Watson Tower. 64. Zhang Junfang. "Ne Ging Tu.. 1981). 25 327-340. ("Ode to the Capital of the Wu wenxuan of in Xiao Tong. the Buddha 1: 267. I cannot make Nevertheless. Taipei. V:5. in Needham. 36-38. qi qian. (Dao Zang. 47.L. 43. For English In Tripitaka. 60.. 50. 1:5. 1976). shuju [facsimile 26. however. Ke Hong. Yunji qi qian." of Indra's Net at Barabudur levels of and the plan of the upper are is suggested.D. 1975)." Needham. 52. of these in Needham. (1936).D. 1646). 5:5a. in the World) Ten Continents 66. London. n. 7:2a. V:5. 64-77. Zhuangzi "Keng Zangchu. "Ne Ging Tu. 37. (Baltimore.d. "Indara-m?. of "xuan" as "mysticism" I adopt the defini "The experi Collegiate Dictionary: communion with ultimate reality a logical. 41.). in Dazangjing. tion of Fazang's essay a Buddhist and Significance eds. to the Background of G. of the N?fing No effort is Tu. 44. but Law (rpt. 19:30b. p. 286. (Berkeley. "The Dualistic David. 250. seen as coexistent to analyze Cited ibid. mine. to give him left stands for the sun and Rousselle. Soothill. be example of China 29-30.. Bamboo 1022. 10. see Wang Weicheng. barbarian 116. 57. Also trans. 222. 262. 1971).. 1:2." ed. 31. in the China of A. 38. For example. fushelun.W. 62.]). [State]"). the Essentials of the Five Wudeng Lamps) no. Foshou 18:282. is given. Listed Puji of the Song Dynasty. V:5. nine Rousselle. It happens in the Han. shoufojing. (Sutra 360. For a detailed this debate. 4." in the History and Microcosms of of Macrocosms 1967). chap. a." The Schipper. The Lotus of York.]. 113.). based on an in of the historical coherent with the other symbols in the rubbing. Buddhism. Laozi 155 . Theories (New York. be more the Kunlun convincing mountain if the features could have been of the sun. LX:48692-48693). Shoufu in another also appear on the summit of Mt. zi. this interpretation Lion to Dr. Chuang Tsu. Mt. foreign Longevity). 66. XXXVI: Zhang Junfang. of Unlimited (The Tripitaka Wuliangshoufo Dazangjinged. for pointing Essay s." as renders it 8:8a. 97.v. G?mez and H. 7:7b-8a the translation the definition of shen I adopt "archeus". 11:45. in the Wuzhen Man on the 61. 1964). (Dao Zang. 60. 49. similarity doctrine Huayan the monument given 30. 105..D. Mochizuki. years." out I am obliged to me. as "The immaterial which is given the principle by supposed over the activities of the animal to produce Paracelsians and preside the translation and 2nd vital force." tioned in the aforemen the last couplet in first line is slightly different ac ulated poem: the [secret Rouselle.J. Also ibid. 11:45. The Art and Architecture S?ence. (28-30. XXXVI:29334). 33. S?ence. his attention. much and the Daoist usage con less a convincing. fig. interest of this article. that. (Berkeley. study on to the Maitreya Laughing cult in China see and Buddha. Ch'en. economy. out that the dot pointing the one on the right stands for eyes" 211. The example given after the definition in our concern: ther clarifies the usage "It was held that the chief in the stomach. these pages are reproduced S?ence. Quoted Yunji (Poetical Essay Realizing of Regenerating the Primary Vitality). in Chinese) (Tokyo. see J. moon. my acceptance rubbing. of que is made of an architectural An Dynasty. Philosophy 45. Alchemy. theWonderful 59. in Dao Zang. Girardot. par. 27. Isis. Huan mentioned Lin. of 1925-1932). Lotus Sutra. "Wudufu" For example.. the 405-408. Hurvitz. Ware. archeus was situated and that subordinate arch? reg the action of other organs. L?'s quire 54. two free-standing the en pillars marking in It was particularly popular complex. s. two terms evaded S?ence V:5.E. XXXVI: 29248. see T. 