AIR CONDITIONING PRINCIPLES . AND SYSTEMS

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A view of the concentrating and tracking solar collectors for the 100,000 square foot corporate headquarters of Honeywell, Inc., in Minneapolis. The collectors -serve a solar heating and cooling system that provides over 50% of the building's yearly heating requirements, more than 80% of the cooling, and all of the hot water. (Honeywell, Inc.)

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AIR CONDITIONING PRINCIPLES AND SYSTEMS
FOURTH EDITION

EDWARD G. PITA
Environmental Control Technology New York City Technical College The City University of New York

Prentice

Hall

~

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey Columbus, Ohio

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Pita, Edward G. Air conditioning principles and systems / Edward G. Pita.--4th ed. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN 0-13-092872-0 (hc : alk. paper) I. Air conditioning. 2. Buildings-Energy conservation. I. Title. TH7687.P446 2002 697.9'3-dc21 2001021390

Editor iu Chief: Stephen Helba Editor: Edward Francis Production Editor: Christine M. Buckendahl Production Coordinator: Carlisle Publishers Services Design Coordinator: Robin G. Chukes Cover Designer: Bryan Huber Cover art: Neal Moss Production Manager: Brian Fox Marketing Manager: Jamie Van Voorhis This book was set in Times Roman by Carlisle Communication Ltd., was printed and bound by R.R. Donnelley & Sons Company. The cover was printed by The Lehigh Press, Inc.

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Copyright © 2002, 1998, 1989, 1981 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America This pUblication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohJbited reproduction, storage in a retrievaJ system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to:. Rights and Permissions Department.

Prentice

. Hall

c=.

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 ISBN 0-13-092872-0

PREFACE

T

his fourth edition of Air Conditioning Principles and Systems has been significantly revised. Reflecting recent developments and concerns in the industry, substantial material has been added on indoor air quality, air pollution from combustion, and the new environmental requirements on refrigerants. Consistent with the overall philosophy of this text, the practical approach to these important issues will enable the reader to effectively address them in the workplace. Use of the Internet for air conditioning work is a major component of this fourth edition. Many Websites of equipment manufacturers are listed. Problems are assigned that make use of these Web sites for equipment performance, selection, and specifications, and to ask and receive answers to technical questions. Web sites of HVAC design software providers are also listed. These offer heating and cooling load calculations, duct and pipe sizing, psychrometrics, and energy analysis. Problems are also as~igned in these areas. Use of design software often entails a fee and restrictions, of course. The Web sites and software listed in the text are only a small sample of those available, and are not necessarily the only useful ones. A search will discover many more.

In addition to incorporating new material, many chapters have been considerably revised or amplified to enhance the learning process. This book is a fundamental text in heating, ventilation' and air conditioning (HVAC). It fills the need for a text that presents the fundamental principles and systems in a manner that is technically accurate, yet of practical use in the working world. Today's reality, which mandates time and cost effectiveness in HVAC work, dictates this practical approach. Students in air conditioning and refrigeration courses in college and technical institute programs, and consulting engineers, contractors, operating engineers, and service technicians will find this text useful in their studies or as a reference. The book is designed for a two-semester course. Supplemental work may be assigned if the instructor wishes to expand on the suggested projects. The text begins by developing the fundamental principles of air conditioning, followed by a description of equipment and systems. The text emphasizes the application of theory to both designing new systems and troubleshooting existing ones. This approach is enhanced by many. illustrative examples and problems dealing with real situations.

v

vi

PREFACE

An underlying theme throughout the book is energy utilization arid conservation. Energy codes and standards are described, and each topic is examined from an energy conservation viewpoint, an approach that is essential for all future work in the air conditioning field. A chapter is devoted to solar heating and cooling. Following an overview of the scope of air conditioning, the text reviews physical principles. Heating and cooling load calculations are explained in a thorough yet understandable manner. The latest methods (now required by most states) are used. The newly revised design weather data is included. Load calculation forms are furnished to aid the student. The subject of psychrometries is presented in considerable detail, recognizing that it is at the heart of understanding air conditioning processes. Air conditioning and refrigeration equipment and systems are covered thoroughly. Equipment construction and selection are described. Included in the discussion are reheat, dual duct, multizone, hydronic, and variable air volume systems. The

presentation of refrigeration includes an explanation of absorption systems, heat pumps. and the scroll compress. Instrumentation and balancing and the fundamentals of automatic controls are covered in separate chapters. Of special importance is the chapter devoted to energy utilization and conservation in design, installation, and operation of air conditioning systems. Two example projects in the design of a heating and cooling system are worked out in detail. Similar projects are suggested as hands-on learning experiences. These should be of value to those who are interested in installation, operation, and service as well as design, because they require the student to analyze how the system functions. The author sincerely hopes that this presentation, based on his more than 55 years of experience in the field working for manufacturers, as a consulting engineer, and as an educator. will contribute to your knowledge and success in the HVAC industry.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR
Edward G. Pita is Professor Emeritus and Adjunct Professor in the Environmental Control Technology Department at New York City Technical College of the City University of New York. He received a B.S. degree from Purdue University, an M.S. degree from Columbia University, and a Ph.D. degree from the University of Maryland, all in mechanical engineering. He is a member of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) and is a registered professional engineer.

In addition to his career as an educator. Dr. Pita was chief mechanical engineer for a large consulting engineering firm responsible for HVAC projects for the United Nations. the State City of the Vatican, the U.S. Capitol, and many other governmental and private clients. He has also worked in applications and systems engineering for the Carrier Corporation and the Worthington Corporation.

CONTENTS

An Air Conditioning Fable xv

Review Questions 15 Problems 15

1

THE SCOPE AND USES OF AIR CONDITIONING 1 1.1 Scope of Air Conditioning 2 1.2 Components of Air Conditioning Systems 3 1.3 All-Water (Hydronic) Air Conditioning Systems 4 1.4 All-Air Air Conditioning Systems 5 1.5 Human Comfort 7 1.6 Comfort Standards 8 1.7 The HVAC System as Part of the Building Construction Field 10 1.8 Designing the HVAC System 10 1.9 Installing the HVAC System II 1.10 Operation, Maintenance, and Service of the HVAC System 12 1.11 Employment in the HVAC Industry 12 1.12 Description ofJob Responsibilities 13 1.13 Energy Conservation and Computers 14
vii

2

PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES 17 2.1 Units 18 2.2 Conversion of Units 18 2.3 U.S. and SI Units 19 2.4 Mass, Force, Weight, Density, and Specific Volume 19 2.5 Accuracy of Data 2! 2.6 Pressure 21 2.7 Pressure of a Liquid Column 23 2.8 Work, Power, and Energy 26 2.9 Heat and Temperature 27 2.10 Enthalpy 28 2.11 The Energy Equation (First Law of Thermodynamics) 29 2.12 Liquids, Vapors, and Change of State 30 2.13 Saturated Property Tables 36· 2.14 Refrigeration 36 2.15 Calculation of Sensible and Latent Heat Changes 37 2.16 Latent Heats of Fusion and Sublimation 40 2.17 The Ideal (Perfect) Gas Laws 40

Vlll

CONTENTS

2.1S

Energy Utilization (Second Law of Thennodynamics) 41 Review Questions 42 Problems 43

4.13

Energy Conservation 100 Review Questions 100 Problems 10 1 Computer Solution Problems 10 1

3

HEATING LOADS 46 3.1 The Heating Load 46 3.2 Heat Transfer 47 3.3 Rate of Heat Transfer 4S 3.4 Overall Thermal Resistance 51 3.5 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient (U), 51 3.6 Heat Transfer Losses: Basement Walls and Floors 53 3.7 Heat Transfer Losses: Floor on Ground and Floor over Crawl Space 54 3.S Infiltration and Ventilation Heat Loss 56 3.9 Design Conditions 59 3.10 Room Heat Loss and Room Heating Load 60 3.11 The Building Net Heating Load 61 3.12 System Heat Losses 62 3.13 Summary of Heating Load Calculation Procedures 63 3.14 Energy Conservation 66 Review Questions 66 Problems 67 FURNACES AND BOILERS 71 4.1 Warm Air Furnaces 71 4.2 Furnace Controls 74 4.3 Heating Boilers 75 4.4 Boiler Controls 79 4.5 Boiler and Furnace Draft SO 4.6 Fuels and Combustion S2 4.7 Gas and Oil Burners SS 4.8 Flame Safety Controls 92 4.9 Boiler Applications 92 4.10 Boiler Rating and Selection 94 4.11 Boiler Installation' 98 4.12 Energy Use and Efficiency in Boilers and Furnaces 98

5 HYDRONIC PIPING SYSTEMS AND
TERMINAL UNITS 102

5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.S 5.9 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14
5.15

5.16 5.17 5.IS 5.19 5.20

4

Piping Arrangements 102 Series Loop 102 One-Pipe Main 104 Two-Pipe Direct Return 104 Two-Pipe Reverse Return 105 Combination Arrangements 106 Three-Pipe System 106 Four-Pipe System 107 Hydronic Terminal Units 107 Radiators lOS Convectors lOS Baseboard 109 Fin-Tube 109 Radiant Panels I 10 Unit Heaters 110 Fan-Coil Units III Induction Units 112 System Water Temperatures and Flow Rates 113 Selection of Terminal Units 114 System Design Procedure 115 Review Questions lIS Problems liS Computer Solution Problems 119

6

COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS 120 6.1 The Cooling Load 120_ 6.2 Cooling Load Calculation Procedures 120 6.3 Room Heat Gains 122 6.4 Conduction Through Exterior Structure 123 6.5 Conduction Through Interior Structure 130 Solar Radiation Through Glass 130 6.6 6.7 Design Conditions 137 6.8 Lighting 137

19 6.20 6.27 6.10 The Evaporative Cooliug Process and the Wet Bulb Temperature 181 7.11 The Air Mixing Process 182 Psychrometric Analysis of the Air Conditioning System 184 7.9 Piping System Pressure Drop 213 8.2 8.19 7.14 6.28 Cooling Load from Heat Gain Through Structure 152 Cooling Load from Heat Gain Through Windows 153 People and Appliances 154 Infiltration and Ventilation 154 Room. Building.17 7.3 7.12 7.11 Friction Loss from Air Flow in Ducts 218 .14 7.4 Locating the Air Condition on the Chart 168 7.10 6.20 7.3 The Psychrometric Chart 168 7. and Velocity Pressure 204 8.15 7.15 6.5 Condensation on Surfaces 172 Air Conditioning Processes 173 8.13 6.6 7.24 6.21 Residential Cooling Loads 152 6.4 Total.16 6. Static.22 6.8 Pressure Loss in Pipe Fittings 212 8.1 Properties of Air 164 7.18 6.10 System Pipe Sizing 216 8.7 Friction Loss from Water Flow in Pipes 208 8. and Air Conditioning Equipment Loads 156 Summary of Residential Cooling Load Calculation Procedures 158 Energy Conservation 160 Problems 160 Computer Solution Problems 162 Determining Supply Air Conditions 184 Sensible Heat.21 People 139 Equipment and Appliances.17 6. 140 Infiltration 140 Room Cooling Load 144 Room Peak Cooling Load 145 Building Peak Cooling Load 145 Cooling Coil Load 146 Ventilation 146 Heat Gain to Ducts 147 Fan and Pump Heat 148 Duct Air Leakage 149 Supply Air Conditions 149 Summary of Commercial Cooling Load Calculation Procedures 149 7.23 6. Ratio 185 The RSHR or Condition Line 186 Coil Process Line 188 The Complete Psychrometric Analysis 189 The Contact Factor and Bypass Factor 191 The Effective Surface Temperature 191 Reheat 193 Part Load Operation and Control 194 Fan Heat Gains 195 Problems 195 Computer Solution Problems 198 8 FLUID FLOW IN PIPING AND DUCTS 199 7 PSYCHROMETRICS 164 7.6 Pressure Loss from Friction in Piping and Ducts 207 8.18 7.25 6.26 6.2 Determining Air Properties 165 7.1 8.9 6.CONTENTS IX 6.11 6.8 Latent Heat Change Process Calculations (Humidifying and Dehumidifying) 177 7.13 7.9 Combined Sensible and Latent Process Calculations 179 7.7 Process Lines on the Psychrometric Chart 173 Sensible Heat Change Process Calculations (Sensible Heating and Cooling) 174 The Continuity Equation 199 The Flow Energy Equation 20 I Pressure Loss in Closed and Open Systems 203 8.12 6.16 7.5 Conversion of Velocity Pr>!ssure to Static Pressure (Static Regain) 206 8.

20 Return Air Devices 282 10.9 Fan Laws 268 10.15 Duct System Pressure Loss 233 8. 239 Computer Solution Problems 242 Air Distribution Devices 272 10.3 10.5 11.22 Sound Control 283 Review Questions 285 Problems 28.11 11.13 10.5 Multizone System 310 .12 9.13 11.6 9.7 10.10 Construction and Arrangement 269 10.14 10.7 9.13 Piping Materials and Specifications 243 Fittings and Joining Methods for Steel Pipe 246 Fittings and Joining Methods for Copper Tubing 247 Valves 247 Pressure Regulating and Relief Valves 248 Valve Construction 249 Valve Selection 251 Pipe Expansion and Anchoring 251 Vibration 252 Pipe Insulation 254 The Piping Installation 255 Duct Construction 255 Duct Insulation 256 Review Questions 257 Room Air Distribution 272 Air Patterns 272 Location 273 Types of Air Supply Devices 274 Applications 276 Selection 277 Accessories and Duct Connections 281 10.4 10. VALVES.4 9.12 11.'5 Computer Solution Problems 286 CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS.x CONTENTS 8.11 9.14 10 FANS AND AIR DISTRIBUTION DEVICES 258 10.16 Duct Design Methods 235 Problems.19 9 PIPING.4 11.1 9. AND VENTING 287 11 11. EXPANSION TANKS.2 9.1 10.1 11.10 9.3 Single Zone System 307 12. DUCTS.3 11.4 Reheat System 309 12.10 11.13 Pressure Loss in Duct Fittings 221 8.17 10.2 Zones and Systems 307 12.18 10.6 11.12 Energy Conservation 271 Types of Pumps 287 Principles of Operation 287 Pump Characteristics 288 Pump Selection 291 System Characteristics 293 System Characteristics and Pump Characteristics 293 Pump Similarity Laws 295 Pump Construction 295 Net Positive Suction Head 299 The Expansion Tank 299 System Pressure Control 300 Compression Tank Size 302 Air Control and Venting 303 Energy Conservation 304 Review Questions 304 Problems 305 Computer Solution Problems 305 12 AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 306 12.16 10.8 9.3 9.11 Installation 270 10.2 11.5 10.8 11.15 10.14 Pressure Loss at Fan Inlet and Outlet 232 8.9 9.9 11.21 Sound 282 10. AND INSULATION 243 9.8 Fan Types 258 Fan Performance Characteristics 259 Fan Selection 260 Fan Ratings 261 System Characteristics 265 Fan-System Interaction 266 System Effect 267 Selection of Optimum Fan Conditions 267 10.12 Aspect Ratio 220 8.6 10.5 9.7 11.2 10.1 System Classifications 306 12.

22 13.8 Controllers 373 .30 Refrigerants 360 13 .12 13.12 12.3 13.17 13.CONTENTS xi 12.17 12.11 13.33 Global Warming Potential 363 13.9 12.8 12.19 Packaged Refrigeration Equipment 342 Selection 342 Energy Efficiency 346 Installation of Refrigeration Chillers 348 Cooling Towers 348 Absorption Refrigeration System 350 13.10 12.6 Component Control Diagram 369 14.1 Understanding Automatic Controls 366 14.21 12.20 13.23 12.29 Solar Energy-Heat Pump Application 360 13.7 Types of Control Action 370 14.14 12.2 Purposes of Controls 366 14.20 12.7 12.26 Principles 355 13.14 Principles 333 Equipment 334 Evaporators 334 Types of Compressors 335 Reciprocating Compressor 335 Rotary Compressor 336 Screw (Helical Rotary) Compressor 336 Scroll Compressor 337 Centrifugal Compressor 337 Capacity Control of Compressors 338 Prime Movers 338 Condensers 339 Flow Control Devices 340 Safety Controls 341 13.32 Refrigerant Venting and Reuse 362 13.2 13.18 13.31 Ozone Depletion 361 13.9 13.27 Energy Efficiency 355 13.6 12.18 12.3 The Control System 366 14.19 12.25 Principles 350 Construction and Performance 352 Special Applications 353 Capacity Control 354 Crystallization 354 Installation 354 The Heat Pump 355 13 REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 332 Vapor Compression Refrigeration System 333 13.11 12.24 Dual Duct System 311 Variable Air Volume (VAV) System 313 All-Water Systems 315 Air-Water Systems 315 Unitary versus Central Systems 316 Room Units 316 Unitary Air Conditioners 317 Rooftop Units 318 Air Handling Units 318 Cooling and Heating Coils 319 Coil Selection 320 Air Cleaning Devices (Filters) 321 Methods of Dust Removal 321 Methods of Testing Filters 322 Types of Air Cleaners 323 Selection of Air Cleaners 324 Indoor Air Quality 325 Energy Requirements of Different Types of Air Conditioning Systems 326 Energy Conservation 330 Review Questions 330 Problems 330 13.35 Energy Conservation in Refrigeration 363 Review Questions 364 Problems 364 14 AUTOMATIC CONTROLS 365 14.1 13.5 Energy Sources 369 14.22 12.13 13.16 12.13 12.10 13.24 13.16 13.7 13.4 13.4 Closed-Loop (Feedback) and OpenLoop Control Systems 368 14.6 13.5 13.23 13.15 13.15 12.28 Selection of Heat PumpsThe Balance Point 357 13.34 Water Treatment 363 13.8 13.21 13.

21 15.11 14.2 16.15 Complete Control Systems 382 Review Questions 385 Problems 385 ENERGY UTILIZATION AND CONSERVATION 387 15.3 17.7 16.9 14.17 Definitions 421 Instrumentation 421 Temperature 421 Pressure 423 Velocity 424 Flow Rates 426 Heat Flow 428 Humidity 428 Equipment Speed 429 Electrical Energy 429 Testing and Balancing 429 Preparation for Air System Balancing 429 The Air System Balancing Process 431 Preparation for Water System Balancing 431 The Water System Balancing Process 432 Energy Conservation 433 Sound Measurement 433 Review Questions 433 Problems 433 17 PLANNING AND DESIGNING THE HVAC SYSTEM 435 17.4 17.5 17.Xll CONTENTS 14.7 17.10 16.19 15.23 15.14 Humidity Control 382 14.16 16.15 15.9 16.6 17.4 15.24 15.8 Procedures for Designing a Hydronic System 435 Calculating the Heating Load 437 Type and Location of Terminal Units 440 Piping System Arrangement 440 Flow Rates and Temperatures 440 Selection of Terminal Units 442 Pipe Sizing 443 Piping or Duct Layout 443 - .6 16.1 16.11 15.13 Controlled Devices 376 Choice of Control Systems 377 Control from Space Temperature 378 Control from Outdoor Air 379 Control from Heating/Cooling Medium 381 14.10 15.22 15.1 15.12 15.12 14.6 15.5 15.8 16.25 System Design 410 Controls 410 Installation 411 Operation and Maintenance 411 Computers in HVAC Systems 412 Problems 413 16 INSTRUMENTATION.12 16.15 16.11 16.2 17.14 16.20 Energy Standards and Codes 388 Sources of Energy 391 Principles of Energy Utilization 392 Measuring Energy Utilization in Power-Producing Equipment (Efficiency) 393 Measuring Energy Conservation in Cooling Equipment-The COP and EER 395 Measuring Energy Conservation in the Heat Pump 397 Measuring Energy Conservation in Heating Equipment 397 Measuring Energy Conservation in Pumps and Fans 398 Measuring Energy Use in Existing Building HVAC Systems 399 Measuring Energy Use in New Building HVAC Systems 399 The Degree Day Method 400 Other Energy Measuring Methods 402 Air-to-Air Heat Recovery 403 Refrigeration Cycle Heat -Recovery 405 Thermal Storage 406 Light Heat Recovery 407 Total Energy Systems 407 Energy Conservation Methods 408 Building Construction 409 Design Criteria 409 16.9 15.16 15.10 14.4 16. TESTING.13 15.3 15.1 17.17 15.13 16.5 16.7 15.8 15.14 15.3 16.2 15. AND BALANCING 420 15 15.18 15.

22 17. Canada.I Abbreviations and Symbols 487 Table A.10 17.19 17.12 17.17 17. and World Locations 50 I Figure A.20 17.23 17.2 Building Heating Load Calculations Form 510 Figure A.15 17.25 17.5 Thermal Resistance R of Surface Air Films and Air Spaces 494 Table A.18 17.11 17.2 Storage and Distribution Systems 461 18.7 Clearness Factor 466 18.3 Properties of Saturated Steam and Saturated Water 490 Table A.8 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient U for Glass 500 Table A.10 Collector Performance 472 18.9 17.15 Passive Solar Heating Systems 481 Problems 481 Table A. I Solar Collectors 459 IS.21 17.11 Sizing the Collector 475 18. O:.26 Pump Selection 444 Boiler Selection 444 Compression Tank 446 Accessories 446 Controls 447 Plans and Specifications 447 Energy Use and Conservation 448 Procedures for Designing an All-Air System 448 Calculating the Cooling Load 448 Type of System 453 Equipment and Duct Locations 453 Duct Sizes 453 Air Distribution Devices 455 Equipment 455 Accessories 456 Automatic Control System 457 Plans and Specifications 457 Energy Conservation 458 Problems 458 Bibliography 485 Appendix 487 18 SOLAR HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS 459 IS.I Room Heating Load Calculations Form 509 Figure A.2 Unit Equivalents (Conversion Factors) 489 Table A.CONTENTS Xlll 17.3 Types of Solar Heating Systems 462 18. Units 513 Figure A.14 17.7 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient U for Building Construction Components 498 Table A.4 Thermal Resistance R of Building and Insulating Materials 491 Table A. SI Units 514 Index 515 .6 Typical Building Roof and Wall Construction Cross-Sections and Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients 495 Table A.16 17.9 Outdoor Heating and Cooling Design Conditions-United States.14 Approximate System Design Data 480 18.13 17.12 Economic Analysis 476 18.4 Residential Cooling Load Calculations Form 512 Figure A.6 Psychrometric Chart.S Psychrometric Chart.4 Solar Cooling Systems 463 18.24 17.3 Commercial Cooling Load Calculations Form 511 Figure A.13 Storage System Sizing 477 18.6 Insolation Tables 465 18.S.9 Sunshine Hours 472 18.8 Orientation and Tilt Angles 471 18.5 Solar Radiation Energy 464 18.

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" Joe answered. Immediately the whole plant started functioning and soon conditions in the building were comfortable again. Within minutes. "$2005 for tapping a valve?" "The bill for tapping the valve is $5." xv . The answer was "$2005. "Listen. muttered "hmm. and tapped a valve. employees started to leave. and tenants threatened lawsuits for damages. I A few minutes later.'- .AN AIR CONDITIONING FABLE t was a typical record-breaking July heat wave and the humidity felt like a Turkish bath. so why don't we call him?" In desperation. The building manager thanked Joe and asked him what the bill was. Computers broke down. temperatures in the offices reached 95 F. the chief engineer agreed. there's a fellow named Joe Schlepper who knows an awful lot about air conditioning and refrigeration." took out a small hammer. The building did not have operable windows that could be opened to relieve the oppressive heat. Joe Schlepper entered the building machine room. "The $2000 is for knowing which valve to tap. The building operating staff became frantic." "What l " the manager exclaimed. and looked at the complex installation capable of delivering 8000 tons of refrigeration. Suddenly the air conditioning system in the gigantic Acme Towers office building stopped operating. Finally one person said. walked around. No one knew what to do.

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The development of effective heating. In the dry climate of the Middle East. shade and cool water were probably their only relief from heat. Sketch the arrangement of the main components of an all-air air conditioning system.c H A p T E R The Scope and Uses ofAir Conditioning or prehistoric people. It is not surprising. and air conditioning (HVAC). A typical person in modern society may spend up to 90% of each day indoors. . ventilating. 3. Sketch the arrangement of the main components of a hydronic heating and cooling system. with approximately $20 billion in equipment sales. 2. The fireplaces in the castles of medieval Europe were hardly an improvement-they only heated the area immediately around them. OBJECTIVES A study of this chapter will enable you to: I. Paintings from those times show that the kings and queens wore furs and gloves indoors in winter! There were a few exceptions to this lack of progress. Describe the internal environmental conditions that provide adequate human comfort. open fires were the primary means of warming their dwellings. that providing a healthy. HVAC systems in the United States had reached a total installed value of about $50 billion yearly.1). Leonardo da Vinci designed a large evaporative cooler (Figure 1. and summer air conditioning using mechanical refrigeration has grown into a major industry only in the last 60 years. therefore. people hung wet mats in front of open doorways and achieved a crude form of evaporative F air cooling. Yet by 2000. comfortable indoor environment has become a major factor in our economy. which was achieved by warming air and then circulating it in hollow floors or walls. No significant improvements in humankind's condition were made for millions of years. List the environmental conditions that an air conditioning system may control. 5. In Europe. was begun scarcely 100 years ago. The ancient Romans had remarkably good radiant heating in some buildings. Central heating systems were developed in the nineteenth century. Describe where air conditioning is used. 4. however.

wife of da Vinci's patron.) 6. Cleanliness.2 CHAPTER I Let us investigate how each of these conditions is controlled: 1. the introduction of outside air into the space which dilutes the concentration of contaminants. so we will use the following definition instead: Air conditioning is the pracess of treating air ill an internal environment to establish and mailltain required standards of temperature. ducts. 3. this definition is neither sufficiently useful nor accurate. humidity. piping. Motion. the Duke of Milan. (Courtesy: IBM Corporation. The great wheel. Warm air systems are popular in residences. Air cleanliness. is controlled by adding or removing water vapor from the air (humidification or dehumidification). However. 4. It is controlled by appropriate air distributing equipment. These types of systems are common in many individual homes (residences). Figure 1. and radiation devices (and perhaps a pump) only controls air temperature and only during the heating season. cleanliness. Temperature. Air humidity. by the addition of a humidifier in the ducts. Describe the organization of the building design team and the construction team. Often both filtration and ventilation are used in an installation. 2. Valves opened and closed automatically. The air conditioning equipment may produce excessive noise. Some residences have combination air heating and air cooling equi pment that provides control of "Cooling technically means the rembml of heat. Describe the business structure of the HVAC industry. This air conditioning unit was for the boudoir of Beatrice d'Este." For our purposes. Air motion refers to air velocity and to where the air is distributed. or air quality. A hot water or steam heating system. consisting of a boiler. Sound control can be considered an auxiliary function of an air conditioning system. the removal of undesirable contaminants using filters or other devices. stood outside the palace wall and was turned by water power-sometimes assisted by slaves. 1. A warm air system. a full story high. also controls air temperature in winter only. or by ventilation. the water vapor content of the air.1 Ventilator and cooling unIT invented by Leonardo da Vinci in the fifteenth century. is controlled by either filtration. and industrial buildings. apartment houses. 7. it may also control humidity in winter. in contrast to heating. the addition of heat. Air temperature is controlled by heating or cooling * the air. air conditioning simply means "the cooling of air.1 SCOPE OF AIR CONDITIONING To the average person. drawing air into the drum. The definition of air conditioning given here is not meant to imply that every HVAC system regulates all of the conditions described. even though the system itself may be the cause of the problem. and air outlet registers. . where it was washed and forced out through the hollow shaft and piped into the room. consisting of a furnace. requiring additional sound attenuating (reducing) devices as part of the equipment. including job opportunities. and motion. Humidity.

and sound and vibration reduction devices will be discussed in more detail in later chapters of the book.. These and other components including automatic controls. An air conditioning system may provide heating. Air conditioning systems used for newer commercial and institutional buildings and luxury apartment houses usually provide year-round control of most or all of the air conditions described.) 1. Figure 1. The equipment that furnishes the heat required is called a heating system. and motion are comfortable. A distribution system (a network of ducts or piping) to carry the tluid to the rooms to be heated or cooled 4. For example. If the air in the building is to be maintained at a comfortable temperature. safety devices. valves. this excess heat must be continually removed from the room. From life experiences and feelings.000 tons of refrigeration. Equipment (fans or pumps) for moying the air or water 5. cleanliness. A heating source that adds heat to a tluid (air. In winter. and photographic processing facilities. heat must be continually supplied to the air in the rooms. dampers. Air conditioning is also used to provide conditions that some processes require. For this reason. radiationlfor transferring heat between the fluid and the room We will start with a brief introduction to the function and arrangement of these major components. require certain air temperatures and humidity for successful operation. which have 49. Most heating and cooling systems have at a minimum the following basic components: 1.2 COMPONENTS OF AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS Heat always travels from a warmer to a cooler area (see Section 2. heat continually enters the building from the outside. Devices (e. humidity.:2 l.9). textile.THE SCOPE AND USES OF AIR CONDITIONING 3 temperature and humidity in both winter and summer.g. In summer. yet the basic principles are the same. others are not. there is a continual heat loss from within a building to the outdoors. it is becoming increasingly popular to call complete HVAC systems environmental control systems. In order to maintain the room air at a comfortable temperature. Some degree of control of air quality and motion is provided in air-type heating and cooling systems. cooling source that removes heat from a tluid (air or water) 3. cooling. as well as computer rooms and medical facilities. enough to air condition a city of 100. or both. Certain ranges of air temperature. insulation. printing.2 View of Lower Manhattan skyline with the World Trade Center Twin Towers. water. (Courtesy: The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. such as the World Trade Center (Figure 1. or steam) 2. we already know that air conditioning enhances our comfort. The equipment that removes this heat is called a cooling system. Its size and complexity may range from a single space heater or window unit for a small room to a huge system for a building complex.000 people. . Applications Most air conditioning systems are used for either human comfort or for process contra/.

it must return to the heat source to be reheated. Room . when the steam cools at the terminal unit.. the pressure of the steam accomplishes this. Heat ~PiPing f- o Terminal unit ~ Chilled water return (CHR) from other rooms . The chilled water is circulated by a pump (2) and travels to each room through piping (3) and enters a terminal unit (4).-"'he at loss ~PiPing o .4 CHAPTER 1 Air conditioning systems that use water as the heating or cooling fluid are called all-water or hydronic systems..T00th er rooms 1 Heat source (HW boiler) H01 water supply (H1S) Pump -"'" Heat T Room . Water is heated at the heat source (I).4) functions in a similar manner to a hydronic heating system... The heated water is circulated by a pump (2) and travels to each room through piping (3) and enters a terminal unit (4). . A hydronic cooling system (Figure 1. Terminal unit ~ Hot water return (HWR) from other rooms Figure 1. it condenses into water and may require a condensate pump to return the water to the boiler.. the components work in the same manner. Water is cooled in refrigeration equipment called a water chiller (1). with the exception that a pump is not necessary to move the steam. I _ _ To other rooms Room ""'"' .k" l--. '0"'" OO"~ Chilled water supply (C1S) .3 Arrangement of basic components of a (hydronic) hot water heating system.. usually a hot water boiler.... Figure 1.. 1. If steam is used in a heating system..he at gain Room 2 Pum p . those that use air are called all-air systems.."". However.4 Arrangement of basic components of a (hydronic) chilled water cooling system. A system which uses both air and water is called a combination or air-and-water system.. The room air is heated by bringing it into contact with the tenninal unit.3... Since the water loses some of its heat to the rooms.3 ALL-WATER (HYDRONIC) AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS A typical hydronic heating system is shown in Figure 1.

.THE SCOPE AND USES OF AIR CONDITIONING " . (It may also be a coil Figure 1._. Since the water is now warmed.L... Equipment may be packaged or separated r------------------------i Ie. I I Heating source Cooling source unit H ~ HWR orCHR From other rooms Figure 1..""+'~ Exhaust air 8 ~ r.--------r-----~ To other Air diffuser ro ~ "E :f 8 (5 . which hydronic systems cannot do.--~=~~-"1 V'" -=-~~ rooms g '6 .. ___________________ ____ -J Room 6 Return air duct Return air fan (optional) From other J. The warmer room air loses its heat to the cold water in the terminal unit..5).~ lJ--i'-... Outdoor air 7 : I .~_L-_~ ~----i----------~-----+----_ rooms .. This is because it is pos· sible to use the same piping system for both by connecting a hot water boiler and water chiller in parallel (Figure \. They may also have the added capability of controlling humidity and furnishing outdoor ventilation. A typical all-air heating and cooling system is shown in Figure 1. 88®@ : C.5 Arrangement of basic components of a hydronic heating and cooling system.... such as a furnace.= ~ :J '" ~ "" ~ 0 CI) 9 Fan'I 1 ~ Supply air duct 4). using each when needed... 1.4 ALL-AIR AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS All-air systems use air to heat or cool rooms. it must return to the water chiller to be recooled. 5 To other rooms Room HWS Pump or CHS 1-:0 1-:0 -c=JTermlna . As the reader may have guessed. Air is heated at the heat source (I).6 Arrangement of basic components of an ali-air heating and cooling system (many other arrangements are possible). J.6. hydronic sys· terns are popular for HVAC systems that require both heating and cooling.

the same volume of air that enters the room must also exit. Rooftop-type unitary air conditioning equipment. (Courtesy: McQuay Group. The supply air enters the room through outlets called air diffusers or registers (4) that are designed to provide proper air distribution in the room. the room is heated.8 /'-/'-/'. An example of packaged all-air system equipment is shown in Figure 1. Provisions may be made for cleaning the air with air filters (9) and for humidifying the air (10). compressor Inlet air Figure 1. When the warmed supply air enters the room. the same volume of air must be exhausted (8). When the cooled supply air enters the room. and recirculated. Inc. The air is then heated or cooled again. or steam. Because a room's size is fixed. McQuay-Perfex.) ./'-/'-/'Warm air furnace t Supply air t - Dampers 0 ~ 0_ Filter 8 t V Cooling coil Refrig. the room is cooled.) The heated air is circulated by afan (2) and travels to each room through supply air ducts (3). In summer. usually a coil of tubing containing a fluid cooled by refrigeration equipment (see Chapter 13). air is cooled when it flows over a cooling source (5). heated by a remote boiler. This arrangement is convenient for residential and light commercial air conditioning.7 Arrangement of components of ali-year air conditioning equipment for a private residence (refrigeration condenser separate).6 CHAPTER I circulating hot water. A humidifier (10) may also be included to maintain a comfortable room humidity in winter. An outdoor air intake duct (7) may be provided for introducing fresh outdoor air for increased air quality. Figure 1.7. Similarly. This is usually accomplished with return air ducts (6).

g . body heat is transmitted through space directly to nearby objects (e.g. is shown in Figure 1. For example. Inc. The factor that determines whether one feels hot or cold is the rate ofbody heat loss. Each piece of equipment is installed separately and connected on the job. walls) which are at a lower temperature than the body. A central or built-up air conditioning system uses equipment centrally located in mechanical equipment rooms. this is why one feels warm in front of a fire even on a cold day. the air immediately around the body receives heat from the body. a hydronic system in a central plant might generate hot or chilled water.9 shows a portion of the equipment of a central system. Some restaurants now have glass-enclosed sidewalk cafes with radiant heating panels that keep the customers comfortable . which is then circulated to heating or cooling coils in large all-air systems in other parts of the building or even to a number of buildings. one feels hot. radiation. (Courtesy: Syska & Hennessy.. Unitary and Central Air Conditioning Systems A unitary or package air conditioning system uses equipment where all or most of the basic components have been assembled in the factory (e. This body heat is continually lost to its cooler surroundings. In radiation. The warmed air continually moves away. Body Heat Loss The human body creates heat when it metabolizes (oxidizes) food.) 1. An example of all-air unitary equipment mounted on a roof (a "rooftop" unit). a comfortable feeling ensues.. and evaporation. this is why it can be uncomfortable to sit near a window or wall in cold weather. When the rate of heat loss is within certain limits. such as those used in supermarkets. or by being blown away. by rising naturally through the cooler air around it. cold is felt. rather than manufactured as a package. Figure 1. However. The processes by which the body loses heat to the surroundings are: convection.THE SCOPE AND USES OF AIR CONDITIONING 7 Combination Systems It is frequently desirable to combine water and air systems. even in a warm room.8.5 HUMAN COMFORT Since the purpose of most air conditioning systems is to provide a comfortable indoor environment. showing absorption refrigeration machines. the system designer and operator should understand the factors that affect comfort. and is replaced by more air which in turn receiYes heat. In convection. creating a feeling of warmth even at a low surrounding air temperature. If the rate of heat loss is too great. Figure 1. if the rate is too low.9 Mechanical equipment room of a large central station air conditioning system.. heating sources that are warmer than the body can radiate heat toward the body. This subject will be discussed in more detail in Chapter 12. Engineers. room air conditioner).

8 CHAPTER 1 in winter even though the cafe temperature is only about 50 F (10 C). The subject of indoor air quality (IAQ) has become of major concern and importance in recent years. The shaded regions in Figure 1. evaporates into the surrounding air. Humidity may be raised to decrease body heat loss (winter) and lowered to increase body heat loss (summer) by evaporation. Indoor air quality will be discussed in Chapter 12. published in ASHRAE* Standard 5S~ 1992. 3. Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. taking the heat with it. The system designer and operator can control comfort primarily by adjusting three of these conditions: temperature. This procedure is called ventilation. they can use local fans to increase convection and evaporative heat loss. The use of Figure 1. The rate of body heat loss is affected by five conditions: 1. air quality. and sweater or jacket. *"ASHRAE" stands for the American Society of Heating. Intensive research and amelioration efforts are being carried out in this branch of HVAC work.. The comfort zones apply only to summer clothing of light slacks and a short sleeve shirt.. with a slight overlap. .9 cIo). The phrases sick building syndrome and building-related illnesses have been coined to refer to these effects. Air motion may be raised to increase body heat loss (summer) and lowered to decrease body heat loss (winter) by convection.. For instance. and toxic gases. Therlllal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy. and they can even stay away from cold walls and windows to keep warmer in winter. Some of the results of these studies are shown in Figure 1. -. Note that there are separate zones for winter and summer. humidity. have some personal control over their own comfort. 2. 4.6 COMFORT STANDARDS Indoor Air QualitY Another factor. Adsorbent chemicals may be used to remove unwanted gases. Cleaning devices such as filters may be used to remove particles. which has absorbed heat from the body. they can control the amount of clothing that they wear."* and winter clothing of heavy slacks. 5.1 0 are called the comfort zones. They show the regions of air temperature and relative humidity where at least 80'K of the occupants will find the environment comfortable. Occupants of the buildings. 1. The body is also cooled by evaporation: water on the skin (perspiration).10. How are they adjusted to improve comfort? The indoor air temperature may be raised to decrease body heat loss (winter) or lowered to increase body heat loss (summer) by convection. and air motion.5 cIo). **The clo is a numerical unit repres~nting a clothing ensemble's thermal insulation. or equivalent (0. of course. biological microorganisms. A list of reference sources used in this text can be found in the Bibliography. long sleeve shirt. Air quality is worsened by the presence of contaminants such as tobacco smoke and dust particles. 3. The level of air quality affects both comfort and health. refers to the degree of purity of the air. Evidence has grown that there are many possible indoor air contaminants which can and have caused serious health effects on occupants.10 is valid only for the following conditions: I. The comfort zones apply to air motion in the occupied zone not exceeding 30 feet per minute (FPM) in winter and 50 FPM in summer. 2. or equivalent (0. Indoor air contaminants can also be diluted in concentration by in- Studies of the conditions that affect human comf011 have led to the development of recommended indoor air conditions for comfort. The comfort zones apply only to sedentary or slightly active persons.:. Air temperature Air humidity Air motion Temperature of surrounding objects Clothing troducing substantial quantities of outdoor air into the building.

First. The comfort zones apply only under certain conditions of thermal radiation between the occupant and the surroundings. satisfactory indoor air quality is maintained by cleaning the air and by introducing outside air (ventilation). the condition noted (the intersection of 77 F DB and 50% RH) is within the summer comfort zone. 60 70 80 90 F Air Temperature Figure 1.10 Comfort zones of indoor air temperature and relative humidity. The procedures for making these corrections can be found in the ASHRAE Standard. Example 1. therefore most of the occupants would feel comfortable.10. an individual receiving direct solar radiation through a window in summer might feel uncomfortably-warm even though the room air temperature and humidity are within the comfort zone. Furthermore.10 to find whether a specific set of conditions is comfortable or not. in an effort to conserve energy. In recent years. Although these restrictions may seem to reduce the usefulness of Figure 1. Recommended ventilation requirements are discussed in Chapter 6. the situations specified are very common (a typical office environment). it is necessary to know the room air temperature and humidity. the comfort zones can be adjusted to reflect these changes. There is negligible radiation of heat from the surroundings to the occupants. Applications In order to use Figure 1. For example. more specific conditions have been recommended (Table 1. Would this be a comfortable indoor condition? Solution From Figure 1. for changes in Air Quality Standards As mentioned previously.10 leave a wide range of choices for the air conditioning system designer and operator.1 The conditions in an office building in the summer are 77 F DB and 50% RH.THE SCOPE AND USES OF AIR CONDITIONING 9 conditions. These recommendations may not be a .) 4. The occupants are lightly clothed. The tempe. See Chapter 7 for a complete definition of these terms.ratures listed are at the low end. Air movement in the rooms is about 30 FPM. These zones apply to persons clothed in typical summer or winter clothing engaged in sedentary activity. (Adapted with permission from the 1993 ASH RAE Handbook-Fundamentals. Indoor Design Conditions for Energy Conservation The comfort zones shown in Figure 1.1 0. of the comfort zone in winter and at the high end of the comfort zone in summer. The air temperature is technically called the dry bulb temperature (DB). this is not so. The humidity is often expressed as the percent relative humidity (% RH).1).

1 apply to general applications such as offices. Con-suiting engineers may also carry out other duties such as cast estimating and field supervision of construction.8 DESIGNING THE HVAC SYSTEM The design of a large building project is an extremely complex task. Design 2.. and weekends. It may take months or even years and involve scores of people. and public buildings.1 Air Temperature (DB) Relative Humidity (RH) % F Winter Maximum Air Velocity" FPM Clothing Insulation clo Summer . what their tasks are. Each of these tasks is performed in cooperation With the architects. 68-72 76-78 25-30 50-55 30 50 0. of which it is a part. The development of an HVAC system for a building consists of a number of steps. on application. suburban mall. if possible. The student is strongly advised. senior citizens. residences.7 THE HVAC SYSTEM AS PART OF THE BUILDING CONSTRUCTION FIELD The student wbo intends to work in the HVAC industry should have some understanding of how the industry is organized and how it relates to the building construction field. Operation and regular maintenance 4.5 matter of choice: most states now mandate energy conserving design conditions. When buildings are unoccupied on nights. 3. The values recommended in Table 1. 1. (Exceptions may be granted for special situations. and the ill. structural. and how the HVAC system relates to other building systems. These are: I. No textbook can substitute for this valuable learning experience.10 CHAPTER 1 RECOMMENDED ENERGY CONSERVING INDOOR AIR DESIGN CONDITIONS FOR HUMAN COMFORT TABLE 1. Lower indoor temperatures in winter might be used in department stores when customers are heavily clothed. to locate a proposed building and follow the HVAC system development through planning. At occupant level. who carry out the overall building planning and design. the New York State Energy Code requires a maximum winter indoor design temperature of 72 F and a minimum summer indoor design temperature of 78 F. The design of an HVAC system for large projects is the responsibility of the mechanical consulting engineers. For example. holidays. Become a "sidewalk superintendent" for the construction of an urban building. Take notes. Higher indoor temperatures in winter may be desirable for smaIl children. installation. Ask questions of your instructors. Watch out-the dynamism and excitement can be addictive! 1. These and other energy-saving strategies will be discussed in appropriate places throughout the text.) California Energy Standards require indoor design values of 70 F in winter and 78 F in summer. Installation . The electrical.9 0. but there are exceptions. and operation. The designof a private residence is much simpler and may involve as few as one or two people. it is common practice to lower indoor air temperatures in winter ("set-back") and raise them in summer ("set-up") either manually or automatically with the control system. and plumbing systems are designed by consulting engineers specializing in their respective fields. An organizational flowchart of this arrangement is shown in Figure l. Service We will outline who is responsible for each step. Other special applications might have different design conditions.ll. or an industrial or commercial park.