'Taoist Body.R. Ibid. Xiwangmu zhuang (Record of the Mother sect. in Dao Zang. Bao Pu Zi. See also the translation 58. 1075 about in Dao Zang. Daiz?ky? Fushuo one will [the above secrets]. Liu An." tion given in Webster's Ninth New ence of mystical or direct union reported 53. 11:12. (ruo xiang ? zhong xuan hui de). by Fazang when to Empress Zetian Wu he (r. 55. "Ne Ging "heavenly the credit of first Tu. Shangqing of the Internal Seven ca. Vision. 341. The 63. These twelve [Wanw? shantang ed. of zhi. Rousselle." the famous on the Golden in China: A Historical Survey a sec in which Corless. by Zhang composed A. 690-704). of the question and answer is the English translation "Ne Ging Tu. 10b-lla). of 1809 ed. 36. These poem by mystics. in a book written as having towns and twelve jade pagodas. Ch'en. 40. p. tried From 28. jing no. IV:2904-2905). 46. Also and its Relations Although the red sun like I am hesitant refers to the should on the the moon." (The Oxford English Dictionary. ed. For of the As we will see below. this source nection between Perhaps 51. 365. Laozi is conditional.O. to follow Rousselle's third that interpretation I in the forehead. L?zu For it is only a coincidence. Hiram Woodward 29. no. can seen in L. in Dao Zang. Kunlun jade pagodas book from the Han. See also L. 320: the "N? P'ien" of Ko Medicine and Religion 1966). of an 1976 [facsimile (rpt. Hain? (Record of the shizhouji sec. Zhaoming (Anthology Wenhua Prince Edited (Taipei: Zhaoming) by Literary Writings rpt. "Ne Ging Tu. The trance the Han Soper. old man?being in using lies mainly the figure of the white-headed as the historical Laozi?to Laozi's expound cosmogonie accepted body made 32.. of a the in between which Monument 179.. Barabudur: History Woodward. 316-320. and note a. 48." 212.. XXXVL29232. the guan wuliang translation ismine. I adopt that translation in L. Hung (Cambridge. 255. huangting Radiance Tablets 18:5a-b (Manual of the Supreme Purity ndjingjing in Yunji qi qian (The of the Yellow Courts) of the Cloudy in Satchel) by Zhang Junfang "Ne Ging 213. in Early Taoism: The Theme of N." Monk of "A blue-eyed sat by himself huiyuan (Ming Convergence ed. the to those the principle of with contents the iconographie the universe. 56. (Princeton. Ibid.. "If [one] seeks within of] mysticism" Tu. Huai'nan of Huai-nan-tzu Cosmogony and of European Chinese Conger.P. 35. vegetable fur ed. for (The Jiajing For example. (Shoufu. references further to explain the Huayan Sutra Buddhism See K. Yunji qi qian. Alchemy. Rousselle. formation For an explicit introduction of Mile fo. in n. for the trachea." 213. Rousselle.. Dongfang shuo. 28. 4:34. Myth and Meaning Chaos (hun-tun) 1983). Bukky?-daijiten.

Period. Sojourn of the gall-bladder. by Needham trans. Fung Yu-lan. 1. 1644 (Leiden. Bao Pu S?ence. and is light and immaterial. The "conjunction Science. (Princeton. Ke Hong. hence it is named lung. 97. Three about 72.of Laozi (A Critical Study of the Contention kaozheng the Barbarians). Bodde 93. Needham. 1500 China: A Preliminary Survey of Chinese Sex and So?etyfrom B. psychological) Science. Detailed "pretty girl" 84. Obscurity. Facets of 76. 548. 68. it reads: to the phase/element liver belongs of Wood. 33-36. D. Yu-lan. the relationship Wilhelm rendered (S?ence. 87. 75. from the Popular Religion and Seidel.. 95. Science. The Book 1989). 74. see III. V:5:l 14?116. of Keeper is the lung of the west. The Secret the Golden by Jung of on a substantial discussion 1975). of viscera. n. par. 71. S?ence..H. of Balance xxi.. V:5. rendered 34-67. yet much that such multiple more in alchemical illustrations the than. V:5. 85. flying It follows the external phenomenon of in clouds. Needham. hence produces it is named reads: "The of the reins. 473-476. Such a system came Chen of the Metallous quoted by 1:31b. 251. New York. period. ferent The (Secret. in Needham. V:5. 276. For the present in Shangqing found (Manual of the cognomena ndjingjing huangting Supreme Purity of the Internal qi qian. and Harmony.D. Buddhism. 86. V:5. For the equalization S?ence. in S?ence. V:2. 55-56. T. a Daoist treatise on meditation and sexual of is translated with a commentary by R. the location of it is the palace of the Needham. 79. can be statuses are similar to. Kingdom A. 78." Bary. (Princeton. R. 19-25. 18:1b. and Religion Under Chinese Yuan Thought: Thought 492-496. for example. A History 1952). it has the color of the blue dragon of the east. V:5. 280-285. V:5. or the into being the Later Han during as it was first seen in Ke Hong's Bao Pu Zi. 77. Spirit. Cook. allowing and is hence called Conception of Baby. "Fa-tsang's Brief Commentary in Minoru Buddhist [Heart Sutra]." 1979). 156 . 80.D." to Water.d. obviously Although text is correctly in a slip of the pen. If the translation is changed (alias) of the heart in the rubbing it should read: "The archeus the caption the spirit. Science. The spleen named of the Soul. see Needham.H. 22." Kiyota. the alchemy.Y. 300. in Science. huahushuo 65. Needham. Converting (Quarterly IV. Philosophy. 248-252. Zhixu. IV. Wilhelm. Brightness. (New Haven. Detailed by Needham S?ence. Among the viscera. 2 vols. it is in charge of the eyes. 82. symbolic psychological. V:5.3. on p. of the Yellow in Dao in Courts) XXXVI: Zang. ed. as a fact of seventeenth-century alchemy symbolic see Needham. S?ence. Dixon Gerbrandt and P..) For the archeus "Internal allegory. archeus it reads: "The color of the gall-bladder is bluish is called that is why [the archeus] Dragon yellow. charge bravery named the blue Majesty dragon Illumination. 53-81. in the Liu Ts'un-yan "The 'Three Teachings' and J. See also Ch'en. V:5. Theory and Practice (Honolulu. Radiance ll:23a-24b. lations. Zi. The European counterparts most For the and allegorical interpretation. on the Prajn?p?ramit?r F. into English by C. V:5. Needham. in de and Wm. 38.D." 79. V:5. 76. III. 167-206. Enchymoma. is healthy the archeus Court.' food and digests is in the center. "An Riddle: Iconographical in the Liechtenstein 1989). The the rubbing made given I follow the six the painting translations. 91. 282. the Liizu last couplet. (par. the rendition of this treatise: S?ence." Princely This article gives 609-627. of Earth.G. the lung is white PHOTOGRAPHS: figs. "Taoist Yoga. Ch'en.." 1961). 66. 361-363. V:5. For a shorter description see C. 4:16a this poem (Daozang. of a child. ten-Doesschate Eeckhout's Chu. 11:717. Except L? Dongbin. Collections. 33-164. Wilhelm niques. passim. and Wood Fire. eds.. and is hence it in of and is audacity. 4).S. 100. Baltimore. 69). (December how art represents a discussion on van den Royal Repast Art Bulletin. European some interesting illustrations phy 92. Cleary trans. and Needham. 67. The sun rises in the east. V:5. 2 (1934). 