This information is shown on the building HVAC plans and specifications. electrical.12 shows a typical organizational flowchart. Shop drawings are larger scale. The general contractor may hire subcontractors (mechanical. Architect tractor is awarded a contract by the owner. The mechanical contractor takes the mechanical consulting engineer's drawings (called contract or engineering drawings) and then prepares shop drawings from these. and so forth) to install each of the building's systems. To do this. which serve as instructions on how to install the system. The specifications are written descriptions of materials. or other prospective builder.) l Others J (Subcontractors) . and other skilled building trade workers. The mechanical or HVAC contractor is responsible for installing the HVAC system. their employees first carry out a take-off. and planning the locations of each piece of equipment in the building. calculations of heating and cooling loads (requirements). more detailed drawings of the HVAC system which will be necessary for the workers.THE SCOPE AND USES OF AIR CONDITIONING 11 "Owner" l Architect I Electrical engineer I Mechanical engineer I ____I Structural engineer Other consultants (Consulting Engineers) Figure 1. The plans are drawings of the system. public agency. Coordination of the work between the architects and engineers is an important and difficult task.9 INSTALLING THE HVACSYSTEM The overall construction of a building is the responsibility of the general contractor. calculations of piping and duct sizes.11 Organizational flowchart to a building planning and design team. that is. An error in coordination can have disastrous results: The design of an HVAC system involves determining the type of system to use. The general conFigure 1. school system. selection of the type and size of equipment. The mechanical contractor hires these people. they list all the equipment and materials shown on the drawings and specifications.12 Organizational flowchart of a building construction team. sheet metal workers. The subcontractors must coordinate their work to avoid any physical interference. 1. The mechanical contractor also purchases all necessary HVAC equipment and materials. and so forth. who include pipefitters. which may be a real estate company. insulation workers. General contractor I I ____I L Structural J l Plumbing J I Electrical I HVAC (mech. Figure 1. This can be a . This includes checking that the equipment and materials to be installed do not physically interfere with each other. equipment.

Some routine servicing may be performed by the building operating staff. Their function is to operate the system. This is called the design-build approach. and contractors claim that costs are kept down by competitive bidding. and for those already working who wish to advance themselves. It is often a branch of a mechanical . and training are required. Both of the two approaches are in common use. or service. Comracl Manager. A description of the types of employers and their work. prepare drawings and specifications. Designel: Drafter. Inspector. This troubleshooting procedure leads to the cause of the problem. since one organization is responsible for everything. Proponents of this approach claim that construction can start and continue as plans are developed for each stage-it is not necessary to wait for engineering plans and contractor drawings. installation. followed by a list of job titles and responsibilities. a mechanical service contractor is called in. Overhead and labor costs must also be determined. However. proponents of construction projects using an independent architect. and determination of liability is easier. tion. consulting engineers. 1. A mechanical consulting engineer is a company that designs the heating. and balances (TAB) the HVAC system (see Chapter 16). such as repairing or replacing equipment. and quality is better because the architects and engineers have independent control over the performance of the contractors. Regular inspection and maintenance of the system is also part of the operating engineer's duties. Positions include: Project Manager. and Energy Specialist.12 CHAPTER 1 very involved task. Purchasing Agent. The proponents claim that all of these factors result in lower costs. and Field Service Technician. better coordination is achieved. adjusts. 1.. the building operating engineering staff takes over. faster construction. AND SERVICE OF THE HVAC SYSTEM When the HVAC installation is complete and after start-up and TAB. operation. Positions include: Sales Engineer. there are companies that handle all of the design and construction functions as a package: architecture. or adjusting its performance. are then carried out. Inside Representative. responsibilities. The Design-Build (Fast Tracking) Approach In contrast to the procedures described. Using instrumentation. Field Supervisor. and supervision of installation. principles is required. The mechanical consulting engineer may check the installation as it proceeds and may also check the TAB work. MAINTENANCE. there is no delay for contractor competitive bidding. perform technical calculations. preparation of drawings. Shop Technician. and contracting. ventilating. regardless of whether one is employed in design. this contractor measures the conditions and compares them with the HVAC system plans and specifications. maintaining comfortable conditions in the building while trying to minimize energy consump. will aid the student in planning his or her career. and supervise installations. Estimator. air conditioning. A mechanical contractor is a company that installs the system. They estimate costs. When the installation is complete. in order to succeed in the HVAC field today. and to keep the system in proper working order. This includes cost estimates. Proper procedures. to know what types of positions are available and what knowledge. and better quality. and plumbing systems for buildings. Computer Programmer. consulting engineering.11 EMPLOYMENT IN THE HVAC INDUSTRY It is helpful for students intending to work in some part of the HVAC industry. One important basic fact is that a fundamental knowledge of air conditioning. A service company repairs and maintains the HVAC system. Drafter. but when more complicated work is required. the mechanical contractor tests.10 OPERATION.

Contract Manager. Estimator. This involves production. Designer. specifications. Instructs designers and drafters. In addition to HVAC operating personnel. plans layout of system and specifications. Energy Specialist. Assists consulting engineer or contractor to provide technical information and aid in selection of proper equipment. Supervises the sales and marketing of a line of products for a manufacturer. a business corporation. and Technician. and Application Engineer. Furnishes product information and prices. and Shop Technician. Watch Engineer. Their work involves sales and technical advice. Shop Technician. EstimatOl. Drafter. Drafter. Service Manager. and others. Inside Representative. Perf()rms calculations. and Mechanic. Production Supervisor. selects equipment.g. checks calculations and plans. A manufacturer's representative is a company that sells HVAC equipment manufactured by another company. Responsible for fabrication of equipment in factory. Determines solutions to problems (troubleshooting). A building owner may be a real estate company. and Field Supervisor.12 Description of Job Responsibilities Project Manager. Purchasing Agent. Application Engineer. Positions include: Sales Engineer. Inside Representative. Positions include: Application Engineer. Supervises installation technically. Inside Representative. Responsible for assembly or fab-. Field Service Engineer and Technician. Prepares energy use analyses and conservation studies. Sales Manager. 1. follows up delivery time. Application Engineer. Supervises contract. Drafter. Supervises design of project for consulting engineer. Sales Manager. Sells equipment and installation and service contracts. city. and quality. Inspects the system installation during construction to check conformity with plans and . obtains materials and equipment. Checks performance after testing and balancing. Furnishes technical advice to customers. Field Service Engineer and Technician. Checks comformity with drawings and specifications and resolves problems of conflict. Service Manager. and directs service work. large property owners may have a permanent staff which checks and supervises the work of consUlting engineers and contractors that do work for them. such as load calculations and energy studies. Computer Programmer. Positions within operations include: Chief Engineer. Prepares drawings with supervision. supervises drafters. Sales Manager. Field Supervisor. May assist in design work. sheet metal duct parts) or shop service and repair. Production Supervisor. Uses plans and specifications to determine quantity of materials. Inside Representative. and sales. Designer. time schedule. Service Manager. labor. Computer Operator.THE SCOPE AND USES OF AIR CONDITIONING 13 contractor. Processes sales and orders by phone and correspondence. state. Supervises the service installation and contract. Responsible for costs. coordinates with other consultants and the architect. Estimator. A manufacturer is a company that makes HVAC equipment. Purchasing Agent. studying varied alternatives. Research and Development Engineer. Inspector. rication done in shop (e. Checks technical characteristics. Estimator. or federal government. Sales Engineer. Shop Technician. Positions include: Sales Engineer. marketing. and equipment for project. Supervises technical work of employees. Prepares costs from this data. research and development. inspection. Field Service Engineer and Technician.. and installation. Positions include Sales Engineer. public authority. Processes work to be handled by computer. school system. Orders and purchases materials and equipment.

The effort to conserve energy and reduce costs has revolutionized the design and operation of air conditioning systems and equipment. For instance. A professional engineering (PE) license is required for those responsible for preparing the engineering design drawings. Responsible for operations of computerized building systems. and reclaiming of refrigerants (see Chapter 13). the provider's e-mail address can be used to obtain further information tion is required. large air conditioning installations are n9w designed with the aid of computers usingCADD (computer-aided design and drafting) software. Further on-thejob training is also extremely valuable. parts ordering. Chief Operating Engineer. See page 16 for descriptions of actual job skills needed in todays HVAC market. if not most. dimensions. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for refrigerant handling. virtually all large and many medium-sized new installations are operated through computers.14 CHAPTER 1 Research and Development Engineer and Technician. boilers. Perhaps the biggest change has been in the use of computers. develop. developed for HVAC technicians. their arrangement in equipment.13 ENERGY CONSERVATION AND COMPUTERS Energy conservation and the use of computers have become such important aspects of the air conditioning industry that they merit a special emphasis at the beginning of our studies. Internet Web Sites and Software At the end of appropriate chapters there will be some useful Internet Web site addresses. installation. National certification standards have been. and test new types of equipment. and installation procedures. Plan. Computer Operator. Often. For most of the categories. and examinations (usually supervised by each state) determines the granting of these licenses. Determines method of operation for comfort and energy conservation. Watch Engineer. the recovery. Supervises the operation and maintenance of the building system. The amount of education and training required for each job varies both with the type of responsibility and how complex it is. at least a technical institute or community college program in air conditioning and refrigera- 1. recycling. Through application of computer graphics and networks. plans maintenance routines. The selection of the equipment is done by computer software. . These job descriptions do not mean that a separate individual always performs each task. In addition.S. Responsible for operation and maintenance of the building system under supervision. and incinerators. and selection of their equipment (EC catalogs).and energy analysis. and accounting are now standard practices for most mechanical contractors. the office or tield engineer or technician can visually observe equipment parts. and directs work of operating personnel. experience. Furthermore. Computer usage in the industry has spread to such an extent that many. one person may be responsible for a number of jobs if there is not enough work to employ people in each category. Information may be downloaded or one may order the software. It is strongly recommended that the student visit some of these sites to become familiar with how they are used to carry out our HVAC work today. duct/pipe sizing. A bachelor of engineering degree is needed for some of the categories and for improving opportunities for advancement. Other sites have heating/cooling load calculation procedures. preferably equivalent to two years of study. Licensing Operating licenses are required by local laws for those responsible for operating many categories of refrigeration equipment. Computerized inventory. a manufacturer's Web site may have information on performance. A combination of education. techniques. specifications. National certification licensing is now required by the U. Undoubtedly interactive computer graphics and text and voice communication will result in still more efficient design. that is. and service of HVAC systems in the future. particularly in small companies.

What are the indoor environmental conditions that affect human comfort? . if any? Explain. Sketch a diagram that shows their arrangement. 9. Would the occupants be comfortable in winter? Would they be comfortable in summer? Explain.3 In a department store.2 As the operating engineer of an HVAC system in a large office building. prepare a new list and compare it with this one. which shou Id be the more comfortable summer condition: 80 F DB and 40% RH or 78 F DB and 70% RH? Explain. you have been instructed to raise the summer thermostat setting from 76 F to 80 F to conserve energy.6 The conditions in an office in winter are 77 F DB and 10% RH. 1. What two methods may be used to improve air quality? 4. In some cases. List the four conditions that an air conditioning system may be required to control. Sketch a typical all-air air conditioning system and name each component. describe the building construction team's organization and responsibilities. Throughout the text. 5. if any? Explain. the information is actually a short and practical educational course on the subject! Another useful feature often provided are drawings of their equipment that can be electronically transferred onto the building HVAC drawings being developed using Autocad or another computeraided design and drafting (CADD) program ("drag and drop"). What are the major components of a hydronic heating system and a hydronic cooling system" 6.1 Sketch an environmental control system that provides heating and ventilating. although this does not always apply to manufacturers' software. 10. Label all components. There may be other restrictions and requirements that must be adhered to as well. and it may be necessary to conduct an Internet search to find desired information. Using a sketch. 1. troubleshooting. 1. Prepare a list of suggestions you might give to the building's occupants on how to minimize their decrease in comfort. Are these conditions acceptable" Explain. What changes should be made.THE SCOPE AND USES OF AIR CONDITIONING IS on-line and to have technical questions answered. What changes should be made. List the fonr major components of any air conditioning system. What are the two primary situations in which air conditioning is needed? 2. there are assigned problems requiring use of the Internet to solve. There are also occasional references to Web sites that will expand on the information covered in the text. What do the terms design-build and fast tracking mean? Problems 1. Manufactnrers often offer on-line information on maintenance. It should be noted that Web site names and their information often change rapidly. 1. but not cooling or humidity control. and service of their equipment. 1.7 Select two HVAC careers that interest you. 7. Bear in mind that sofware is proprietary and that providers charge fees for their usage. Review Questions I.5 The conditions in an office in summer are 75 F DB and 50% RH. When you have completed the book. Using a sketch. 8. Should the conditions remain as they are or should they be changed" Explain. 1.4 The conditions in an office are 70 F DB and 40% RH. 3. List the subjects discussed in this chapter that you think are important to learn in training for these positions. it is the resposibility of the potential user to be aware of all requirements. describe the building design team's organization and responsibilities. In any case.

NO EXPERIENCE NECESSARY. BUT A+. HVAC DESIGNER. MUST HAVE COMPUTER SKILLS (MS WINDOWS 9. ENSURE PROPER MANUFACTURING OF EQUIPMENT. DETAIL ORIENTED. OFFICE 97. READ BLUEPRINTS. GRADUATE NO EXPERIENCE NEEDED FOR HEATING/COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS. SALARY COMMENSURATE WITH EXPERIENCE.16 CHAPTER 1 JOB OPPORTUNITIES AND SKILLS To get an impression of the actual skills needed and the work done in today's HVAC job market. SPECIFY EQUIPMENT. ARE LOOKING TO PROMOTE TO PROJECT MANAGER ASAP. HVAC GRADUATE NEEDED.). the following are brief descriptions of some actual entry level job openings with a few major engineering firms. CALL MANUFACTURERS. HVAC FIELD PROJECT MANAGER NEEDED IMMEDIATELY RECENT GRAD O.K.K.5. WORK WITH SALES ENGINEERS. REVIEW MECHANICAL DRAWINGS. AND DO FIELD SUPERVISION OF HVAC TRADES. WILL START SPECIFYING TAKEOFF AND EQUIPMENT NEEDS FOR DUCTWORK. WILL TRAIN. COORDINATE. contractors. GOOD WRITING AND COMMUNICATION SKILLS. TECHNICAL SUPPORT. HYDRONIC PIPING/SYSTEM LAYOUT. ENTRY LEVEL ASSISTANT TO ESTIMATOR BUT CAPABLE PERSON FOR FAST-TRACK PROMOTION TO PROJECT MANAGER. GOOD BENEFITS. EXPERIENCE NOT NEEDED. RECENT GRAD O.DO COMMERCIAL TAKE-OFFS OF DUCTS AND PIPING FOR COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS. ENTRY LEVEL KNOWLEDGE OF SOUND ENGINEERING PRINCIPLES. EXPLORER. AUTOCADD RI2 OR RI3. COMMUNICATION SKILLS AND PRESENTATION SKILLS IMPORTANT. DO ON-SITE WALK-THRUS. MUST HAVE GOOD COMMUNICATION AND PROBLEMSOLVING SKILLS. ASSISTANT PROJECT ENGINEER. FIELDWORK. MONITOR.COMMUNICATE WITH MANUFACTURERS. BONUSES. or manufacturers. ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF. SALARY. ETS. .

however. will be discussed in Chapter 8. and specific gravity. Explain the differences among temperature. in some instances other terms that are in practice in the HVAC industry will be used. Make some general conclusions regarding energy conservation in HVAC. specific volume. 17 5. 3. (One further subject in applied physics. Generally the definitions and concepts accepted today in physics will be used here. even when they differ slightly in meaning. 7. heat. and among absolute. fluid flow. .c H A p T E R Physical Principles T he HVAC practitioner often encounters problems that cannot be solved without a knowledge of applied physics. 2. This approach will enable the student to communicate and work with others in the air conditioning field. 8. In this chapter. a background in that subject will be helpful as a preparation for this book. the physical principles that are useful in understanding air conditioning will be explained. 4.) This presentation of applied physics is not intended to substitute for a course in physics. and enthalpy and show the relationship between temperature scales. and vacuum pressure. Use the saturated property tables for water and the sensible and latent heat equations. 9. Identify the changes that occur when a substance changes between its liquid and vapor states. Calculate density. 6. Express the relationship between pressure and head. and between stored energy and energy in transfer. Distinguish between energy and power. Describe and use the energy equation. OBJECTIVES A study of this chapter will enable you to: I. Identify units and convert from one set of units to another. gage.

by 33 in. Multiply the original quantity by the ratio. Concepts snch as length. 2 is I ft2 = 144 in.2 in the Appendix lists some useful unit equivalents. by canceling units that are the same in the numerator and denominator (units can be multiplied and divided in the same way as numbers). This result would be Area =924 in. multiplied by the original quantity._ = 6.J.2. 2 2 The area is not in the units needed.000 ft2 .. The procedure is carried out in the following manner: 1. and time are called physical characteristics. Examples of equivalents are: Characteristic Unit Equivalents (Conversion Factors) Length Volume Time Mass I ft = 12 inches (in. velocity.. 2 1 ft2 144 in? 1 ft 2 Or. by dividing both sides of the equality by either term. The equivalent between the known and required units is I ft 2 = 144 in 2 (Table A.48 gall ons (gal) I minute (min) = 60 seconds (sec) 2. 2. Here this is arranged as a ratio. expressed in ft2. How much insulation would you order for each panel? Solution The area of the insulation for each panel is Area = 28 in. mass." 2. 2 gives Ift 144in. area.2 pounds (lb) = I kilogram (kg) Example 2. Table A. Arrange the equivalency (conversion factor) between the units as a ratio. choosing that ratio that wiII give the results in the desired units. Suppose the other ratio had been used.2).. = 924 in. density. dividing by I ft2 gives . Physical characteristics are measured by standard quantities called units.1 Some solar heating collector panels measuring 28 in.18 CHAPTER 2 2. volume. 2 x 144 in. temperature.) = 0. and with units canceled: I ft 2 Area = 924 ~ x .42 ft 2 144~ =~=l ~ This is the amountef insulation required for each panel. 2 ---0--= 1 1 ft2 This shows that mUltiplying by the ratio of equivalent units is the same as multiplying by 1. For instance.. In that case.1 UNITS different unit. For each physical characteristic. the foot (ft) is one of the standard units used to measure length. as is now explained. Dividing both sides by 144 in. This enables us to change units. The following example illustrates the procedure for converting units. I lists abbreviations and symbols used in this book. These units have fixed numerical relationships to each other called equivalents or conversion factors.4 = 133.30 meters (m) 3 I ft = 7. An important point to note in this example is that there are always two possible raiios that can be used in converting units. The result wiII be the correct value in the new units. X Table A. it was either or 144 in.. there are many different units.tt2" 144 in. 2. pressure. from Table A. however. require insulation..2 CONVERSION OF UNITS The equivalence between any two units can also be written as a ratio. 2 1 ft2 in.~ . the relation between area expressed in ft2 and in.. The insulation is to be ordered in square feet (ft2). 33 in. This ratio arrangement is used when it is desired to change a quantity expressed in one unit into a Only one can be correct. momentum. For instance.

and multiply and divide values and units: 2. Arrange the ratios in the form that will give the correct units in the result. units will be emphasized. I _ga_1 =(I ffi!I'_ min X mill 60 .4 hr water Ib That is.mi1'l_.S..S. WEIGHT. DENSITY. The inch-pound (I-P) system of units is generally used in the United States.48 {«if Ib ) . :. AND SPECIFIC VOLUME.n c/ =3. In this book.S.2 includes conversion factors for both U. and SI units. 2. SI units are part of a broader system of units called the metric system. The U.2. manufacturer ships some aIr filters to Venezuela. as seen in the following example. because this is common practice in the HVAC industry in countries using the SI system. Table A. whereas SI units are used in most other countries. The following example shows how one is developed. U. those students who wish to become familiar with SI units may do so.-.000 ft 2 of insulation! The student should adopt the habit of always writing out the unit names when doing computations. The mass (m) of an object or body is the quantity of matter it contains. The procedure for changing units is the same when more than one unit is to be changed.~. or English system. There are two systems of units used in the HVAC industry. The SI system of units uses only one unit of measurement for each physical characteristic. Example 2.48 gal = I ft3 Using these values for water. Example 2.c' _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Solution From Table 2. the density of water is 62. 7. One is called the inch-pound. In this way. Find the equivalence for the flow rate of water measured in units of Iblhr and gal/min (GPM). FORCE. Imagine what your boss would have said if you had ordered 133. AND SI UNITS Velocity = 600 - j{ pHn m x I mi1f 60 sec x 0.S.0' water = 500 x 62. unit of mass is the pound mass. SI units will be introduced in two ways: (1) in some examples and tables. occasionally we may use metric units that are not standard SI units.30 m I . the problem involved converting velocity from units of ft/min to nllsec. units will be converted between U. n x _1-." The contractor installing the filters wishes to inform the operating engineer what the maximum velocity is in meters per second (m/sec)..1. The SI unit is the kilogram (kg).2.4 Ib/ft3 at 60 F.0'_ hr 7. Only certain units of the metric system are standard in the SI system.2 A U.0sec Combined Conversion Factors In Example 2. . the other is called the Sf or international system. I GPM = 500 Ib/hr (for water only. the standard SI unit of length is the meter.3 U. not the centimeter or kilometer.S. because the units resulting are not ft2.-. However.PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES 19 We know that this is incorrect.S. However. with the note "Warning-maximum air velocity 600 ft/min. It is convenient to use combined conversion factors such as this for calculations that are frequently repeated. and SI units: and (2) some examples and problems will be done completely in SI units. For instance. What information should be given? Solution We must use the equivalency between feet and meters and that between minutes and seconds. at 60 F.4 MASS. U.S.3 -. at about 60 F). From Table A.

Q75 849. therefore no error should Occur in calculations. Density varies with temperature and pressure. III Density and Specific Volume Density (d) is the mass per unit of volume of a substance.000 Ib Ib ft x 225 fr3 volume volume III (2. units. units.0 1. Densities and other properties for some substances are shown in Table 2.4 60. However.3) 0.1 for in.2 (Table A. weight is a force. at 39 F. He must inform the structural engineer how much extra weight to allow for the water in the tower basin when designing the roof. as both are measured in Ib/ft3 in U.5 ft = 225 ft 3 Solving Equation 2. they are often used as such. unit of force is the pound force.45 0.0 l. so the specific gravity is s.2) Weight density is the weight per unit volume of a substance. Although weight density and (mass) density are not the same. Unfortunately the word weight is often used for mass of a body. The weight (w) of a body is the force exerted ou it by the gravitational pull of the earth.1.S.20 CHAPTER2 A force is the push or pull that one body may exert on another. The U. 62. That is d= III = d x volume = 62.S. That is. The density of water at 39 P is 62.1 ) Specific Gravity The specific gravity (s.1 Substance PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SUBSTANCES Density.4 where d = density of substance.4 Ib/ft3 v= (2.5 ft. after finding the volume of water. 62. The tower basin is 15 ft by 10ft in plan and filled with water to a depth of 1. Solution The weight of water in the tank is found from Equation 2.g.4 Ib/fe.::::::-=-d".1. Volume = 15 ft x 10 ft x 1. The confusion also occurs because the word pound is used for both mass and force in U. the nnmerical value in pounds (Ib) for the mass and weight of an object is the same on earth. In any case the na~ure of a problem indicates whether mass or weight is being considered. d d (2.3) TABLE 2. Specific volume (v) is the reciprocal of density. BTU/lb-F Note Water Water Ice Steam Air Mercury 62. The density of water is shown in Table 2.1.) of a substance is defined as the ratio of its weight to the weight of an equal volume of water. Iblft3 Specific Heat. Ib/ft3 d u ' = density of water at 39 P.g.0 0.S.2 57. The SI unit is the Newton (N).7 psi a At 32 F .4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ A contractor is going to install a cooling tower on a roof. Example 2.50 0. not mass.4 3 = 14.24 At 32-60 F At 200 F Average for water vapor in air At 70 F and 14.

because the value of the fifth digit from the left is known. decisions must be made as to the number of significant figures or places of accuracy to use in numerical values. Figure 2. it would be reported as 18. therefore there is no point in calculating or measuring data to an excess number of significant figures.= = 500 Ib/ft2 A 6 ft2 The relation between force and pressure is illustrated in Figure 2. The number might be used to select a fan.4 will be used to find the pressure. 3000 Ib water 2.6 _ _ _ _-.2. The tank is 2 ft long by 3 ft wide. F 3000lb p= . d 58.300 CFM.6 PRESSURE 2ft Pressure (P) is defined as force (F) exerted per unit area (A). This number is said to have five significant figures. 500 Ib/ft".4 . However.1 Sketch for Example 2._ _ _ _ _ _ __ A hot water storage tank used in a solar heating system contains 3000 Ib of water.1.. the number of significant figures are reduced) to three or four places.3. If the above value is rounded off to three places. This procedure is called rounding off For example. force F p=--= area A (2.5 ACCURACY OF DATA In reporting results of measurements of calculations of data.. in Ib/ft2? Solution A sketch of the tank is shown in Figure 2. If force is measured in pounds (Ib) and area in square feet (ft2). A force of 3000 Ib is distributed over the 2 ft x 3 ft area.e. The pressure is the force on each of the six 1 ft x I ft areas.6.5 A fuel oil has a density of 58.5 If force is measured in pounds and area in square inches (in 2 ).5 Ib/ft3 What is its specific gravity? Solution Using Equation 2. and then to balance the system to obtain this flow rate. the units of pressure will be sa =--=--=094 '0' 62.4 62. Equation 2. 2. neither manufacturer's fan ratings or testing instruments can produce that accurate a value.PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES 21 The value of specific gravity will change slightly with temperature. units of pressure will be Iblin? The abbreviations psf for Ib/ft2 and psi for Ib/in 2 are commonly used. Until students become familiar with good practice in rounding off values.4) Example 2. What is the pressure exerted on the bottom of the tank. and sometimes even two. they should use the examples of this book as a guide. Example 2. Expressed as an equation. suppose the results of some calculations produced a value of 18.342 CFM for the required air supply rate to a building. The pressure is being exerted on an area 2 ft x 3 ft = 6 ft 2 The force acting on the bottom is the total weight of water. but for most calculations the values from Equation 2. Data in HVAC work are usually rounded off (i. Equipment and instrument ratings are often only accurate to within 2-5% of listed values. this is .3 are satisfactory.

22

CHAPTER2

Total force = 3000 Ib Pressure = force on each square foot = 500 Ib

500lb

1 ft

1ft

1ft

Figure 2.2
Relation between force and pressure.

cause there is less weight of air above. For example, the atmospheric pressure in Denver, Colorado is about 12.23 psia). Pressure measuring instruments usually measure the difference between the pressure of a fluid and the pressure of the atmosphere. The pressure measured above atmospheric pressure is called gage pressure (pg). The relation among absolute, atmospheric, and gage pressures, shown in Figure 2.3, is
Pabs

= Patm + Pg

(2.5)

Pressures of liquids and gases are of great importance in HVAC work. Some examples are the steam pressure in a boiler, the air pressure developed by a fan, the water pressure exerted on a valve, and the pressure exerted by the atmosphere.

Using gage pressure is convenient because most pressure measuring instruments are calibrated to read 0 when they are subject to atmospheric pressure. Figure 2.4 (a) shows the dial face of a typical compression gage. (Pressure gages and similar instruments will be discussed in Chapter 16.)
Example 2.7 The pressure gage connected to the discharge of a cooling tower water pump in the Trailblazers Bus Terminal in San Francisco reads 18 psi. What is the absolute water pressure at the pump discharge? Solution The pressure gage reads gage pressure, 18 psig (above atmospheric). San Francisco is at sea level. so the atmospheric pressure is approximately 14.7 psia. Using Equation 2.5,
Pab, = Pg+Patm

Absolute, Gage, and Vacuum Pressure
A space that is completely evacuated of any gas or liquid (a complete vacuum) has zero pressure, because there is nothing to exert a pressure. The pressure exerted by a fluid above the zero pressure is called its absolute pressure (PabJ. This is illustrated in Figure 2.3. The atmospheric air above the Earth exerts a pressure (Patm) because of its weight. The pressure it exerts at sea level has been measured and found to be approximately 14.7 Ib/in? absolute (psia). (This pressure decreases at higher elevations beFigure 2.3
Relations of absolute, gage, and vacuum pressures.

= 18 psi + 14.7 psi = 32.7 psia

1--T
Pabs Pg

Pressure being measured

Atmospheric pressure

_-._+___-'-________-,___
Patm

_J t __ Pressure . being measured .

Pvac

Pabs Zero pressure _....1.._.....L_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _---'_ _ _ __

PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES

23

(/
psig

~o

/ 100

(a)

t

Atmospheric pressure

(b)

t

Atmospheric pressure

Figure 2.4
Pressure gages, (a) Compression gage reads gage pressure only. (b) Compound gage reads gage and vacuum pressure.

If a fluid exerts a pressure below atmospheric pressure, it is called a "partial" vacuum; its pressure value reading down from atmospheric pressure is called vacuum pressure (Pyac)' The relation among absolute, atmospheric, and vacuum pressures, shown in Figure 2.3, is
Pabs ::::; Patm - Pvac

60 psig, respectively. How much is the pressure increased by the compressor?
Solution Referring to Figure 2.5. the pressure increase is

pressure increase = 60 + 5 = 65 psi

(2.6)

Some gages are constructed to read both vacuum and gage pressure. This type is called a compound gage and is shown in Figure 2.4(b).
Example 2.8 The gages on the suction gas and discharge gas lines of a compressor read 5 psiv (Ib/in 2 vac) and

2.7 PRESSURE OF A LIQUID COLUMN
A liquid exerts a pressure because of its weight, and the weight depends on the height of the column of liquid. The relation between the pressure exerted and the height, as shown in Figure 2.6, is
p=dxH
(2.7)

Figure 2.5
Sketch for Example 2.8. - - - Discharge pressure of gas 60 psig 5 psiv Atmospheric pressure Suction pressure of gas Zero pressure

Suction gage 5 psiv

Discharge gage 60 psig

65 psi

~YJ.--jO

P

J _______ _

I

24

CHAPTER2

Solution The density of water is approximately 62.4 Ib/ft3 (Table 2. I). Using Equation 2.7,
Liquid of density d

p=dxH

Ib lb 1 ft 2 p = 62.4 fe x 300 ft = 18,720 ft2 x 144 in. 2
= 130 psig

Figure 2.6
Pressure exerted by a liquid column. Pressure may be expressed as "head" (height of liquid).

where
p = pressure exerted by a liquid, lb/ft" d = density of liquid, lb/ft' H =height of liquid, ft

The relation between pressure and height of a liquid is used by pressure measuring instruments that have a column of liquid. These are called manometers, an example of which is shown in Figure 2.7. In Figure 2.7(a); the pressure exerted on both legs of the manometer (atmospheric pressure) is the same, so the liquid is at the same level. In Figure 2.7(b), the pressure in the duct is above atmospheric. In Figure 2.7(c), the pressure in the duct is below atmospheric (vacuum pressure), so the liquid is higher in the leg connected to the ducl.
Example 2.10 A service technician wishes to measure the pressure of air in a duct. He connects one leg of a water manometer to the duct and the other leg is exposed to the atmosphere. The difference in height of the water columns is 8 in. w.g. (inches of water gage) as shown in Figure 2.8. What is the air pressure in the duct in psig?

Other units can be used in the equation. but these are often convenient.
Example 2.9 A 300-ft vertical pipe in a high-rise building is filled with chilled water. What is the pressure in Ib/in 2 gage (psig) that a valve in the bottom of the line will have to withstand?

Figure 2.7
Manometer reading pressures above and below atmospheric pressure. (a) Equal pressure on both legs. (b) Pressure in duct above atmospheric (gage pressure). (c) Pressure in duct below atmospheric (vacuum pressure).
Palm

Palm

t L l

Patm

Palm

Airflow

t
T H

Airflow

T
H

-.l
(a)

1

(b)

(c)

PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES

25

Airflow

Example 2.11 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ How high would the mercury column in a barometer be, in both in. Hg and mm Hg, at a location where atmospheric pressure is 14.7 psi and the temperature 32 F?
Solution Using Equation 2.7 with proper units, noting the density of mercury (Table 2.1) is d = 849 Ib/ft 3 at 32F, Changing units,
Palm

'Manometer

Figure 2.8 Sketch for Example 2.10.

= 14.7

-:---z
lfi.

lb

x

Ib =2116.8 - , ft-

Solution The difference in height is related to the pressure by Equation 2.7. Changing the units of H first.
H = 8 in. w.g. x - - = 0.667 ft w.g.

Using Equation 2.7,
H=

E=
d

2116.81b/ft2 = 2.49 ft x 12 in. 849 Ib/ft3 I ft

I ft

= 29.92 in. Hg 25.4mm H = 29.92 in. Hg x - - - - = 760 mm g I in.

12 in.

p=dxH

Ib = 62.4 ft3 x 0.667 ft Ib I ft2 . = 41.62: x 2 = 0.29 pSlg ft 144 in. The air pressure in the duct is 0.29 psi above atmospheric pressure. Water manometers are often used for measuring relatively small pressures, particularly when testing and balancing air systems. They are not convenient for high pressures because a very high liquid column would be needed. Manometers using mercury, a liquid with a much higher density than water, are often used for measuring higher pressures. The barometer (Figure 2.9) is a special manometer used for measuring atmospheric air pressure. Mercury (Hg) is the liquid used. The tube is evacuated of all gas so that no atmospheric pressure acts on the top of the mercury column. Because atmospheric pressure acts on the bottom of the mercury, the height to which the mercury column is lifted represents atmospheric pressure.

Head
It is often convenient to express pressure in units of head. Head is the equivalent of liquid column height (H) expressed in Equation 2.7. In Example

2.11, instead of stating that the pressure of the atmosphere was 14.7 psi, it could have been stated that it was 29.92 in. Hg or 760 mm Hg. In Example
Figure 2.9 Mercury barometer.
Vacuum

Height represents atmospheric pressurel

f

Mercury

26

CHAPTER2

2.10, the air pressure in the duct could also have been stated both ways, p = 0.29 psig = 8 in. w.g. That is, there does not actually have to be a column of liquid to express any pressure in head units. Equation 2.7 can be used to convert to or from units of pressure expressed as head. Some of the equivalents for pressure expressed as head, obtained from that equation, are listed in Table A.2. Example 2.12 A contractor requires a pump that will have a discharge pressure of 42 psi. He looks in a manufacturer's catalog to find a suitable pump, but finds that the pump ratings are listed as "head, feet of water." What pump head should he specify in his purchase order? Solution Using the conversion factor equality (Table A.2) of 2.3 ft w. = I psi
H = 42 psi x

Power is the time rate of doing work. It is expressed by the equation
work Power=-time (2.9)

Power is usually of more direct importance than work in industrial applications; the capacity of equipment is based on its power output or power consumption. If work is expressed in ft-Ib, some units of power that would result are ft-Ib/min and ft-Ib/sec. More convenient units for power are the horsepower (HP) and kilowatt (KW), because the numbers resulting are not as large. Example 2.14 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ If the cooling tower in Example 2.13 is lifted by a crane in 4 minutes, what is the minimum power (in HP) required? Solution Using Equation 2.9,

2.3 ft w.
I psi

97 ft w. Power =

1,800,000 ft-Ib 4 min

= 450,000 ft-Ib/min

2.8 WORK, POWER, AND ENERGY
Work is the effect created by a force when it
moves a body. It is expressed by the following equation: Work = force x distance (2.8)

From Table A.2, I HP = 33,000 ft-Ib/min. Conv'(rting to HP,
I HP 450,000 ft-Ib/min x --.:...:...~-- = 13.6 HP 33,000 ft-Ib/min

The actual size of the engine or motor selected to hoist the cooling tower would be greater than 13.6 HP, due to friction and other losses and to allow some excess capacity as a safety reserve. Although it is a somewhat ab~tract concept. energy is sometimes defined as the ability to do work. For example, we use the stored chemical energy in a fuel by burning it to create combustion gases at high pressure that drive the pistons of an engine and thus do work. Work is therefore one of the forms of energy. Energy can exist in a number of forms. It can be grouped into those forms of energy that are stored in bodies or those forms of energy in transfer or flow between bodies. Work is one of the forms of

Example 2.13 A cooling tower weighing 6000 Ib is hoisted from the street level to the roof of the Gusher Oil Co. building, 300 ft high. How much work is done in lifting it? Solution The force required is equal to the weight of the tower. Using Equation 2.8, Work = 6000 Ib x 300 ft = 1,800,000 ft -Ib

PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES
Stored energy Energy stored in body: Enthalpy Chemical energy Potential energy Kinetic energy other forms Energy in transfer Heat (a)

27

I-----.:..:=.:.:..:..!-~

Work (W)

} an~~her
body

Figure 2.10
Comparison of stored energy and energy in transfer.

energy in transfer between bodies. That is, one body does work on another when it moves it. Energy can be stored in matter in many forms. Figure 2.10 is a diagram showing some types of stored energy and energy ill transfa At this time we will turn our attention to a forn1 of energy in transfer or motion called heat. Some of the forms of stored energy will discussed in Section 2.10.

2.9 HEAT AND TEMPERATURE
Heat has been described as a form of energy transfer.
Heat is the form of energy that transfers from ol1e body to anoth,er due to a temperature difference. In

Figure 2.11 graphically describes this definition. In Figure 2.11(a) heat (Q) flows from the high temFigure 2.11
J

perature body, hot water, in the heating unit to the lower temperature body, the air in the room. Figure 2.11 (b) shows that heat will flow from the higher temperature body, room air, to the lower temperature body, the air in the refrigerator interior, due to the temperature difference. Note that heat can only flow naturally from a higher to a lower temperature-"downhill," so to speak, as seen in Figure 2.12. Of course if there is no temperature difference, there is no heat flow. The most common unit used for heat in the United States is the BTU (British Thermal Unit). The BTU is defined as the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit (F) at 59 F. Temperature is a measure of the thermal acti\"ity in a body. This activity depends on the velocity of the molecules and other particles of which all matter is composed. It is not practical to measure temperature by measuring the velocity of molecules, however, so this definition is not of great importance in our work. Temperature is usually measured with thermometers. The most commonly used type relies on the fact that most liquids expand and contract when their temperature is raised or lowered. By creating an arbitrary scale of numbers. a temperature scale and units are developed. Some types of thermometers used in HVAC work will be discussed in Chapter 16. The unit scale most often used for measuring temperature in the United States is the degree

Examples of heat flow. (a) Heat flows from heating unit at higher temperature to room air at lower temperature. (b) Heat flows from room air at higher temperature to refrigerator air at lower temperature.

Room air = 70 F Room air = 70 F

~
a
~ ..

Heat(O)

_

Heat (a)

/
Air at

-+-- Heating unit

40 F-+ ~ Refrigerator

at 200 F
(a)

(b)

28

CHAPTER2

Q

I,

12
B

I, A

A
(a)

B
(b)

Figure 2.12

Heat can flow only from a higher to a lower temperature. (a) If I, is greater than 12 , heat flows from A to B. (b) If t, = 1 2 , no heat follows.

Fahrenheit (F), in which the boiling point of water is 212 F and the freezing point of water is 32 F at atmospheric pressure. In the SI system of units the degree Celsius (C) is used, in which the boiling point of water is 100 C and the freezing point is 0 C at atmospheric pressure. The relationship between these two units is therefore
F = 1.8 C + 32
F- 32 C=-..,.1.8
(2. lOa)
(2. lOb)

The relations among temperature scales are shown graphically in Figure 2.13.

2.10

ENTHALPY

Example 2.15 A room is supposed to be at a temperature of 78 F in an air-conditioned building. The building maintenance engineer checks the temperature with a thermometer that has a Celsius scale. What should be the reading on the thermometer? Solution Using Equation 2. lOb.

We have noted previously that energy can be classified into energy in transfer between bodies (heat and work) or stored energy in bodies. There are a number of types of stored energy, some of which we will briefly discuss here. (We will not always define these terms rigorously, when it will not serve our purposes.) Chemical energy is a form of stored energy in a body that is released frgm a body by combustion. When a fuel is burned, its stored chemical energy is released as heat. Kinetic energy is the stored energy in a body due to its motion, or velocity.
Figure 2.13

c = _F_-_3_2 =
1.8

Relations among temperature scales. 78 - 32 = 25.6 C 1.8 Fahrenheit Rankine
672 R

Celsius
100e

Kelvin
373 K

There are also two absolute temperature scales. These take the value 0 for the lowest temperature that can exist. They are called the Rankine (R) and Kelvin (K) temperature scales. The Rankine is used in the U.S. sysfem, with the difference in size between each degree the same as Fahrenheit. The Kelvin is used in the SI system with the difference between each degree equal to Celsius. The relationships are R=F+460 K=C+273
(2.lOc) (2.lOd)

212 F

32 F

492 R
460 R

OC

273 K

OF

Absolute zero
-460 F

O R - - 273 C

OK

PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES

29

Potential energy is the stored energy a body has due to its position, or elevation. There is a property a body has that is a combination of its energy due to temperature, pressure, and volume; it is called enthalpy. Enthalpy is a property of a body that measures its heat content. Specific enthalpy (h) is the enthalpy per unit mass of a substance. It is expressed in BTUllb in U.S. units. Although this definition of enthalpy is used extensively in the HVAC industry, it is scientifically imprecise. Its exact definition is best defined by a mathematical equation. For our purposes, the terms heat content and enthalpy are considered to have the same meaning and to be a property of a body. Heat, however, as defined in Section 2.9, means a form of (heat) energy in transfer or flow, not a property of a body. For this reason, it is preferable to use the word enthalpy, not heat content, so that heat is not used with two different meanings. It should also be understood that temperature and enthalpy (heat content) are not the same thing. The temperature of a body is a measure of its thermal level or thermal intensity, but by itself does not determine how much thermal energy it has. The amount of thermal energy of a body depends not only on its temperature but also on its mass and specific heat. The enthalpy of a body, however, is a property that does reflect its amount of thermal energy. For example, consider a thimbleful of molten steel at 2500 F as compared to a very large tank of hot water at 200 F. The hot water has a higher total enthalpy; it has more thermal energy available for space heating, despite its much lower temperature.

namics is a principle that may be stated in various ways, for instance, "energy can neither be created nor destroyed," or "there is conservation of energy in nature." This principle is used extensively in the HVAC industry, especially when stated as an energy balance: The change in total energy in a system equals the energy added to the system minus the energy removedfrom the system.

The word system refers to any closed body or group of bodies for which the flciw of energy in or out can be determined. It could be the air in a room (Figure 2.14), a boiler, a whole building, or a complete air conditioning system. This energy balance can be expressed as an equation, called the Energy Equation: (2.11 ) where
Ech

= change in stored energy in the system = energy added to (entering) the system Eout = energy removed from (leaving) the system
Ein

Example 2.16 illustrates the use of the energy equation.
Example 2.16 A hot water heating convector in Mr. Jones office is supplying 4000 BTUlhr of heat. Heat is being transferred from the room air to the outdoors at the rate of 6500 BTUlhr. What will happen in the
Figure 2.14 Sketch for Example 2.16.

2.11 THE ENERGY EQUATION (FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS)
The subject we have been examining, called thermodynamics, is the branch of physics that deals with heat and work. The First Law of ThermodyQin = 4000 BTU/hr

30

CHAPTER2

room? What size electric heater should Mr. Jones temporarily use to solve the emergency?

Solution We apply the Energy Equation 2.11. Figure 2.14 shows the energy (heat) added and removed:

HP. All of the energy in the lighting and from the motors is converted into heat. What is the increase in enthalpy of the room air from these sources?

BTU BTU = 4000 - - - 6500 - hr hr BTU =-2500-hr The negative sign means the room air energy is decreasing. This loss in enthalpy (heat content) will cause the room air temperature to drop, making it uncomfortable. A solution is to install an electric heater that will make up the heat loss which the convector does not supply, 2500 BTUlhr. There will then be no net loss of heat from the room, and the temperature will not drop. The capacity of an electric heater is normally expressed in watts (W) or kilowatts (KW) rather then BTUlhr. The heater should therefore have the following capacity. From Table A.2, 3410 BTUlhr= 1000 W 2500 BTUlhr x 1000W 3410 BTU/hr = 733 W

Solution The energy added to the room air will increase its enthalpy. Applying the Energy Equation 2.11 and converting all units to BTUIhr,

Ech

3.4IBTUlhr = 1000 W x - - - - lW
+1 O HP>.<

2545 BTUlhr 0 I HP

= 28,860 BTUlhr

2.12 LIQUIDS, VAPORS, AND CHANGE OF STATE
Substances can exist in three different states (also called phases)-solid, liquid, or vapor (gas). The state that a substance is actually in depends on its temperature and pressure. The meaning of this for liquids and vapors is best understood by describing the experiment (which the student could carry out at home to check the results) shown in Figure 2.15. Figure 2.15(a) shows a pot of water at room temperature. Being open, it is subject to atmospheric pressure, 14.7 psia at sea level. At (b) heat (Q) is being added to the water, and it is noted that its temperature continually rises as heat is added. At some point in time (e). however, it is noted that the temperature stops rising (at 212 F). Even though more heat is added after that (d),' the temperature does not increase for a while. What is observed now, however, is that the liquid water will gradually change into its gas or vapor state (steam). This process is called boiling or vapori~a­ tion. As heat is added, no further temperature increase occurs as long as some liquid remains. At (e), all the water is evaporated.

The nearest size larger heater manufactured would probably be 750 W. Example 2.16 illustrates the sign convention that will be used in the Energy Equation: An energy decrease in the system is negative; an energy increase is positive. The example also shows that any units used for energy are interchangeable, regardless of the form of energy, whether heat, work, or enthalpy. Example 2.17 will illustrate this, as well as a further application of the Energy Equation.

Example 2.17 A business equipment room has 1000 watts of lighting and some small motors with a total output of 10

PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES

31

If more heat is added, it will be noted that the temperature (of the steam) will begin to rise again, above 212 F, as seen in (j). (This part of the experiment would be difficult to carry out, because the steam will escape into the room.) The whole series of processes just described could also be carried out in reverse. Removal of heat (cooling) from the steam in Figure 2.15(j) lowers its temperature. When the cooling continues to (e), the temperature no longer drops, but the gas begins to condense to a liquid (d). After all of the steam is condensed (c), further removal of heat will result in a temperature drop of the liquid, (b) and (a). A useful summary of all of this information is shown in Figure 2.16, called the temperatureFigure 2.15

enthalpy diagram. When heat is added to the water between 32 F and 212 F, both its enthalpy and temperature increase. However, if more heat is added at 212 F, note that although its enthalpy continues iucreasing, the temperature remains constant. What does happen is that the water gradually boils until it all vaporizes to steam, still at 212 F, assuming enough heat is added. Once all the liquid is evaporated, if more heat is added, then and only then does the temperature start to increase again. (The enthalpy continues to increase as before.) The temperature and enthal py increase of the steam will then continue if further heat is provided.

Experiment showing change of state of water at atmospheric pressure (14.7 psia). (a) Initial condition (subcooled liquid). (b) Heat added, temperature increases {subcooled liquid). (c) Heat added, liquid reaches boiling point (saturated liquid). (d) Heat added, liquid changing to vapor, no temperature increase. (e) Heat added, all liquid vaporized (saturated vapor). (f) Heat added, temperature of vapor increases (superheated vapor). Note: Subcooled liquid is liquid below its boiling point. Saturated liquid and saturated vapor are the liquid and vapor at the boiling (condensing) point. Superheated vapor is vapor above the boiling point. 14.7psia 14.7 psi a 14.7 psia

(a) Subcooled liquid

Q (b) Subcooled liquid

Q (c) Saturated liquid

(d) Mi~ture of saturated

(e) Saturated vapor

(f) Superheated vapor

liquid and vapor

9 psia. Along the line it can exist either as liquid.18 Will water exist in the liquid state. This shows that the temperature at which the water boils changes with pressure. If the same experiment were carried out with the surrounding pressure at 6 psia. if its temperature is 225 F and its pressure is 25 psia? . it is called the boiling point curve or saturation vapor pressure curve. When the water reaches 212 F (e) and more heat is added. These facts show that the boilingicondensing temperature of water depends on its pressure. For water. Let us conduct the same experiment where the surrounding pressure is at a higher value. or cooling if done in reverse. or as steam.9 psia. This means that water cannot be made to boil at a temperature below 240 F if the pressure is 24. Water can exist at its boiling/condensing temperature and pressure only on this line.7 psi a surrounding pressure.9 psia. The conditions shown in Figure 2. the boiling process begins and the temperature remains constant until the liquid has completely evaporated.16 also shows the temperatureenthalpy changes that occur between the liquid and solid state. however. To the left of the line it can exist only as a liquid and to the right only as a vapor.7 psia. the boiling point is 240 F at 24. the boiling process would begin at 170 F. Example 2. or as mixture of the liquid-vapor. Figure 2. but the temperature continues to rise. i 1ii Q) :0 Q. BTU/lb Figure 2.18 shows a line representing these temperature-pressure values for water. we would find that when heat was added. Figure 2. Dependence of Boiling Temperature on Pressure In the experiment just described the surrounding pressure was 14. say 24.16 Temperature-enthalpy (heat content) change of water at 14.32 CHAPTER 2 Note: p = 14.7 psia (atmospheric pressure at sea level). When the"temperature reaches 240 F (d). which will be discussed later.16 are correct for water only when the surrounding pressure is 14.17 represents the same heating process. We will now examine what changes occur at different pressures. vapor. E ~ Melting or Solid freezing 32 (r t Latent heat of fusion 144 Sensible heat of liquid (water) 180 Latent heat of vaporization 970 Sensible heat of vapor (steam) Heat content (enthalpy). it does not boil. Figure 2.7 psia Saturated liquid Vaporizing or condensing . 212 Superheated steam Saturated vapor lL.

temperature of vapor increases (superheated vapor). (c) Heat added. The molecules in a substance are constantly in motion.17 Experiment showing change of state of water at 24. For example.18.7 psia ammonia boils at -28 F. Note that the water is not boiling at 212 F. the greater the attractive forces. it is found to be in the liquid region. (d) Heat added. This same relation holds for other substances.9 psia.PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES 24. except the p-t values are different. Let us examine what causes this change in boil' ing point temperature. all liquid vaporized (saturated vapor). at 14.9 pSia Q (d) Saturated liquid (e) Saturated vapor (I) Superheated vapor Figure 2. The Molecular (Kinetic) Theory of Liquids and Gases The process of boiling and the dependence of boiling point temperature on surrounding pressure can be explained by referring to the molecular (kinetic) theory of liquids and gases. Also molecules in the gaseous state move more rapidly than molecules in the liquid state. The water is in a liquid state. and . All matter is composed of particles called molecules. (e) Heat added. and the lower Ihe pressure. temperature increases (subcooled liquid). When a substance is in the liquid state.9 psia 33 (a) Subcooled liquid Q (b) Subcooled liquid Q (c) Subcooled liquid 24. and copper at 4250J:<. They are also attracted to each other by forces. Note that the higher the pressure on the wale I. The closer the molecules are to each other. (f) Heat added. (b) Heat added. the molecules are closer together than when it is in its gaseous state. and therefore the attractive forces are greater. alcohol at 170 F. liquid reaches boiling point. 240 F. the higher the boiling temperature.9 psia 24. Solution Locating the pressure-temperature (p-t) condition on Figure 2. This same dependence of boiling/condensing temperature on pressure holds for all fluids. the lower the temperature at which it will boil. temperature increases (subcooled liquid). (a) Initial condition (subcooled liquid).9 psia 24.

If some of these molecules. 300 200 /' 100 80 /' . molecules.el of water at 70 F. s.o that they move further apart and change state to a gas.~ '" 10 8 ~ ~ 0.e together. required to overcome the attractive forces. required to boil a liquid. The temperature of a s..lower average velocity and there- Boiling point pressure-temperature curve for water. a meas.ure of the average velocity of its. are near the s.~BOiling point curve / / . the higher the temperature. However. However. leaves the remaining molecules. F 250 300 350 400 . The average velocity of the molecules.ome are moving fas. The heat energy is. That is./ V 60 40 / / Subcooled liquid region 20 . holding the molecules. have velocities well above the average.ter.low evaporation from the surface. Figure 2. some slower. The water is therefore in a liquid s. there will be very s. is. 10 / 50 100 150 200 Temperature. relatively clos.tate.18 Figure 2. The higher the average velocity. why heat is.ia. J / 2 II o. a small fraction of molecules. not all molecules move at the average velocity-s. surrounded by air at 14. also called the saturation vapor pressure curve.7 ps.urface. not great enough for them to escape rapidly.ubstance is. at a s.s. is. This. This..19 shows an open ves. "' '" "' 6 4 / 2 1 17 7 / Superheated vapor region - 8 6 4 -.34 CHAPTER2 " " therefore they have more energy. they will escape.

and Superheated Conditions The pressure and temperature condition at which boiling occurs is called the saturated condition. the temperature of the liquid must be increased further to reach the boiling point. vapor.19 Slow evaporation of liquid. As seen from the experimental description.PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES Resisting surrounding pressure Vapor pressure of liquid 35 tttttttttttttt t tttt t t t t t tt t by the liquid. Boiling has been achieved by a lowering of pressure. It gradually evaporates and cools itself and the skin. as will be seen in Section 2. the liquid is called saturated liquid and the vapor is called saturated vapOl: Saturated vapor is vapor at the boiling telllperature. because the surrounding pressure is now less than the vapor pressure exerted by the liquid. If the pressure exerted by a surrounding gas is above the vapor pressure. the liquid will suddenly boil. That is.14 and in Chapter 14. This cools the remaining liquid. In this case. That is why the temperature does not increase during boiling. That is. It is not increasing the velocity of the molecules. it is called a superheated vapor. The vapor pressure of the liquid has been increased to a value greater than the surrounding resisting pressure. The pressure exerted by the vapor at the surface of the liquid is called the vapor pressure. It is also of importance to note what happens if the pressure exerted by a gas above a liquid is reduced to a value below the vapor pressure exerted Figure 2. then the liquid cannot rapidly evaporate (boil). When the temperature of the vapor is above its saturation temperature (boiling point). When the temperature of the liquid is below its saturation temperature. the substance can exist as a liquid. the liquid boils.18. When heat added to or removed from a substance results in a change in state. or mixture of liquid and vapor at the saturated condition. then the enthalpy change in the . but no change in state. At saturation. However. a typical boiling point curve. a higher temperature increases the molecular velocity enough to cause boiling. While the bOiling process is occurring. and saturated liquid is liquid at the boiling temperature. Escape of some molecules through surface causes a vapor pressure. fore at a lower temperature. If the resisting pressure is higher. if the temperature of the liquid is increased enough. but it can exist as a saturated liquid or vapor at only one temperature for a given pressure. and the boiling point is technically known as the saturation temperature and saturation pressure. the heat applied is breaking the molecular bonds that hold the molecules close together. and they escape rapidly. We have all noticed this effect when alcohol is rubbed on the skin. because energy is removed. Sensible and Latent Heat When heat added to or removed from a substance results in a temperature change. The energy of the molecules is now great enough to overcome the reduced resistance. the process is called a sensible heat change. the molecular velocity increases to a point at which the molecules break the bonds holding them together as a liquid and the liquid boils. Note that a substance can exist as a subcooled liquid or superheated vapor at many temperatures for a given pressure. Saturated. A slight cooling effect of the liquid has occurred as a result of the evaporation. This process is essential in refrigeration. Subcooled. Figure 2. it is called a subcooled liquid. The molecules escaping from the surface of a liquid create vapor. illustrates this.

suction to be 200 F and 10 psia. if the surrounding pressure is lowered enough (to the saturation point). however. we read the saturation temperature (boiling point) at 10 psia to be about 193 F.3. This heat absorbed from the surroundings at the low temperature is refrigeration.22 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _--'-_ _ The boiling of water is to be used to accomplish refrigeration at 50 F. the molecules increase in velocity. because there is steam. use the part of the table that lists temperatures first. I 9-2. Even boiling water can be used to achieve re~ frigeration. Examples 2. If the liquid temperature increases. Note that both parts of the table have the same information. not as liquid. Example 2. and the liquid suddenly boils. liquids absorb heat when they boil (latent heat of vaporization). If the temperature is known. As also noted. corresponding pressures. This is how refrigeration can be accomplished. the water will exist as steam. It is commonly called the Saturated Steam Table. This was explained by considering that all matter consists of particles (molecules) which are attracted to each other.13 SATURATED PROPERTY TABLES For various substances. the molecules will have enough energy to escape at a lower temperature. The surrounding pressure is reduced below the saturation pressure. Example 2. the enthalpy decrease as it changes from a vapor to a liquid is called the latent heat of condensation. therefore the water will be in a liquid state (subcooled liquid). the saturation (boiling) temperature at 150 psi a is about 358 F. If the pressure is increased. The enthalpy increase as it changes from a liquid to a vapor is called the latent heat of vaporization. the saturation temperature at 10 psia is about 193 F. If the pressure is known.14 REFRIGERATION It has been stated that the boiling point of a liquid At what temperature will water boil at a pressure of 10 psia? Solution From Table A. and other properties at saturation conditions may be found in tables designed for that purpose. as seen in Example 2. The actual temperature is less. and at some temperature (the boiling point) they will escape rapidly-the liquid will vaporize. in the pump. Solution Using Table A. use the part of the table that lists pressures first. If the knoll'n value is between two listed values.3. Example 2. interpolate to obtain the correct value. Because the actual temperature is higher (200 F). saturation temperatures.21 illustrate various uses of saturated property tables. if the pressure can be lowered enough.19 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 2. but also have a considerable velocity energy.36 CHAPTER 2 substance is called a latent heat change.3 is a saturated property table for water. Therefore the operator should be very concerned. To what value should the surrounding pressure be lowered? .3. On the other hand. Should the engineer be concerned? Solution From Table A.21 The operating engineer of a hot water heating system reads the temperature and pressure at the pump depends on the surrounding pressure. the molecules will have to reach a higher velocity-a higher temperature-to escape. It is equal to the latent heat of vaporization. 2. The pressure surrounding a liquid inhibits the escape of the molecules. The opposite effect. A liquid is used that boils at a low temperature for the reduced pressure that can be achieved. Table A. Example 2.22.20 Use the steam tables to determine if water is in a liquid or gas state at 300 F and 150 psia. not water.

000 Ib/hr Sensible Heat Equation A sensible heat change was described as a process where the temperature of a substance changes when heat is added to or removed from it. What is the cooling capacity of the refrigeration chiller in BTU/hr. except for processes with large temperature changes. change the units for the water flow rate from GPM to Iblhr (Table A. the water will boil.500.15 CALCULATION OF SENSIBLE AND LATENT HEAT CHANGES The processes that occur in HVAC systems usually involve the addition or removal of heat from air or water. If the surrounding pressure is reduced below this value. units. The water is cooled from 55 F to 43 F (Figure 2. in U.1.PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES 37 Solution From Table A. = 55 F t2 = 43 F . This change is described quantitatively by the sensible heat equation: "'-"- Using Equation 2. The specific heat of liquid water is I BTU/lb-F at 60 F. The procedures for calculating the amount of heat involved will be explained in this section.23-2.20 Sketch for Example 2. but there is no change in state of the substance..xl . tons of refrigeration. Values of specific heat for some other substances are shown in Table 2. = rate of sensible heat added to or removed from substance. 5000 GPM I I. using the values shown in Table 2. Qs=mxcxTC Ib BTU = 2.12) where Q.12 to find the heat removed (refrigeration capacity). thus cooling that body. lblhr c = specific heat of substance. For air and water. However. Example 2. This requires (latent) heat. the saturation pressure of water at 50 F is 0.1.tl = temperature change of substance. the specific heat changes slightly with temperature.000 BTUlhr Figure 2.000. Specific Heat The specific heat (c) of a substance is defined as the amount of heat in BTUs required to change the temperature of lib of the substance by I F.x (43 .. BTU/lb-F TC= t2 .178 psia. 500lblhr I GPM (for water) = 2.2l.23. Refrigeration chiller Q (heat removed) (2.23 There are 5000 GPM of chilled water being circulated from the refrigeration plant to the air conditioning systems of the buildings at the Interplanetary Spaceport. The sensible heat equation can be used to calculate the heat added to or removed for most HVAC processes where there is a temperature change and no change of state. F ~.55) F hr Ib-F .3. Boiling of water at a very low temperature to achieve refrigeration is accomplished in refrigeration equipment called absorption units (see Chapter 13). = -30.S. and KW" Soilltion The capacity of the refrigeration chiller means the amount of heat it is removing from the water. BTUlhr m = weight rate flow of substance.20). For other conditions. First. Examples 2. m = 5000 GPM x 2.25 illustrate uses of the sensible heat equation. Heat will flow to the water from any surrounding body at a temperature higher than 50 F.500. appropriate values of specific heats can be found in handbooks.000 .. it can be assumed constant.

Step A. C.21) has a capacity of 2 KW. Use Equation 2. it is common practice in the HVAC industry to drop the negative sign for heat removed. Convert the heater capacity to BTU/hL B.000 BTUlhr 4800 Iblh x 0.21 Sketch for Example 2. the refrigeration capacity is I ton 30.. Is the spare preheater big enough? SO/lilian Q.12 to find the temperature to which the oil would be heated by the spare preheater: m=IO--x Ib 1 hr I ftO CFM= 1420 .000. and then use Equation 2. = 2 KW x .000 BTU/hr is available. expressed in fe/min (CFM)" Solulion Converting units to tons ofrefrigeration. not heated. convert GPM of oil to Iblhr.24 The fuel oil preheater for a boiler has become damaged. solving for the mass flow rate of air. First.12. 2 KW electric heater gal 60 min I hr min x-- 8.000 BTU/hr x . TC = ~ mxc TC=12.075 Ib = 316 ft3/ m in Figure 2. the specific heat of air c = 0.12.x x-:"'-'hr 60 min 0.0 Ib/gal and its specific heat is 0.1..38 CHAPTER2 Note: the negative sign resulting for Qs means that heat is removed. 3410 BTUfhr = 6820 BTUlhr I KW Step B. m= Qs eX TC = 6820 BTUlhr 0.5 BTU/lb-F j I.000 BTU/hr x . The density of the oil is 8.25. How much air is flowing. The oil is at 60 F in a storage tank. the water is cooled. so the refrigeration chiller capacity is reported as Qs = 30.24 BTUllb-F x 20F = 1420 Ibll1r Step C. A spare preheater with a capacity of 100. =8800 KW Example 2. Example 2.0 Ib gal = 4800·lblhr Rearranging and using Equation 2.. The mechanical contractor is balancing the system and wants to find out how much air is flowing in the duct.000. It will not do the job. that is...12.000.1. From Table 2.24 BTU/lb-F. The oil must be heated to 180 F in order to flow readily. Convert the flow rate units from Iblhr to ft 3/min (CFM). =80 F • n I I I I I I " J I I I I I I .000 BTUlhr = 2500 tons The capacity in KW is IKW 30.3410 BTUlhr A.. The contractor measures the temperature before and after the heater as 80 F and 100 F. However.5 BTU/lb-F.1. The boiler requires 10 GPM of oil. =42F 12 = 42 + I. using the density of air from Table 2. = 42 + 60 = 102 F 100.000 BTU/hr The preheater will heat the fuel oil to only 102 F.25 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ An electric booster heater in an air conditioning duct (Figure 2.

3. Example 2. using enthalpy change instead of temperature change. Note that it changes with temperature. The property tables list enthalpy data. the boiling temperature is 228 F at 20 psia. hr Ib-F = 400.hfl = 196.13). BTU/hr m = weight flow rate of substance.4 BTU/lb The total heat required is The two equations give almost identical results.hr Ib = 20. The water enters the boiler at 180 F. Ib/hr h2 . BTU/lb hg = enthalpy of saturated vapor. the enthalpy of the subcooled liquid is always looked up in the table at its temperature.000 Ib/hr (188.3. the latent heat equation. Q = m(hf2 .1 = 1008.000 - lb.1 BTU/lb The total enthalpy change per pound is the sensible plus latent heat: 48. BTUllb The latent heat of vaporization for water is shown in TableA.3 BTUllb The change in the latent heat content at 20 psia IS hfg = 960.2 - 147. if the enthalpy is known. the results can be found by simply adding the two effects together. Example 2.26. Latent Heat Equation The change in enthalpy that occurs when a substance evaporates or condenses is determined from Q = 20.hI = specific enthalpy change of substance.9 = 48.9) = 402. not its pressure.13 to the change in state: (2. How much heat is required? Solution The enthalpy increase of the water is the sum of the sensible and latent heat change. The sensible change is to the boiling point. Either one is ac£eptable. BTU/hr m = weight flow rate.27 A steam boiler generates 20. Ib/hr hf =enthalpy of saturated liquid. . The change in sensible heat content of the liquid is hj2 .13 at each temperature.000 BTU/hr The result using Equation 2. When a heating or cooling process involves both a sensible and a latent heat change to the substance.000 BTU/hr Example 2. Note: As was done in Example 2.x 1 .12 for the sensible heat change process. BTU x 1008.3 + 960. Q=m(h 2 -h l ) where (2.13) Q = rate of heat added or removed from substance. BTU/lb hIg = latent heat of vaporization.147.000 BTU/hr -.26 A hot water boiler heats 10.hfl) = 10. Using Equation 2.14) where Q = heat added to or removed from substance.4 .000 Ib/hr of water from 180 F to 220 F.000 .12 is Ib BTU Q=mxcxTC= 10.168.PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES 39 The Enthalpy Equation The heat added or removed in HVAC processes can also be fonnd from another equation called the enthalpy equation (Equation 2.3.26 compares the two methods..1 . From Table A.000 lb/hr of saturated steam at 20 psia. at 30 psia. How much heat is added to the water? Solution The enthalpy of liquid water (hf ) is listed in Table A.x40F . BTU/lb This equation can be used instead of Equation 2. found by applying the Enthalpy Equation 2.

1'2 PI VI V2 T2 TI T2 TI (2. stored in a 10 ft3 tank at 150 psig. This process is called sublimatioll. assuming the temperature remains constant.hi) = 20.17) If the volume is constant.27 illustrate that the Enthalpy Equation 2. the following equation results: (2. V2 VI (2. the equation simplifies.18) 1 • ~ If the pressure is constant. 2. By rearranging the terms in the equation for two different conditions of the gas.26 and 2. with absolute pressures (Pab.28 Compressed air required for operating the pneumatic controls in an air conditioning system is. peratures and pressures iu air conditioning work follow this equation.16 LATENT HEATS OF FUSION AND SUBLIMATION The change of state of a substance from liquid to gas involves gaining the latent heat of vaporization.000 (1156. but when a certain temperature is reached. At very low pressure and temperature it is possible to change some substances directly from the solid to the gas state.147.13 can be used for both sensible and latent processes involving water if there are property tables available that list enthalpy values. IS) = pressure. Ib R = a gas constant T = absolute temperature.17. we will use this equation for air conditioning processes.17 THE IDEAL (PERFECT) GAS LAWS Under certain conditions.19) I ~ 2. Ibfft2 absolute V = volume.ilt a very low pressure. It is used in the procedure called freezedrying. volume. I and 2. If the temperature is constant. What volume of air is available for the controls? Solution Using Equation 2. and temperature of gases are related by an equation called the perfect or ideal gas law.40 CHAPTER2 Equation 2. In Chapter 7. = Pg + Palm). its temperature will no longer increase when more heat is added.13 can be used to solve this example in one step instead of two. The perfect gas equation can be expressed pV=mRT where I' (2. removal of heat from a liquid. the pressure. and T for changed conditions. degrees R We will use the equation in this form in Chapter 7. Air at the tem- Example 2. For water the latent heat of fusion is 144 BTU/lb. The heat accompanying the melting or freezing process is called the latent heat of fusion. If the reverse process is carried out. 1'2 PI ~ ~ (2. ft3 m = weight of gas. and the substance will begin to change state to a liquid-it will melt. to prepare dried foods by first freezing them and then evaporating the ice in the food directly to vapor. . If only two of these three variables change. A substance in a solid state will increase in temperature when heat is added to it (sensible heat).000 BTUlhr Note that Examples 2.9) = 20. by using the initial and final enthalpy values of the whole process: Q = m(h2 .3 . The air is used in the controls at 15 psig.16) The gas law is useful in finding changes in p. V. its temperature will drop but eventually it will freeze into a solid.168.

7-. To 580 never all available for a useful purpose.e avoided. The maximum amount of energy that can be made available in a power-producing device such as an engine or turbine can be calculated. 4. the rest will be wasted. in evaporators and condensers. Energy conservation has become of great necessity part of the energy in the fuel can be used.18 ENERGY UTILIZATION (SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS) We have seen how the First Law of Thermodynamics can be used. B. and leaving at 120 F.CFM] = x 5000 = 5800 CFM T] 500 The technician would now check the system-design specifications. The minimum amount of energy required to produce a given amount of refrigeration can be calculated. The Second Law may be expressed as an equation but it is not simple to use in energy utilization analysis.. Friction causes loss of useful energy. with volume flow rate instead of volume. even though he measured 5000 CFM. These effects cannot b. efforts in this area have sometimes been haphazard. these ideas will be gathered together and additional ones will be discussed. Temperatures must be in absolute uuits R=(F+ 460): and concern. it tells us nothing about the answers to such . 3. because the same unit of time is involved. The reader may wish to treat the whole subject of energy conservation at that time. he knows that the proper amount of air is flowing.5 fe p] 29. fan. but should be reduced to a minimum. Throughout the book we will suggest energy conservation steps. the capacity of a refrigeration machine. utilization. if we are using an engine to drive a refrigeration compressor. Some must be lost and unavailable for the job to be performed.29 A technician testing and balancing a system measures 5000 ft 3/min (CFM) of air entering a heating coil at 40 F. Unfortunately. . it tells us how much energy is used for a given task (the power of a pump. Basically. and this can be compared with the actual system. or refrigeration machine?" or "How do I reduce the energy consumption of an HVAC system?" An understanding and application of the Second Law of Thermodynamics will enable us to investi- gate problems of more efficient energy. what we will do here is state some conclusions derived from the Second Law. only 2. What is the airflow leaving the coil? Solution Equation 2.-ps_i_a x 10 ft3 = 55.PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES 41 v] = _P2 V2 = _1_64_. and similar information). the engineering specifications call for measuring the volume flow rate leaving the coil. to solve problems in HVAC work.questions as "Can I use a smaller pump. Included among them are: A. as for example. There are a number of physical effects that are called irreversible which cause a loss of available energy. and we will use it again. For instance. partly due to a lack of understanding of the Second Law. 2. The temperature differellce for heat trails· fer. That is. In Chapter 15. in the form of the Energy Equation. it is CFM 2 = -=. Therefore. and therefore should be minimized. we can determine the best efficiency possible and compare it with an actual installation. Whenever heat energy is used to do work.19 can be used. therefore temperature differences between fluids should be kept as small as practical.7 psia Example 2. or to consider each aspect as it is brought up. Greater temperature differences cause greater losses. However. Some of the conclusions that can be drawn from the Second Law are: 1. If it called for 5800 CFM. Friction. many based on these conclusions. However.

regular cleaning of condenser water piping will reduce the roughness of the pipe wall. temperature.g. such as driving a refrigeration compressor. 7. However. 6. but should be minimized or even avoided when they cause a loss of available energy. 14. With the aid of a sketch. Entropy is a physical property of substances related to energy utilization and conservation. Any process that occurs without any of these effects is called a reversible process. What is a compound gage') What is meant by stored energy and energy in transfer? Name types of energy in each category and give an example of each. 9. the entropy increases. weight. 6. the least amount of work is required if the entropy of the fluid does not change. Less energy will be used in the pump. Mixing fluids of different temperatures can result in a loss of useful energy. An example of possible wasted energy that results from this is the generation of high pressure steam and then expanding it in a "flash tank" to a low pressure before using it for heating. and pressure. I 15. 2. 10. Rapid expansion. and less energy will be lost in pumping power. C. Define density. Define mass. Mixing processes are common in HVAC systems. especially Chapters 3. They will be discussed in Chapter 12.' studying it gives us a goal to aim for. A constant entropy process is an ideal reversible process that can never really occur. What is head? 11. 5. friction). Which would be the best choice to minimize energy consumption? Solution Copper tubing has a smoother surface and therefore less friction. Practical applications of the First and Second Laws are discussed in much greater detail in later chapters. D. superheated. Example 2..30 A mechanical contractor has a choice of using copper tubing or steel piping of the same diameter in a chilled water system. no heat is added -to or removed from the substance (adiabatic process) and there are no irreversible effects (e. according to the Second Law. In a constant entropy process. I Review Questions 1. i 13. force. For any process that requires work. and enthalpy. 3. 4. It is defined as the ratio of the heat added to a substance to the temperature at which it is added. 8. 12. This is called a constant entropy. Dual duct systems and three pipe systems are two types of air conditioning systems using mixing that can result in energy waste. What is the difference between work and power? State the energy balance as a sentence and as an equation. this definition is not useful here. explain gage pressure and absolute pressure. t I i. Define the saturated. and we try to minimize this increase. 12. or isentropic process. Mixing. and specific gravity. In any real process where work is required. However. 4. specific volume. Fluid friction will be reduced. and 15. 13. and sub- j I . Although a reversible process is an ideal case that is impossible to achieve. What are the three common states in which matter may exist? cooled conditions. Define heat. What is a unit? What problems may arise when using units? What is a conversion factor? What are the advantages of the SI system of units? Explain what is meant by rounding off. It is important to understand that entropy is a measure of the energy that is not available to do work. we always try to minimize irreversible effects in the interests of energy conservation.42 CHAPTER2 For example.

kg/m3. wide by 6 ft 6 in.91 HP to BTU/min 2. What would be the reading on a Hg manometer attached to the tank in inches.685 C.14 The discharge pressure of a pump is 32. 17. loses 1450 BTUlhr through 2.2 2.10 What is the density in Ib/fto of a fuel oil with a S.93? 2.6 Find the area in ft2 of a window that is 4 ft 3 in.S.2 in.15 The air pressure in a tank is 3. 347. 280 KtoC E.0. KW.g.4 Change the following quantities from the U. energy. 62. What is the weight of water in the tank" What is the water pressure on the bottom of the tank. Hg. and density. HP.1. List the standard SI unit and a typical U. 2. 31 CtoR 2. as suggested by the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The pipe.sstamped "100 kg/m. Explain what is meant by a sensible heat change and a latent heat change.7 psia to Ib 2. 2760 Iblhr water to GPM C.500 BTU/hr to tons of refrigeration D. unit for each of the following physical characteristics: power.4 Ib/ft3 to kg/m3 2. 120 Ib/in 2 to ft w.6 ft 2 to m2 B. flow rate. high.S. and ft 3llb. Change the following quantities to the new units specified: A. -10 C to F D. What is the absolute pressure in psi? What would the absolute pressure be if the boiler were in Denver" 2.g. 41. and in mm? 2.9\.1.. What is the pressure in ft w? 2. m1sec. Hg.7 ft w. What pressure would a \'acuum gage read at sea level. BTU. A contractor wants to lift 100 sections of steel pipe each 20 ft long. 629 fto/min (CFM) to m 3/sec C.2. 83. ft2. made in Germany. 630 Fto R C.3 c. GPM. 276 gal water to Ib B.2 in.6 psig.000 BTUlhr to KW D.1 List the physical characteristics measured by each of the following units: Ib/in 2 . 12. in.9 A hot water storage tank for a solar-energy system measures 18 ft long x 9 ft wide. 88 F to C B. 0. List four conditions that should be sought in HVAC systems to minimize energy use.800 ft3 air at 70 F and 14.7 . B." How many pounds must the crane be capable of lifting? Round off the following numbers to three significant figures: A. specific volume. Hg to Ib/in? E. 76. units to the SI units specified: A. Hg? 2. velocity.242 B.8319 Change the following quantities to the units specified: A.17 A room receives 1200 BTUlhr of heat from solar radiation.13 A vat 25 ft high is filled with Big Brew Beer that has a S. 18.7 psi.g. = 0. 542 2.793.11 The pressure gage on a boiler in Boston reads 28.9 E.PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES 43 16.8 D.16 Change the following temperatures to the new units specified: A. in Ib/in 2 ? Problems 2. in in.. What is the pressure in psi on a val ve 3 ft above the bottom of the tank? 2.12 The absolute pressure in the suction line to a compressor is 12.2 ft 3/sec to gal/min (GPM) 2. pressure. mass.5 2. It is fi lied to a depth of 6 ft. = 0.

18 An electric heater is to be used to heat an enclosed porch that is losing 7900 BTUlhr to the outdoors. 180 F and 5 psia C. Hg E.32.22 A 2. What size heater should be used? 2. At what temperature does the water leave 'the chiller? 2.000 BTUlhr to KW Name each of the physical characteristics in Problem 2. A water supply pipe to a building is filled with water to a height of 280 ft. what would the reading on a vacuum gage be. 2.21 How many tons of refrigeration are required to cool 46 GPM of milk from 80 F to SO F? The milk has a specific heat of 0.26 What is the boiling point (saturation) temperature of water at pressures of 7. 2. 17 in. 10 psi to Hg C.34 2.33 Convert the following quantities to the ne'" units specified: A.24 If 520 ft3 of air at atmospheric pressure at sea level is to be compressed and stored in a tank at 75 psig. 230 F and 18 psig B.32 Convert the following quantities to the new units specified: A. 10. Hg to psi 2. 2. Express this capacity in tons of refrigeration and in KW.31 A water chiller with a capacity of ISO tons of refrigeration cools 320 GPM of water entering the chiller at 52 F.3.8 psia.000 BTUlhr. in psi? If the pressure in the suction line to a compressor at sea level is 5.2 KW of appliances operating.9 BTU/lb-F and a density of 8. Hg vacuum? . What is the net heat gain or loss to the room? 2. What is the pressure on the bottom of the pipe.28 A 24 ft high pipe filled with water extends 2. What is the atmospheric pressure expressed in psi and in in.35 2. and has 2.33. 16 psi to ft w. Hg? 2. 0. What is the pressure exerted on the condenser in psi? 2. 15 ft3 to gal.1 Ib/gal.37 0.23 Water enters a steam boiler at 160 F and leaves as saturated steam at 30 psig. what is the required volume of the tank? 2. !:low many CFM of air are leaving the unit? 2.20 A hot water boiler heats 6400 lblhr of water from 180 F to 220 F. B.44 CHAPTER2 heat transfer to the outdoors. 750 gal/min to ft 3 /hr C.19 Determine the state of water at the following conditions: A. Name each of the physical characteristics in Problem 2.1 psia and SO F 2.5 KW electric heater in a duct is heating 1300 Iblhr of air entering at 40 F.27 Is water liquid or vapor at 270 F and 50 psia? 2.30 A refrigeration unit has a cooling capacity of 327. 16 ft 2 to in? 2. 23 ft w. How many BTUlhr of heat are required? Solve by the sensible heat equation and by using enthalpies in Table A.700 CFM of outdoor air at 10 F and heats it to 120 F. How much heat is the boiler supplying? 2.25 An air conditioning unit takes in 15. B. 20 psia and 400 F D. reading in.29 A barometer reads 70S mm Hg.5 psia and 67. to psi E. 3 KW to BTU/hr D.24 ft to in.0 psia? 2.36 from a condenser on the top floor of a building to a cooling tower on the floor above. To what temperature is the air heated? 2. at a flow rate of 5300 Iblhr.

000 BTUlhr.000 BTUlhr through the walls.000 BTUlhr? 2. Find the boiler heating capacity in BTUlhr.42 How many BTUlhr will a 12 KW electric heater supply? 2.39 A steam boiler delivers 750 Iblhr of saturated steam at 230F. What capacity (KW) electric heater must be used to keep the room from getting cooler? . what is its specific gravity? 2. Find the temperature of the water leaving the chiller.91b/ft3 .000 BTU/hr through the roof and 19.38 If a fuel oil has a density of 58.41 What size electric heater (KW) must be used to supply 350. The room loses 12. Water enters the boiler at 140 F. 2.40 A water chiller cools 60 GPM of water entering the chiller at 54 F. 2.PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES 4S 2.43 A room has a solar heat gain of 4200 BTUlhr and an internal heat gain of 6300 BTU/hr. The chiller has a capacity of 530.

3. The methods presented here will be those which are believed to be the most accurate and the most energy efficient. Calculate room and building heat transfer losses. 3. heat must be continually added to the interior of the building in order to maintain a desired air temperature. This can be shown by applying the Energy Equation (Chapter 2) to the air in a room or building.c H A p T E R Heating Loads I n this chapter. To counteract these heat losses.)' The change in stored energy (Eeh ) is the change in the room air enthalpy (Heh ). components. 4. we obtain (3. Substituting into Equation 2.1 ) . and other parts of the building envelope. Calculate room and building infiltration and ventilation losses. OBJECTIVE After studying this chapter. I. you will be able to: I. Select appropriate indoor and outdoor design conditions.) is the heat loss (Q"u. Determine. the indoor air temperature soon drops. The heat remo\'ed (E"u. Find R.1 THE HEATING LOAD From our own experiences. . windows. we know that if the heating system in a building stops functioning in winter. 5. This 46 temperature decrease occurs for two reasons: heat transfer from the warm inside air to the cold outside air through walls. and leakage of cold air through openings in the building (il(fiitratioll). The energy added to the room air (Ein) is the heat supplied by the heating system (Qin).and U-values for building 2. we will discuss methods for determining the amount of heat required to keep the spaces in a building comfortable in winter. room and building heating loads.

an additional form of heat transfer is more usual in fluids (convection). States and_ agencies have established codes that now require accurate heating and cooling load calculation methods.1 Heat exchanges between room air and surroundings. (Cooling load calculation methods will be discussed in Chapter 6. and that the heat always travels from the location of higher temperature to the location of lower temperature. the heat supplied by the heating system must equal the heat losses from the room. Another example of conduction is heat transfer througb a building wall or roof.2) Figure 3. Conduction is the form of heat transfer through a body that occurs "'ithout any movement of the body. If the air enthalpy decreases.2 HEAT TRANSFER Because building heat losses are partially a consequence of heat transfer. Conduction is most familiar in heat transfer through solids-for example. Convection is the form of heat transfer that results from gross movement of liquids or gases. or (3. H eh =O. Siuce we want the room air to remain at a constant elevated temperature. The heating load must be determined because it is used in the selection of the heating equipment.HEATING LOADS 47 where Heh Room air Q'n~~~ Qin Qout = change in room air enthalpy = heat supplied by heating system =heat losses from room air to outside 'f I The room air temperature depends on its enthalpy. then this information can be used to determine the required capacity of the heating equipment.) The heating load requirements for buildings result from two types of heat losses: heat transfer losses and infiltration/ventilation losses. we obtain (heat from heating system) Q'n ~ Qout Heh ~ a Teh ~ a -+-~Qout (heat loss to surroundings) Figure 3. Substituting into Equation 3. because the heat losses from a building can be easily calculated. A familiar example of convection is the air in a room heated by a unit such as a hot water convector. piping and duct sizing. and radiatio/!.1 illustrates the heat flow into and out of a room. many inaccurate methods have been used to find heating loads.2 tells us that if the room air enthalpy (and therefore temperature) is to be maintained at a constant desired value. Equation 3. however. In the past. The amount of heat that must be supplied to keep the building or room air at the desired temperature is called the heating load. when the metal body of a pot is heated on a stove. . An explanation of these will now be presented. and in energy utilization studies. 3. There are three different ways that heat transfer can occur: conductio/!. Conduction heat transfer can also occur through liquids and gases. This is a valuable conclusion. the heat flows through the handle and then to your hand. Accurately determining the heating load is a fundamental step in planning a heating system. its temperature decreases. If heat furnished to room (Oin) equals heat lost from room (Oout).1. the enthalpy does not change. it is necessary to understand some basic features of this process. the enthalpy must also remain constant. convection. It was noted previously that heat is transferred only when there is a temperature difference between two locations. This can result in unsatisfactory indoor air conditions and increased energy costs. room air temperature remains constant (Teh ~ 0). That is. it is a result of molecular or electron action.

48 CHAPTER3 Heat is transferred to the air adjacent to the metal surface. The temperature difference acioss which the heat flows 2. some is absorbed. This warmed air then moves vertically upward because it is now less dense (lighter) than the surrounding cooler air.2 Heat transfer by natural convection from a terminal unit (hot water convector) to room air. The area of the surface through which heat is flowing 3. can prevent the transmission of a good part of the solar radiation. Color tinted glass. The proportion absorbed depends on the color and the roughness of the surface. and the heat received from the sun (Figure 3. The thermal resistance (R) of the material to heat transfer Figure 3. Figure 3. This form of convection is called natural convection because the fluid moves by natural gravity forces created by density differences.3 Heat transfer by radiation from the sun to objects in a room. Thermal radiation is the form of heat transfer that occurs between two separated bodies as a result of a means called electromagnetic radiation. Familiar examples of radiation are the heat our body receives when standing in front of a fire. and therefore the resulting rate of heat transfer is relatively small. When there is a gas between the bodies. Heat transfers between the two bodies even if there is a vacuum (an absence of all matter) between them. one body must be at a higher temperature than the other. heat still transfers by radiation but usually at a lesser rate.xAxTD R I (3. called heat absorbing glass. However. the presence of an opaque solid object between the bodies will block radiation.3 RATE OF HEAT TRANSFER The rate at which heat is conducted through any material depends on three factors: I. and some is reflected. So air continually moves throughout the space (Figure 3. increasing its temperature. Most of the radiation received passes through transparent materials like clear glass. Ceiling Warm (air Window 8conve~or Hot water C~I air This can beexpressed by the following equation: Q= . The rate of fluid motion created by natural convection effects is generally quite low. The less dense part of the fluid rises and the more dense (heavier) fluid drops. As with all forms of heat trausfer. Dark. The rate of fluid motion and therefore the rate of heat transfer can be increased by using a fan for gases or a pump for liquids. This is calledforced convection. heating the material. When radiation is received by a solid surface.2).3) .3). however. rough surfaces absorb more radiant heat than lighter-colored smooth surfaces. 3. sometimes called wave motion.

3. F 20 It Wall 65 F 25 F Figure 3.68. x 4 in. The thermal resistances of various building materials are listed in Table A.tL = 65 . The temperature on the inside surface of the wall is 65 F. For winter conditions (heating loads). and low R-values mean high heat transfer.} A 110ft long by 20 ft high wall is made of 4 in. and on the outside surface the temperature is 25 F. Example3.5.1. just as solid materials do. For the indoor surface of any building element. ft2 TD = tH .HEATING LOADS 49 where 110 It -f-~Q Q = heat transfer rate. Materials with high R-values will transfer heat at a low rate.tL = temperature difference across which heat flows. = 0. using a material with a low R-value (metal) for equipment such as a boiler is desirable because it helps to increase the rate of heat transfer from the combustion gases to the water.20 hr-ft2-FIBTU per in. From Tabie A.2 A wall of a supermarket measures 80ft by 18 ft. building heat energy losses or gains. it is assumed that the air velocity outdoors is 15 MPH. and the inside surface of the wall is 60 F. horizontal.80 hr-ft2-FIBTU Area of wall A = 110 ft x 20 ft = 2200 ft 2 TD = tH .4. What is the heat loss through the wall? Solulion The resistance is the inside air film on a vertical surface (Figure 3.80 hr-ft2-FIBTU x 2200 ft2 x 40 F = 110.2 illustrates the use of TableA.25 = 40 F Example 3.5. On the other hand. The temperature of the air in the store is 70 F. The resistance of an air film depends on the spatial orientation of the surface (vertical. Example 3. that is. R = 0. From Table A.5 lists thermal resistances of these air films. Equation 3.000 BTUlhr Thermal Resistance of Surface Air Films There is a very thin film of still air on each side of a solid building element such as a wall or roof. A=80x 18= 1440ft2. and on the air velocity near the surface. hr-ft2-FIBTU A = snrface area through which heat flows.3 allows us to understand how the thermal resistance affects. from higher temperature tH to lower temperature t L. common brick. The resistance is often expressed by a symbol. Since R is in the denominator. or on a slope). Thermal Resistance The thermal resistance R of a material is its ability to resist the flow of heat through it. they are good thermal insulators. R = 0.4. high R-values mean low heat transfer (Q). Building construction materials with a high R-value are desirable because they reduce heat losses.4 illustrates the conditions.5)." This means R = 6.4 Sketch for Example 3. Using Equation 3. Q= lIRxAxTD = 110. BTUlhr R = thermal resistance of material. These films also have a thermal resistance. still air is assumed. TD=70-60= IOF . for example "R-6. Table A. What is the rate of heat transfer through the wall? Solution Figure 3.

as it is being used in all new building standards and codes. in. . For the concrete block. Note from Example 3. What is the thermal resistance of the insulation? Solution From Equation 3.5.68 Using Equation 3. R = 4.24 =0.4) C is measured in units of BTUlhr-ft2 -F in the U. and for a material with a low resistance.3.3 A roof has 4 in..4. it is 32 times more effective per inch of thickness as a thermal insulator! In the next section.II For the insulating board. The thennal conductivity (k) of a material is defined as its conductance per unit of thickness. system.24 BTUlhr-ft2 -F per in.2.4 that the insulation has about four times the thermal resistance of the concrete block. The concept of thermal resistance is the important one to understand. The thermal conductance ofthe air film adjacent to a surface is often called the film coefficient. the opposite meaning of resistance.7 hr-ft2-F BTU = 21.0 where C =conductance. of glass fiber insulation with a thermal conductivity k = 0. heat transfer will be low. Remember that for a material with high thermal resistance. heat transfer will be high.200 BTUlhr Conductance and Conductivity Besides thermal resistance. although it is only \ith as thick. C= ':.S. c= IIR (3.5) Example 3. thick. Solution Both R-values are found from Table A. Its relationship to conductance is C= L k (3. we will learn how to determine the overall thermal resistance of a building' component. The thermal conductance (C) of a material is the reciprocal of its resistance: It is not necessary to memorize the definitions just described.4. BTUlhr-ft2 -F per in.06 = 16. the conductance is Air film --l>~1 0-<4--Wall '--"<~ Figure 3.06 BTU L 4 hr-ft2 -F Using Equation 3. conductance and conductivity are terms which are used to describe a material's ability to transfer heat. The thermal conductance may be thought of as the ability of a material to transfer heat.50 CHAPTER3 70 F m~-60F Example 3. BTUlhr-ft2 -F k =conductivity. of thickness L =thickness of material. I R= C =- I x 1440 x 10 0. thickness. The units used for conductivity are usually BTUlhr-ft2 F per inch of thickness. three oval core concrete block (with sand and gravel aggregate) to that of I in. Q= IIR xA xTD = VO. thick insulating board made of glass fiber. solving for R.5 Sketch for Example 3.4 Compare the thermal resistance R of an 8 in. = 0. R = l. That is.

-10 F • 3. All of the resistances are found in Tables A. R 2 . . through the solid materials. •.3 and the overall resistance Ro... . These elements are usually made up of layers of different materials.4 OVERALL THERMAL RESISTANCE The heat transfer through the walls.. ·: . roof. Wall Item R Ro = R I + R2 + R3 + etc. The indoor and outdoor temperatures are 70 F and -10 F. where (3..94 The wall area is A=72ftx 16ft= ll52ft2 The temperature difference is TD = 70 .5 OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT (U) For each application.xAxTD Ro = . including air films Once the overall resistance Ro is known. '.0 0.different combinations of building materials.2S0 BTUlhr I I Figure 3. The overall thermal resistance Ro is found by adding the individual resistances (see Equation 3. '.overall conductance.5. What is the heat transfer through the wall? Using Equation 3. etc.64 0.(-10) = SO F Example 3.• - · ...' 70F.\ in.45 5. called the overall heat transfer coefficient .5.3 can be used to find the heat transfer.4 and A. The overall (total) thermal resistance of the combination can be found very simply by adding the individual thermal resistances as follows: Solution A section through the wall is illustrated in Figure 3.HEATING LOADS 51 3. . Equation 3. sand and gravel aggregate concrete (not oven dried).68 0.' : Inside --.. and other elements of a building is through the air film on one side.5 The exterior wall of a building is constructed of S in. The thermal resistances of the air films on the inside and outside surfaces must also be included.x ll52xSO 6. but fortunately. x 8 in.6. these calculations have already been made for many .'. many tables do not list the results as overall resistance. However.94 = 13. and then through the air film on the other side..17 6. floor. gypsum board..5. \ .. R-5 insulation..6 Sketch for Example 3..6).) Outside air film Overall resistance Ro = 0. the designer can calculate the overall thermal resistance for each part of the building structure through which heat flows. as illustrated in Example 3. .08/in.. ____ Outside • \ Insulation air film Concrete.. but as . = individual thermal resistance of each component. and Y.' · ' . . Inside air film Gypsum board Insulation Concrete (R = 0. the heat transfer loss is Q= . The wall is 72 ft long by 16 ft high.6) Ro = overall (total) thermal resistance R J. air film Gypsum board :.

When V-value tables do not include the appropriate construction.8) Component Wall Roof Glass 18 20 1. with windows). but are similar to those prescribed in some states for a somewhat cold winter climate. TABLE 3.6 and 3. and 3.5 MPH wind in summer.5. Either table may be used. Example 3. the heat transfer equation then becomes Q=VxAxTD where Q = heat transfer rate. as explained' previously. BTUlhr V = overall heat transfer coefficient. ft2 TD = temperature difference. depending on which one matches the construction assembly in the case encountered. j Solution From TableA. The summer U:values are used in cooling load calculations (see Chapter 6).05 0. Ro = 6. floors.5. the designers would refer to the applicable real energy code or standard.7 list V-values for roofs.Ra (fe-hr-F/BTU) MaxU (BTu/hr-tt2-F) and Vis 1 V=- Ro (3. Using Equation 3. The V-values also include the effect of the window or door frame (also called sash. The V-values in Table A.60 Note: This table is adapted from various state energy standards. 3. BTUlhr-ft2-F.52 CHAPTER3 (U). V =0.1 are not those from an actual state. Note that there is a slight difference in V-values between winter and summer. BTUlhr-ft2-F A = surface area through which heat flows. Compare it with the value that would be found from Example 3.9.5. From Example 3.7) In terms of V.6 also shows graphically the sections through each building component. 3.7. Table A. Tables A.6.8 and the V-value tables to calculate heat transfer through building components. These should be examined so that the student learns how the construction assembly is actually arranged. The following comments should help the student use these tables correctly. Examples 3.7.7. and doors. walls. The degree day concept and a more detailed explanation of energy standards are discussed in Chapter IS. 1.8. able V-values (and minimum Ro values). 2. The relationship between Ro U-values and Energy Standards State energy codes and standards attempt to limit the amount of energy used by HVAC systems.6 and A. I I Ro 1 6. partitions.14 The results agree. Table A. one having a degree day (DD) value of about 4000-6000.6. For an actual building.94 . and A.8 are for glass windows and glass doors.7. of course. (3. Table 3. F Overall V-values for some combinations of building components are listed in Tables A.7. using Equations 3. using Table A.6 Find the V-value for the wall described in Example 3.14. The values in Table 3.06 0.1 ENERGY CONSERVING Ra AND U-VALUES Min. it should be calculated by adding the individual resistances. A. V=-=-=0.94.8 show how to use Equation 3. One way of doing this is to prescribe maximum allow-.6 is also valuable because many of the assemblies listed meet V and Ro values required in energy codes. This is because the R-values of the outside air film coefficients used in finding the V-values are based on a IS MPH wind in winter and 7.7. Degree day values for localities are shown in Table A. The degree day is a number that reflects the length and severity of a heating season.7 0.1 is a simplified example of this type of regulation.

7 illustrates the wall.7. alld inside finish Window: 3 ft by 4 ft 6 ill. the U-values from Table A.6 or Table A. aluminumframe The room temperature is 68 F and the outdoor temperature is 2 F.7 _ _ _ _~_~_ _ _ __ A building 120 ft long by 40 ft wide has a flat roof constructed of 8 in. the U-values and TO used in Equation 3.5 = 82. U Equation 3.8 will be different.5 Wall Gross A = 13.09 BTU hr-ft -F 2 X 4800 ft 2 X 60 F The heat transfer is: Wall Q = 0.8 and the areas are: Window U = 1.09 x 82. the fact that the basement floor and part or all of the wall is underground (below grade) complicates the use of the equation.7 are used.8.5 ft 2 Wall U = 0.8 A frame wall of the bedroom of a house has the following specifications: Window Q = 1. Q=UxAxTD = 0. There is heat transfer through the opaque part of the wall and through the window. If any part of the basement is above ground. However.09 BTUlhr-ft2-F.5 x 66 = 490 BTUlhr = 25.10 x 13. The U-values from Tables A. The inside and outside design air temperatures are also used to find the TO (see Section 3.8. To find the TO for the below grade wall or floor.6 HEAT TRANSFER LOSSES: BASEMENT WALLS AND FLOORS Equation 3.900 BTUlhr Example 3. single glass.8 is also used to calculate the heat losses through basement walls and floors .. lVood sheathing.7 Sketch for Example 3.7 and A. = 0.5 x 66 = 980 BTU/hr Wall: 12ft by 8 ft. What is the heat transfer loss through the roof? 8' 12' Solution From Table A.10 BTUlhr-ft2 -F A = 3 X 4. This is due to the effect of the surrounding ground on the thermal resistance and the heat flow path. The inside temperature is 65 F and the outdoor temperature is 5 F.HEATING LOADS 53 Example 3. 2 in.09 BTUlhr-ft2 -F = 12 x 8 = 96 ft 2 Wall Net A = 96 . However. lightweight aggregate concrete.. for the part of the structure which is below grade. with a finished ceiling.9). What is the heat transfer loss through the wall and window combined? total Q = 1470 BTUlhr 3.5 ft2 . Using Figure 3. of insulation with R -7 value. the outside winter design temperature is taken to be Solution Figure 3. Table 3.2 lists recommended Uvalues for below grade basement walls and floors.13. wood siding.

.. assume the inside temperature is equal to that of the rest of the building. . The basement heat losses should be calculated using the basement inside design temperature. What is the heat loss from the room? Soilltion Using recommended U-values from Table 3. assume an unheated basement (as in item 2). 3. J~ .9 The recreation room of a basement has a floor area of 220 ft" and an insulated wall below ground of 400 ft2 area. Example 3. Floor Q = 0. i.h. sign temperature. there will still be a heat loss from the floor above which should be added to the heat losses from those rooms.) Example 3.08 x 400 x 20 = 640 BTUfhr total Q = 820 BTUfhr Remember that if part of the basement wall is above ground and part is below. 3.9 illustrates a calculation of heat losses from a below grade basement. Iffhe basement is partitioned.I. R-4 insulation Floor 0.7 HEAT TRANSFER LOSSES: FLOOR ON GROUND AND FLOOR OVER CRAWL SPACE Special calculations also apply for the heat transfer which occurs through a concrete floor slab on grade and through a floor with a crawl space below. Insulation is full depth of wall.wall heat loss. the beat transfer losses from each part should be calculated separately. If the specitic basement conditions are not known. and TD values. Basemellt heated (with terminaillnits).~ be ~k"l. No heat loss calculation from the basement should be made.04 Notes: Values are for a 7 ft high below grade basement.o prevent moisture condensation).04 x 220 x 20 = 180 BTU/hr Wall Q = 0. uninsulated Wall.16 0. an estimated unheated basement temperature of 50 F should be used. A. For other partitioned off areas. An uninsulated wall is not recommended in cold climates. The temperature in an unheated basement (with no heat sources) will be between the design inside and design outside temperatures.2 OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT U FOR BASEMENT WALLS AND FLOORS. 111 a Floor Over Crawl Space If the crawl space is vented during the heating season (t. and the ground temperature is 50 F. using the appropriate U. a separate calculation for each area is required. In items 2 and 3b. For any area that the heat source is in or substantial hot ducts or piping pass through.. This situation exists when the furnace and ducts or boiler and piping are located in the basement. I. the deep ground temperature value. This temperature varies between about 40 F and 60 F in cold climates in the continental United States. the ~rawl space air temperature will equal the outside mr de- I j' '. BELOW GRADE.8.ttd ~i"g Eq""ioo 3.54 CHAPTER3 TABLE 3. 2.2. Basement Inside Temperature A number of possible conditions may exist basement. The following guidelines are recommended: A. (A temperature below this should not be permitted anyway. The separate heat losses should then be added to tind the tota1. Unheated basement. The room temperature is 70 F. BTU/HR-FT2-F Component U Wall. Basement heated by heat source equipment.08 0. B. The heat loss through the flO~~. because of the possibility of freezing water in piping.1d . and calculate the resulting heat transfer loss.' .

rather than the area of the floor (Figure 3. BTUlhr-F per ft of edge length L = total length of outside (exposed) edges of floor. an overall R-20 value isa typical requirement in state energy codes.93 0. TABLE 3.9) Adapted from ASHRAE 1997 Handbook-Fundamentals.15 0. Degree days are 5400. block with face brick. the edge loss method is recommended only for perimeter rooms.8 Exalllp Ie 3. Q=EXLxTD Heat loss through floor of building without basement. . TD=65-4=61 F From Table 3.50x 160x61 = 4880 BTU/hr The edge loss method (Equation 3.68 0.50 for 5400 degree days Edge length L = 2(60 + 20) = 160 ft Using Equation 3. block with face brick Metal stud with stucco 0.48 0.80 0. the floor should be insulated.8). The floor edge has R-5 insulation. E = 0. both with and without edge insulation.62 0. F Table 3. The outdoor air temperature is 4 F. FOR FLOOR SLAB ON GRADE (BTU/hr-F per It of edge) Wall Construction Edge Insulation None R-5 Degree Days 3000 0. For the interior areas. E. The following equation is used instead: Q=ExLxTD None R-5 None R-5 Poured concrete. Equation 3. which is recommended in more severe winter climates.10 A 60 ft by 30 ft (in plan) garage built with a concrete floor slab on grade is maintained at 65 F. For buildings with large floor slab areas.56 0.34 0.HEATING LOADS 55 cold climates.58 2.47 1.72 0. heated floor None R-5 (3.9) is recommended for buildings with small floor slab areas.72 0. E. the heat loss calculation is more complicated. (Actual insulation arrangement may differ. The walls are 8 in. the heat loss is greatest near the outside edges (perimeter) of the building and is proportional to the length of these edges.8. Insulation is usually required by energy codes.20 0.84 0. The last entry applies to a heated floor slab.8 should be used. Figure 3.90 Floor Slab on Grade When a floor is on the ground. What is the heat loss through the floor? Solution First find TD.84 0. BTUlhr E = edge heat loss coefficient.64 5400 7400 8 in. with the U and TD values for basements.54 1.49 l.50 0. where Q = heat transfer loss through floor on grade. and L.73 0.) =0. block with face brick 4 in.12 0.51 l.53 2.3.3 lists values of E for various wall constructions. ft TD = design temperature difference between inside and outside air. Consult the ASHRAE Handbook or local energy codes.3 EDGE HEAT LOSS COEFFICIENT.9. If the crawl space is used for the warm air heating ductwork. This is the only case where heat transfer is not calculated using Equation 3.

then the latent heat loss effect may b~ neglected. The amount of heat required to offset the sensible heat loss from infiltrating air can be determined from the sensible heat equation (Section 2.10) Qs= l. However. BTU/lb-F TC = temperature change between indoor and outdoor air. the room air humidity may fall to an unacceptable level for comfort. water vapor must be added. fe/min Wi.=mxcxTC (3. The openings of most concern to us are cracks around window sashes and door edges. The two means by which cold air may enter the building are called infiltration and ventilation. heat is also required to offset the effects from -any cold outdoor air that may enter a building.68 x CFM x (W/ . heat must be furnished to the room to overcome this effect. F Latent Heat Loss Effect of Infiltration Air Since infiltration air is often less humid than the room air. Iblhr c = specific heat of air. Equations 3.56 CHAPTER3 3.8 INFILTRATION AND VENTILATION HEAT LOSS In addition to the heat required to offset heat transfer losses in winter.. due to wind pressure. also introduced in Chapter 7.lxCFM xTC To sum up.a. This heat is in addition to the heat required to offset the heat transfer losses. The . BTUlhr CFM = air infiltration (or ventilation) flow rate. The addition of this moisture requires heat (latent heat of vaporization of water). using the appropriate specific heat of air. Finding the Infiltration Rate There are two methods used to estimate the CFM of infiltration air: the crack method and' the air change method.11 are derived in Chapter 7. BTUlhr m = weight flow rate of outdoor air infiltration. fe/min TC = temperature change between indoor and outdoor air.10 and 3. The resulting amounts of heat required are called the infiltration heating load and the ventilation heating load. Equations 3.humidity ratios (W) for Equation 3. This is expressed by the following equation: Q/ = 0. Wo ' = higher (indoor) and lower (outdoor) humidity ratio in grains water/lb dry air (gr wlIb d.11 can be read from the psychometric chart. .11 ) where Q/ = latent heat required for infiltration or ventilation air. BTU/hr CFM = air infiltration or ventilation rate.Wo') Sensible Heat Loss Effect of Infiltration Air Infiltration occurs when outdoor air enters through building openings. the sensible heat equation' is (3.15). where Qs = sensible heat loss from infiltration or ventilation air. and open doors. The sensible heat loss should always be calculated.12) where Qs = heat required to warm cold outdoor air to room temperature. Infiltration air entering a space in winter would lower the room air temperature.11 are used to find the room air sensible and latent heat losses resulting from infiltration air. Q. air flow rates in HVAC work are usually measured in f~/l1!in (CFM).) (2.12 is expressed in Iblhr. If the units are converted.10 and 3. If the lower room air humidity resulting from infiltration is acceptable.' For the interested student. Therefore. If the room air humidity is to be maintained. F The weight-flow rate of air (m) in Equation 2.

since they occur at different times. the new allowed infiltration rate is 0.3 CFM 4.3 x (70 -10) = 415 BTUlhr The quality of installation and the maintenance of windows and doors greatly affect the resultant crack infiltration. the infiltration that results from door opening should be included.10.00 CFM per ft 2 of door area Note: This table is adapted from various state energy standards. Indoor and outdoor design temperatures are 70 F and 10 F. Door Usage For buildings that have frequent door usage (e. Component Infiltration Rate Windows Residential doors Nonresidential doors 0.5. but the infiltration effects cannot be additive. Some average infiltration rates are shown in Table 3.9 Sketch for Example 3.g. . Energy codes list maximum permissible infiltration rates for new construction or renovation upgrading. TABLE 3.37 CFM per ft of sash crack. the infiltration sensible heat loss is Qs= 1. The rate of door usage (number of people per minute) is first determined.11 The windows in a building are to be replaced to meet local infiltration energy standards. Corner Room Infiltration When the infiltration rate is calculated for a room with two adjacent exposed walls (a corner room) with door or window openings on both sides. Example 3. we assume that infiltration air comes through cracks on one side only.4 TYPICAL ALLOWABLE DESIGN AIR INFILTRATION RATES THROUGH EXTERIOR WINDOWS AND DOORS 3'W 4' H f==~==l1 Figure 3.37 CFM per ft of sash crack 0. Poorly fitted windows may have up to five times the sash leakage shown in Table 3. What will be the sensible heat loss due to infiltration? Solution I. The wind changes direction. department stores). double-hung type.4 lists typical allowable infiltration rates. based on a 25 MPH wind.5 CFM per ft2 of door area l. will be discussed in Section 3. The crack lengths and areas are determined from architectural plans or field measurements. as shown in Figure 3. (Note the allowance for the crack at the middle rail of a double-hung window.4.1 x 6. the overall effect is the same as if the wind came directly from one side only (using its actual crack lengths).37 CFM/ft X 17 ft = 6. The windows are 3 ft W x 4 ft H.) 3. If there are different types or sizes of openings on each side. From the Table 3. the side that has the greater CFM should be used for the calculation.9.HEATING LOADS 57 Crack Method The crack method assumes that a reasonably accurate estimate of the rate of air infiltration per foot of crack opening can be measured or established. of course. Using Equation 3. in order to find the total building infiltratiDn rate. Table 3. the projected crack lengths for each side are less. with the advice of the architect or owner. The total crack length L= 3(3) + 2(4) = 17 ft.11 .4. 2. The total infiltration rate for the window is CFM = 0. If the wind comes obliquely (toward the corner).11.1 xCFMxTC = 1. Example 3.11 illustrates use of the crack method.. since the wind can only come from one direction at any given time. The procedure for combining the infiltration rates of individual rooms on different walls.

In high-rise buildings. Swinging door. . Consult the ASHRAE Handbook for more information. a themlal stack effect may increase infiltration through existing cracks. no vestibule Swinging door..7 air changes per hour due to infiltration. Much publicity has been given to reducing infiltration in existing buildings by use of weatherstripping and the sealing of cracks around frames.=0. but the following suggestions may be helpful: I.12) For doors that are left indefinitely open. wall penetrations. The room volume is V=20x IOx8= 1600ft' 2. vestibule Revolving door V CFM=ACHx60 where (3. Reliable data from window manufacturers and quality control of installation and maintenance may provide good estimates using this metQpd. which direct a vertical warm air barrier across the opening.7 x . special means may be used to try to offset infiltration. CFM=ACHx . it is difficult to determine the effect on the bnilding heating load of these methods. is replaced by colder outside air entering through cracks on lower floors. idential construction.5 ACH to 1.12. CFM = air infiltration rate to room.12 can be used to find the air infiltration rate in CFM.12 shOUld help to clarify the meaning and use of the air change method.5 ACH for buildings ranging from "tight" to "loose" construction.7CFM 60 60 V 1600 Crack Method versus Air Change Method The obvious question arises as to which of these methods should be used. Additional air infiltration may occur through a porous wall. which rises through the building and exits out through cracks on upper stories. There are many excellent publications available from governmental agencies and utility companies on this subject. sealant coatings or other coverings may be applied to them. which can blow warm air directly at the opening. Using Equation 3. Equation 3.12 A 20 ft by 10 ft by 8 ft high room in a house has 0. The crack method is generally used in nonres.lJge is defined as being equal to the room air volume. and other openings. There is no unqualified answer.= 18. Solution l. Air Challge Method This procedure for finding the infiltration rate is based on the number of air changes per hour (ACH) in a room caused by the infiltration. If the walls have significant porosity. CFM ACH = number of air changes per hour for room V = room VOlume. but there is no reason why the "rack method cannot be used if reliable data are available. Find the infiltration rate in CFM. The air change method is used primarily in residential construction heating load estimates. Suggested values range from 0.5 INFILTRATION RATES FOR FREQUENT DOOR USAGE Type tt" per Person 900 550 60 Using the definition of an air change. ft3 Example 3. are two such methods. 2. Example 3. Unit heaters. aile air cha. It is often difficult to estimate leakage rates in older buildings because the condition of the Determination of the expected number of air changes is based on experience and testing. sillplates. and air curtains. This occurs when the warmer inside air..58 CHAPTER3 TABLE 3. However.

The indoor design conditions are generally chosen within the area of the comfort zone. 3. This will reduce or even prevent infiltration. with an outdoor temperature of -SF. this should not be a problem. there is concern that there may be inadequate natural infiltration. Therefore.1 are compatible both with comfort and responsible energy conservation. Table A. only the outside air ventilation load is included. State or local energy standards may . These values have been obtained from weather records over a period of years. Mechanical ventilation systems for large buildings are usually designed and operated so that fans create a slightly positive air pressure in the building. before it enters the room. The outdoor air heating design temperature is shown for each location under the heating DB column. When it is felt that the building is relatively tight and pressurized. The go\"erning state energy code must also be followed in choosing the design condition.10. Equations 3. A separate word of caution on pressurizing buildings: it is not uncommon to find that overpressurization results in doors that require great force to open or close.9 list recommended outdoor design conditions for winter for some localities in the United States and other countries. but not part oflhe individual room heating loads.11 are also used to find the ventilation heating load. Example 3. so only the sensible heat of the ventilation air is calculated. Example 3. Outside ventilation air should be introduced in such cases. resulting in long-term health problems from indoor air pollutants. The mechanical ventilation system introduces 5000 CFM of outside air. since the entering air is at the outdoor temperature and humidity.13 illustrates the calculation of ventilation loads. of course. for 35 hours each year the outdoor air temperature has been less than the listed value. as described in Section 1.9 DESIGN CONDITIONS The values of the indoor and outdoor air temperature and humidity that are used in heating (and cooling) load calculations are called the design conditions. This provides a reasonable design temperature without resulting in oversized heating equipment for a rare colder occasion. Outside winter heating design temperatures are based on weather records. in modem "tight" residences. On the a\'erage. no allowance for infiltration is made.10. Infiltration generally provides adequate freshair. but since heating load calculations for existing buildings are usually being made when upgrading for energy conservation. Qs= l. However. However.l xCFMxTC = l. in this case there is no ventilation load component.6 and shown in Figure 1. the indoor design conditions listed in Table 1.13 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ A building with sealed windows is maintained at 72 F. More specifically. Air distributing systems in residences often use recirculated air only. if required) in the air conditioning equipment. The procedures for determining the appropriate quantity of outside ventilation air are explained in Chapter 6. In any case foresightful operation of the heating system can still provide comfortable indoor conditions when the outdoor temperature is slightly lower. Some nonresidential buildings have fixed windows (no openable part).HEATING LOADS 59 windows is not known. the ventilation air is heated (and humidified. The outside ventilation air will be an additional part of the building heating load. Using Equation 3.10 and 3. In this case. crack infiltration is limited to exterior doors only.l x 5000 x 77 =423. it is part of the total building heating load.500 BTUlhr Ventilation (Outside Air) Load Some outside air is usually brought into nonresidential buildings through the mechanical ventilation equipment (air handling units) in order to maintain the indoor air quality. What is the additional sensible heating requirement from this effect? Solution The inside humidity conditions are not specified as being fixed.

aluminum frame. Construction is as follows: Wall: 6 in. we explained that the room heating load is equal to the room heat loss. Iowa. Use of these values will be discussed later.50CFM/ft Roof: fiat roof. The building has a heated basement. The reason it is given this name is explained in Chapter 7 and need not concern us now. If an unheated space is totally surrounded by heated spaces. This is the low end of the recommended values. Example 3. What outdoor and indoor winter temperatures should be used for designing the heating system? Solution From Table A. The room heating load is the amount of heat that must be supplied to the room to maintain it at the indoor design temperature. From Table 1. (The abbreviation DB stands for dry bulb temperature. Find the design room heating load. In this case. gypsum board finish Window: 5 ft H x 4 ft W pivoted type.14 Plans are being prepared for the Big Bargain Department Store in Chicago. concrete (120 #/cu. • 14 ft - • r Office plan view 12 ft 1 1 r 5ftHx4ftW .. so the heat transfer can be neglected. in. it is better to assume the space is at outdoor temperature. the recommended outdoor heating design temperature for Chicago is -6 F.10 ROOM HEAT LOSS AND ROOM HEATING LOAD The room heat loss is the sum of each of the room heat transfer losses and infiltration heat losses. The column entitled Degree Days expresses the severity of the heating season. If the unheated space has a large exposed glass area. Example 3. The heat loss from the heated room through the separating partition should be calculated.10 Floor plan for Example 3. it is assumed that the outdoor air humidity design level is zero.60 CHAPTER3 mandate slightly different design conditions. which is the actual air temperature. Some designers assume that the temperature of the unheated space is halfway between indoor and outdoor design conditions.9.15 The office room shown in Figure 3.1 an indoor air design condition of 68 F is chosen.) 3. R-8 insulation. it can be assumed to be at indoor design conditions. Table A. the resulting latent heat energy required must be calculated. is the number of degrees of latitude from the equator for the location. Examples of this calculation will be discussed later. In Section 3:1. Also remember that the values specified in the appropriate local Code would be those actually used. R-8 insulation. metal deck. Illinois. !!. double glass.10 is in a onestory building in Des Moines.9 also includes outdoor design data for summer cooling (see Chapter 6). Example 3.15.15 illustrates the procedure for finding the room heating load.) If the building is to be humidified in the heating season. The column titled Lat. (A justification for this is that people generally keep their winter coats on while shopping. ft). Infiltration rate is 0. suspended ceiling Ceiling height: 9ft Unheated Space Temperature Unheated rooms or spaces between a heated room and the outdoors will have a temperature lower than the heated room. Figure 3.

3.16 Find the infiltration heat loss and net heating load for the building shown in Figure 3. 5.11 THE BUILDING NET HEATING LOAD In addition to calculating the individual room heating loads.HEATING LOADS 61 Solution Building Heat Transfer Loss This is the sum of the heat transfer losses to the outdoors through the exposed walls. For a building that is not mechanically ventilated and that has reasonably free interior passages for air movement. measuring total building areas. Mechanical ventilation will reduce and often prevent significant infiltration.000 BTUlhr. The room heating load is the sum of all the losses.60 x 20 x Roof x 168 x 0. there is no reason why they should not be considered in calculating net heat losses. This is because.11. the wind comes from only one direction at any given time. The indoor and outdoor temperatures are 70 F and 10 F.10 and A. Infiltration rates are shown in Figure 3. doors. 2. For buildings that have steady internal gains.8. as noted earlier. outdoor temperature is -9 F. . Design temperatures are selected from Tables 1.50 CFM/ft x 18 ft 82 82 82 ~ ~ 870 980 1100 2950 810 3760 x 82 ~ Room heating load In calculating design heat losses. Air that infiltrates on the windward side of a building leaks out through openings on the other sides. it should be understood that infiltration air cannot enter through all sides at the same time..9.8. the biJilding heating load must also be determined. It is difficult to evaluate this.10 Window 0. infiltration losses. and roof of the building. The infiltration heat loss is found using Equation 3. A solar heat gain could not be guaranteed. (It is also the sum of the room heat transfer losses. but it is preferable to calculate it directly. 3. of course.1 x 0. 4. 6. floor. Find one-half the infiltration rates for all sides of the building: Building infiltration CFM = 300 + 100 + 200 + 100 2 =350CFM ~. The heat transfer losses are found using Equation 3.) 1.08 Total heat transfer loss Infiltration heat loss ~ 1. The building net heating load is the amount of heat required for the building at outdoor design conditions.11. Solution u BTU/hr-tt"-F x A x TO F Q ft> BTu/hr ~ Wan x 106 x 0. if any. 1. Indoor temperature is 71 F. Example 3. and ventilation load. usually no credit is taken for heat gains. windows. because it is affected by interior conditions such as partition arrangements. The building heat transfer loss is 170. Building Infiltration Loss Although the building generally has more than one side with openings. The building net heating load is the sum of the building heat transfer losses.6 and A. A table is arranged to organize the data. however. the following rule is suggested: The building air infiltration CFM is equal to one-half the sum of the infiltration CFM of every opening on all sides of the building: The following example illustrates the procedure for finding the building infiltration heat loss and the building net heating load. The U values are found from Table A.10.

Find the building net heating load: Heat transfer loss Infiltration heat loss = 170. The standard piping and pickup factor varies from 15-25%. the system may be started earlier. crawl splices). and up to 40% for a 10 F night setback in residential equipment. or when regular nighttime temperature setback is practiced.000 BTUlhr = 23.. shafts.10): Q = l.10) = 23. It is suggested that 2-5% of the building sensible heat loss be added to account for duct heat loss. if the ducts pass through unheated spaces (e. attics. such as heat loss from ducts and piping. This is called the pickup factor. ~ 200 CFM C " Piping Losses In hot water or steam heating systems. this additional capacity is gained at a sacrifice to cost.62 CHAPTER3 Figure 3. The loss is usually insignificant in private residences. In this situation. Inf.g. Furthermore. 2. This constitutes a heat loss when the air leaks into unconditioned spaces. on start-up of the system. An allowance is sometimes made for heating the system itself. Many other strategies are available for bringing the space temperature up to design in sufficient time.16. depending on the quality of the sheet metal installation. ~ 300 CFM Duct Leakage There is usually some air leakage from supply ducts at seams. however.12 SYSTEM HEAT LOSSES Besides the direct room and building heat losses (heat transfer and infiltration/ventilation). A minimum of R -4 insulation is recommended for ductwork in all cases. In large buildings. the heating equipment may not be able to bring the rooms up to design temperature quickly enough.100 Building net heating load = 193.l x CFM x TC = l. but can reach 510% of the load in larger buildings. if the weather forecast is for cold weather. It is explained in the following discussion. and if the equipment capacity just equals the building load.100 BTUlhr 3. an equipment siziug allowance for setback is not standard practice. For instance. depending on 3. Find the infiltration heat loss (Equation 3. there are often system heat losses. basements. there will be heat transfer from the air in the duct to the cooler surrounding spaces. This factor combines the piping and pickup losses described earlier. this loss is usually negligible. ~=r--~~ ~~D---~==~ :2 o o o LL :2 o o o LL " Inf. it may be desirable to allow a pickup loss in sizing the central heating equipment. insulation. It is normal practice in the boiler industry to specify a combined piping and pickup factor (allowance) that can be used when sizing a heating boiler.100 BTUlhr Pickup Factor or Allowance When a building is intermittently heated. in large buildings mUltiple boilers and excess standby' capacity are common. . Since piping is relatively small and always should be insulated. there may be heat lost from the hot piping. Some designers allow an extra 10% loss for intermittently heated buildings. and surrounding temperatures.11 Sketch for Example 3.l x 350 x (70 . Of course. Duct Heat Transfer Loss In a warm air heating system. This range of values depends on the length of ductwork.

What is the building gross heating load (the required furnace capacity)? Solution The system losses are added to the net load. pickup) are not part of the room loads. This is the heat output that the heating equipment must furnish. piping. Find the room heating load. When they are added to the net load.000 = 140. the sum is called the gross heating load.10 to find the infiltration heat loss. forth) as well as for space heating. Use architectural plans to find window crack lengths and door areas. For each room. Net and Gross Heating Load The net heating load is the amount of heat needed for all the building rooms. It is estimated that the combined duct heat transfer loss and heat loss due to leakage is 10%.000 Pickup allowance (OAO x 350. if there are doubts. Total these to find the room heat transfer loss.13 is a building heating load calculations form.9 and Table 3. 3.17 illustrates this relationship. The space temperature will be set back at night by 10 F. and so . B. baths.8 or calculate from R-values if necessary (Tables AA and A. walls. Calculate the heat transfer losses through all exposed surfaces in the room (Equation 3. Example 3. The system heating losses (ducts.13 SUMMARY OF HEATING LOAD CALCULATION PROCEDURES The following step-by-step instructions summarize how to calculate heating loads. and so forth.6-A. through which there will be heat transfer. use the V-values from Table 3. Room heating load = r00111 heat transfer loss + room infiltration loss = 350.1. Select appropriate overall heat trausfer coefficients (V-values) from Tables 3. 5. they should be calculated. . use the edge loss (Equation 3. Obtain dimensions from architecture plans. 3. if any. 2.8). Net heating load Duct losses 0.HEATING LOADS 63 boiler type and size (see Chapter 4).000 = 525.000 BTUlhr Service (Domestic) Hot Water Heating The heat output of a boiler is sometimes used to heat service water (for kitchens.000 BTU/hr. Select appropriate indoor and outdoor design temperatures (Tables 1. Use Table 3A (or the equivalent) to find the infiltration rate. The individual room data and results are recorded on a room heating load calculations form (Figure 3. Remember if the building is pressurized by the mechanical ventilation system. Procedures for determining hot water use loads may be found in the ASHRAE Handbooks. Example 3. and exterior rooms. as suggested here. find areas of exposed windows.17 A building has a building net heating . For floor slabs on grade. Use Equation 3.12). 6. 4. For the crack method: A. The forms are suitable for both residential and commercial estimates.000) Furnace capacity (gross load) Room Heating Load I. Figure 3.5). A. For basement floors and walls below grade. C.2 and outdoor ground temperature. The actual piping and pickup losses may be greater or less than these values.1 and A. infiltration can usually be considered negligible.10 x 350.9). This load should then be included when sizing the boiler. load of 350. B.3). Use only one wall for corner rooms. Find the room infiltration heat loss. A. they are loads on the boiler or furnace.000 BTUlhr = 35.

msfer Loss Infiltration Window J ~ J 1.1 1.1 x 1.Room Heating Load Calculations Project Engrs.1 1. _ _ _ of _ _ _ PP. Room Plan Size Heat Transfer Walls P.~1 (CFM) A x B x TC ~ 1.1 x 1.1 1.1 I ~ 1. Indoor DB _ _ _ F Outdoor DB _ _ F Location _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Calc. by _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Chk. ft Area. 1.1 x 1.1 x (CFM) A x B x TC (CFM) A x B x TC 1. by U x A x TO ~ BTUlhr U x A x TO ~ BTUlhr U x A x TO ~ BTUlhr Windows- Doors Roof/ceiling Floor Partition . ft2 CFM perft2 Figure 3.1 x 1.1 x 1.1 1.1 Infiltration Heat Loss Room Heating Load Infiltration CFM Windows Doors ColumnA I I ColumnS I I I I CFM per ft Crack length.. Heat Transfer Loss Infiltration Window Door I ~ I 1.12 Room heating load calculations form.1 1.. .1 .1 Infiltration Heat Loss Room Heating Load Room Plan Size Heat Transfer Walls I I I I I I U x A x TO ~ BTU/hr U x A x TO ~ BTU/hr U x A x TO ~ BTUlhr Windows Doors Roof/ceiling Floor Partition Heat Tr.1 (CFM) A x B x TC (CFM) A x B x TC ~ Door ' 1.1 (CFM) A x B x TC ~ I 1.

Chk. Heat Transfer Subtotal Infiltration Os:::: 1. A. and so forth. find the infiltration CFM for all openings in the building. B. Using the crack method.13 Building heating load calculations form. Service HW Load Boiler or Furnace Gross Load . and using Equation 3. To find this. Figure 3. Do not use areas from each room-this leads to errors. Duct Heat Loss Duct Heat Leakage Piping and Pickup Allowance .gr/lb Project Location Engineers Heat Transfer Calc. There is an infiltration heat loss if the building does not have medianical ventilation that pressurizes the interior. roof. Use the total exterior areas of the walls.10. DB. Building Net Load Ventilation Os = 1.1 x CFMx TC= .1 x OL =0. Calculate the heat transfer losses through all exposed surfaces. by Q1 U ~ A ~ TO 1 BTU/hr Roof Walls Windows Doors Floor .68 x CFMx GFMx TC= grllb= % % % . Take one-half of this CFM. F W'. find the building infiltration heat loss. Building Heating Load Calculations 2. 1.HEATING LOADS 65 Building Heating Load The steps for finding the building heating load are as follows. by Intdoor Outdoor Ditt.

11). 5. Review Questions I.com l.1 and 17.hvacsoft. The practice of using temperatures as high as 75 F is often unnecessary. and so forth) should be consistent with reducing energy consumption. 4. Use ample insulation throughout the building. Building construction in the past has been scandalously wasteful of energy due to inadequate insulation. . If the building is to be humidified. 3. 5.elitesoft. To find this.carmelsoft. 7. 9. Heat losses shall be calculated using thorough. B. Find the building gross heating load (this is the required furnacelboiler capacity): Gross heating load = net load + venti/arion loads + s)'Stem losses + sen'ice hot warer load An example of heating load calculations for a building may be found in Example Project I in Chapter 17. and use either double glass or storm windows. 4. Some ways this can be achieved are as follows: 7.66 CHAPTER3 3. Follow applicable energy conservation construction standards.2 at this point for an account of some practical problems encountered in doing an actual estimate. use of glass.1 l. 2. A. if the boiler is to handle this. Find any system losses such as duct losses and piping and pickup allowances (Section 3.hvac-calc. find the ventilation latent heat load from Equation 3. Practice setback (lowering) of temperature during unoccupied periods. 2. 6.14 ENERGY CONSERVATION Reducing the building heating load provides a major opportunity for energy conservation. Determine the CFM of outside ventilation air from Table 6. 6. Find the building net heating load: Building net hearing load = building hear transfer loss + infiltration loss 5. What is their relationship? What are the t\Vo methods for estimating infiltration? How is the infiltration for a corher room found when using the air change method? What is meant by the term setback? What outside temperature is used to find the heat transfer from below grade surfaces? Through what part of a'building is the heat transfer loss proportional to the perimeter? 3.10. If the building has mechanical ventilation that sufficiently pressures the interior. 6. 7. 3. correct procedures. Using Equation 3. The building architectural design (orientation. Be certain all windows and doors are weatherstripped. type of materials. an overall roofceiling resistance of R-20 to R-30 is recommended for residential buildings in colder climates. Find the service hot water load.com www. 4.com \vw\V.wrightsoft. Consider using 68 to 72 F. there is a ventilation heat load but no infiltration heat loss. 8.com www. Use inside winter design temperatures that provide comfort but not excessive temperature. find the ventilation sensible heat load. C.17. The student is advised to read Sections 17. except in mild climates. What is the heating load and what items make it up? What is the infiltration loss? What is the ventilation load? Define resistance and conductance.com www. Web Sites The following Web sites provide heating load calculation software: www. For instance.

sand and gravel aggregate (not dried) concrete R-5 insulation --t".3S ft 2 -F-hrIBTU.10 What is the heat transfer loss through a 40 ft by 20 ft basement floor when the room is at 65 F and the ground temperature is 50 F? 3.6. What is the heat transfer loss through the wall on a day when the outdoor temperature is -S F? 3. 3. Calculate the heat transfer loss through a 2S ft by 30 ft roof-ceiling of a house with pitched asphalt shingle roof. measuring IS ft by 9 ft (without windows).9 3.1 A homeowner asks an energy consnltant to find the heat loss from his home. The room temperature is 69 F and the outdoor temperature is -8 F.3 is 30 ft long by 12 ft high. The inside temperature is 68 F. gypsum board -j~~-i7~ . vented attic.3. R-8 insulation.4 The wall in Problem 3.2 An insulating material has a thermal conductivity of k = 0. On one wall. The wall has a thermal resistance of 0. The wall construction is 4 in.1 1/2 in. 6 in. Ohio. What is the heat loss through the floor? 3. built on grade. block with brick facing.~+'71'. acoustical tile on furring ceiling.7 culate the R~value of the roof in winter.S insulation. Cal- 3.8 CFMfft. more of glass fiber insulating board is added.6 Figure 3.HEATING LOADS 67 Problems 3. The indoor temperature is 70 F. What must be the R-value of insulation added to the wall in Problem 3. respectively.6 if 2 in. How many inches of the material should the contractor install if energy conservation specifications call for insulation with an R-12 value? 3.S A state energy code requires a certain wall to have an overall R-1S value. R-S. 3.--. wide by 3 ft high wood sash window with indoor and outdoor temperatures of 68 F and 3 F. R-5 insulation is used around the edge. with a suspended !6 in. is 100 ft by 40 ft in plan. 3. acoustical tile ceiling. What is the rate of heat loss through the wall? 3.8 3.11 A warehouse in Cleveland. Find the R-value of the roof in Problem 3.3? A roof is constructed of built-up roofing on top of a metal deck.14. and !6 in. Compare the result with the value from Table A. the consultant measures a temperature of 66 F on the inside surface of the wall and 18 F on the outside surface. Inside and outside temperatures are 72 Fand-2 F.14 Sketch for Problem 3.23 BTUlhr-ft2-F per inch..12 Find the sensible heat loss from infiltration through a casement window with a 3 ft wide by 4 ft high operable section if the infiltration rate is 0. Calculate the heat transfer loss through a 4 ft 6 in.3 Find the overall R value and U factor in winter for the wall with construction as shown in Figure 3.

wood sheathing. gypsum wallboard.20 Calculate the individual room heating loads and building heating load for the house shown in Figure 3.17. Utah 3.14. wood.8 in. Illinois. No basement 3. as described: 16 ft Office j Wall: 4 in. gypSU/11 board interior Windows: double-hung. Pennsylvania. l!in. 3. aluminum frame. has two 3 ft wide by 4 ft high casement windows on one side with an infiltration rate of 0. building paper. The inside temperature is 72 F. R-8 insulation. Find the design infiltration heat loss from the room. cinder block. Use recommended energy conservation design values. and a 7 ft by 3 ft door on the other side with an infiltration rate of 1. double glass. casement type. single glass Roof: pitched. it has been decided to install double glass windows on the building in Problem 3. 3.6 CFM/ft. Wisconsin. 7ft high Ceiling height: 9ft. concrete.68 CHAPTER3 Figure 3.15 To save energy.19 Find the design heat loss from the room shown in Figure 3.21 Calculate the heating load for the building shown in Figure 3. Using the recommended outdoor winter design temperature.16 Find the total heat loss from heat transfer and infiltration through a single-glazed 5 ft wide by 4 ft high double-hung vinyl frame window in a building in Springfield.2 CFM/ft. What is the heat loss from infiltration? 3.14 A building in Milwaukee.5 CFMljt Location. asphalt shingles. Salt Lake City. R-5 insulation. The building is constructed on grade.13 A room 15 ft by 20 ft by 10 ft has an air infiltration rate of 1. Ontario. 0 in. calculate the design heat transfer loss through the windows. 3.5 air changes per honr. 3. Location: Hartford. 8 in. The infiltration rate is 0. . attic Doors: 10 in. Connecticut Walls: wood siding.16. wood sash. R-4 insulation. wood sheathing. Wall: 8 in. The room is at 68 F. vinyl frame Ceiling height: 9ft 3. Infiltration rate 0.18 Find the total heat loss through the exterior wall and windows of a room at 72 F. gypsum board ceiling.15 Floor plan for Problem 3. has 2000 ft2 of single-glazed vinyl frame windows. building paper. The room is at 72 F and the outdoor temperature is 1 F.19.7 CFM/ft. double-hung. furred gypsum wallboard Windows: 4 ft wide by 5 ft high.15 on an intermediate floor in an office building in Toronto.17 A corner room in a building in Pittsburgh. What is the reduction in the design heat transfer loss? 3. face brick. Use recommended energy conservation design values suggested in this chapter. maintained at 71 F. 3. 30ft long by 15ft high Windows: (5) 4 ft wide by 4 ft high double glass.

com www.20.2 Living room [ All windows 3' -6" H x 4' W Scale 1/8 in. Kansas. and 3.21 using heating load calculation software available from one of the following Web sites: www. Factory Walls: 8 in. lightweight concrete. wood Roof: 4 in.3 I~ 17 N r Bedroom No. lh il1.20.1 Bedroom No. 3.22 Solve Problems 3.carmelsoft. concrete block. finished ceiling .16 Building plan for Problem 3. 3. furred gypsum board Windows~·aouble· glazed. = 1 It-O in. aluminum frame Computer Solution Problems 3.19.com Mechanical ventilation: 2500 CFM Doors: 1 in.21(continued) Location: Topeka. Utility room Kitchen Bath Bedroom NO.elitesoft.HEATING LOADS 69 Figure 3.

= l' -0" .70 CHAPTER3 Figure 3. Factory building Heig ht: 12 ft Windows: 8 ft W x 6 ft H Doors: 8 ft H x 5 ftW Scale: 1/16 in.21.17 Building plan for Problem 3.

A third advantage of warm . 6. Explain the functions of the basic operating and safety controls for furnaces and boilers.1 WARM AIR FURNACES A warm air furnace heats by delivering warmed air to the spaces in a building. Select a warm air furnace or heating boiler. The heat pump. 7. since. will be discussed in Chapter 13. Describe the energy conservation methods that are associated with the use of furnaces and boilers. Solar heaters will be discussed in Chapter 18. but may also be used in cooling (see the discussion on absorption refrigeration in Chapter 13). Describe commonly used fossil fuels. Explain the function of flame safety controls. used for both heating and cooling. if the ductwork is already installed. by using a combined heating/cooling central unit or add-on cooling unit. 2. you will be able to: I. products of combustion. 3. OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter. Warm air furnaces are popular in private residences and small commercial· installations. the most common heat source equipment used in air conditioning. in very small buildings.c H A p T E R Furnaces and Boilers T his chapter will examine boilers and furnaces. Explain draft and how it is created and controlled. 4. 'pollutants. 71 8. The heat which is produced by this equipment is most often used for heating. and methods of pollution control. 5. warm air systems with ductwork are often less expensive than hydronic (hot water heating) systems. Also. 4. Describe the basic features of warm air furnaces and heating boilers. summer air conditioning may be easily added at a minimal cost. Describe the basic types of gas burners and oil burners.

gas. The low-boy type may be used if there is less headroom. Some heating units. Components The main parts of a warm air furnace are the heat exchanger.72 CHAPTER4 air systems over hydronic systems is that when nighttime temperature setback is used. Duct heaters are mounted in a section of duct. are structurally stronger. the combustion gas is exhausted through a vent to the outdoors.7. air blower (fan). these are not designed to be connected with ductwork (except for duct heaters). or in a crawl space. or wood burners. air passes over the outside of the heat exchanger. or masonry chimney. and may have more complex controls than residential furnaces. but instead deliver air directly into the space to be heated. Furnaces may have coal. wall and floor furnaces.1 Components of a warm air furnace. Pushed by a blower. The hydronic system. Some space heaters have blowers. The horizontal type is suitable for an attic. After its heat is transferred to the circulating air. The furnace may also have a humidifier and an air filter. The hot combustion gas (also called flue gas) inside the heat exchanger is produced by the burning of fuel. controls. the Figure 4. Oil and gas burners are discussed in Section 4. The basic components of a warm air furnace are shown in Figure 4. Warm air outlet Flue connection Heat exchanger Burner and controls Filter air inlet . as a heat source. resting on the floor. The heated air exits through the warm air outlet and travels through ducts to the rooms in the building. airflow in duct heaters is created by a separate blower-housed unit. it is popular for commercial rooftop installations. (Heating units in which the combustion gases are discharged to the outdoors are called vented appliances. Figure 4.) Types of Furnaces To fit in different spaces. however. The downflow type is practical when the supply air ductwork is under a floor or grade.2 shows some arrangements of residential type furnaces. fuel burner.1). Unlike warm air furnaces. others rely solely on the convected motion of the warm air. Space heaters are usually freestanding units. called unvented appliances. full heat can be delivered to rooms faster in the morning. which has been warmed from the inside by hot combustion gas passing through it. furnaces are made in a variety of physical configurations. and insulated housing cabinet. when weatherized for outdoor service. Unit heaters are generally Operation Circulating air enters the furnace through the return air inlet (Figure 4. discharge combustion gases directly into the room where the heater is located. duct heaters. sheet metal stack. The construction of furnaces for residential or commercial use is similar. oil. The lIpflow or high-bo\' type is suitable for fullheight basement or utility room installations with overhead ductwork. Additional heating equipment that is usually grouped with furnaces includes space heaters.1. The vent may be a pipe. The wall furnace and floor furnace are designed to be recessed into a wall or floor. and unit heaters. does have advantages in many applications (Chapter 5). or electric heaters. except that commercial furnaces have larger capacities.

mllnifold Circulating air t Draft hood Relief air Control compartment Circulatingair blower ~::::::=J~~~~~~~combustion air Gas burner Basement type Gas-supply manifold Circulatingair blower Filter t Upflowtype . In addition to the heating capacity. Because incomplete combustion may cause toxic pollutants. the CFM of air to be circulated and the duct system air static Figure 4. Capacity and Performance Manufacturers rate heating capacity in BTU/hr at the furnace outlet (bonnet). the use of unvented appliances is often restricted by legal codes.2 Arrangements of residential warm air furnaces.-~=-n. rather than having warm air circulate. Commercial furnaces are available up to about 1 million BTUlhr. Another version is the gas-fired radiant heater which works by using the flame and hot combustion gases to heat an element to a very high temperature.'. they must have ample room veutilation and special safety shut-off devices.Combustion air Gas-supply . Allowances must be made for any duct or pickup losses (see Chapter 3). Residential type furnaces are available in capacities from about 35.FURNACES AND BOILERS 73 hung from a ceiling. the heat is then radiated directly from the element to solid objects in the space. ..-=:7IL-" air t----'-~--Ir-+----. The system designer needs to know both the net heat available to heat the room or building and the gross furnace output at the bonnet. or may use heating coils (Chapter 5).000 BTUlhr. If '-Invented appliances are to be used.I air l~:2J§~~~~~~~c.'o'mbustion air Gas-supply Gas burner manifold Horizontal type Circulatingair plenum Downflow type - Draft diverter Relief air Control compartment Combustion air Gas-supply manifold Heat exchanger Circulatingair plenum Circulating Filter Heat exchanger air • \ Flue pipe Circulatingair plenum Heat exchanger Gas burner Flue pipe [Jraft hood Relief air Control compartment ~.000 -175.~~*. they may be gas or oil fired. Flue pipe Relief air Circulatingplenum Heat exchanger Gas burner Circulating air Filter "'-_____ Vent pipe Circulatingair blower ! __ Circulatingair blower Filter .

4. 3. and if airflow is proven. The combustion fan starts. A typical programming control sequence for a larger gas-fired furnace might be: I. and air and gas flow. 5. is to use a timer to delay the fan's start until a short period after the air starts warming. A simple occurrence such as blocked airflow from dirty filters can cause this. purge cycles are incorporated . when the air is too cooL An alternate arrangement.74 CHAPTER4 pressure loss requirements must be detennined (see Chapter 8). 7. except that the space thennostat starts the oil burner pump motor and activates the circuit providing an ignition spark. the quantity of gas-air mixture that remains in a large furnace after a shutdown is enough to be an explosion hazard. a safety control that detects flame presence is also used (Section 4. The operation of a residential oil-fired furnace is similar. 2. The air circulating fan starts.8).12).2 FURNACE CONTROLS The controls for a warm air furnace are of two types: operating controls and safety (limit) controls. A fan control thennostat located in the circulating air fan plenum (discharge) automatically starts the fan when the air has been warmed to a comfortable level and stops it . which achieves the same result. The following sequence outlines the operation of a typical residential gas-fired furnace: I. thus saving energy. which may have efficiencies as high as 95%. The pilot flame ignites the main gas. because it consists of programmed steps. The main gas valve opens and the spark ignition circuit is activated. A limit switch thermostat (high limit) will shut off the gas valve if the air temperature becomes dangerously high (about 200 F). 4. if the flame fails later. The controls used in each application depend on the equipment. Safety controls may sense air and combustion gas temperatures. Instead of a standing (continuous) pilot flame. 3. Commercial furnaces need more complex control arrangements. the pilot flame is off. and ifproven. utilizing the "free" remaining heat left in the heat exchangers. On a call for heat. Air circulation is tested by a pressure switch. a switch in the room thermostat closes. For instance. The safety control will continually check for flame presence. In these more complex arrangements. type offue1. This arrangement. Fan shutdown can also be delayed until after the valve closes. Manual control of the fan is provided to allow continual air circulation in the summer.into the furnace control operations. the valve will close. Operating controls regulate the burner (Section 4. 6. is used to save energy. When the furnace is not heating. therefore. and safety code regulations. the pilot gas itself may be ignited on a call for heating. Combustion gas flow is tested. the sequence of events is often called a programming control sequence. Safety controls (also called limit controls) stop or prevent furnace operation if safe limits are exceeded. A pilot flame (pilot light) safety control checks for the standing (continuous) pilot flame. If the flame is present. Combination heating!cooling units generally have two-speed fans to enable them to provide more airflow in the summer. the space thennostat closes the heating control circuit (only if all safety controls are also closed). A timed prepurge cycle (typically 30-60 seconds) exhausts combustion gases which may remain in the furnace from the last operation. except for so-called high-efficiency furnaces (Section 4. 2. the main gas valve opens. The steady-state efficiency of warm air furnaces typically ranges from 75-80%. 4. called intennittent ignition.7) and the air circulation fan during normal operation. On a call for heating.

Whether water or combustion gas is inside the tubes (watertube or firetube) 5. the system shuts down. In New York City in 1962. although so named because they are used to generate steam to be utilized in generating e1ec~ tric power. a few words about safety should be said. but does not boil it. the flame safety control continually checks the flame. When the thermostat is satisfied.FURNACES AND BOILERS 75 8. B. The ASME Code for Heating Boilers limits maximum working pressure to 15 psig for steam and 160 psig for water. killing 21 and injuring 95. Ignition is tested (with the flame safety control). A steam boiler. will be discussed in relation to boilers and furnaces together. A hot water boiler heats water to a high temperature. 4.3 HEATING BOILERS Pressure and Temperature Ratings The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) has developed standards for the construction and permissible operating pressure and temperature limits for low pressure heating boilers which are used in the United States. since this is more than adequate for the vapor pressure exerted by 250 F water. If the flame fails or is unstable. 10. the ignition circuit is deactivated. How draft (airflow) is achieved The basic features of these groupings will be explained separately. because steam turbines require steam at a relatively high pressure. A. controls. any important differences will be noted. This tragic incident is mentioned to stress the importance of obtaining a thorough working knowledge of boilers. The type of fuel used 7. since they apply to both types of equipment. which is then delivered through pipes to space heating equipment. a heating boiler in a telephone company building exploded. and enclosure. Their pressure and temperature ratings 3. and steps 6 aud 7 are repeated (prep urge cycle aud attempted ignition). probably the boiler is where one should be most sensitive about safety to life. Power boilers. having similar features. Components The main parts of a boiler are the combustion chamber. This may affect the choice of low or high pressure Boilers produce hot water or steam. whereas high pressure boilers do. also called a steam generatOl. Low pressure heating boilers do not require the attendance of a licensed operating engineer in many locations. Whether the boiler and accessories are assembled on the job site or at the factory 6. Their specific application 2. the system shuts down and "locks out" (a manual reset is necessary).) 9. according to: 1. Their materials of construction 4. This is because there is a tremendous amount of energy packed into a boiler. heats water to the boiling point to make steam. Hot water boilers are usually manufactured for 30 psig maximum working pressure. At this point. Boilers may be classified in various ways. (During operation. burner. the main gas valve closes. will be discussed together. If ignition does not occur (in about 4 seconds). Another application for high pressure boilers in HVAC systems is to use them with steam turbine-driven centrifugal refrigeration machines. a hot water boiler would be better named a hot water generator. Of all the equipment used in HVAC systems. Items 6 and 7. A timed postpurge cycle exhausts combustion gases from the furnace. Since it does not actually boil water. the ASME Code for Power Boilers applies. can be used in high temperature hot water (HTW) hydronic heating systems. . For higher temperatures and pressures. fuels and draft. Both hot water and steam boilers. heat exchanger. If the second ignition attempt fails. Hot water temperatures are limited to 250 F.

The Scotch marine type firetube boiler (Figures 4. The sections are assembled together similar to cast iron radiators. Figure 4.5) is the most popular for commercial heating service because of its compactness. Firetube or Watertube Steel boilers can also be classified as either jiretube or watertube. Firetube boilers range from small capacities to about 20 million BTUlhr.4 Steel firetube boiler arrangement. The water flows inside these with the combustion gases outside. and Scotch marine type) are in their construction (a specialized subject. Their main application is for large steam power plants or for creating process steam to be used in industry. Firetube boilers are less expensive than watertube boilers but are less durable. An advantage of this construction is that when the boiler is too large to fit through the building access opening. Materials of Construction Cast iron boilers have a heat exchanger constructed of hollow cast iron sections. and not important for our purposes). Steel boilers have a heat exchanger constructed of steel tubes arranged in a bundle. (Courtesy: Burnham Corporation-Hydronics Division. They range from small to fairly large capacity.4). In firetube boilers (Figure 4. low cost.5.3 Cutaway view of small gas-fired cast iron hot water package boiler. controls. it can be shipped in parts and assembled on site. and reliability. Note draft hood and automatic flue gas damper. Combustion gas Gas Burner[ Furnace ~TI~I---TI~I--TI~I- . locomotive. Watertube boilers are not often used in HVAC installations. The HVAC engmeer should always check that a boiler conforms to ASMEcodes. up to about 10 million BTUIhr.4 and 4.. Watertube heating boilers range from medium size to about 100 million BTU/hr. the combustion gases flow inside the tubes and the water circulates outside. the water flows inside the tubes and the combustion gases outside. In watertube boilers. Boilers that have copper tube heat exchangers are also available.) ~Automatic vent damper _Draft hood Figure 4.3 shows a small cast iron boiler complete with burner.76 CHAPTER4 boilers for an installation.4 and 4. as seen in Figures 4. horizontal return tube. The differences among types offiretube boilers (e. and housing. Figure 4.g.

increases reliability by ensuring that components are properly matched. Inc.FURNACES AND BOILERS 77 Built-Up and Package Boilers A built-up boiler is a boiler whose components are assembled at the job site.5 Package firetube boiler.5.3. others are required by codes or by law.) . The small cast iron residential type boiler shown in Figure 4. are both package boilers. This procedure reduces cost. A package boiler is completely assembled and tested in the factory. and safety of boilers. burner. and the Scotch marine type boiler shown in Figure 4. Boiler Accessories Certain accessories are needed for the proper operation. Figure 4. heat exchanger. (Courtesy: Cleaver-Brooks. and accessories. and decreases the contractor's field work. this includes the combustion chamber. maintenance. Some accessories are optional.

Accessories Required for Both Steam and Hot Water Boilers A safety relief valve (Figure 4. prevents air that may be trapped in the top of the boiler from getting into the water supply line. aids the operating engineer in checking performance.78 CHAPTER4 Accessories Required for a Steam Boiler A low water cut-off (Figure 4. allows the operator to see the water level. it will stop burner operation if the water level falls below a safe level. This valve must be connected separately at the boiler. which is a piece of pipe from the boiler outlet extending down below the water line. Afiow check valve closes when the pump stops.6 Low water cut-off. A pressure gauge and thennometer. these devices divert air in the system to the expansion tank. A make-up water connection allows for filling the system and replenishing water losses.7). A water column with a gauge glass (Figure 4.8. heating rooms even when no heat is called for.9) opens if boiler pressure is excessive. Without this valve. natural convection. A pressure reducing valve (PRV) prevents excess pressure from being exerted on the boiler from the water make-up source. when mounted on the side of a steam boiler. Water level . mounted on or near the boiler outlet. Accessories Required for a Hot Water Boiler A dip tube.6) senses water level in a steam boiler. hot water would circulate by Figure 4.) Figure 4. The ASME Code specifies the type of valve which is acceptable for a particular application. one of the claims in the investigation was that the safety relief valve did not open and relieve the excessive pressure which had developed. (Courtesy: McDonnell & Miller ITT.7 Water column and gage glass. A typical piping arrangement with accessories for a hot water heating boiler is shown in Figure 4. In the New York explosion incident mentioned earlier. An expansion tank provides space for the increased volume of water when it is heated (Chapter 11 ). Air control devices may be required in the· water circuit.

a controller sensing a condition in .7) during normal operation. Figure 4. Operating Controls Operating controls regulate the burner (Section 4. It may be field installed or applied in the factory.FURNACES AND BOlLERS Flow check valve Pressure reducing valve 79 Return Expansion tank Air control device Relief Supply Check valve Make-up water \ (fililine)i--+-V1-W---tk:l--l I Dip tube Flow check valve ! To drain Hot water boiler To drain Note: Unions or equivalent for service not shown. a room thermostat starts and stops the burner' in response to space conditions.4 BOILER CONTROLS Boiler controls. are of two types. Cranston.. A preheater. if heavy fuel oil is to be used. the pump may be located in return line. operating controls and safety (limit) controls. the boiler regulates the burner operation: in steam boilers a pressure controller is used.) A combustion gas connection. conveys combustion gas as it travels from the boiler to the chimney or flue. heats the oil to a temperature at which it will flow easily. reduces heat loss. In larger units. RI. (In small systems. 4. and in . when applied around the boiler.9 Safety relief valve.8 Typical piping arrangement and accessories for a hot water boiler. In smaller units. (Courtesy: TACO. like furnace controls. Figure 4. Inc. called a vent on small boilers and a breeching on larger boilers.) Thermal insulation.

Prepurging. it rises through the chimney.80 CHAPTER4 hot water boilers. The pressure differential must be great enough to allow the flowing air and gas to overcome the resistance from friction in the combustion chamber. a temperature controller ("aquastat") is used. w. When controls sensing conditions in the boiler are used. the fan continues to run for a short time after the burner stops to purge the remaining combustion gases. Draft can be created either naturally or mechanically.5 BOILER AND FURNACE DRAFT Since boilers and furnaces need a constant supply of fresh combustion air.g a taller chimney. a fan starts. When operating correctly. and cost. drawing cool air into the boiler through the openings at the bottom (the chimney flue effect). heat exchanger. Since the heated gas is lighter than the cool air outside. and the pilot flame is lit. the flame safety control shuts the pilot flame gas val ve. must be created to force air and gas through the equipment and chimney. On shutdown. plus problems with aesthetics. resulting in a need for more draft. During operation. It is important to keep in mind both meanings of draft when dealing with combustion problems: draft is both the pressure to move the air and gas. Natural draft results from the difference in densities between the hot gas in the combustion chamber and the surrounding cool air. Natural draft can be increased by usin. After an automatically timed period (a few seconds). 5. If the pilot flame does not light. operate automatically in a specific programmed sequence. to allow for the pressure drop through the furnace heat exchanger. A small negative pressure (relative to the atmospheric pressure) exists in the furnace in a natural draft unit. The term draft is also used in an associated manner to refer to the air or gas flow itself caused by the pressure differential. 6. 2. High steam pressure (steam boilers) High hot water temperature (hot water boilers) High or low fuel oil/fuel gas pressure High or low fuel oil temperature Low water level Flame failure Programming Control Sequence Commercial boiler controls. The manufacturer will provide precise values. room thermostats may be used to control the flow of hot water to the terminal units in each room. a pressure differential. Conditions that boiler safety controls may check for are 1. Postpurging. Note that this is an extremely small pressure.g. .g. the pilot gas valve opens. the flame safety control continually checks the flame. When the thermostat is satisfied. perhaps -0. If the flame fails or is unstable.02 in. 4. the system shuts down. itself. When the pilot flame lights. secondary operating controls are often also used. called draft. On a call for heat. purging any combustion gases that might remain in the boiler from the last operation. the flame safety control shuts down the burner. this pressure prevents leakage of potentially toxic combustion gas into the equipment room. For instance. 4.. If the main flame does not light. Under normal circumstances.2). 4. but this approach has physical limits. an ignition transformer is energized. A typical programming control sequence for a small commercial gas-fired boiler might be: I. 2. safety (limit) controls prevent or stop an unsafe condition from occurring. 3. legal restrictions. and the J10l!. the resistance to airflow also increases. and flue.04 in. w. Safety Controls As discussed earlier. 5. The pressure in the flue outlet will be slightly more negative. the main fuel valve closes. the main gas valve opens. but as the equipment's size and complexity increases. like furnace controls (Section 4. the overfire (combustion chamber) draft pressure reading in a typical residential furnace will be about -0. 3. Natural draft provides enough combustion air for simpler equipment.

Changes in te)lJ. if mechanical draft is to be used. However. thereby wasting fuel. mechanical devices must be used. excess draft results in too much air. Because of.g.3 and 4.10) is used on vented gas-fired equipment. mechanical draft fans provide closer control of draft (airflow quantity) than natural draft does. The barometric damper. Generally. A momentary increase in updraft will draw more surrounding air from the room into the flue via the hood. pulls combustion air through the equipment and discharges it into the stack. adversely affecting the equipment's performarice. blows air through the furnace. Note that the draft hood is a safety device as well as a means of maintaining approximately constant draft. The terms powered combustion. and mechanical draft all refer to the use of fans to develop sufficient pressure to move the combustion gases through the boiler/furnace and flue. the draft hood diverts the air into the surrounding space rather than into the combustion chamber. wind) can cause changes in the draft through the equipment. In addition to being able to develop more pressure than natural draft. a means of maintaining constant draft is needed.11). a fan with adequate pressure is used to create both furnace and stack draft.10 Draft hood. Either an induced draft fan or a forced draft fan may be used. is used to control draft in oil-fired equipment and some power gasfired units.) As stack updraft increases or Figure 4. a draft fan may be used with a tall chimney. If a downdraft occurs. In this arrangement. Since the forced draft fan creates positive pressure in the boiler/furnace. also called a barometric draft regulator (Figure 4. power burners. so that the two together develop the needed draft. A sudden downdraft (gas flow down the chimney) due to outside disturbances can even blowout the flame. For smaller units. adequate draft control can usually be achieved using a draft hood (also called a draft diverter) or barometric damper.perature and outside air conditions (e. as will be seen in the following discussion. this reduces the chimney draft to its previous leveL A momentary decrease in updraft will be canceled by an opposite reaction in the flue.. A forced draft fan. creating a dangerous situation. or both.FURNACES AND BOILERS 81 When the natural draft would be insufficient. located at the equipment's air inlet. care must be taken in the equipment's design and maintenance to prevent combustion gas leakage into the room. Draft hood / Room air "'- Gases from boiler or furnace t ~- . reducing efficiency because the excess air is being heated and then thrown away. and the chimney flue effect handles the required stack draft. t Flue Draft Control Draft (airflow) should remain constant for a given fuel firing rate. located at the equipment's outlet. the fan creates only the furnace draft. The greater volume of air in the flue increases the resistance to airflow. An induced draft fan. (A power unit has a combustion air fan in the burner. and only a short stack is needed. where it could blowout the pilot or main flame or cause poor combustion. these potential problems. Too Iowa draft supplies insufficient air so that combustion' is incomplete. A draft hood (Figures 4.

Furnaces or boilers that have power burners (i. the furnace draft may still vary too much to maintain an efficient air/fuel ratio. This is the thermal energy that the boiler or furnace attempts to capture (as much of as is practical). the damper will open or close. hydrogen (H2)' and sulfur (S). the hydrocarbon methane (CH4 ) is a combustible compound often present in fuel. The vent damper in the flue i's not modulated.82 CHAPTER4 t Flue -Damper Room air example. with burner draft fans) may use one of the draft regulating devices discussed or may rely only on the burner fan to control draft. When combustion is complete. For instance. S) or as COlllpounds of those elements. Coal is still extensively used in many large power plant boilers because of its lower cost. In the process. This device is regulated by a pressure sensor in the furnace and adjusts automatically to maintain the proper furnace draft.). For example. if the boiler/furnace is in a heated space. This may be acceptable with small equipment.6 FUELS AND COMBUSTION Combustion is the rapid chemical combination of the combustible substances in a fuel with oxygen (in the air).. an automatically controlled outlet damper is often used instead of a barometric damper. Gases frarr: boiler or furnace t 4. but the inefficiency is too costly for larger units. Figure 4. The fan also improves draft control.g boilers and furnaces. sil fuels for space heatin. they control stack draft better than controlling furnace draft. a new problem arises. H 2 . The possible combustible substances in these fuels are carbon (C). When the vent damper closes.e. These gases are used to heat water or air or to generate steam. stored energy is released as thermal energy (heat) in the products of combustion. In larger equipment. The three major fossil fuels used in boilers and furnaces are gas. canceling the momentary change in draft in the same way that a draft hood does. Not all fuels contain all of the combustible elements or compounds. a highly toxic gas. This may reduce energy losses. oil. Because the draft hood and barometric damper are located in the vent stack. special chimney or vent materials may be required to prevent this occurrence. the possible products are carbon dioxide (CO. water vapor (H2 0). Consequently.) The fan is needed to overcome the greater resistance of the larger heat exchanger. Fossil fuels may also contain small amounts of noncombustible substances. and coal. These may exist in the fuel in their element form (C. a closed damper prevents the loss of warm air from the building. producing a different product. eventually causing corrosion.3). but instead closes automatically to prevent airflow through the stack when the system is shut down. The products of combustion are mostly gases at a high temperature. However. decreases. They are easier to handle and generally have less pollutant products. for . incomplete combustion of carbon produces carbon monoxide (CO). and sulfur dioxide (SOl)' Combustion may be incomplete. (The vent damper can also be installed in existing systems. Gas and oil have largely replaced coal as the fos.11 Barometric damper. Newer higher efficiency residential units often use a mechanical draft combustion air fan and an automatic vent damper (Figure 4. !be chimney cools down for long periods and water vapor may condense on start-up.

oil costs less. 2.9 1000 BTUlft3 140.S 18. save depletable fuel resources and aid in garbage disposal problems.2 oil is generally used in residential and small commercial furnaces and boilers. as the composition of fuels varies.O 16. A few cities are already successfully using large waste-fired boilers.1. Wood-fired units are growing in use. cost. 5. Use of No.6 ft 3/ft3 1410 ft 3/gal IS20 ft3/ga l 940 ft 3/lb 12. There are already a number of installations tapping biogas from large garbage landfills in the United States. Values are approximate. Biogas is a fuel gas (largely methane) that results from decomposing garbage.5 11. In smaller quantities.6 fuel oil Bituminous coal 9.6 12. particularly in those areas where wood is abundant. No.9 12. as required with oil and coal. The cost of each varies with location. . This limits their usage to larger installations with auxiliary heating equipment. Its greatest convenience is that it is delivered directly from the gas wells through pipelines to the consumer. it is less convenient than natural gas.2 oil.000 BTU/gal IS3.000 BTU/lb Notes: Air/fuel ratios based on air densjty of 0. The products of complete combustion are carbon dioxide and water vapor. Their advantage is that they cost less than No. and legislated price controls. market conditions. the popular choices are No. gas is cheaper.075 Ib/ft3 are by volume.6 and No. which use garbage. (kerosene) is limited to small space heaters. 1 8. This eliminates deliveries and storage needs. For residences. Fuel Choice The system designer should consider availability. convenience.2 fuel oil No.2 9. It also contains virtually no pollutants. In some cases. and pollution effects of the various fuels. oil storage tanks are buried underground or placed outdoors. for larger installations. I oil Combustion The chemical reaction In which a fuel combines with oxygen in the air and releases heat is called TABLE 4. The amount of heat released by complete combustion of natural gas (called the heating value) is about 1000 BTU/fe. 4. Fuel oil is composed largely of hydrocarbons and a small amount of sulfur. Liquified petroleum gases (LPG) is the name given to both of the hydrocarbon gaseous fuels propane and butane.6 IS. Heating values for various fuels are shown in Table 4. because they are liquified and bottled for use. Since oil must be stored in tanks.3 13.4 10.000 BTU/gal 13. No. They are convenient where piped natural gas is not available. in others. The lower number grades are lighter in density and have a lower viscosity and slightly lower heating values. Oil Fuel oils are available in different grades (numbers I. :2 heating oil and natural gas. Natural gas is composed of a number of hydrocarbons.1 FUEL COMBUSTION DATA Percent CO2 in Combustion Gas Quantity of Air Supplied Fuel Theoretical Air/Fuel Ratio Theoretical 20% Excess 40% Excess Heating Value Natural gas No. depending on the source.1 IS.5 oils require preheating before they become fluid enough to be used. The exact composition varies. and 6). primarily methane (CH4 ) and lesser amounts of ethane (C2 H6 ). oil may be stored indoors. unlike both oil and coal.FURNACES AND BOILERS 83 Gas Natural gas is the most commonly used gaseous fuel. Waste-fired boilers.

r--...ighl .. ... Generally.. because the excess air is being heated and then thrown away. I'--. ~ r----. If too much excess air is Figure 4..... ~ . "'""''" ~ 'r-.... To prevent this problem.......84 CHAPTER4 combustion... --. Ijeil~ l... resulting in a tremendous energy waste... combustion will not be complete.... Table 4.. Because it is not practical or economical to construct equipment to mix air and fuel perfectly.........r--- - t-- II....1 and Figure 4....- '" ~ .... .. r-... However. Furthermore.. The result is unburned fuel and a waste of energy....12 used. r-......I"--- -..... excess air (air above the theoretical quantity) is always furnished..... or more commonly. I'-.... r----...r--__ Jail ... many installations are operated with huge oversupplies of excess air. ....... r--.... (Courtesy: Dunham Bush/Iron Fireman. 8 7 6 5 .......... incomplete combustion produces carbon monoxide (CO).... The minimum amount of excess air actually needed for complete combustion to occur depends on the type of fuel and the construction of the heat...... and may vary from 5-50% above 100% theoretical air. r-... r---.. :--f-..12 show theoretical airlfuel ratios... ........... burning.) 18 17 16 15 14 N ~ Effect of excess air on CO 2 for typical oil and gas fuels 0 0 13 12 11 10 9 C Q) Q) e CL '" "" "'" '" . and fuel heating values. a highly toxic pollutant... In practice.. Effect of excess air on CO 2 percentage in flue gas... ~ r--.......... I"-..... if a boiler or furnace is furnished with the exact theoretical air quantity....... "- ~ .. the efficiency of a boiler/furnace is maximized by using the minimum excess air needed for complete combustion. ing device and controls.... larger units need less excess air. .. Manufacturers furnish data on recommended air/fuel ratios for their equipment... efficiency is unnecessarily reduced. CO 2 content in the combustion gases for different excess air quantities. The amount of air required for complete combustion is called the theoretical air quantity and the resulting ratio of air to fuel is called the theoretical air(fUel ratio. r-- I"--..Pg~s -- t-- r-- N~ 60 o 10 20 30 40 50 r 70 80 90 100 Percent excess air .

After such a test. The answer is a loud NO! A great deal of excess hot gas is going up the stack. Is the air/fuel ratio satisfactory? Solution From Figure 4.2 A technician measures 8 % CO 2 in the combustion gas of a natural gas-fired boiler that requires 15% excess air for complete combustion.1 and 4. The amount of excess air is represented by the CO2 percentage in the flue gas.2 times the theoretical (20% excess). the technician may adjust the air/fuel ratio if the air is excessive. Table 4. This lost heat is called the flue gas loss.The quantity of excess air therefore should be kept at the minimum that still results in complete fuel combustion. The measure of the effectiveness of using the available heat imput from the fuel is the combustion efficiency. In units that are operating well. The stack gas temperature is heat input .FURNACES AND BOILERS 85 Examples 4. as seen in Figure 4. Using measurements of the stack gas temperature and percent CO2 in the flue gas (see chapter 16). Combustion Efficiency Some of the heat in the combustion gases is not transferred to the boiler water or furnace warm air.3 In carrying out an energy study. This testing should be performed regularly. enough heat is transferred from the combustion gases so that the flue gas temperature is as low as 110 F.2 uses the difference between the temperatures of the stack gas and of the boiler room.2 illustrate how the heating specialist can use measurement of percentage of CO 2 in the stack gas to detennine the necessary amount of combustion air and the percent excess air used. the more the heat input has been utilized. (Note: Table 4.2. Both the chimney/flue and heat exchanger must be constrncted of corrosionresistant material.. After the results are compared to the manufacturer's data. The lower the temperature.flue gas loss heat input (4. it is not advisable to cool the gas much below 300 F because the water vapor in the gas might condense..1.2 oil requires 20% excess air for complete combustion. The flue gas analyzer reads 10% CO2 .) Example 4. the flue gas is discharged from about 300-600 F.1) . Excess air The excess air beyond the theoretical amount needed for complete combustion is air that is heated in the furnance and then wasted up the flue. due to physical and economic limitations on the size of the heat exchanger. resulting in corrosion of the chimney and the heating unit. percent CO 2 and temperature on the percent of heat input from the fuel that is lost to the flue gas.x 1. in accordance with the manufacturer's data.2 gal hr 60 min =423 CFM Example 4. ft3 gal I hr CFM= 1410 x 15 . the heating specialist can determine the combustion efficiency of the equipment from Table 4.2 oil are taken. Flue gas temperature The hot flue gas going up the stack means that some of its heat has not been used. Note that the higher the percent COlo the less excess air. 45% excess air is being used. Some newer. How many CFM of combustion air should be supplied? Solution Using the air/fuel ratio data from Table 4. However. defined as: Combustion efficiency = --~-~~---xIOO% There are two sources of the flue gas loss.12.1 A boiler firing IS gallhr of No. "high efficiency" heating equipment is intentionally designed with larger heat exchangers.12. adjustments may be performed to improve the unit's efficiency. readings on a boiler burning No. Example 4.x . and noting that the actual air quantity should be 1.2 shows the effect of flue gas.

7 15.0 6.4 20.1 29.3 24.4 23.0 22.8 32.1 16.2 23.5 33.6 14.7 19.2 20.3 35.2 47.6 30.4 31.5 38.7 17.3 28.0 22.150/1b % by Weight C 89.8 43.5 10.9 27.0 6.6 FUEL OIL Fuel Analysis BTU 18.0 7.4 34.3 29.5 34.5 16.9 18.6 23.0 31.6 22.0 11.2 32.4 21.7 20.0 25.3 14.4 13.7 22.0 26.8 44.4 28.4 24.0 38.3 20.6 28.0 34.1 23.8 15.5 4.5 19.3 32.5 146 .0 28.9 18.5 10.0 14.7 20.5 7.6 17.9 20.3 26.2 26.8 44.4 17.5 21.4 28.8 22.4 20.6 17.2 43.8 36.4 23.0 36.7 21.3 20.3 37.5 26.3 30.3 IS.2 24.3 15.1 30.4 28.0 S.5 27.8 26.2 27.5 6.8 3S.9 16.0 29.8 23.9 16.8 23.0 11.1 I NO.0 14.6 17.1 27.7 20.7 25.1 30.4 33.3 20.7 NO.5 10.7 33.0 35.0 19.4 21.3 25.0 23.5 25.3 33.7 23.4 13.8 30.9 16.1 25.0 19.9 50.2 23.4 19.7 24.4 31.0 27.5 16.5 14.8 14.0 15.6 0 0.6 15.7 33.8 27.3 39.6 38.8 28.1 24.9 27.9 21.7 40.4 22.0 30.0 42.5 43.9 16.1 17.2 31.3 17.1 29.4 34.9 2S.8 18.8 47.7 15.8 40.0 14.750/1b % by Weight C 86.6 26.7 25.4 15.0 5.0 24.0 22.8 17.3 40.3 21.6 16.3 26.3 22.8 39.6 18.9 29.8 27.1 23.0 22.5 9.4 28.8 33.9 17.8 25.6 22.9 36.0 11.5 13.8 28.4 21.4 20.3 11.4 19.5 35.1 31.5 19.6 32.9 25.1 14.4 35.7 41.8 34.8 24.0 19.1 25.0 12.0 26.6 23.4 22.1 42.4 28.8 32.5 9.4 27.3 16.8 25.6 26.4 19.4 26.9 30.19 Ash 0.6 18.2 32.0 5.8 35.5 15.1 26.0 18.0 15.8 22.1 28.5 20.2 20.4 24.7 36.7 20.9 23.5 12.0 31.9 25.2 14.9 32.0 41.2 29.0 22.2 20.0 9.0 22.9 24.9 24.4 23.9 24.3 25.5 20.2 48.1 13.5 19.90 N 0.TABLE 4.2 31.4 31.4 21.0 29.2 19.0 29.2 17.0 9.2 EFFECT OF FLUE GAS TEMPERATURE AND CO2 ON HEAT LOSS (%) TO FLUE GAS % CO 2 Difference Between Flue Gas and Room Temperature in Degrees F 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 NATURAL GAS Fuel Analysis 1120 BTu/cu It % by Volume CH 4 79.9 30.9 35.6 36.5 S.0 25.1 28.8 21.1 28.1 22.8 22.2 24.6 19.3 22.9 34.9 C2H6 17.9 17.0 18.05 (Courtesy: Dunham Bushnron Fireman.2 28.7 25.2 31.3 20.5 6.6 30.2 21.5 21.4 35.5 19.8 26.5 23.0 39.5 7.1 22.6 IS.8 25.3 24.0 17.0 24.5 30.9 35.4 29.2 25.8 15.9 31.9 23.1 H 13.2 FUEL OIL Fuel Analysis BTU 19.8 22.8 22.5 7.6 17.0 12.7 27.5 34.5 43.1 16.4 21.1 28.5 32.1 46.1 37.2 19.5 5.8 41.2 31.1 32.) .30 S 0.5 38.0 17.1 35.8 19.9 29.5 13.9 13.1 26.0 5.5 19.6 27.2 50.4 30.8 18.3 33.8 35.3 26.8 29.3 20.1 30.6 18.5 9.2 25.2 26.0 23.5 25.3 33.6 31.O 8.2 19.9 19.8 31.3 30.0 33.0 37.6 18.8 39.8 25.1 26.2 22.3 21.0 29.0 8.S 26.4 27.5 26.8 12.5 17.4 21.5 27.6 33.8 15.1 17.1 45.9 25.3 CO2 0.8 41.7 21.5 29.4 21.3 20.2 36.9 35.36 H 9.3 35.7 37.3 18.2 24.2 40.6 21.5 29.5 40.0 16.4 23.5 27.5 23.5 30.4 25.5 26.8 21.2 23.9 23.2 23.0 6.5 21.3 21.1 19.0 26.6 49.6 20.6 16.0 40.8 42.1 46.2 24.7 26.1 18.4 20.4 23.7 24.6 22.2 23.7 27.5 8.2 N 0.7 26.3 29.3 22.2 16.2 22.9 27.5 47.6 21.0 7.6 28.5 8. I 17.1 27.8 33.0 13.3 32.1 44.7 25.1 22.0 9.3 21.7 38.0 25.3 21.2 32.2 18.6 27.1 43.4 17.0 38.8 27.9 29.9 20.3 18.0 4.9 36.8 25.0 18.2 24.5 21.4 18.1 20.8 40.20 0 0.2 36.4 32.0 5.5 24.5 18.3 29.0 13.9 19.6 33.9 28.3 33.0 18.4 15.9 28.7 28.7 41.3 27.8 22.2 30.7 35.3 34.5 30.5 IS.2 24.9 22.6 36.0 25.1 22.4 20.4 32.1 17.8 25.3 16.3 N2 2.4 44.0 20.0 30.1 20.2 37.6 28.5 25.7 26.5 6.1 53.9 37.1 23.8 34.0 2S.8 24.2 16.9 31.0 7.8 23.7 14.7 24.4 19.6 37.0 5.5 30.

larger in size than smoke.21. Proper maintenance and adjus·tment of burners and draft will prevent its formation. Ash consists of particles of noncombustible solids produced after combustion. Carbon monoxide (CO) is an extremely toxic gas resulting from incomplete combustion of carbon or hydrocarbons. Smoke is very small particles from the combustion process formed by 1. soot. Combustion and Air Pollution The combustion of fossil fuels can unfortunately produce air pollutants. Pollution codes limit the density number. This is a card with four sections numbered from 1 to 4. They can also result in damage to forests.1 = 81. the New York City Air Pollution Code sets the following smoke limits. The combustion efficiency is 100. at 500 F and 10% CO 2.0 = 79. due to insufficient excess air.2% sulfur.70 = 400 F.9%. less than the theoretical air) 2. For instance. representing the opacity or density of smoke. Control methods are the same as for smoke and ash. Using Table 4. for No. Soot is carbon-ash particles. They react with other substances in the atmosphere to form smog. agricultural crops. Nitrous oxides result from high flame temperatures. When present. The stack gas temperature now reads 470 F.2.3. ExampZe4. and the quality of lakes. Fuel oil is generally more of a problem than natural gas. Burning with too much air . Sulfur trioxide (S03) can be removed by neutralizing it with an additive compound. The combustion efficiency is 100. Smoke is easily measured by the Ringlemann Chart. Sulfur dioxide (S02) results from the combustion of sulfur present in fuel oil and coaL Fuel oil with very low sulfur content is required in many urban areas. Insufficient oxygen (that is. which has serious respiratory effects. ranging from light to dark. Although it is formed primarily from coal combustion.4 A soot blower is used to clean off the heating surfaces of the boiler in Example 4.0 . and lung cancer. Another method of control is to remove the S02 gas in the stack with appropriate . Premature chilling of a partially burned mixture 4.FURNACES AND BOILERS 87 570 F and the boiler room temperature is 70 F.18. Poor mixing of fuel and air (even with sufficient air) 3.2. What is the combustion efficiency of the boiler? Solution The difference between the stack gas and room temperatures is 570 . What is the combustion efficiency? Solution The difference between the stack gas and room temperatures is now 470 . Some of the pollutants contribute to respiratory illnesses such as bronchitis. sulfur dioxide (S02). Smoke darker than # 1 but less than #2 shall not be given off for more than 2 minutes in anyone-hour period. A significant fuel savings (about 3%) has been accomplished. and nitrogen oxides (NOJ. The HVAC specialist needs to be aware of what these pollutants are and how they can be controlled.1 %. A. The pollutants include smoke. Nitrous oxide control methods include using natural gas instead of oil and maintaining low excess air and low flame temperatures.0%.2 oil. the heat loss to the flue gas is 21. . No. For instance.2 fuel oil used in New York City cannot contain more than 0. From Table 4.70 = 500 F. Proper adjustment of the air~fuel ratio and maintenance of burners and combustion controls are necessary to prevent smoke.. it may result from fuel oil combustion.0 . sulfur trioxide (S03). it can be removed by filters or similar means. carbon monoxide (CO). devices. ash. Smoke as dark or darker than #2 density shall not be allowed at aiL B.0%. the heat loss is 18. emphysema.

there is a perpetual waste of heat up the stack. and the pilot piping. The pilot is lit by a spark. where a standing pilot may be blown out by wind. On a call for heating. breaks up the liquid oil into a spray of small droplets.13 Atmospheric gas burner. Gas Burners Atmospheric gas burners and power gas burners differ in how the air and fuel gas are delivered to the combustion chamber. It also helps to mix the fuel and air. only on a call for heating. a single combination valve (Figure 4.2 and 4. or direct spark igllition. the flow of fuel through a Venturi (a nozzle-shaped tube) draws part of the combustion air (called primary air) through an opening. Burner head is upshot type. Typical gas manifold connections to a burner with a pilot flame (Figure 4. Descriptions of typical ignition procedures were given in Sections 4. relying on natural induced draft for the stack. Another version has a narrow slot (ribbon). The burner may have one or more ports in a pipe. When the main gas fuel enters the combustion chamber. Although not usually legally required.) In some burners. The pilot flame then lights the main fuel. and sensor. The amount of primary air may be varied by using adjustable shutters or dampers at the opening. The fan may be designed for complete forced draft (to overcome furnace and stack draft loss) or only to overcome furnace draft loss. The pilot and main gas are both shut off when the heating requirement is satisfied. upshot burners (Figure 4. each designed to match the furnace characteristics and size. Since the pilot flame remains burning when the burner is off. multiple pipes can be arranged in parallel. Ins/lOt burners have ports located to deliver the gas horizontally. and when fuel oil is used. mixing of the fuel gas and primary air is enhanced by vanes or other devices. (This arrangement is also called a premix type burlleJ. To save energy. the fuel gas is fed into the combustion chamber and a spark ignites the gas directly.15) serves the functions of gas . Power gas burners use fans to deliver the air.4. since some of the air and gas mix before entering the burner ports.88 CHAPTER4 4. a pilot safety coritrol. Many states have banned standing pilots on new gas-fired equipment as an energy conservation measure.14) include a manual shut-off valve or cock. A ring -burner has the ports arranged around a ring-shaped pipe (like a kitchen stove). existing equipment may often be easily converted to intermittent pilot ignition. into the gas stream. Some gas fuel equipment uses direct spark ignition. A standing pilot is a continuously burning small gas flame. In the atmospheric burner (Figure 4. Various burner head anangements are available. a gas pressure regulator. the air/gas mixture then goes into the combustion chamber. Figure 4. There is no pilot.7 GAS AND OIL BURNERS The fuel burner is a device for delivering the fuel and part or all of the combustion air to the furnacel boiler. the pilot flame ignites it. Gas Burner Ignition Fuel ignition in a gas burner may be achieved by a standing pilot. The fan creates turbulence to promote air and gas mixing. an intermittent pilot. the electrically controlled main valve. Intermittent pilot ignition is also useful on rooftop equipment. intermittent pilot ignition rnay be used. burner.13) deliver the gas vertically upward. The remainder of the combustion air (called secolldal). air) is drawn by natural draft directly into the combustion chamber around the burner head ports (openings). On newer residential equipment.13).

) Generator Lighting dial External vent connection Pilot Gas Connection Figure 4. and main gas valve. (Courtesy: North American Heating & Air Conditioning Wholesalers Association. all oil burners have the additional function of mechanically assisting in vaporizing the fuel oiL Vaporizing the oil is necessary since oil will not burn in its liquid state.15 Combination gas valve. The vaporizing pot burner is basically a bowl filled with fuel oil. The oil at the surface vaporizes naturally due to its vapor pressure. Home Study Institute Division.14 Gas manifold valves and burner arrangements. pilot safety control. pressuni"regulator. Except for one type. aided by the turbulence and heat from the combustion gas. Because the vaporization is slow and difficult to control. Oil Burners An oil burner mixes fuel oil and combustion air and delivers the mixture to the combustion chamber. the vaporizing pot burner. it is .) cock.FURNACES AND BOILERS Pressure regulator Safety shut-off Automatic Venturi & 89 orifice I Gas supply • Pilot burner Cock Pilot filter generator Figure 4. (Courtesy: North American Heating & Air Conditioning Wholesalers Association. Home Study Institute Division.

This process. increases the oil's surface area. Steam atomizing or air atomizing burners use steam or air under pressure to create fuel and air mixing. a combustion air fan. causing atomization. and an ignition system. causing it to vaporize faster. or mechanical pressure atomizing burner (Figure 4..¢¢""""""~~ Atomizer cup/b~~. A combustion air fan introduces air through a tube surrounding the nozzle.2 oil. which vaporizes more rapidly than heavier oils. and atomizing.Iql~~ Oil flows through stationary fuel tube Primary air damper Worm drive for oil pumps Magnetic oil valve . They differ considerably from each other. The gun burner. both in the means of atomizing the oil and introducing it into the combustion chamber.17).16) has a rotating cup which throws the oil into the air stream. called atomizing.16 Rotary oil cup burner. is used in both resi- Figure 4.90 CHAPTER4 used mainly in space heaters burning No. which usually uses No. 1 oil. Each burner type has an oil pump. these types of burners are used with larger commercial equipment and are suitable for both heavy and light oils. The horizontal rotary cup burner (Figure 4. turbulence. The gun burner... Side sectional view Standard motor Primary --ff--tl~ I~ air fan Air nozzle \.. Deflector vanes at the burner outlet (head) cause mixing and proper distribution of the oil-air mixture. The other types of oil burners help vaporize oil by breaking it up into very small droplets.. atomizes oil by pumping it under high pressure through a small diameter nozzle.

High/Low/Off. Gun burners have a relatively low turn-down ratio. thereby saving fuel.gun burners may operate only in an on-off mode. resulting in higher combustion efficiency.FURNACES AND BOILERS Ignition electrode Air-adjusting collar Ignition Electrode bracket 91 Electric motor Strainer Oil line from tank Nozzle tube Nozzle ad'. A high turn-down ratio is desirable because the boiler/furnace can operate at a low capacity when necessary. which limits their ability to operate at part capacity. Other controls are available.pt'3' Ignition transformer Cut-off valve Nozzle strainer Fuel pump Pressure-relief valve Figure 4. Steam or air atomizing burners and rotary cup burners have a relatively high turn-down ratio. Small. too.. and modu{ation. It is useful when there is the possibility of a shortage of one of the two . fuels. or by a steam pressure or water temperature controller.) dential and smaller commercial oil-fired boilers and furnaces. Retention head gun burners have a head (outlet) that is designed to improve mixing and combustion. which is the ratio of maximum to minimum fuel oil flow that the burner can handle. Gas and Oil Burner Firing Rate Control Burner capacity (firing rate) may be controlled by a space thermostat. The methods of burner capacity control are: On/Off. which is used with warm air furnaces and residential boilers. Ignition of rotary cup and steam or air atomizing burners is usually done with a gas pilot flame or a spark ignited pilot oil burner. Oil Burner Ignition Ignition of the oil-air mixture in gun burners is done with a high voltage electric spark. which is often used with commercial boilers .17 High pressure atomizing ("gun type") burner. Essentially it has the components of both burner types in the burner housing. Combination Burners A combination burner can burn both oil and gas. or where prices may change so that the relative costs of the fuels reverse. (Courtesy: Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA).

The flame safety control consists of a flame sensing element and a means of relaying its signal to start or stop fuel flow.8 FLAME SAFETY CONTROLS A safety control that deserves special consideration is the flame safety control. A High/Low/Off (or High/ Mediurn/Low/Oft) control provides more flexibility in operatiug capacity. To achieve maximum efficiency in larger uuits. . the control circuit will be deenergized and the gas valve will close. use of these control methods is common in smaller equipment because of their low cost and simplicity. fuel characteristics. this limits the boiler/furnace to full capacity operation only. flame electrical conductivity. Since a flame conducts electricity. A common method for doing this is to interlock the fuel valve and air damper after the initial adjustments have been made to provide the most efficient air-fuel ratio. because the intensity of light from a gas flame is too low.) The photo cell for small boilers and furnaces is often made of cadmium sulfide and is then given the name "cad cell. full modulation of burner capacity.ts slowly.19) is a heat-sensitive device placed in the stack to sense gas temperature. or if the flame fails during operation. Gas-fired residential furnaces and boilers with a standing pilot use a heat sensing thermocouple for flame detection. the programmed controller takes action to adjust the airfuel ratio. enough gas will collect in the combustion chamber so that when the spark ignites the mixture on a call for heat. If fuel were to continue to enter the furnace and not be burned. If the flame fails. Since it may take the main gas valve 30-40 seconds to close. is standard. The flame rod is a suitable flame safety control for gas ignition systems. It consists of two electrodes placed at the flame location. The photo cell (Figure 4. allowing the furnace/ boiler to be more closely matched to load variations. because it ensures safe burner operation. a serious explosion hazard would quickly arise. It is pointed at the flame location and allows the burner to operate only when the cell conducts. The thermocouple consists Of two wires of different metals that at a high temperature create a very small voltage. The sensor can detect one of three possible effects of the flame: temperature (heat). 4. Oil-fired residential units use either a photo cell or a stack switch for flame detection. Because it rea. Fuel valves and air dampers are automatically modulated by the temperature or pressure controllers. The stack switch is often a bimetal type thermostat. The flame rod is not used in oil-fired systems because the flame temperature is too high for the electrodes.18) is a light-sensitive device whose conductivity increases in the presence of strong light radiation. the flame's presence completes a circuit opening the gas valve. When deviations from the correct amount occur. the thermocouple is not a satisfactory flame safety control for larger heating equipment nor for equipment that uses intermittent pilot or direct ignition.92 CHAPTER4 An On/Off control simply starts and stops the burner. a microprocessor-based combustion control system can be used that continually measures the percent oxygen in the combustion gases. by control of fuel and airflow rates over the entire tum-down range. Although considerable heat is wasted in starting up the heating equipment and when it is in the off cycle. To correct for this. (The photo cell is not used with a gas flame. and equipment conditions. However. This control shuts off the fuel supply if the fuel does not ignite. or radiation (either visible light or infrared or ultraviolet radiation). The thermocouple is placed in the pilot flame. since it closes the gas valve quickly (1-3 seconds). Flame failure will open the circuit causing the valve to close. The result is improved efficiency under all operating conditions." The stack switch (Figure 4. the air-fuel ratio may change even for fixed relative positions of fuel valve and damper due to changes in temperature. humidity. an explosion may occur.

the type of radiation from the flame changes an electrical propet:ty of the detector. In each case. (Courtesy: Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA).gnition transformer relay SafetY'switch reset lever .19 Stack switch flame safety control. Radiation sensing safety controls are ideal.FURNACES AND BOILERS 93 Figure 4. (Courtesy: Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA).) The bimetal closes a circuit on high temperature.) Mounting bracket Velntil. reaching an explosive concentration sooner.18 Photo-cell-type flame safety control sensor ("cad cell" element). Figure 4. The three types of radiation flame sensors used in commercial equipment are: photo. permitting burner operation. infrared.etirlO slots Bimetallic element Drive·shaft lever Ignition timing adjusting lever Recycle·timing adjustment lever Burner motor relay I. The photo cell has replaced the stack switch as flame safety control in newer equipment both because of its faster response and its direct sensing of flame presence. since they react very fast. which is then used in a relay to start or stop fnel flow. and Ultraviolet cells. Flame safety controls for larger commercial equipment must react more quickly because fuel enters at a greater rate.

furnace volume. An obvious question arises as to why a hot water boiler should not be used. Very high buildings may be split into zones to prevent excess pressure on equipment. such as increasing the draft loss. The answer is that low-pressure hot water boilers usually are designed for a maximum pressure of 30 psig. It is also desirable to specify the temperature and flow rate of steam or hot water required. It is possible to ob c tain small boilers with a service hot water heating coil furnished internally.10 BOILER RATING AND SELECTION - "--- Manufacturers present rating data in tables. The hot water or steam generated in boilers may be used for space heating. For these and further reasons.20 shows this arrangement. have been adopted on procedures for testing and rating boilers. space cooling. standards . It is possible to produce increased capacity output from a boiler by firing it at very high fuel rates and by other variations in operating procedures. Two other units beside the BTUlhr have been used in specifying boiler capacity. and draft loss. or the steam may be used to heat the hot water with a heat exchanger called a converter. and equivalent direct radiation (EDR). This corresponds to a head of 2. it would be subject to an unsafe pressure. or heating of service (domestic) hot water. If necessary. 4.9 BOILER APPLICATIONS Terminal units Hot water heating boilers generate hot water that is used directly in hydronic heating systems. and it is recommended that they be avoided. These practices may shorten the life of the boiler. Steam heating boilers generate steam that may be used directly in steam heating systems.20 Arrangement of steam boiler and hot water convertors in hydronic heating system for high-rise building. With large boilers. has established recommended standards for hot water boilers. an independent industry organization. They are confusing and sometimes misleading. from which the proper boiler can be selected for a given application. but absorption refrigeration machines require heat to produce refrigeration (Chapter 13). It may seem strange that hot water or steam can be used for cooling. Boilers are rated by their heat output in BTUlhr. boiler horsepower. and in the other flows the water to be heated. The boiler used for space heating is often also used to heat service hot water. The Hydronics. Another solution is to put the boiler on the roof. Figure 4. If a hot water boiler were installed in a basement or lower floor with more than 69 ft of height of water piping above it. These standards may also recommend characteristics such as required amount of heating surface. fuel firing rates. a separate heat exchanger is usually specified.94 CHAPTER4 4. steam from the boiler flows. It is also possible to produce increased 0titput by sacrificing other characteristics.3 x 30 = 69 ft water. In one circuit. considering the additional expense and complication of the converter. Upper zone Lower zone 1-_ _+_-+--jHot water i-L------' Steam boiler I I ___I convertor Figure 4./nstitute. their conversion equalities can be found in tables. The use of these units is disappearing. called .

The piping and pickup allowance is not usually necessary when sizing boilers for larger commercial installations. the excess capacity can be used to cover large pickup requirements. a 40% piping and pickUp allowance is recommended for sizing the boiler. the capable operating engineer knows how to operate the heating system to ensure that. There is an additional heat loss when starting up a cold system. What should the gross output be? . First. the I-B-R standard allowance is 15% of the net output for the combined piping and pickup losses. There are two reasons for this. Consult manufacturers' data for this information. Piping and Pickup Loss The heat output of a boiler is used to deliver the building heating load. This is called the pickup loss. Typically. Second. Boiler Gross and Net Output The boiler gross output is the actual heat output of the boiler at its nozzle (exit). building operating procedures. pickup factOl. if nighttime temperature setback is practiced. Techniques using computer managed automatic control systems aid in this. the excess capacity is from 25-100% of design load. in the morning. There is a constant loss of heat through hot piping to surrounding areas. water.5 A building has a net space heating load of 370. For buildings that are intermittently heated (e. this loss. and equipment of the heating system itself must be heated. the actual output capacity of the boiler must be greater than the building heating load. The piping and pickup losses are not the same for every building and often are not easy to determine accurately. The building is heated intermittently. a house of worship). In residential (and some small commercial) applications. The values of pickup losses suggested for intermittent heating and night setback also apply to furnaces. For instance..000 BTUlhr. some of which is not useful heating (piping in unheated areas). It is suggested that the HVAC engineer check if a boiler has been tested and rated in accordance with I-B-R standards before selection. For hot water boilers.allowance is needed if the building is to be brought up to a comfortable temperature within a sufficient time in the morning. Under normal conditions. or pickup allowance. (The standard allowance for steam boilers is different. with 10 F night setback and one hour required pickup time. temperatures are brought to a comfortable level before {he building is occupied. Example 4.) The 15% allowance is recommended for commercial buildings that are continually heated and that do not have night setback of temperatures. 2. as well as other factors. This is usually stated in the manufacturer's catalog. A piping allowance of 15% and pickup of 10% are required. However. all the piping. That is Gross output = net output + piping loss + pickup loss (4. a large pickup .FURNACES AND BOILERS 95 I-B-R ratings. The American Gas Association (AGA) also recommends standards for gas-fired boilers. They depend both on the building and heating system configuration. standby (reserve) boiler capacity is usually provided by using two or more boilers. because of two factors: I. this is used to cover breakdown or maintenance of one boiler.2) The boiler net output can be considered as equal to the building heating load for a hot water or steam heating system (plus service hot water load on the boiler. an additional 10% pickup loss is recommended by some authorities.000 BTUlhr and a service hot water load of 32.g. if any). Insulation will reduce. Before the boiler can deliver heat to the building. Experience has led to standard allowances for the piping and pickUp losses that are often ade- quate. but not eliminate. This is called the piping loss. The boiler net output is the gross output less the piping and pickup losses.

The column titled D. 100=83. This is a situation where extreme water temperature fluctuations cause stress damage to the boiler. Ratings (and other data) for a group of small cast iron. therefore the amount of gas required is BTU 1 ft 3 CFH of gas = 200. Steady-state efficiency = gross heat output x 100% heat input = 167.21. Example 4. with a net I-B-R rating of 226.2.000 BTU/hr.. The heat loss from the jacket or casing of the heating unit is quite small compared to the flue gas"losses. The steady-state efficiency is slightly less than the combustion efficiency defined in Section 4.x 100% gross heat output heat input (4.7 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ For a Model GG-200H boiler. such as operating efficiency..5% The heating value of natural gas is about 1000 BTUlft3 (Table 4.O.. Occasionally the heat transferred to the surrounding space is useful.15 x 402. gas-fired hot water heating boilers are shown in Figure 4.000 BTUlhr Setback should not be so excessive and rapid that it could cause thermal shock in a boiler.. overall efficiency.000 = 402..96 CHAPTER4 Solution From the definitions given in Equation 4. which includes a 15% piping and pickup allowance.' .3) The losses that occur in the heating equipment are the flue gas losses and heat lost from the hot surface of the unit to the surrounding space. Solution The net output (rating) of the boiler must be at least equal to the building heating load..6 _ _ _ _ _ _. or steady-state efficiency. From the ratings in Figure 4. a Model GG-325 is the smallest boiler that will do the job..100 BTU/hr..1).) The steady-state efficiency is defined as Steady-state efficiency = " " .000 200.000 BTU/hr = 0. because the combustion efficiency includes only the flue gas losses. determine the steady-state efficiency and ft 3 lhr (CFH) of natural gas consumed at full load.Select a gas-fired hot water boiler for the Moneybags Mansion. The combustion efficiency is used in field testing of the heating unit to see if it is operating sa~isfactorily.E. ther· mal efficiency.. Solution Using Equation 4. but nevertheless the unit should be well insulated. Example4.hr 1000 BTU =200CFH .21.000 = 60.000 BTUlhr Required boiler gross output = 502.000 X Steady-State Efficiency The gross output of a boiler or furnace is less than the heat input due to unavoidable losses.' . (We will use the term steady·state.000 .x . which is given different names.000 = 40. Boiler net output Piping allowance Pickup allowance = 370.10 x 402.. but this is unusual. The combustion efficiency and steady-state efficiency terms serve two different purposes. CAPACITY is the gross output of the boiler..000 BTUlhr.6.000 + 32.3. The heating load is 220. The steady-state efficiency is used in the rating and selection of the boiler or furnace for a given application. Note that the gross output is 260. This may be expressed in an efficiency term. This information can be used in selecting a boiler and determining its steadystate efficiency.000 BTUlhr = 0.

3 742. draft hood spill switch. m and pressure reducing valve.lPROP." or "Propane.E.P. PROPANE GAS RATINGS RATINGS FOR WATER A.A gross output rating (Btuh) NOTE: All boilers under 300.G.700 72. Ft) 1211.000" NETI=B=R RATING WATER (Btuh) 181.51% 83.15 (hot water).) Test Procedure for boilers.000 feet elevation over 2.4 7 16 1'.6 57Y2 19'o/H.. 1h/1h 17 'hI'h 'hI'h 'hI1h 'hI1h 'hIYz 'hI% 1h1'h %/1h 1Yz 1v.000 125. and automatic pilot-thermocouple safety.E. pressure regulator. circulator.000 t Add suffix US" for standard water boiler.57% B Rollout ".500 260. dimensions DHSpili Switch ~---24 '/2" ---+1 I GALAXY' DOE Seasonal Efficiency (AFUE) MODEL HED GG~100 HED GG~125 HED GG~150 HED GG~175 HED GG~200 HED GG~225 HED GG~75 GG~250HED GG~275HED 1'12" Supply tf2" Vent Power In Opening Return E Combination Limit and EFFICIENCY 84.000 325. and automatic air vent.000 175.200 89.000 209... D.3 481. RIGHT SIDE HOT WATER BOILER MODELS A JACKET WIDTH B DRAFT HOOD HEIGHT C FLUE COLlAR DIAMETER 0 JACKET TOP TO DRAFT HOOD E CIRCULATOR RETURN FlANGE F GAS CONNECTION NAT.000 103. 57Y2 6 13 1'14 6 13 1% 6 13 1% 6 13 1'. Slant/Fm should be consulted before selectmg a boiler for installation haVing unusual piping and pick-up requirements. pressure and temperature gauge. PACKAGED WATER BOILER (SUFFIX P) includes all equipment listed for mOdel S. OPTIONAL EQUIPMENT: Room thermostat Mi!livolt (self energized) controls.000 375. Dept.0 1078. .A. Type of gas: After model number.3.000 240. Intermittent pilot ignition system.J% 1v..6 840.000 Btu input are tested and rated for capacity under the U. equipment BASIC WATER BOILERJ5UFFIX 5) includes pre-assembled heat exchanger with built-in air eliminator. GG-75 130/'6 GG-100 13¥!6 53'. pressure relief valve (ASME).000 125.6 59% 8 230/16 59% 8 26 ' V'6 26'V'6 59% 8 17 30V'6 66Ys 59% 8 17 9 221h 9 221h 17 1 v. INPUT CAPACITY (Btuh) (Btuh) 250.E.700 226.900 WATER (Sq. drain cock. 38" high. draft hood.000 228.45% 83. Ft) 371.000 200.19% 82.p/4 '" Crates for all models are 30" wide. base. plus 2-way combination control (hi limit and circulator relay). INPUT CAPACITY (Btuh) (Btuh) 75.G.. instead of hi limit control.000 feet elevation and an additional 4% for every additional 1. automatic vent damper (except GG-3oo thru GG-375 and GXH-300). pilot adj.000 300. gas orifices and manifold assembly.000 167. altitude. combination gas valve inctuding manual shut-off. %/% :y. D.000 145.O." •• AG.100 243. depth 30" (GG-75 thru GG-225).000 186.4 7 16 1 Y4 230/. hi limit control.000 225.'+-~-il' Safety Switch "Includes mterrmttent pilot and vent damper.D. %/% 1v..6 968. uP" for packaged water boiler.3 1322.000" 260..300 208.18% 82.S. Annual Fuel Utilization Effi~ ciency based on constant circulation. pre-assembled insulated semi-extended jacket (extended as shown).98% 82.700 RATINGS FOR WATER A.000 64.) . combination gas valve. specify gas by name "Natural.000 83. gas burners.000" 300.0 1390 1510 1620 1740 NATURAL AND L.lHE HYORONICS SPECIFICATIONS: GG SERIES Hot Water Model ~B ~ '""""" Cenified R.4 GG~125 GG-150 GG-17S GG-200 GG-22S GG-250 169/'6 53'14 169/'6 53V~ GG~275 GG-300 GG~325 GG·350 30Yl6 66Ys GG~375 46% 5 6% 1'4 130/'6 5314 19'0/.700 126.3 597.000 150. Ratings must be reduced by 4% at 2.21 Capacity ratings for a group of small cast iron gas-fired hot water boilers.78% 82. flue collector.200 161..000 350.000 100. (Courtesy: The Slant/Fin Corporation.0 MODEL NUMBERt GG-250H GG·275H GG·300 GG·325 GG·35Q GG-375 Net ratmgs are based on a piping and pick-up a1!owance of 1. rollout safety switch. Air package consisting of diaphragm expansion tank.000 NETI=B=R RATING WATER (Btuh) 55. of Energy (D.600 108..ns·· ratings MODEL NUMBERt GG-75H GG-100H GG-125H GG·150H GG·175H GG·200H GG·225H feet ® WATER (Sq. Combustible floor kit. *For GG-300 thru GG-375 and GXH-300 Figure 4. 38" (GG-250 thru GG-375).40% 82.000 275.A. Add suffix "E" for intermittent pilot ignition system (available only with 24 volt gas valve).39% 82.000" 280. combination limit controls and millivolt thennostat.O.700 198.100 145.

a small cliarge of fuel and air are introduced into the combustion chamber and ignited. 3. Combustion air is drawn directly from outdoors to the combustion chamber through a sealed pipe. 2.11 BOILER INSTALLATION Each manufacturer furnishes specific instructions for the installation of the boiler when it is shipped to the job. the water vapor in the flue gas condenses. 4. Initially. On high-rise buildings. very high efficiency units. The very high efficiency results from the additional sensible heat recovered. Another group. Allow ample size openings and passages into the boiler room for the boiler. In all of the furnaces and boilers discussed so far. and from the heat of condensation of the water vapor given up. The architect must be informed of the dimensions needed so that he or she can provide them. There is another high efficiency type of unit (Figure 4. Because of the high resistance of gas flo\\' caused by the greater. Fix~d grilles in walls or doors are one method. the best residential and small commercial boilers and furnaces could achieve an overall steady-state efficiency (when well maintained) of about 70-80% by recovering enough heat from the combustion gases to reduce flue gas temperatures to about 400500 F and using about 50-60% excess air. 5. Install the breeching to the flue without offsets. reduce the stack gas temperature to about 110 F. More recently. The heat exchangers that handle the lower temperature gases in the very high efficiency units are made of stainless steel or other corrosion-resistant materials because of the moisture present. This provides more heat transfer surface and a longer path for the hot combustion gases. sometimes through a side wall instead of a chimney.98 CHAPTER4 4. Some high efficiency units have a sealed COIl1bustion system. This creates a pressure pulse that drives the . At this low temperature. higher efficiency equipment has been made available. No draft hood is necessary. high efficiency units usually are furnished with combustion air fans. 1. These units have a larger or a secondary heat exchanger. One group. 4. an intermittent form of burning. medium-high efficiency boilers and furnaces. resulting in an operating efficiency of about 85%. instead of being drawn from the equipment room. Locate the boiler as close to the flue as possible. consider a penthouse location for a gas-fired boiler. but will instead list some procedures that are generally useful. Provide ample space on all sides of the boiler for maintenance. Natural draft would not be adequate. resulting in the utilization of more of the heat released and a corresponding lower flue gas temperature. with an operating efficiency of about 90-95%. 6. This is an extremely important point.12 ENERGY USE AND EFFICIENCY IN BOILERS AND FURNACES Until the advent of "high efficiency" units. This eliminates the need for a flue running the whole height of the building. If the openings are not adequate. If an existing building that requires a new boiler does not have adequate openings for a tubular boiler. the boiler may be starved of sufficient air for combustion. stack vents and drains must be made of plastic pipe or other noncon'osive materials. reduce the combustion gas temperature to about 300 F. a sectional cast iron boiler may be the solution. Follow fire and safety codes. We will not attempt to repeat these detailed instructions. Drainage of water collected is important both in the design and installation of these units. fuel combustion takes place continuously. Allow adequate distance in front of the boiler for tube cleaning and removal. For the same reasons. This is called direct \'ellting.22) that uses pulse combustion. more tortuous heat exchanger surface. The combustion gases are vented directly to the outdoors through a plastic pipe. Provide sufficient openings to the outdoors for both combustion air and ventilation air. resulting in the production of toxic carbon monoxide.

This represents a considerable infiltration heat loss into the building.S. which can be defined as AFUE= annual heat output ..22 Pulse combustion type high efficiency hot water boiler. higher steady-state efficiency is achieved in this manner._~. Intermittent ignition systems solve this problem. including how to minimize these losses. Automatic vent dampers can be retrofitted into existing systems.FURNACES AND BOILERS 99 _Air :==.) combustion gases out. . The features discussed until now concerning high efficiency boilers and furnaces improve the steady-state efficiency. This heat exchanger might be used to preheat combustion air (this is called an economizer). The heat losses associated with the actual working conditions of the boiler or furnace such as the vent stack losses on shutdown and standing pilot need to be accounted for in determining the annual energy efficiency of the unit. annual heat input X 100% (4. It is approximated by tests specified by the U. (Courtesy: Hydrotherm. . In conventional flue and equipment arrangements.4) The actual AFUE can really only be truly measured by taking continual measurements of heat output and heat input over th~ year. that is. To prevent this loss.3) may be installed in the flue. Department of Energy. This is continual energy loss when the unit is in the off cycle. as well as installed with new ones. Another small charge then enters and is ignited from the residual heat. The AFUE of a conventional boiler or furnace with natural draft.. since they draw air directly from outdoors. Sealed combustion type units would not use a vent damper. When the boiler or furnace starts up. One possible concern with pulse type equipment is that the pulsating noise created may be more disturbing than the continual noise of a steady burning unit. . an almost impossible task. Thus. Also of major concern is the system efficiency over the full heating season. They are often required by local codes. the damper opens. Another factor reducing system efficiency is a standing pilot flame.. This air will be replaced naturally by cold outside air entering the room. or to heat service hot water.. the natural draft effect will cause warm equipment room air to continuously vent up the stack. [nc. This damper is closed when the unit is not operating.Hot gases _ Supply water 2 Heat " ' + . Large boilers have combustion control systems that enable them to use much less excess air than do residential boilers. when the boiler or furnace is in the off cycle. The heating equipment does not operate in a steadystate condition continuously. we want to niinimize the annual fuel use. increasing system efficiency further. some of which we will now discuss..I~-Gas "'--"'+----Combustion : T . There are heat losses associated with the equipment when it is not operating. an automatic vent damper (Figure 4.exchanger . Some large units are equipped with a flue gas heat exchanger that extracts some of the waste heat.Return water ~-I-:+---- Condensation 3 Figure 4. just as in operating conditions. This is approximated by the Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency (AFUE). Intermittent ignition and automatic vent dampers are common practice with large systems.

com www.com www. For larger projects install multiple boilers. 14. where efficiency is higher. List the byproducis of the combustion of these fuels. Describe the basic operating and safety controls for hot water and steam boilers. 2.com www. II. Use proper boiler water treatment methods.weil-mcclain. and no vent damper can be as low as 50-60%." ~ ~ ~ . How is draft usually controlled in small gas. 13. 9.com www. List the major components of a warm air furnace. Clean all heat transfer surfaces regularly (boiler tubes. At part loads.slantfin. 12. 3. List the major components of a hot water boiler and a steam boiler. the AFUE can reach 80-95%. listing essential components. Sketch a typical hot water boiler piping arrangement. Useful Websites Information on boiler and/or furnance performance. 5. selection and specifications. 10. What are piping loss and pickup loss? What are gross and net boiler output? What are the pressure and temperature ratings for low pressure boilers? Explain the difference between a firetube and watertube boiler. The AFUE is listed for the boilers shown in Figure 4. . 10.and oil-fired equipment? How is draft controlled in larger boilers? List the m~or fuels used in heating plants and their relative advantages and disadvantages. ~ 15.13 ENERGY CONSERVATION Some methods of conserving energy with boilers and furnaces are as follows: I. installation. Clean burner nozzles regularly.21. 8. and maintenance can be found at the following Websites: www. 7. What are the two meanings of draft? Describe the different methods of achieving draft. Review Questions I. List and explain the purpose of common boiler accessories.:i . Consider the use of high efficiency boilers or furnaces.burnhan.dunkirk. 6. 4.) 12. Describe the basic operating and safety controls for a warm air furnace. This device closes when the combustion unit is not operating. List four physical arrangements of warm air furnaces and where they would be located in a residence. boilers will then operate closer to full capacity. Do not use unnecessarily oversized boilers or furnaces.. 8. Install an automatic vent damper in the flue. Consider installation of a solar heating system for domestic hot water. 4. Install a flame retention type of oil burner in residential equipment.com or automatic vent dampers do not result in water vapor condensation. thereby reducing extra infiltration air that would go up the stack. Consider the use of heat exchange devices to use some of the waste heat in the hot flue gases. 5. 13. 9. Describe a typical programming control sequence for the operation of a boiler.kewaneeboiler. II. Describe a typical programming control sequence for the operation of a warm air furnace. 2. Name four types of wimn air heating devices. This type of burner uses less excess air and results in better heat transfer than other types. What pollutants may result from incomplete combustion of these fuels? 4. Use intermittent ignition. Use temperature setback when feasible. 7. 6. With energy-saving improvements noted here. Consult a specialist for advice. rather than a standing pilot flame.100 CHAPTER 4 standing pilot. (Care must be taken that this 3. which might cause corrosion. Adjust the air-fuel ratio so that excess air is the minimum recommended for the equipment.. heat exchangers)."{ .

how much gas would be required at full load? A building has a net heating load of 175. input.000 BTU/hr and a full load steady-state efficiency of 78%. Describe the methods of burner firing rate control.4 4. List five possible ways of increasing heating equipment efficiency.10 Select a gas-fired hot water boiler of the Series 2 model from the Website www. Find the DOE capacity. 19.slantfin. What is the meaning of AFUE? 22.15 Explain thermal shock and its preventive means.3 GPM of No.000 BTUlhr. 18.cleaver-brooks. Assume a standard piping and pickup allowance.9 A building has a net heating load of 155. Room temperature is 70 F. Determine the full load steady-state efficiency of the boiler.14 What are the proper inspecton maintenance and performance procedures for a residential boiler? Try www.8 Problems 4.13 What are the necessary clearances from combustible material for a commercial steam boiler? Use an appropriate Website. How do these controls work? 20.000 BTUlhr. What is the approximate boiler combustion efficiency? 4. It is to be used in a building with a piping and pickup loss of 100. and AFUE. 4.7 A boiler uses No. Describe the basic types of gas and oil burners.12 Prepare instructions for cleaning a stearn boiler. What problem may arise if stack gas temperature is too low? 21. Select a natural gas-fired hot water boiler of the Galaxy model from the Website www. Select a natural gas-fired not water boiler.lennox. Use an appropirate Website.com.2 fuel oil. 4.burnham. is 400 F.com. The piping heat loss is 25.000 BTUlhr. Try the Website www.3 4. 4. Produce a detailed dimension drawing and specifications. Assume a standard piping and pickup allowance. 4.1 A residence has a net heating load of 120. What percentage reading of CO 2 will indicate proper operation? If the difference between the flue gas temperature and room temperature Computer Solution Problems 4. It has a steady-state efficiency of 72% and the piping and pickup loss is 22%. List the types of flame safety controls.com. .000 BTUH. Select a natural gas-fired hot water boiler for this application.FURNACES AND BOILERS 10 1 16. What is gross output and net output of the boiler? A furnace burning natural gas is designed to operate with 30% excess air.kewaneeboiler.000 BTUlhr. Try www. What is the percent excess air? Flue gas temperature reads 520 F.5 4.1 is operating at full load stead-state efficiency.000 BTU/hr. A hot water boiler has a design heat input of 800.7.2 4. a technician measures 12% CO 2 in the stack gases.2 fuel oil.11 Prepare a directive for proper heating boiler blowdown procedures. Determine the DOE capacity and input. What is the maximum heating load the boiler can handle? A boiler is using 1. a stack heat exchanger is installed. what would be the furnace combustion efficiency at design conditions (neglecting other losses)? 4. What is the boiler combustion efficiency (neglecting other losses)? For the boiler refened to in Problem 4. 4. 17. If the boiler in Problem 4. assuming a standard piping and pickup allowance. The building heating load is 200.000 BTUlhr and the pickup loss is 30. Using a combustion gas analyzer.com. Explain the terms theoretical air and excess air.6 4.com. reducing flue gas temperature to 370 F. 4.

3.c H A p T E R Hydronic Piping Systems and Terminal Units T he piping that is used to circulate hot or chilled water for air conditioning is called a hydronic piping system. Because all of the water flows through each unit. Two-pipe reverse return 5. It is so named because all of the units are in a series.2 SERIES LOOP 5. Select baseboard radiation. we will examine types of hydronic plpll1g arrangements and terminal units. Identify the types of hydronic piping system arrangements and describe their features. One-pipe main . the series loop has several disadvantages: L The maintenance or repair of any terminal unit requires shutdown of the entire system. Note that the entire water supply flows through each terminal unit and then returns to the generator and pump. In this chapter. Layout a hydronic system and determine its water temperatures and flow rates. 4. 2. and one loop is formed.1 PIPING ARRANGEMENTS The connections between the piping and the terminal units may be made in any of these four basic ways: 1. The terminal units are the heat exchangers that transfer the heat between the water and the spaces to be heated or cooled. 3. Series loop A diagram of a series loop arrangement is shown in Figure 5. you wiII be able to: 1. 2. Identify the types of hydronic terminal units and describe theirfeatures. OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter. Two-pipe direct return 4. Separate capacity control of each unit by changing its water flow rate or temperature is 102 2. I. and the units cannot be isolated from each other.

HYDRONIC PIPING SYSTEMS AND TERMINAL UNITS 103 Terminal---------r units \ ~ Pump Pump HWorCHW generator HW or CHW generator (a) (b) Terminal units Figure 5. Pump HWorCHW generator Terminal units Pump HWorCHW generator (a) (b) . not possible. however. (b) Schematic.1 Series loop piping system. (Control is possible by use of air dampers. units. The series loop arrangement is simple and inexpensive.2 Split series loop piping system. These disadvantages can be partially remedied by arranging the piping in two or more split series loops. Figure 5. The number of units is limited. the water temperature in later units may be too low for adequate heating. (a) Isometric.) 3. (b) Schematic. This creates two or more zones which can be controlled separately. It is limited to small. as shown in Figure 5. Since in heating systems the water temperature continually decreases as it gives up heat in each unit in series. (a) Isometric.2. low-budget applications such as residences.

4 TWO-PIPE DIRECT RETURN To get the water temperature supplied to each terminal unit to be equal.. directing some of the water to the branch. each unit can be separately controlled and serviced. there is one maiu pipe through which the water flows.. Consequently.104 CHAPTER 5 5.. a -f Figure 5. To overcome this problem.. each terminal unit is connected by a supply and a return branch pipe to the main. (b) Schematic. if there are too many units. Terminal units Pump Terminal units . special tee is also needed at the return branch to prevent backflow. special diverting tees (Figure 5.:. By locating valves in the branch lines. Flowing water seeks the path of least resistance... HWorCHW generator HWorCHW (a) generator (b) ...3 ONE-PIPE MAIN Branch A diagram of a one-pipe main arrangement is shown in Figure 5.:=. water circulating in the main tends to flow through the straight run of the tee fitting at each supply branch. the water goiug to the later units may be too cool to heat the rooms adequately...4) are used at each supply branch takeoff.3 One-pipe main piping system.3. (a) Isometric.. 5. As in the series loop. Additionally.. thus starving the terminal unit. if the terminal unit is below the main. the two-pipe (also called Figure 5. ~-"----.4 l t d 1-·""" Diverting tee used in one-pipe main systems.. As in the series loop. but instead of being in series with this main.

parallel piping) arrangement is used.5 Two-pipe direct return system. Supply HW or CHW generator /r--j ------~7'------/ / / /- (a) (b) . all units receive water directly from the source. (a) Isometric-twa-pipe reverse return to a number of buildings. Note in Figure 5. and because the supply water temperature to each unit is the same.5 shows a two-pipe direct return system.5 is called direct return because the return main is routed to bring the water back to the source by the shortest path. However. balancing valves can be installed in every branch. it can be used Figure 5. Figure 5.--. Since flowing water prefers the path with the least resistance.5 TWO-PIPE REVERSE RETURN The balancing problem in the direct return arrangement would be overcome if the circuit length out to each terminal unit and back was made approximately the same. there will be too much water going to the units nearest the pump and too little going to the units furthest from the pump. Note that the path length for Two-pipe reverse return system. The problem is largely solved with a reverse return. (b) Schematic.HYDRONIC PIPING SYSTEMS AND TERMINAL UNITS Terminal units r---. This is accomplished by piping the return main in a reverse return arrangement. but the balancing process is difficult and requires considerable expense.5 that the path the water takes from the pump to the first units and back is shorter than that from the pump to the units further away. Supply 105 HWorCHW generator Figure 5.6 on any size installation. Terminal units (buildings) ~~71 . the two-pipe system allows each terminal unit to be separately controlled and serviced. this creates a problem. All larger systems use twopipe arrangements. Each terminal unit is fed by an individual supply branch. one for supply water and one for return. In this manner. Although its cost is higher than one-pipe main and series loop arrangements. The two-pipe arrangement in Figure 5. The total system flow rate (GPM) is split up among the terminal units. 5... To overcome this problem.6. as shown in Figure 5. according to the design.~~ HW or CHW generator plant L _______ L __ _ / / / / / / Terminal units . a return branch carries the water back to the return main. There are two mains..

These are: 1. There are two supply mains. but it may then cause other problems (see Chapter 9). heating is often required in some rooms and cooling in others at the same time. In some cases. A very high resistance in the terminal units may make fluid flow through them approximately equal. 2. It is possible to make the fluid resistance in each circuit approximately equal in a direct return system by using smaller diameter piping in the closer branches. however. it may not be difficult to balance a direct return system.---i Terminal units r--. yet flow balance will be simple and costs reduced as compared with a complete reverse return.7 Combination reverse return (riser) and series loop system. HWorCHW generator Figure 5. one circulating chilled water. the planner must examine the layout before making a choice. of a combined two-pipe reverse return with a group of units on each floor in series. if the system is connected to both a water chiller and hot water boiler.8). It may seem from the prior discussion on balancing that the two-pipe reverse return system would always be chosen over the direct return. the reverse return piping may be more expensive.106 CHAPTER 5 the water is about the same regardless of which unit it passes through. With this arrangement. The return main receives the water .7 shows an example The supply main in the two-pipe arrangements can be furnished with either chilled or hot water for cooling or heating. This might be chosen for a high-rise building where separate control of each unit on a floor is not needed. 5. Simultaneous heating or cooling can be made available by use of a three-pipe arrangement (Figure 5. In some situations. The water temperature to units far from the chiller would be too high for adequate cooling with series loop oLQne-pipe main arrangement. Two-pipe arrangements are almost always used for chilled water distribution to terminal cooling units. taking advantage of the best features of each. The relative costs of the direct return and reverse return piping arrangements depend on the building shape and location of terminal units. However. in others.6 COMBINATION ARRANGEMENTS It is sometimes useful to combine some of the four -basic piping arrangements. Figure 5. 3. An instance of this might occur on a cool day with solar radiation on one side of the building only. . Three-way control valves in the branch to each terminal unit will determine whether the unit receives hot or chilled water. In modern buildings. This depends on the piping layout.7 THREE-PIPE SYSTEM 5. there may be little difference between the length of each path. as was shown with the series loop arrangement. In each case. t!le costs are not significantly different. the other hot water. only one can be used at any given time. If the terminals are all far from the pump and grouped near each other. The two-pipe and one-pipe main arrangements can be split into two or more systems (if this is useful). it is a relatively simple process to balance the flow rates.

El Poor \ f-- Terminal unit Good . Some energy codes prohibit three-pipe systems.. Because the return main mixes hot and chilled water. In this location.. from each unit. one for chilled water and one for hot water.9 Correct and incorrect location of radiation. The air adjacent to the unit is warmed and rises naturally. The chilled water is warmed and the hot water is cooled in the mixing process. Generally. ' the room largely by natural convectIOn. Figure S. 6. All types of radiation should be located along exposed walls and. The connections to units can be made either by direct or by reverse return. 5. Except for radiators and some convectors. the three-pipe system can waste energy.. and cold downdrafts are prevented... heat is supplied where the heat loss is greatest.8 FOUR-PIPE SYSTEM The jour-pipe system is actually two separate twopipe systems.8 t Three-pipe system. which results in extra heating and cooling in the boiler and chiller.. and therefore no mixing occurs. the heating or cooling element of all hydronic terminal units is usually made of finned tubing. the type of units used for heating and cooling are different from each other... but of course it is expensive. 5. Terminal units 3-way valve J j Radiators Convectors Baseboard Fin-tube Radiant panels (heating and cooling) Unit heaters ~CS CHW HW Cooling 1. The fins increase the heat transfer.HYDRONIC PIPING SYSTEMS AND TERMINAL UNITS To other units From other units 107 Heating 1. creating a natural circulation.9 HYDRONIC TERMINAL UNITS The terminal units are heat exchangers that transfer the heat between the room air and the circulating water. but it should be recognized. 3. 4. Figure 5. and fin-tube are collectively called radiation. t FigureS. 2. 5. Induction units (heating and cooling) Radiators.. preferably. This is an ideal arrangement. The material may be steel pipes with steel fins or copper tube with either aluminum or copper fins. baseboard.. This problem can be minimized by careful design. convectors. under all windO\\'s in the colder climates. The following will be discussed here: Terminal unit o Warm lJ Cold air downdraft Cool air ~ II . This is a misleadin 0 name because they transfer some of the heat to b .9 shows good and poor locations of radiation. Fan-coil units (heating and cooling) 2.

Convectors are used in rooms.108 CHAPTER 5 Outlet grille~ Cabinet front cover Heating element Cabinet . They are available in a number of standard lengths and heights.11 CONVECTORS Figure 5..13). The sloping top prevents placement of objects or people sitting on the cabinet. Convectors are available in varied arrangements to suit the architectural needs of the building. at the top front.. and stairwells.10) 2. Recessed units have the advantage of not taking up floor space. vestibules. Wall hung units allow easier floor and carpet cleaning. Steel tubing in various assembly arrangements Large cast iron sectional radiators are less commonly used in new installations because of their bulkiness.10).10 RADIATORS Convector (free-standing type). whereas recessed units are recessed into an opening provided in the wall (Figure 5.14).12 Recessed convector. cost.11). O(~--- Inlet grille Figure 5. This type of radiation is available in three forms: 1. Room'air enters through an opening in the bottom and leaves through an outlet grille at the top. Flush-type units are available with the outlet grille on top. Figure 5.11 5. Hollow metal panels 3. Flush units are mounted against the wall.12). . Convectors have a finned tube or small cast iron heating element enclosed by a sheet metal cabinet (Figure 5. 5. Free-standing units rest on the floor whereas wall hung units are off the floor and are supported by the wall (Figure 5.10 Cast iron sectional radiator. or with a sloping top (Figure 5. and appearance. Hollow sections made either of cast iron or fabricated steel sheet metal (Figure 5. This type of radiation is constructed of hollow metal through which the hot water flows (Figure 5.

Baseboard radiation is very popular in residences because it is inexpensive and unobtrusive. The cover and fins are thin and therefore will not withstand heavy abuse.13 FIN-TUBE This type of radiation is similar to baseboard radiation. 5. (Figure 5.111o t II Damper o Free-standing Wall hung Figure 5.12 BASEBOARD This type of radiation is located close to theftoor in front of the architectural baseboard strip. The heating element is usually made of larger tubing ('l'< to 2 in. Tubing diameter is small.14 Outlet arrangements.) 5. (Courtesy: Slant/Fin Corporation.16).13 Free-standing and wall hung convector. Figure 5.15).15 Baseboard radiation.) and both the element and cover are heavier and stronger than that used for baseboard radiation. Heating element I Figure 5. The cover is often installed along the whole length of the wall for a neater appearance. usually !6 or 'l'< in. t II o o Top outlet Sloping top outlet Top front outlet . even when the heating element is not required for the whole length. It consists of a finned tube heating element with a sheet metal cover open at the bottom and with a slotted opening in the top (Figure 5.HYDRONIC PIPING SYSTEMS AND TERMINAL UNITS 109 t -~ .

Motor and fan 5. L . Propeller Unit Heaters This type of unit heater is available in two versions ~horizontal or vertical discharge... and casing (Figure 5. (a) Horizontal propeller unit heater. Heating element Adjustable louvers -----. Each has a finned-tube coil heating element.) Fin-tube radiation is widely used in commercial and industrial applications where radiation is desired along exposed walls.. The heating element is finned tubing.. unit heaters have a high heating capacity for a given physical size. (b) Vertical down-blow propeller unit heater. (However. Tubing may be stacked more than one row high to increase output. Both heating and cooling systems are available. It is an ideal system. The capacity of fin-tube radiation is greater per foot of length than baseboard radiation because of larger fins and larger pipe.. It has adjustable outlet Figure 5.. Because the heating or cooling source is spread out. (Courtesy: Vulcan Radiator Company. Fan and motor I I 0 Heating element o r ...17). propeller fan. and extending over all or a considerable p<!rt of the surface... Two kinds of unit heaters will be discussed here. motor. The capacity of convectors and baseboard and fin-tube radiation can all be manually controlled by dampers located at the air outlet.. -lr.. As a result. Figure 5... The horizontal blow heater is usually mounted at 7-10 ft elevations.16 Fin-tube radiation.) Covers are available with flat or sloping tops and varied quality of appearance.17 Horizontal and vertical propeller unit heaters. capacity does not increase proportionally with number of rows...110 CHAPTER 5 I i " 5. radiant panel systems produce uniform temperatures and comfortable air motion. but it can be very expensive. Ceiling panels are used for cooling..14 RADIANT PANELS o Horizontal propel lor unit heater (a) A radiant panel system has tubing installed in walls..15 UNIT HEATERS The unit heater differs from the previous types of tenninal units in having a fan that forces the air through the unit at a greater rate than would be achieved by natural convection. or ceiling. so that the cooled air drops and circulates through the room. arranged in coils to achieve a more compact arrangement.J '--- Vertical down-blow propellor unit heater (b) .. floors..

as required. small centrifugal fans with motors. They are sometimes called fan-coil units. 5.19 Cabinet unit heater-ceiling mounted. it may have one coil for heating or cooling or separate heating and cooling coils. Cabinet unit heaters can be used in commercial applications because they have a pleasing appearance and are relatively quiet. / Heating element Fan and motor IlQoci:Xxzl~-Air filter Heating/ cooling coil Fan -~-t--+\ o Air filter ~bzci~~~ III t Outside air (optional) ~ -_--. It can also be mounted flat against a ceiling when this is architecturally desirable. bulky.\9). and noisy. as in vestibules.18 Cabinet unit heater-floor mounted. These units are often used in factories and warehouses. It is often used at loading platforms. Adjustable outlet diffusers are available so that the amount of floor area heated can be varied. garage doorswherever doors may be opened frequently and "spot" heating is needed. but we will use this name for a unit quite similar in construction that is used for either heating or cooliug. In outward appearance. It consists of a cabiuet enclosing one or two serpentine-shaped finnedtube coils. and a cabinet enclosure.20 Fan-coil unit. Cabinet Unit Heaters This type has a finned-tube heating element arranged as a serpentine coil. ~ inlet . fan-coil units can be mounted in various horizontal and vertical arrangements. The vertical down-blow unit heater is suitable for heating spaces with high ceilings and large floor areas. vestibules. The cabinet unit heater is often used where a convector would be suitable but where the required heat output is larger. Air is directed toward work spaces or door openings. Ceiling Air Heating filter element Fan and motor Figure 5. and an air filter (Figure 5. small centrifugal fans.l1____Ld--. because the outlet grilles will direct the air in the desired direction (Figure 5.J :. Depending on system design. Alternately. it looks like a convector (Figure 5.20)..HYDRONIC PIPING SYSTEMS AND TERMINAL UNITS III dampers to control air direction. Propeller fan unit heaters are generally limited to industrial applications or service areas of commercial buildings because they are unsightly. some units have an electric strip heater instead of a hot water heating coil.16 FAN-COIL UNITS This type of hydronic terminal unit is suitable for both cooling and heating. The units are mounted at high elevations. As with cabinet unit heaters. an air filter.18). Fan-coil units include a drain pan under the coil to collect the condensate created from dehumidifying Figure 5. Figure 5.

112 CHAPTER 5 Mixed air the air when operating in the cooling mode. bringing ventilation directly into the fan-coil unit will often lead to unnecessary operating and maintenance problems. This induces (draws) room (secondary) air into the unit across the coil. In addition.Plenum chamber Figure 5. with a minimal cleaning quality. In the heating mode. too little will result in poor air quality.) The filter is basically suitable for cleaning only recirculated room air. the absence of a ul\it fan -as compared to the fan-coil unit means no lerminal unit motors to maintain (a large project may have hundreds of units). Capacity variation of a fan-coil unit can be achieved through room thermostat control of either fan speed or coil water flow. t Cooling/heating coil Lint screen filter ~ o ~~ Induced secondary ~ room air * t . A more detailed explanation of the induction unit air conditioning system will be discussed in Chapter 12. and air nozzles or jets (Figure 5. 5. is usually more objectionable than the very low level air noise from the induction unit. Coils. These drains usually must be piped to a central building drain.. Primary air from a central air handling unit is delivered at high pressure to the plenum (chamber). lint screen type filter. operating. Considerable maintenance is a m~or aspect of a fan-coil system. In the cooling mode. 111f--. about on the level of the familiar window unit filter. The induction unit has a drain pan.21 Induction unil.17 INDUCTION UNITS This type of terminal unit is suitable for both cooling and heating. Instead. chilled water is delivered to the coil. a connection for primary air. (Higher filtering efficiency not only raises the cost of the filter. The induction unit does not require a fan to circulate room air across the coil. or warm as needed. the filter is of minimal efficiency. The lint screen filter is very thin and porous. It is used in air-water type central HVAC systems. However. This air is forced out through small nozzles at a high velocity. Furthermore. Some fan-coil units include an opening and damper in the rear of the cabinet to connect directly through the wall for outdoor ventilation air. especially if the fan starts and stops. Too much air will waste energy. The changing wind effects can greatly affect the amount of outside air brought in. otherwise little room air is circulated and the heating or cooling is inadequate.21). the fan noise. because it has so many units. There are problems associated with this. since the resistance to airflow increases with higher efficiency. Frequent cleaning of the lint screen is often required to keep the induction effect going. conditions whether or not the drain pan must be piped to a central drain. ventilation air can be furnished from central air handling units with better filters. neutral. and filters must be cleaned of lint and dirt regularly and often.. Central HVAC systems using fan-coil units are very popular due to their flexibility and often competitive total system costs. Maintenance of the large number of motors must also be compared to the few in an HVAC system with only central air handling units.. The primary air can be delivered cold. drain pans. but also the fans. The mixed air (primary and secondary) exits through the top grille. This is because the induction effect can only overcome a very small air resistance. not the often quite dirty outside air: For these reasons. It depends on the system design and. . The cabinet contains a cooling! heating coil. hot water is delivered to the coil. The air is moved by an induction effect.

allowing smaller pumps and piping to be used. These categories are important because different types of boilers and equipment are required for each.2) Although the conversion factor of 1 GPM = 500 lblhr is correct only at cold water temperatures. a greater possibility with children. BTUlhr m = flow rate of water. it may be used with insignificant error to 250 F.18 SYSTEM WATER TEMPERATURES AND FLOW RATES Hydronic heating systems are classified into temperature categories as follows: LTW (low temperature hot water) -temperature below 250 F. the equation becomes Q = 500 x GPM x TC where Q. Consequently. The system temperature rise usually ranges from 5-15 F. The usual practice in designing LTW systems is to select a supply water temperature between 180-240 F and a system temperature drop between 10-40 F. HTW systems are used in very large projects. MTW (medium temperature hot water) -250-350F. The designer should consider supply temperatures up to 240 F and temperature drops up to 40 F for commercial applications. high temperature rises should be considered when planning in order to reduce energy consumption. the lower water temperature lessens the severity of a burn from accidental contact. F A more convenient form of the equation is to express the flow rate in GPM. In HTW systems. In theory. Manufacturers often suggest desirable temperature ranges for their heating and cooling equipment. flow rate. supply water temperatures of 180-210 F and a temperature drop of 20 F or less are satisfactory. as the water temperature increases. a high supply water temperature is preferred because the terminal units may be made smaller. gal/min (5. lower water temperature/pressures do not require the heavy and expensive equipment that higher water temperatures do. Hydronic cooling systems using chilled water (CHW) do not have temperature categories. equipment of greater strength is required to handle the increased pressure.0 BTU/lb-F for (5. The relationship between water temperature. this becomes Q=mxTC = 1. the boiler pressure must be increased to prevent the water from evaporating. As mentioned earlier. for instance. since the room heating loads are small. The supply temperature required in CHW systems depends on the dehumidification needed (Chapter 7) and usually ranges from 40-50 F.12: Q=mxcxTC Because the specific heat c water. A high temperature drop is also desirable because less water is required. and heat gain or loss was shown previously by Equation 2. . For private residences. Because (approximately) 1 GPM = 500 lblhr of water.HYDRONIC PIPING SYSTEMS AND TERMINAL UNITS 113 Water heating and cooling coils that are installed in central air handling units will be discussed in Chapter 12. Here also. there are reasons for limiting the water temperature. and pump energy consumption to be reduced. lblhr TC = t I - t2 =temperature change of water. 5. . much greater temperature drops are often chosen (up to 100 F) to reduce pipe sizes and power use. TC are as before and GPM = flow rate.1 ) where Q = heat gain or loss of water. HTW (high temperature hot water) -350-450 F. For example. In addition. However.

Note that the capacity depends on both the flow rate and average water temperature in the unit. BTu/hr per Foot Length at Following Average Water Temperatures. t2 =t. aluminum fins.6 1. Type M tubing.8 2. 55 fins per fOOL Height of unit with enclosure air entering at 65 F. The heating capacity is listed iu BTUlhr per foot of length.2 2. The capacity also depends on the entering Example 5. The manufacturer's catalog ratings are used to select the terminal units required. Q = 30 tons 12. The designer and installer should check that any unit being considered has been tested according to a standard rating procedure. 580 590 600 610 620 630 640 660 640 650 670 680 680 700 710 720 710 730 740 750 750 770 780 790 770 790 800 810 820 840 850 870 840 860 870 890 880 900 920 930 .6 4. What is the temperature of the water leaving the chiller? Solution Changing units of cooling capacity. A system water supply temperature of 240 F and return temperature of 200 F is chosen.1 shows the ratings for a typical baseboard radiation. 3 4 2 Y2 3 4 0. The building heating load is 8 million BTUlhr.000 500 x 80 =9F Solving for t2.2: Q GPM = -:c-:-.000 BTUlhr TABLE 5.2. is 8 in. For flow rates over 4 GPM. use 4 GPM ratings.1 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ A hydronic heating system is to be installed in the Square Tire Company factory.200) 5.-TC=54-9=45F Solution The flow rate is found by using Equation 5. 910 930 950 960 950 970 990 1000 970 990 1010 1030 1020 1040 1060 1080 Notes: Tubing is copper with 2YK x 2Y16 in. F Nominal Tube Flow Rate Size in. Standard testing procedures for measuring ratings have been established.000 BTUlhr X ------ I ton = 360.2 1. the required length of baseboard can be chosen. From this.000.8 510 520 530 540 550 560 570 580 .2 A water chiller with a capacity of 30 tons of refrigeration cools 80 GPM of water entering at 54 F.:::.t2 = Q 500 x GPM = 360. such as that of the Hydronics Institute.19 SELECTION OF TERMINAL UNITS The rating (capacity) of terminal units is measured and reported by manufacturers in their equipment catalogs. GPM Velocity FPS 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 2 Y. Ratings are based on . What is the required system flow rate in GPM? Using Equation 5.1 RATINGS FOR TYPICAL BASEBOARD RADIATION Hot Water Ratings.114 CHAPTER 5 Example 5.4 1. Table 5.000 500 x (240 .----:500xTC =400GPM 8. TC = t1 .4 3.

3. FT/SEC..000 BTUlhr 840 BTUlhr per ft 5.4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ A contractor is about to install a hydronic system and notes that the engineer's specifications call for !6 in. IN TYPE L TUBING Flow Rate. however.1-5.9-5. For a room maintained at 68-70 F.0 5.1. Choose the types of terminal units best suited for the application (Sections 5. The unit has 2 GPM of water flowing through it at an entering temperature of218 F.000 BTUlhr is therefore Length = 12. and selection of terminal units. baseboard required for a room with a heat load of 12. we discussed pipIng arrangements.--500 x GPM 12. GPM Tube Diameter 1 2 4 6 8 ExampleS. TABLES.3 5. Most ratings are listed for 65 F air entering the unit.000 500x2 = 12 F Example S. and velocities below I ft/sec may not be enough to carry dirt particles through the unit.. Y2in.12 = 206 F Average t= 218 + 206 2 = 212 F Using Table 5. The manufacturer should be consulted before using flow rates greatly outside the range shown in their tables. difficult for the student to put all this information together in planning a system. It is often. 2.. The average water temperature in the unit must first be determined. diameter tubing with a flow rate of 7 GPM.3 Select the length of !6 in.. ¥4in.2. as seen in Table 5.}ittle extra capacity.:Q.5 4. To find this.20 SYSTEM DESIGN PROCEDURE In the previous sections.6 8. Generally.2 will be used.000 BTUlhr. What should the contractor do? Solution This flow rate results in a very high velocity. Using Equation 5.4 0. Solution Table 5.HYDRONIC PIPING SYSTEMS AND TERMINAL UNITS I IS air temperature.8). a good guideline is to use flow rates between values that result in water velocities between 1 and 5 ft/sec. The following procedures should be helpful: I. The length required for a capacity of 12. = 14.7 1.5 jectionable noise.19). Table 5.5 2..2 lists water velocities for different flow rates.2 WATER VELOCITIES. 1.6 2. Leaving t = 218 . Equation 5. water temperatures and flow rate's. TC = -. This also provides a. and would probably be wry noisy. at a flow rate of 2 GPM and an average water temperature of 210 F (the next lowest temperature rating listed is used to be certain that the unit has adequate capacity).2. Velocities above 5 ft/sec in occupied areas may result in ob- . Choose the type of piping arrangement best suited for the application (Sections 5.1 will be used to select the unit. Prepare a diagrammatic sketch of the piping system and the terminal units connected together. no correction for the ratings at 65 F is usually necessary. the rated capacity is listed as 840 BTUlhr per foot of length.3 ft (use IS ft) The contractor would order 15 ft of the radiation. rather than deal with the fractional amount. The contractor should call the engineer and discuss possible changes in the design.

22.4 = 216 F. For a series loop system. The temperature entering the first unit is 220 F. a designer can usually select an appropriate temperature change on the first or second trial. hased on the required capacity of each unit (Equation 5.22 Sketch for Example 5.2). GPM = 68.3.30 = 190 F. A. Determine appropriate water temperatures. and select the terminal heating units.5. A supply temperature of 220 F is chosen. a series loop baseboard system has been chosen. the total system flow rate is distributed among all the units. 9. The first unit has a required capacity of 9200 BTUlhr.5 GPM 500x 30 This is a satisfactory flow rate.2). B.5 4F 8. 7. For a one-pipe main system. ExampleS. 7.S The S. C. system will be used. Also check manufacturer's recommendations on flow rates. with % in. Determine the water temperature entering and leaving each unit. 6.20). Solution The system design procedure recommended will be followed. The return temperature is then 220 . A sketch of the piping system and units is shown in Figure 5. After a little experience.6GPM 5. Table 5. (The results are noted in Table 5.2 to find the resulting flow rate.20). the flow rate through every unit is the same. Check to see if this is a satisfactory flow rate. and calculate the system water flow rate required to handle the building load (Equation 5. 2 3 HW . diameter baseboard radiation. The leaving temperature is 220 . Smith residence has a design heating load of 68.21). Choose a suitable system supply temperature (Section 5.) 1-3.O.~log. but of course the sum of the flow rates through each of the units must equal the total system flow rate. The flow rate through each unit may he arbitrarily chosen within the manufacturer's recommended values. 8. Figure 5.116 CHAPTER 5 4. flow rates. A series loop hydronic heating 7 6 5 4 . GPM= Q 500 x TC = 68. Two examples will illustrate this procedure. Try a system temperature drop of 10 F. 6. Using Equation 5. Prepare a table showing all the information collected. Select the terminal units from the manufacturer's ca. of course. 5. but cannot of course be greater than the total flow rate. Select a trial value of the system water temperature change (Section 5. Calculate the water temperature change through each unit. the flow rates through each unit may be arbitrarily selected within recommended values. For this small house.3 lists the required heating capacity of each unit. This flow rate will result in a greatly excessive velocity (Table 5. Velocities through units should be within recommended values (Section 5. Try a temperature drop of 30 F.000 BTUlhr.2). a new trial value of the system water temperature change is taken and a new flow rate calculated. For a two-pipe system.gen. It is helpful to record all flow rates and temperatures on the piping sketch. If the flow rate is not satisfactory according to this check.000 = 4. The temperature change is TC= 9200 500x4.000 500 x 10 13. 4.

5 4. it has been decided to use fan-coil units and a two-pipe reverse return system. however.700 9. using the rating at 4 GPM and 220 F the heat output is 890 BTU per foot of length.1. as explained in Chapter 3. taveJ Length. ft GPM 4. values can be interpolated between listed temperatures.600 11. The student should check these. The building shape is such that there may be unbalanced flow if a direct return layout is used. the problem might be resolved by raising the water supply temperature.000 BTU/hr. Another solution is to use radiation that has a greater output per unit length. BTu/hr Flow Rate.3.5 4. CHW gen. Capacities are listed in Table 5.400 8.800 220 216 211 207 203 200 194 216 211 207 203 200 194 189 218 213 209 205 201 197 191 11 16 11 13 9 20 18 The same procedure is used to find the remaining temperatures.4.5 4. 4. Using Figure 5. The building is a small group of medical offices.23 Sketch for Example 5. From Table 5. The required length of baseboard is now determined. The fan-coil units will fit nicely under the window in each office. (The sum of the unit capacities is slightly greater than the building load. For more accuracy.3 RESULTS OF TERMINAL UNIT SELECTION FOR EXAMPLE 5.. Solution The design procedures recommended will be followed.3 ft (use 1\ ft) 890 The choice of 11 ft of radiation instead of 10. 9200 Length = . The length required is therefore 1-3. due to infiltration.= 10. Try a system temperature rise of 12 F. All results are listed in Table 5.5 4.) If the radiation selected above is excessively long. tim tout.600 6. with a cooling load of 220. . will not seriously affect the accuracy of the selection of the terminal units.5 4. After a study of the building plans and use.13.5 F F F 2 3 4 5 6 7 9.3 ft will make up for selecting it at 220 F instead of 218 F.4. The average water temperature in the first unit is Average t = 220 + 216 2 = 218 F Example 5.5 117 Unit Capacity.6 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Determine the chilled water temperatures and flow rates for the two-pipe system shown in Figure 5.6. The terminal units are fan-coil units.5 4.300 13.HYDRONIC PIPING SYSTEMS AND TERMINAL UNITS TABLES. This results in a calculated return temperature slightly less than originally chosen which.200 12. 9. The results for the other units are shown in Table 5.

We will not describe that process here. 8.3 7. These are not shown here.1 The operating engineer wants to check the capacity of a refrigeration water chiller.000 500 x 12 Review Questions I. What are the basic parts of a unit heater? List the types of unit heaters and one application for each type. the terminal units can be selected from the manufacturer's catalog. 3.000 53. nominal diameter tubing. The temperature leaving the first unit is then 44 + 14 = 58 F. The instruments show 240 GPM of water flowing through the chill~r. Assume a CHW supply temperature of 44 F has been found satisfactory. which are described in their catalogs.sterlinghvac.000 41. The same procedure is carried out for each unit.3 7. From Table 5. The student should work out this solution as a learning exercise.2. as will be seen in Chapter 6. What application do three. and applications: www. 8. 7. Referring to a manufacturer's catalog of fancoil units (not shown here).000 7.slantfin. the building load will not generally be as great as the sum of the room loads. The system supply water temperature chosen depends on the selection of the refrigeration equipment and costs. List the applications and the advantages and disadvantages of the four types of hydronic piping system arrangements.7/5 = 7. Furthermore. BTU/hr Flow Rate. Describe a suitable application for each.000 47. 2. the sensible and latent capacities must also be determined. GPM tin' tout' F F 2 3 4 5 52. it is noted that their coil has a % in.3 7. Sketch the arrangements for the four types of hydronic piping system arrangements.3 220. Problems 5. Useful Websites The following sites have information for hydronic terminal unit performance.4 Unit Total" Capacity. What is the chiller's capacity in tons? . 5. an alternate procedure could have been used-to assume that every unit has exactly the same water temperature rise and then to calculate the required flow rate. From the information above.3 44 44 44 44 44 58 55 59 57 51 (/ In selecting cooling units.dunham-bush:com www. 7.com Equation 5. List the four basic types of hydronic system piping arrangements.3 GPM each. The temperature change for the first unit is TC= 52. The temperature change for the other units is found in the same manner.2.000 500 x 7. 9. selection.3 7. the velocity will be satisfactory. This procedure is just as acceptable as those chosen.7GPM The flow rate is arbitrarily distributed equally among all five units. 4. In the previous example.com www. giving 36.and four-pipe systems have? What undesirable feature does a three-pipe system have? List the types of hydronic terminal units used for heating and/or for cooling.000 27. 5-6. the flow rate is GPM = ---=Q=---500xTC =36. Each manufacturer has slightly different procedures. but remember that the flow rates found should be checked to see if they are within recommended values. = 14 F 6. entering at 52 F and leaving at 40 F.6 TABLE 5.118 CHAPTER 5 RESULTS OF EXAMPLE 5.

if the baseboard is supplied with 3 GPM of water at 235 F.24. 5.slantfin.20. and 12.5 GPM. a supply temperature of 230F.1I Find the flow rate in each section of pipe for the hydronic cooling system of Example 5. (2).5. using the Website www. 5. Produce the appropriate detail and dimension drawing and a brief specification. 7200 BTUlhr. 5. terminal unit A has a heat output of 9300 BTUlhr and unit B of 8100 BTUIhr. Determine the water temperatures and flow rates at points (1).000 BTUIhr. Produce the appropriate detail and dimension drawing and a brief specification.9 Select the terminal units for the residence described in Example 5.6.4 The flow rate through a convector is 4. using l-2 in. 5. What is the water temperature leaving unit A and unit B? 5. Select the radiation needed for the units described in Problem 5.700 BTUIhr.21.25 Sketch for Problem 5. supplying 40 GPM of water at 240 F. terminal units A.16 5. with a flow rate of2 GPM and an average water temperature of 200 F? 5.5. calculate the temperature rise in each unit and the flow rate in each section of pipe. respectively. 5. (3) .) 5. Figure 5.24 Sketch for Problem 5. If the water temperature rise in the unit is 14 F. The flow rate through each unit is 3 GPM.10 Select baseboard radiation for the residence described in Example 5.1. 5GPM • 225 F A 5. 5. a flow rate of I GPM.HYDRONIC PIPING SYSTEMS AND TERMINAL UNITS 119 5. Find the required length of % in.6. with a supply temperature of 190 F. A hydronic heating system is used. Use the heating loads calculated previously or those specified by the instructor.2 A building has a heating load of 630. or those specified by the instructor.000 BTUIhr. baseboard.13 Assuming a system temperature rise of 14 F for Example 5.) Computer Solution Problems 5.7 What is the heating capacity of a 7 ft length of l-2 in. and C have cooling capacities of 14. baseboard radiation to heat the room.com. of the type shown in Table 5.3 A fan-coil unit is to be used to cool a room with a cooling load of 12. calculate the flow rate through each unit.com. Select the required 3/4 in. and (3). and a temperature drop of 35 F. Z! in. or select your own. baseboard radiation of the type listed in Table 5.8 A room has a heating load of 9600 BTUlhr. baseboard.5 In Figure 5. Water enters the unit at 220 F and leaves at 208 F.1. What is the return water temperature? 5. (Use the type of system and terminal units as assigned by your instructor.25.15 Layout a hydronic piping system and tenrunal units for the building shown in Problem 3.5. B.6 and the same temperature rise in each unit. (Use the type of system and tenninal units as assigned by your instructor. Figure 5.sterlinghvac. B 1 .12 Using a system temperature rise of 10 F for Example 5.000 BTUlhr. baseboard radiation from the Website www.14 Layout a hydronic piping system and terminal units for the house shown in Problem 3. The water supply temperature is 200 F and flow rate is 2 GPM.6 In Figure 5. what is the flow rate in GPM? 5. or select your own.6 and equal flow rates to each unit. Use the heating loads calculated previously.5 using a split series loop piping system and suitable temperatures and flow rates.17 A room has a heating load of 8300 BTUlhr. What is the heat output of the convector? 5.

. moved. we noted that the heat loss from a room at any instant was equal to the heating load at that time. Find required ventilation rates. If the temperature and humidity of the air are to be maintained at a comfortable level. The amount of heat that must be removed (the cooling load) is not always equal to the amount of heat received at a given time. the situation is more complex. In Chapter 3. With cooling. we learned how to calculate the winter heating requirements of a building. 3. 120 6. OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter.c H A p T E R Cooling Load Calculations T he objective of this chapter is to learn how to determine the amount of cooling required to keep the rooms in a building comfortable in summer. 2. 5. The cooling load must be determined because it is the basis for selection of the proper size air conditioning equipment and distribution system. season. The procedures described for calculating cooling needs are similar but involve additional items that make the subject more complicated. The amount of heat that must be removed is called the cooling load. 4. Perform a T~sidential cooling load analysis. you will be able to: I. Calculate the heat gains to a space.2 COOLING LOAD CALCULATION PROCEDURES In Chapter 3.1 THE COOLING LOAD The air inside a building receives heat from a number of sources during the cooling. 6. Perform a commercial cooling load analysis. 6. Determine peak load conditions. It is also used to analyze energy use and conservation. Select appropriate design conditions for cooling. this heat must be re- .

~ '" '-' c: heat gain o o '0 c: 'OJ '" 0> <il I '" Morning Afternoon Time of day ------ Evening . Figure 6. walls. An example is shown in Figure 6. The room cooling load is the rate at which heat must be removed from the room air to maintain it at the design temperature and humidity. and furnishings.2 The thermal storage effect and resulting time lag cause the cooling load to often be different iu value from the entering heat (called the instantaneous heat gain). the cooling load is less than the instantaneous heat gain. Note that during the time of day at which the instantaneous heat gain is the highest (the afternoon).Q 0> . floors. '0 . Difference between instantaneous heat gain and cooling load as a result of heat storage effect.1. as shown in Figure 6.2. so the cooling load becornes greater than the tnstantaneous heat gain. This difference is a result of the heat storage and time lag effects. the other part (the radiation) heats the building mass-the roof.1 Heat flow diagram showing building heat gain. This is because some of this heat is stored in the building mass and is not heating the room air. This is the heat storage effect.COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS 121 Radiation Heat stored in furnishings. Only at a later time does the stored heat portion contribute to heating the room air. Of the total amount of heat entering the building at any instant. structure Convection (delayed in time) Heat gain :---+- Convection -- Cooling load Figure 6. This is the time lag effect. only a portion of it heats the room air immediately. Later in the day. heat storage. and cooling load. the stored heat plus some of the new entering heat is released to the room air.

In this extreme example of time delay. thus increasing humidity. and floors 3. From the earlier description. one may understand better the effects we have been discussing.-~ 'iE(Q-_. nfiltration -Qwall Qf(eor . Sensible heat gains result in increasing the air temperature. / Qpeople I Equipment ! I I - ~ -Qglass Q.3): I. There are a few different. and those internally generated. One of its valuable features is that in learning it. The software bibliography in the rear of this text lists some of the available computer software for cooling load calculations. it is seen that items I through 3 are external heat gains. acceptable procedures for calculating cooling loads that take into account the phenomena we have discussed.3 ROOM HEAT GAINS The heat gain components that contribute to the room cooling load consist ofthe following (Figure 6. Figure 6. very hot day the church interior remains quite cool. roof. Infiltration can be considered as a separate class.often lead to use of smaller equipment and sometimes result in less energy use. These methods . Lighting 5. it merely heats the walls (heat storage). ceilings. . By the time the heat reaches the interior (time lag). Heat from infiltration of outside air through openmgs It is convenient to arrange these heat gains into two groups-those from external sources outside the room. ~ Qsolar (glas Qlights Q partition . the building may even have a reverse heat flow at night-heat flows out from the hot walls to the cool outdoors. It is also convenient to arrange the heat gains into a different set of two groups: sensible and latent heat gains. The CLF/CLTD method can be catTied out manually or by using a computer. The cooling load calculation procedure that will be explained here is called the CLF/CLTDmethod. All of them are more accurate than past methods and are often required in state energy codes and standards. night has come. though it is not air-conditioned. Even on a sunny. People 6. latent heat gains are due to addition of water vapor. Qroof or ceiling I I Lights~ I I t . The entering heat doesn't reach the interior. and glass 2. Solar radiation through glass 4. Equipment 7. 6. thick stone walls.-~ 122 CHAPTER 6 This effect is noticed in the huge southern European cathedrals built of massive. Conduction through exterior walls. and items 4 through 6 are internal heat gains. Conduction through interior partitions. This procedure is relatively easy to understand and use.3 Room heat gain components. Q.

Indoor temperature is 78 F DB. wall. from Table 6.1. . 6. The following two examples illustrate the procedure for finding the cooling load due to conduction heat gain through a roof and a wall. heavy weight concrete with 1 in. the CLTD must be corrected as follows: CLTDc = CLTD + LM + (78 .1.1 and 6. Tables 6. F CLTD = temperature from Table 6. Items 5 and 7 are part sensible and part latent.9 with suspended ceiling. Add one hour for Daylight Savings Time. Solution I. it is always advisable to confirm these values by calculation from individual R-values.5 LM = correction for latitude and month. is constructed of 4 in. I and 6. 2.2) Example 6. Tables 6. Date is July 21st. where CLTDc = corrected value of CLTD.COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS 123 Items 1 through 4 are solely sensible gains.85) (6.4 tR =room temperature. or glass. The CLTD values in Tables 6. If the actual condition differs from any of the above. as described in Chapter 3.1 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ A 30 ft by 40 ft roof of a building in Washington. This is approximately equal to Standard Time. Find the roof cooling load at 2 PM Solar Time on July 21.1 and 6. roof is type No.1) where Q = cooling load for roof. D. or glass.2 are Solar Time. F DR = daily temperature range. At 2 PM (14 hrs). Location is 400N latitude. F Both to and DR (the daily temperature range) are found in Table A.2 or 6.. or glass.(DRl2) (6.3) where to = outside design dry bulb temperature. 3.tR) + (ta . and item 6 can fall in either category Or both. From Table 6. As will be noted in the study of psychrometries (Chapter 7).C. wall.2 are based on the follOWing conditions: 1. BTU/hr U = overall heat transfer coefficient for roof. and glass are each found from the following equation: Q=UxAxCLTD c The temperature ta can be found as follows: ta = to . insulation and a suspended ceiling. depending on the type of equipment. However. F The cooling load temperature difference (CLTD) is not the actual temperature difference between the outdoor and indoor air.9. (6.4).3 include U-values for the roofs and walls described. BTU/hr-ft2-F A = area of roof. 2. 4.4 CONDUCTION THROUGH EXTERIOR STRUCTURE The cooling loads caused by conduction heat gains through the exterior roof. CLTD = 29 F. it is necessary to separate the sensible and latent gains because the selection of cooling equipment depends on their relative values. fe CLTDc =corrected cooling load temperature difference. F ta = average outside temperature on a design day. wall. The hours listed in Tables 6.1 and 6.F 6.2. Outdoor average temperature on the design day is 85 FDB.2 list CLTD values for some roof and wall constructions. first finding each correction: A. The inside temperature is 76 F. walls. Find the corrected CLTDc·from Equation6. It is a modified value that accounts for the heat storage/time lag effects. Correct for LM (Table 6.

wood with [·in. wood with I-in.1 23 22 26 18 4() 29 26 31 21 46 36 31 36 24 50 41 36 40 .lightweight concrete 22 17 24 30 35 39 45 6J 50 47 13 J1 29 35 20 26 16 22 13 18 10 14 II 6 9 6 7 9 20 27 19 34 25 42 33 53 46 55 50 49 53 34 40 6 7 56 1:1 20 54 9 [0 4-in.5·in.. lightweight concrete 7 2. (or 2-in..106 (0. 8·in.170 -2 -3 -3 -5 -3 -3 -3 6 -2 19 4 34 14 40 27 (11 71 52 n 62 79 70 77 74 70 74 59 70 45 62 30 51 l:-l 3S 12 28 20 14 9 14 16 -5 79 74 R4 77 76 8 18 6 o -[ 5 39 -3 -3 insulation 4-in.200 ((J..) insulation I-in. ins.158 0. 29 (0.109 0.[06 0. (or 2-in. wood with 2-in.21:1 (0.117. 7 (8) 0.oF 2 3 4 5 6 7 B 9 10 11 Solar Time 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Minimum CLTD Maxi. 2.213 9 o -2 -3 -3 9 20 32 44 55 64 70 73 71 66 57 45 34 25 18 13 16 73 concrete 4 2-in. 0.122) 0. Ib/ft2 BTU No Construction h_tt2 . lightweight 0. . ins. heavyweight c6ncrete with I-in.. (or 2·in. (or 2-in) insulation 17 (18) . 22 16 27 I.192 25 30 34 3] 22 26 31 28 36 18 23 28 25 33 15 19 25 12 16 22 20 28 9 S 10 16 15 22 8 9 14 14 20 10 14 9 lO 26 17 18 .124) 0. wood with 2-in. heavyweight concrete with I-in. 52 (52) 13 J5 75 (75) 0.) insulation I-in.093 0. heavyweight concrete with I-in. wood with I-in.130 0.1 COOLING LOAD TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCES (CLTD) FOR CALCULATING COOLING LOAD FROM FLAT ROOFS.) insulation 2.078) 38 28 13 4·ill. (or 2-in.206 0. Roof Description of Weight.) insuhlliun 13 14 18 13 16 17 20 19 13 14 46 22 30 22 17 45 43 m.5-in.126 12 o o -3 13 -I -I 11 5 20 30 '27 15 13 9 41 39 ~3 51 49 33 59 57 4~ 65 63 5I 66 66 62 54 45 37 57 54 54 36 26 50 29 22 II 17 16 16 18 19 -1 67 68 71 9 24 -4 9 -5 6 -7 -6 -3 16 7 64 58 48 39 62 62 57 64 48 62 56 53 18 42 44 49 7 28 -7 64 64 'i insulation 6 '6-in.IlO) 0. F Hour of Maximum CLTD U-value.Differmum ence CLTD CLTD Without Suspended Ceiling Sleel sheet with I-in.~3 53 49 44 45 36 52 51 45 45 39 48 50 46 44 41 43 47 45 42 43 38 43 43 40 43 34 39 40 37 42 30 35 37 34 40 18 19 53 51 45 13 19 17 25 13 15 18 16 46 40 43 32 43 3J J1 II 12 Roof terrace system 6-in.TABLE 6.

1!'ii\1~!'*"iI.) ins..13 27 ]0 26 2H 24 26 22 24 21 22 20 20 20 IX 21 IX 22 Hi 24 20 27 22 29 25 32 2B 34 32 36 35 38 .093 32 34 28 31 23 29 19 26 16 23 13 21 10 IK 16 7 I. .131 O. wood wilh n.in.12 34 37 36 23 2i 37 Reprinted with permission from the /989 ASHRAE J-Illni/hook-FIIIJ(/amel1lals. F (Continued) Hour of Maxi2 .oF 3 4 5 6 7 B 9 10 11 Solar Time 12 13 14 mum 15 16 17 Minimum CLTO Maxi.ft 2..128 (0. heavyweight 0.134 (()Jl92) 2 () -2 -J -4 -4 -I \} 23 :17 50 ()2 71 77 71\ 74 67 56 42 2X 111 12' R 15 25 2-1 -4 2 () 78 62 R2 2 I-in. lightweight 0. Ibfft2 BTU h.ll 20 19 15 14 II 10 4 2 () () 7 -I 13 10 21 I') )0 29 40 W 48 4R 55 56 60 62 62 65 61 6-1 58 61 51 5-1 44 -16 37 . ins. ' ".) ln~lIll1tion 19 (20) O. Roof No Description of Construction Weight.) insulution 'i (10) 0.~X 30 30 17 17 60 65 20 65 4 concrete wilh I-in.12 31 29 27 26 24 23 22 21 22 22 24 2'i 27 .082 21 22 20 18 22 2i 23 2-in.1. (ur 2.125 (0. 26 2/\ 28 30 29 32 31 33 .OR2 (O. 10 4-in. (or 2·in. wood with 2-in.14 .j!! 38 40 38 41 37 41 36 40 34 39 33 37 19 20 38 41 18 10 2.~-jn.~2 32 31 33 34 11 0.'" '"'. (or 2-in.115 O. (or 2-in.on 0. heavyweight concrete with I-in.lightweight concrete 4-in.1 . ins II 12 Roof terrace system 6-in.Differmum ence CLTO CLTO 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 CLTO With Suspended Ceiling Steci sheet Wilh I-in. wood with 15 33 21 21 IS 14 44 46 29 J-in.OM) .) insulation 77 77 (77) )0 29 29 21' 28 27 27 26 26 25 25 24 24 23 23 ~2 22 21 22 21 22 22 23 2~~ 23 2:\ 25 2(. 39 36 3 3 29 26 23 20 18 15 14 14 15 17 20 25 29 34 38 42 45 46 44 42 32 53 (54) 15 0. henvywcight concrete with I-in. wood with 1"in.r TABLE 6. ins\llilli!m 3D 0.1.109 0. insulation 8 9 B-in. lightweight concrete 2·in.~ 33 33 3(j 33 .096 D. :~"'--.O!D 2H 25 23 20 17 15 1) 13 14 16 20 25 3D 35 39 43 46 47 46 44 41 38 35 32 18 18 20 13 47 34 I-in.088) " 16 1.-. in~ to 26 25 20 [6 13 10 12 IX 25 :n 22 21 41 4S 53 57 57 56 52 46 40 34 29 57 52 47 tv U> 6 6-in. wood with l·in.1 4"in.1:'i .') 8 15 II 16 16 IX 29 25 36 JD 42 34 48 ]8 52 41 54 43 54 44 54 44 47 42 42 40 37 37 7 54 concrete 2.5-in.!r: U-value.'If) 32 34 33 34 33 34 ..090) 30 35 29 .1 COOLING LOAD TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCES (ClTD) FOR CALCULATING COOLING lOAD FROM FLAT ROOFS.I.

5 " 21 2 3 6 5 38 35 28 21 27 34 36 39 44 39 27 23 26 30 24 24 27 23 22 20 19 21 16 16 17 31 35 .5 24 29 2S II II 12 12 l2 17 9 9 III 10 II) 7 7 8 8 8 10 II 10 S 5 6 6 5 8 8 l8 9 -I -) 26 39 55 51 to II -I -I -) 14 16 13 15 13 " 17 17 7 " o I o 46 63 47 63 72 55 71 55 ..:'0 12 13 14 II 19 15 24 21 14 14 14 12 25 23 15 15 15 12 II 19 26 24 \7 17 17 12 20 26 25 19 20 19 13 20 27 14 11 27 1421 26 15 21 26 15 15 24 20 25 25 22 20 242421 U 15 26 20 22 22 17 26 21 25 25 19 26 2.7 31 36 -16 50 -1-1 27 24 27 30 32 43 59 56 37 24 20 29 30 22 24 24 25 52 67 55 22 IX 19 19 20 15 37 63 67 47 31 61 72 55 37 48 41 14 15 15 t.3J 18 24 32 JS 43 14 20 27 36 .5 9 12 -t 7 10 II .3 2.). 12.:'1 21 19 27 29 23 18 25 27 21 17 17 16 22 25 20 III II l4 l4 9 !O 12 12 12 16 8 10 12 12 10 8 II 14 7 IJ 16 13 <) 7 15 19 16 8 !7 22 19 !O 19 25 ~~ 13 IS 00 16 12 9 9 II 12 10 15 16 13 l4 II " i4 13 12 13 10 11 12 !() 11 11 12 10 9 20 27 24 \. h 0100 0200 03000400 0500 0600 0700 0800 0900 10001100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 21002200 2300 2400 CLTD eLTD elTD elTD North Latitude WaH Facing Group A Walts NE N E SE SW NW N W S 14 19 24 24 20 25 27 21 14 19 24 23 20 25 27 21 14 19 23 23 19 25 26 21 13 18 23 22 19 24 26 20 13 17 22 21 13 17 21 20 12 12 18 24 25 20 18 2] 24 19 16 20 20 17 22 24 19 15 19 19 16 21 23 18 " 15 19 II 15 18 18 15 19 21 16 10 15 19 18 14 19 20 16 IS 16 20 22 10 15 19 18 14 18 19 [0 16 20 IS 1..5 (.. 30 3(l 2<) 3X -lO 31 2_.2 Solar Time. 2 II 5 I 2 4 -I 5 6 5 NW 5 3 2 o I o o o o 27 31 If: 789 36 39 47 5.53 57 2S 31 24 25 26 13 13 15 15 II II 19 II 23 30 45 43 21 ~~ 52 60 46 Group G Walls " 25 25 27 27 06 45 54 43 37 -1-_' IS If: 2f: 15 23 27 22 J5 3-1.~5 17 22 27 17 21 26 27 25 33 26 24 32 35 16 20 24 24 22 31 22 20 17 to 10 23 30 29 26 IS 19 12 12 <) " IS 17 1'.). 2t: ~S " y.).3 13 16 2() 26 32 21 ~3 20 ~l IX 2'i 3() 31 H 2X 2X 19 22 25 31 45 49 37 2'j 44 4-9 3X 26 26 23 23 16 17 20 20 2{) . 8 12 III 23 32 29 16 12 II 1() 12 23 33 31 20 16 14 12 8 7 10 II <) " i4 5 i4 15 I' 12 I) 6 9 II) 6 8 9 7 8 <) 13 24 33 32 24 21 10 7 7 8 " 14 IS 25 31 31 29 36 36 27 J<) 19 19 IX 16 21 2...() 45 35 -10 3n 34 2x 36 32 14 15 17 17 17 26 29 :!. ~6 :!.... . 4 25 24 20 25 27 7 6 6 S 9 7 21 Group B Walls NE E IS 19 23 23 14 SE SW NW N W ::12 22 IS S 21 27 29 23 20 26 :!8 -'-' 14 17 21 21 19 25 27 21 13 16 20 20 18 24 26 20 12 15 18 11 14- 18 !7 22 24 19 !7 !7 15 21 23 IS II 13 16 16 14 19 21 17 JO 12 15 IS 13 18 9 12 15 14 9 !3 15 14II 15 17 1J 9 14 17 15 11 14 16 12 8 15 19 16 II 14 15 12 9 16 21 18 II 13 14I. 29 38 41 32 Group E Walls 12 NE IJ 14 SE SW W E 10 II 12 8 9 J() 7 7 S S NW N 15 15 22 25 20 12 12 18 21 17 10 10 15 17 14 8 8 12 14 11 " 7 6 6 II 5 5 8 9 7 4 6 . NE E 17 19 20 12 13 15 15 I(} SE SW NW N 11 13 13 S 19 28 31 W 25 15 22 24 19 13 19 21 17 9 III II II II 16 7 S 9 10 9 ." 00 22 22 22 27 35 27 :n II 33 35 27 27 26 12 10 "' Group 0 WallS 15 13 15 17 17 17 25 27 . J! 5 8 5 8 11 [6 15 15 2.MaJ.126 CHAPTER 6 COOLING LOAD TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCES (CLTD) FOR CALCULATING COOLING LOAD FROM SUNLIT WALLS. 32 4~ 1 5 12 5 . Mini. F Hrof Maxi.7 3S -'I 32 :>'6 37 -1-0 3:!.. ..4 20 16 13 15 4 5 5 17 19 20 20 5 6 22 26 38 37 34 45 49 " " 5 38 Group FWails NE E 8 9 6 7 7 SE SW NW N W S to to to 15 17 14 7 8 II 13 10 5 5 6 6 6 9 10 3 3 4 4 4 4 9 28 2 3 14 30 +t 36 13 8 8 8 17 HI 38 28 4 4 II 29 45 19 27 36 3 ) 41 8 6 7 6 5 5 4 I 2 ::w II II 10 .). IQ 12 II 8 10 13 15 17 19 20 2(> 26 26 26 2(' 37 36 34 33 32 37 37 36 34 33 :!. 28 12 12 12 IS 21 18 12 13 16 39 53 60 18 19 19 46 NE 3 3 4 4 4 2 2 SE SW W E S o o o o o I 2 I -I -I -I -I .).:' 9 17 ~~ 9 18 10 19 12 16 18 l4 .). . 20 24 24 24 34 3X 30 18 22 22 ~~ 31 3-1 27 17 19 21 21 22 " . 6 7 6 8 <) 6 10 6 1-117 IJ 6 17 22 17 to 20 27 22 9 8 <) ..2932J... " 16 6 7 19 25 13 IS 33 32 . 15 30 50 51 31 26 40 48 26 " " 18 39 12. 13 IJ II 10 12 22 21 29 26 !7 15 14 12 13 22 29 28 20 IS 16 30 29 22 22 20 30 29 24 26 24 IS 13 15 15 23 30 29 25 29 29 22 16 23 29 29 26 32 32 25 17 23 2S 28 25 33 ... 9 25 36 31 II 25 3S _~5 7 7 " 6 4 I ) 5 6 5 6 7 6 13 9 ... 6 15 IS 7 24 33 2.....J19 2] 21 15 17 18 14 24 22 16 24 ::!J 17 18 19 18 15 19 15 23 18 20 20 16 24 19 22 22 17 13 20 25 2. 20 23 23 IS 24 25 19 14 20 25 24 20 25 26 20 14 20 25 24 20 25 26 21 10 22 22 22 14 20 23 24 I I 15 IS IS 14 17 IS l4 ..Differmum mum mum enee TABLE 6.).J17 19 10 ::n 16 17 15 15 19 14 17 IS [4 ]0 !7 22 20 14 17 [8 14 10 18 [I ]8 II 18 12 19 25 12 19 25 J3 20 25 2. 3 5 5 20 26 19 . J5 55 49 . 4 (.:' 27 27 21 26 ~~ 211 29 ~~ 28 29 23 28 30 23 21 20 21 23 24 24 24 S 12 15 l4 II 15 21 27 26 22 <) l2 l2 II " l4 II 7 2S 30 15 16 23 9 Groupe WallS NE E 15 19 22 [4 17 13 16 19 19 12 14 II 13 15 15 15 20 22 IS SE SW NW N S 22 21 29 W 31 25 .

274 0. insulation + 8-in.303 0.281 0. tile A 2-in. insulation 0. tile C Insulation + 4-in. insulation + 4-in. insulation + 4-io.243 0.187 0. block C Air space or 1-in. insulation + 8-1n.275 0.173 -00419 0. Face brick + (brick) C Air space + 4-in. tile 8-in.221-D.COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS TABLE 6. tile C 8-io. tile With/without air space + 1. tile D Air space + 4-in.296 0.246 0.3 Group No. Face brick + (clay tile) D 4-in. face brick D 4-in.200 0.174-D.114 0.I07 0. Face brick + (light or heavyweight concrete block) E 4-io.381 0.111 0. tile Heavyweight concrete wall + (finish) E 4-in.154-D. concrete A 12-in. concrete + I-in.112 0.153-D. block D 8-in. concrete A Air space or insulation + 8-in.116 0. block D 8-in.119-D.113 0. tile + I-in.096-D.231 0. concrete C B 8-in. insulation A 2-in.263 0.358 00415 0. insulation 2-in.119 00490 0. insulation + 4-in.585 0. insulation + 8-in.li8 Reprinted with permission from the 1989 ASHRAE Handbook-Fundamentals. block E 8-in. or 8-in.230 0.081-D. common brick C I-in.161-D.301 0.115-D. concrete + insulation Light and heavyweight concrete block + (finish) F 4-in. common brick B 2-in.149-D.169 0. insulation I-in.091-D. insulation or air space + 4-in.319 0.302 0.142-D. concrete + I-in.11O-D. ~lock + air space/insulation Clay tile + (finish) 83 90 90 88 130 130 94 97 143-190 62 62 70 73-89 89 71 71 71 96 96 97 63 63 63 109 110 110 156 156 29 29--37 47-51 41-57 39 39 39 40 63 63 63 5--{j 16 0.175 0. insulation 2-in. insulation + 6-io. WALL CONSTRUCTION GROUP DESCRIPTION Weight (Ib/tt") 127 Description of Construction U-Value (BTU/hoft"o'F) 4-in. insulation + 4-in. tile B Air space or I-in. concrete B 12-in. Face brick + (heavyweight concrete) C Air space + 2-io.099 F F E D D C B Metal curtain wall G Frame wall G 4-in. or more concrete 4-io. insulation + 4-in. common brick 4-io. tile + air space 4-in. tile 8-in. common brick A Insulation or air space + 8-in. insulation _ 2-in. block D Air space or insulation + 4-io. block B 2-in.110 0.22I 0.294-DA02 0. to 3-in. block + air space/insulation E 2-in.097 0.275 O. or 2-in. common brick B 8-in. tile 4-in. concrete B 2-in. insulation + 8-in. insulation + 8-in. concrete D 4-in. or 2-in. tile + air space/I-in.115 00421 0.151-D.105-D.350 0.to 3-in. ~-- . concrete C 8-in. block 4-io.

128 CHAPTER 6 . ]I' TABLE 6. NORTH LATITUDES. .4 CLTD CORRECTION FOR LATITUDE AND MONTH APPLIED TO WALLS AND ROOFS. F Lat. .j. Month N NNE NNW NE NW ENE WNW E W ESE WSW SE SW SSE SSW 6 S HOR 0 Dec JanINov Feb/Oct Mar/Sept Apr/Aug May/Jul Jun Dec JanINov Feb/Oct Mar/Sept Apr/Aug May/Jul Jun Dec Jan/Nov Feb/Oct Mar/Sept Apr/Aug -3 -3 -3 -3 5 10 12 -4 -5 -5 -2 0 4 -5 -4 -5 -4 -2 -1 -I 7 9 -6 -2 1 3 5 5 -6 -6 -2 -1 0 0 0 -6 -1 -2 -3 -3 -3 -2 -1 -1 -1 -2 -2 -4 -4 0 0 -1 -3 -5 -7 -7 0 0 -1 -2 -4 3 2 0 -3 -6 -8 -9 4 4 -1 -5 -8 -9 -10 8 6 9 7 0 -8 -8 -8 -8 12 10 4 -4 -1 -1 0 0 -2 -4 -5 -5 -4 8 -3 -3 -3 2 7 9 -4 -4 -5 -4 -s -2 2 5 6 -3 -1 2 4 4 -3 -1 0 0 0 -8 -7 -4 -5 -6 3 1 -2 -5 -7 -8 4 4 2 2 -3 -7 -9 -9 9 8 5 0 -5 -7 -8 9 3 7 2 -2 -7 -7 -7 13 -1 0 -1 -2 -2 -9 -7 -4 16 May/Jul Jun -3 -3 -1 4 6 -5 -4 -4 -6 -6 -5 -3 0 3 4 -7 -6 -5 -4 -8 -7 -5 -2 -I 3 4 -9 -8 -6 -2 -1 0 -10 -9 -6 -2 -1 -1 -I -I -1 -1 0 -1 -3 -4 -4 -3 -3 -I -I 0 -3 -5 -6 3 9 3 I -I 12 7 0 -6 -7 0 13 13 10 4 -3 -6 -6 12 9 II -1 0 0 -7 -13 -II 24 Dec Jan/Nov Feb/Oct Mar/Sept Apr/Aug May/Jul Jun Dec JanINov Feb/Oct Mar/Sept Apr/Aug May/Jul Jun Dec JanINov Feb/Oct Mar/Sept Apr/Aug May/Jul Jun Dec JanINov Feb/Oct Mar/Sept Apr/Aug May/Jul Jun -7 -6 -3 -I -I -3 -2 I 3 -5 -5 -4 -1 2 3 -7 -7 -6 -4 -3 0 2 3 -10 -9 -7 -4 -3 -I 0 I -II -II 0 0 -8 -8 -4 -2 -3 -3 -5 -IS -7 -3 0 I I -\7 -3 -4 -5 -6 32 2 -4 4 9 2 -8 -4 -3 -2 1 I -2 I -1 I -2 0 -13 -12 -9 -6 2 -8 -7 -7 -5 -3 0 1 -8 -8 -7 -6 2 -10 -10 -8 -5 -2 0 I -II -II -2 0 0 0 -10 -9 -6 -2 -1 -I -I 3 0 -I 8 5 I 7 I 12 -10 -5 -1 I -3 -4 -3 -4 -2 -7 -6 -3 -I -2 0 1 3 4 2 0 0 -3 -I 2 -21 -19 -14 -8 -3 I 40 -6 -5 -5 -4 -2 0 I 48 -6 -6 -5 -4 -10 -6 -2 0 0 -14 -13 -11 -7 -3 0 I -3 0 0 1 -13 -II 0 0 0 -10 -8 -5 -1 0 7 8 8 7 3 0 -1 2 10 II -12 10 4 I -I 2 -25 -24 -18 -11 -5 0 2 6 -8 -4 -3 0 -3 -1 1 -3 0 2 -1 I 2 1 4 4 3 2 5 8 8 6 3 2 8 II 11 7 4 3 Reprinted with permission from the 1989 ASHRAE Handbook-Fundamentals. .

Find the wall cooling load at 4 PM Solar Time on June 21. For Washington..2 Q= UxAxCLTD c =0. D.9. without LM correction.3 to find t a. The roof area A = 30 ft x 40 ft = 1200 ft2 3.. Using Equation 6._- - .9. Inside air temperature is 75 F and outdoor average temperature on a design day is 88 F.h CLTD OF 0 -1 -2 -2 -2 -2 0 2 4 7 Solar Time. Using Equation 6. Solution I.2. Use Equation 6. has a net opaque area of 5600 ft2 The wall is constructed of 4 in. Find the cooling load due to conduction heat gain through the windows at 2 PM Daylight Savings Time. CLTDc = CLTD + (78 .4. Using Table 6. 2.5.5 lists CLTD values for glass.18/2 = 81 F (rounded off).1. From Table 6.85) = 15-1 +(78-77)+(81-85) CLTDc= II F 6.tR) + (ta . =0. Example 6. The following example illustrates the use of Table 6.76) + (86 . except that there is no latitude and month (LM) correction.2.!R) + (ta .2. the wall is in Group B.2.S COOLING LOAD TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCES (CLTD) FOR CONDUCTION THROUGH GLASS Solar Time. U = 0. Equation 6.1l6x5600x II = 7150 BTUlhr Table 6. From Table 6. CLTDc = CLTD + LM + (78 . Solution I.3 A south-facing wall of a building in Pittsburgh.1 to find the cooling load. face brick + 2 in. A room has 130 ft2 of single glass windows with vinyl frames. fa = 95 F DR=18F. heavy weight concrete.h CLTD OF 12 13 14 14 13 12 10 8 6 4 3 2 0100 0200 0300 0400 0500 0600 0700 0800 0900 1000 1100 1200 9 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 Reprinted with permission from the 1993 ASHRAE Handbook-Fundamentals.116 BTUlhr-ft 2 -F 7. DR = 18 F.tR) + (ta . 3.C. From Table 6. CLTD= 12F. Using Equation 6.17/2 = 86 F C.3.75) + (88 .128x 1200x33 = 5070 BTUlhr Example 6. Roof surface is horizontal (the HOR column). 2.128 BTU/hr-ft2 -F E. Q=UxAxCLTD c TABLE6.85) CLTDc= 18 F .85) = 12 + (78 . Using Equation 6. CLTD = 15 F.5 (2 PM DST= I PMST= 13 hrs).2 is used to correct the CLTD. Use Equation 6.85) = 29 + I + (78 . insulation + 4 in. For July. to = 95 . ta = 90 . From Table 6. Using Equation 6. 5. From Table A. 4. is at 38'N latitude (use 40 0 N). CLTDc = CLTD + LM + (78 .3. 10 = 90 F.C. The inside air temperature is 77 F. LM = 1 F B. From Table 6.1 to find the cooling load.COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS 129 D. Pennsylvania.2. U = 0. first finding to and DR from Table A.85) CLTDc=33 F D.1 F Find fa. LM = .

Spaces with heat sources. floors. 6.5 CONDUCTION THROUGH INTERIOR STRUCTURE The heat that flows from interior unconditioned spaces to the conditioned space through partitions.7 lists some values of SC.3.5: Q= UxAxTD where Q = heat gain (cooling load) through partition. Values are shown in Table 6. . Q = UxA X CLTDc =0.6 SOLAR RADIATION THROUGH GLASS Radiant energy from the sun passes through transparent materials such as glass and becomes a heat gain to the room. fioor. CLTD = 9 F. ft 2 no interior shading.5) U = overall heat transfer coefficient for partition.5. and storage effect. (6. To account for heat gains with different fenestration arrangements. Q = U x A x CLTD = 1. orientation. 6. BTUlhr (3. Using Equation 6.130 CHAPTER 6 3.6.04 BTU/hr-ft2-F.1. The solar cooling load can be found from the following equation: Q=SHGFxA x SC x CLF where Q = solar radiation cooling load for glass. SHGF= 218 BTUlhr-ft2 .90. F The SHGF gives maximum heat gain values only for the type of glass noted and without any shading devices. may be at a much higher temperature. orientation. fioor.1 to find the cooling load. an approximation often used is to assume that it is at 5 F less than the outdoor temperature.4) CLTDc = CLTD + (78 . Using Equation 6.8. floor. Example 6. and latitude.85) =9+0+3= 12F From Table A. BTUlhr SHGF = maximum solar heat gain factor. ft2 TD = temperature difference between unconditioned and conditioned space. or ceiling. BTUlhr-ft2-F A = area of partition.t R ) + (to . COITecting this by Equation 6. From Table A. Its value varies with time. or ceiling. Table 6. the shading coefficient SC is introduced. Determine the cooling load from conduction heat gain through the glass at 12 noon Solar Time msummer.5 What is the maximum solar heat gain factor through the windows on the southwest side of a building located at 32°N latitude on September 21 st? Solution From Table 6. such as boiler rooms. and ceilings can be found from Equation 3. U = 1. Solution From Table 6. The inside design condition is 78 F and the outdoor daily average temperature is 88 F. U = 0.90x BOx 18 = 2110 BTUlhr Example 6.04 x 130 x 12 = 1620 BTU/hr SC = shading coefficient CLF = cooling load factor for glass The maximum solar heat gain factor (SHGF) is the maximum solar heat gain through single clear glass at a given month.4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ A room has 130 ft 2 of exterior single glass with If the temperature of the unconditioned space is not known. or ceiling.6 for the 21st day of each month.8. BTU/hr-ft2 A = area of glass. shading.

Mar. . May June July Aug. Oct. P 160 238 224 118 206 210 183 171 240 183 148 132 257 171 132 115 261 179 144 128 254 202 177 165 236 227 216 211 199 237 240 239 157 227 244 2-t8 109 217 240 2-t6 89 SSE! SSW 32° N. Feb.. 40 37 33 28 24 22 79 35 28 24 22 29 65 107 146 170 176 167 141 103 63 29 22 105 149 183 200 208 208 204 195 173 143 103 84 175 205 227 227 220 214 215 219 215 195 173 162 229 242 237 219 199 189 194 210 227 234 225 218 249 250 248 232 227 195 187 141 155 99 139 83 150 96 181 136 218 189 239 225 245 246 246 252 246 221 176 115 74 60 72 111 171 215 243 252 176 217 252 271 277 276 273 265 244 213 175 158 Jan. OCL Nov. Mar. Feb. Sep. Scpo Oct. Lat E! W· 219 239 238 221 204 194 199 212 228 230 215 204 247 248 232 196 165 150 161 189 223 239 252 239 206 156 116 99 252 232 243 241 113 151 200 231 248 253 SSE! SSW 192 135 93 77 90 131 187 225 248 254 155 199 238 262 272 273 268 257 230 195 154 136 24° N. Mar.. Mar. 15 20 26 31 35 46 37 33 27 21 15 13 15 20 26 61 97 110 96 61 27 21 15 13 15 36 80 132 158 165 156 128 72 35 15 13 53 103 154 180 200 204 196 174 144 96 52 36 118 168 204 219 218 215 214 211 191 161 115 91 175 216 234 225 214 206 209 216 223 207 172 156 216 242 239 215 192 180 187 208 228 233 212 195 239 249 232 194 ·163 148 158 188 223 241 234 225 245 250 228 186 150 134 146 180 220 2-t2 240 233 85 138 188 226 247 252 244 223 182 136 85 65 Reprinted with pennission from the 1989 ASHRA£ Hmzdbook-Fundamentals.. Scpo Oct. Sep. May June July Aug. May June July Aug. Nov. Dec. Dec. Feb. NNE! NE! ENE! NNW NW WNW S HOR Jan. 29 31 34 38 47 59 48 40 36 32 29 27 29 31 49 92 123 135 124 91 46 32 29 27 NNE! NNW 48 88 132 166 184 189 182 162 127 87 48 35 138 173 200 213 217 216 213 206 191 167 136 122 201 226 237 228 217 210 212 220 225 217 197 187 E! W 243 244 236 208 184 173 179 200 225 236 239 238 253 233 238 201 206 152 158 91 124 54 108 45 119 53 152 88 199 148 231 196 249 229 254 241 214 174 115 58 42 42 43 57 114 170 211 226 232 263 284 287 283 279 278 280 275 258 230 217 Jan. 156 42 119 31 79 27 42 26 29 NNE! NNW 128 165 195 209 214 214 210 203 185 159 126 112 190 220 234 228 218 212 213 220 222 211 187 180 Ei W 240 253 241 244 243 213 237 214 168 212 169 107 190 132 67 179 117 55 185 129 65 204 162 103 225 206 163 237 235 207 236 249 237 234 247 247 ESE! SEt SSE! WSW SW SSW 227 192 137 75 46 43 46 72 13-1- 187 224 237 214 249 275 283 282 279 278 277 266 244 213 199 Jan. 27 30 34 37 43 55 45 38 35 31 27 26 N (Shade) 27 41 30 80 45 124 88 159 117 178 127 184 116 176 87 . M. Lat N NNE! NE! ENE! (Shade) NNW NW WNW ESE! SE! SSE! WSW SW SSW S 48° N. Lat 131 FT" FOR SUNLIT GLASS. Feb. Oct. Feb.41 180 206 223 154 252 113 265 95 267 109 262 149 2-1-7 200 215 234 177 250 132 253 113 28 0 N. May June July Aug.. Feb. May June July Aug. Apr.. NORTH LATITUDES 36° N. Dec.COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS TABLE 6. 24 27 32 36 38 44 24 27 37 80 111 122 III Nov. Apr. Lat HOR Jan. Apr. Scpo Oct. Oct. Sep. Lat N NE/ ENE! NW WNW ESE! SE! SSEI WSW SW SSW S HOR (Shade) NNE! NE! ENE! NNW NW WNW ESE! SE! WSW SW S HOR 133 Jan. Nov. Lat HOR NNE! NE! ENE! NNW NW WNW ESE! SE! WSW SW S HOR Jan. Apr. Dec .. Feb. May June July Aug. 25 29 33 36 40 51 41 38 34 30 26 24 25 29 41 84 115 125 114 83 38 30 26 24 35 72 116 151 172 178 170 149 III 71 35 24 117 157 189 205 211 211 208 199 179 151 115 99 183 213 231 228 219 213 215 220 219 204 181 172 E! W 235 244 237 216 195 184 190 207 226 236 232 227 251 246 221 178 144 128 140 172 213 238 247 248 247 224 182 124 83 68 80 120 177 217 243 251 238 207 157 94 58 49 57 91 154 196 234 265 278 280 278 276 272 256 201 229 235 195 246 179 Nov. 20 24 29 34 37 48 38 35 30 25 20 18 N (Shade) 20 20 24 50 29 93 71 140 102 165 113 172 102 163 71 135 30 87 25 49 20 20 18 18 74 129 169 190 202 205 198 185 160 123 73 60 154 186 218 224 220 216 216 216 203 180 151 135 E! W 205 234 238 223 208 199 203 214 227 225 241 246 236 203 175 161 170 196 226 238 201 237 188 232 ESE! SE! WSW SW 252 244 216 170 133 116 129 165 209 236 248 249 SSE! SSW 254 ~. Apr. 17 22 27 33 36 47 37 34 28 23 18 15 N (Shade) 17 22 27 66 96 108 96 66 28 23 18 15 17 43 87 136 162 169 159 132 80 42 18 15 64 117 162 185 201 205 198 180 152 III 64 49 138 178 211 221 219 215 215 214 198 171 135 115 E! W 189 227 236 224 211 203 206 215 226 217 186 175 232 248 252 109 246 248 2.6 MAXIMUM SOLAR HEAT GAIN FACTOR (SHGF) BTU/HR • 20C N. Dec. Nov. Apr. Nov. May June July Aug. Sep. Scpo Oct. Dec. Mar.. Apr. Dec. Mar. lat NE! ENE! NW WNW S 44 0 N. May June July Aug. Dec. Feb. 22 26 30 35 38 47 39 36 31 27 22 20 N 22 26 33 76 107 118 107 75 31 27 22 20 24 57 99 144 168 175 165 138 95 56 24 20 90 166 139 195 176 223 196 225 204 220 205 215 201 216 190 218 167 210 133 187 87 163 69 151 40° N. Nov. Mar. Apr.lat NNE! NE! ENE! NNW NW WNW E! W ESE! SE! WSW SW SSE! SSW N NNE! NE! ENE! NNW NW WNW E! W ESE! 5E1 SSE! WSW SW SSW N S HOR (Shade) S HOR Jan.

6 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ What is the value of SC to be applied to the solar heat gain for l4 in.160 BTUlhr External Shading Effect The values for the SHGF shown in Table 6. single clear glass and mediumcolored inside venetian blinds? 4. Note that there are separate listings for Light (L).94 0.7 A building wall facing southwest has a window area of 240 ft2.55 0. Find the solar cooling load in August at 3 PM Solar Time..8 _ _ _ _-:-_ _-:-~_:_-___: A building at 32°N latitude has a wall facing west with a 4 ft overhang. How much of the glass receives direct solar radiation at Solution I.74 0. the shaded area portion must first be found. in (Each light) ~ l ~ '" Type of Glazing Without Shading :~ 1 Medium Light Single glass Clear Heat absorbing Double glass Clear Heat absorbing VI VI VI VI 0. The following example illustrates the use of Table 6. SC = 0. The buildin00" is of medium construction and is located at 400N latitude.6 are for direct solar radiation-when the sun shines on the glass. Example 6.53 0. In these cases.-.30 0. From Table 6. The glass is !4 in.22 0. In order to find the total radiation through partly shaded glass.44 0. The values in the table are the vertical feet of shade for each foot of horizontal projection. External shading from building projections (or other objects) may shade all or part of the glass.8. as described. Q= SHGFxA x SC x CLF = 196 x 240 x 0. From Table 6. Medium (M).9.67 3.36 0040 0.83 3'M? j t . From Table 6.4.69 0.62 0.39 0.10 is used with interior shading devices (in this case the carpeting has no storage effect).81 0045 0. The cooling load factor CLF accounts for the storage of part of the solar heat gain. Adapted with permission from the 1993 ASHRAE Handbook-Fundamentals. CLF = 0.6.7 Venetian Blinds Nominal Thickness. The SHGF values for any shaded glass is the same as the N (north) side of the building.11 can be used to find the shading from overhead horizontal projections. and 6. Example 6. which also receives only indirect radiation.67 0.35 0. SHGF = 196 2.36 0.67 x 0. and Heavy (H) construction. single clear glass with light-colored interior venetian blinds.11. Table 6.7. 6.0 132 CHAPTER 6 SHADING COEFFICIENTS FOR GLASS WITHOUT OR WITH INTERIOR SHADING DEVICES With Interior Shading Roller Shades Opaque Translucent Dark Light Light 'i' TABLE 6. Table 6.30 0040 Note: Venetian blinds are assumed set at a 45° position. SC = 0.58 0.7. Table 6.8 is used without interior shading devices and with carpeting.83 Solution From Table 6.10.71 0. Values of CLF to be applied to the solar load calculation are shown in Tables 6.81 0. = 26. Using Equation 6. Example 6.9 is used without interior shading devices and no carpeting. only an indirect radiation reaches the glass from the sky and ground. Table 6.57 0.74.39 0.10. and a 5 ft wide by 6 ft high window whose top is 1 ft below the overhang.

00 .17 .05 .22 .02 .01 .02 .23 .such as 6 10 8 in.03 .00 . with ceiling.52 .62 .00 .07 .00 .38 .82 .02 .47 .26 .20 .38 .01 .74 .00 .93 .01 .89 .68 .91 .04 .26 .92 .71 .19 .45 .04 .02 .22 .51 .35 .62 .55 .23 .26 .79 .13 .66 .86 . Group C wall.16 .20 .01 .21 .01 .29 .77 .69 .08 .01 .19 .88 .23 . wood floor.09 .16 .29 .00 .07 .10 .72 .78 .02 .41 .79 .23 .51 .56 .00 .21 .91 .56 .08 .24 .73 .05 .68 .00 .95 .3! .10 .07 .00 .01 .:.87 .07 .00 .39 .07 .01 .02 .26 . L '" Lightweight construction.01 .16 .01 .!O .04 .38 .30 .69 .79 .24 .01 .15 .03 .13 .12 .00 .02 .01 .09 .05 .13 .02 .00 .08 .88 .01 .01 .24 .00 .81 .07 .02 .09 .78 .09 .03 .06 .01 .79 .28 .06 .04 .02 .98 .23 .81 .04 .27 .03 .00 .25 .69 .53 .21 .22 . Group G wall.04 .17 .01 .03 .63 .16 .08 .03 .22 .02 .01 .02 .00 .02 .28 .16 .69 .75 .03 .04 .15 .69 .01 .00 .62 .97 .00 . Group E wall.04 .05 .77 .00 .82 .76 .00 .20 .71 .41 .05 .10 .42 .03 .70 .69 . Dir.24 .10 .20 .72 .05 .31 .84 .10 L NE E M H L M SE w w - H L M H L .79 .02 .22 .00 .07 .24 .00 .07 .78 .80 .04 .28 .02 .00 .10 .88 .Q7 .78 .17 .13 .63 .94 .05 .00 .01 .91 .79 .00 .03 .05 .00 .01 .78 .64 .71 .17 .00 .68 .03 .11 .00 .79 .79 .27 . Room Mass 0100 0200 0300 0400 0500 0600 0700 0800 0900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 L N M H .59 .59 .00 .78 .02 .55 .09 .04 .48 .23 .06 .00 .50 .43 .03 .43 .24 .13 .07 .09 .93 .11 .12 . Reprinted with pennission from the 19&9 ASHRAE Handbook.03 .60 .03 .78 .51 .35 .14 .05 .03 .00 .01 .01 .16 .57 .09 .15 .37 .44 .01 .87 .88 .29 .83 .06 .04 .13 .09 .85 .02 .08 .01 .18 .25 .64 .04 .04 .10 .92 .76 .08 . and 50% or less glass in exposed surface at listed orientation.19 .59 .06 .04 .15 .10 .~~-~.62 .28 .02 .01 .14 .14 .08 .20 .00 .07 .54 .16 .04 .00 .76 .03 .16 .77 .93 .01 .16 .25 .02 . M '" Mediumweight constnlclion.05 .00 .22 .05 .15 .00 .01 .23 .8 COOLING LOAD FACTORS (ClF) FOR GLASS WITHOUT INTERIOR SHADING.90 .07 .74 .94 .80 .78 .00 .01 .01 . M H . such as 2 to 4 in.81 .00 .49 .17 .39 .07 .72 .-Fundamel1tals.19 .86 .18 .04 .21 .05 .00 .02 .04 .13 .75 .89 .00 .77 .75 .05 .05 .18 .07 .67 .07 .26 .02 .01 .00 .64 .26 .28 .22 .00 .00 .01 .37 . .00 .55 .01 .12 .03 .04 .13 .00 .32 .93 .00 .59 .00 .00 .88 .17 .09 .07 .09 .88 .40 .69 .05 .88 .74 .)1 .05 .07 S M H L SW M H L W NW M H L M H L Hor.01 .17 .15 .06 .06 .09 .00 .01 .13 .00 .14 .15 .00 .14 .98 .00 .79 .16 .92 .01 .86 .00 .95 .14 .00 .00 .82 .08 Values for nominal 15 fI by 15 ft by 10 ft high space.18 .01 .01 .10 .05 . concrete floor.75 .07 .37 .20 . such as I in.06 .30 .11 .35 .00 .04 .01 .25 .09 .44 .76 .20 .04 .00 .80 .83 .77 .16 .00 .00 .27 .94 .05 .12 .71 .00 .21 .28 .34 .27 .64 .80 .II .00 .04 .14 .07 .r I TABLE 6.00 .01 .03 .14 .04 .17 .91 .94 .39 .81 .00 .19 .71 .25 .53 .19 .18 .83 .81 .00 .02 .59 .30 .03 .94 . H '" Heavyweight conslruction.11 .03 .48 .03 .26 .87 .07 .73 .48 .02 .06 .92 .64 .81 .09 .38 .05 .29 .06 .01 .21 .00 .18 .00 .18 .64 .91 .02 .02 .07 .47 .04 .01 .02 .03 .30 .22 .55 .11 .60 .04 .10 . concrete noor.22 .14 .88 .04 .03 .19 .09 .23 .03 .00 .24 .09 .03 .83 .31 .23 .01 .12 .04 .06 .11 .08 .18 .06 .00 .11 .05 .00 .11 .08 .80 .67 .21 .87 .84 .00 .01 .45 .88 .77 .24 .07 .11 .13 .00 .13 .13 . IN NORTH LATITUDE SPACES HAVING CARPETED FLOORS Solar Time -.08 .56 .04 .02 .33 .14 .21 .05 .32 .04 .01 .44 .05 .03 .01 .00 .52 .00 .20 .55 .58 .76 .05 .30 .51 .08 .52 .77 .97 .05 .15 .54 .10 .

15 .23 .07 .11 .15 .93 .80 .00 . Mass 0100 0200 0300 0400 0500 0600 0700 0800 0900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 N L M H NE E L M H L M .36 .85 .45 .16 .11 .03 . such as 6 to 8 in.11 .57 049 .14 .06 .07 .71 .38 .07 .53 .00 .el2 .18 .26 .23 .36 .06 .58 .05 .53 .10 .35 .11 .14 .17 .12 .13 .Q7 .00 .10 .00 .19 .04 .16 .15 .50 .31 .13 .41 .08 .07 .54 .10 .17 .09 .23 .71 .00 .73 .65 .06 .00 .64 . Group E WillI.00 .70 .13 .53 047 .21 .18 .22 .00 .52 .00 .14 .12 .33 Al .23 .07 .12 .00 .27 .14 .11 .04 .63 049 .20 .16 .12 .00 .10 .17 .TABLE 6.06 .00 .02 .78 .29 .14 .14 .23 .18 .00 .73 .45 .81 .12 .04 .21 .30 .18 .72 .58 .88 NJ .71 .39 .39 .24 .19 .00 .23 .03 .26 .00 .39 .25 .91 .91 .53 .81 048 AS .12 .12 .78 .53 .31 .44 .22 040 .56 .07 .00 ..61 047 .09 .24 .9 COOLING LOAD FACTORS (ClF) FOR GLASS WITHOUT INTERIOR SHADING.31 .11 .11 .88 .06 .29 . ".24 .03 .76 .81 .92 .92 .25 .93 .00 .07 .62 040 .00 .63 .KS .98 .16 .26 042 .72 .08 .04 .17 .10 .17 .16 .15 .23 .18 Values for nominal 15 ft by 15 ft by J 0 ft high .37 .33 .00 .01 .09 .59 .05 .20 .14 .61 .55 .10 .17 .13 .01 .06 .5:1 .02 .33 .~{"~::'!. ".09 .81 .11 .55 .58 AS .16 .13 .55 .01 .69 .00 .05 .25 .02 .10 .04 .73 .18 .32 .33 .64 040 .64 .05 .27 Al .06 .07 .32 .81 .02 .06 .04 .12 .52 Al .02 .10 .00 .27 .00 .10 .74 .03 .03 .56 .83 AS 043 .33 .33 .10 .13 .14 .57 .71 .13 .37 .37 .19 .13 .01 .82 .25 .82 .04 .10 .