73.. Such usages S?ence." For the archeus spleen 'Always There. to A. (fig. of fire archeus the heart of of the is the origin/essence the south. between Altair and Vega. For a discussion see Needham. found throughout Chan texts. 90. trans. 155. For in aspect in which bibliogra Wudeng 81. 96. (San Francisco. I follow Needham's rendition. 44-55. Needham gives (rpt. the spleen. 1331." it is the dwelling For the the color canopy of the heart. reins belong and hence is called Mysterious semen the conception is produced in the reins. Hok-lam Chan eds. findan dayao (Main Essentials the true Gold Elixir) of A. Needham. Chinese III.A. 98. Guoxue jikan of Sinology). are given. It appears see." For the archeus of the liver. Buddhism. hao means white. 29237-29238. 88. see Attainment "The of Immateriality. 39. Second Taoism Taoism and Stein. zhi. is identical LX:48685). and reins" is discussed in Needham. van Gulik. V:5. 69. iconography complicated are simply allegorical. "Religious to Seventh in Welch Centuries. R. with a poem in S?ence. Zhang Junfang. Ibid. 1-3. L. of heart of the Needham. 1983). Mahdy?na hrdaya-s?tra Meditation: 1978). it reads: "The of metal hence Sexual Life in R. it For the archeus Containing Brightness.. 94." it guards of the Internal is called Essence Elixir. Creativity and Taoism (New York. S?ence. This treatise as A Flower: Chinese Book of Life C. Needham. are dif in this diagram the six archei designating captions in the character fifth "zi"1 from the common that phrases follows into "zi"2 (by oneself). Mongol-Y?an the Mongols. 477-512. V:5. still makes the author of this translation sense. Chang. Ibid. these reads: The Yunji An?ent regarding it the heart. such as representations of constel 89. For this constellation. 72-80. par.esp. huiyuan. it is named further Yunji qi qian provides interpretations of archei of the viscera (ibid. Chinese Philosophy. 40. trans. T. Fully discussed The I Ching. V:5. Needham. yin and yang (water and fire). Yellow and Needham. it reads: "The named and is hence Baynes 70. Walters Art Gallery. 41 from the Taiyi jinhua zongzhi (Principles Reproduced the Inner Radiance of the Gold Elixir) by Jiang compiled tech Yuan ting in 1668. Also see Chang. Berling. S?ence. cha n? as "bride" 250). of ancient S?ence. at in Europe. and a most comprehensive Fung of Chinese 4-6. 99. S?ence. 1970). between 67-82. and quoted in Needham." For the and is hence strong.c. 245.F. 71:4 us a clear picture of life. S?ence. For 83. 72-73. lesser and greater circulations.

y^-i Sun (trigram) -^^L ^ ?rj^ ??L^ jing jing qi Kan Ken kua tt *rL JF"?T -?v^ r^ 4r* (trigram) J^ &?**%?* $?# * taiji taixuan liuyi ^V^^l. <&r *^ (Fazang) (trigram) (trigram) Dharmagupta taiyi shenshui dongfang Dui FaMi Fa Zang fengshui fo fu tian hao 7^?] ^ >K-y Kun tian gan tian yan -^^ -ysl ~j **/^.?^ ^* WuZetian xuwu zhendan 2\J ?'I ^v huan dan Qian (trigram) jjf ^ yuan qi yujing yuyi Zhen zi1 J7?J *?^ huang ting qiong long Quan zhen "?^ fjL ^^ ^rr shan 5^ ^ ^ JiaJi jiang gong jin que que shen la ^T (trigram) >^C^ -T" shen shui %tf ?K^ zi2 ^) ^Chinese characters included in the illustrations are not given .CHINESE terms* canjingke M. (trigram) Kunlun Li (trigram) waishen wei l? xian &r A Liao Ping JJfy-^) y%y ^*1 /J^ Milefo ming nei q1 tang shen ^ft Jfe ^T #J? W ^L '.J$L^l chan? chi long dan sha jin chi ^%.

Huai L? Dongbin. Ming Jing Puguang. Laozi huahushuo wenxuan kaozheng A. Zhengtong Daozang Zuo Si.CHINESE TEXTS Bianji.?li?. Hainei Xiuzhen shizhouji liyan caotu shoufojing Zhenzi. Peng Xiao. Zhang Junfang. Jushe lun Puji. "Wudufu" S?~??L ?1L> -? . Foshuo guan wuliang Huahujing Huan Lin. Xiao Tong.Jfr ?E.jl^' J?3-4-k. Jindan Dazangjing Dongfang Dong (Daiz?ky?) shuo.%?? Zhaoming Xiaodao lun Wuzhen hian ??L il # Yunji qi qian ?? Zhang Boduan. Wudeng Shangqing huiyuan neijingjing huangting Shoufu Tao Zongyi. Xiwangmu zhuan A-^M% zongzhi > . Bao Pu Zi nan zi L?zu zhi tu Liu An. Xuanzang. Wang Weicheng.S- *% Jiang Yuan ting. Taiyi jinhua Ke Hong. ?. Chen Da Tangxiyuji dayao Zhixu.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful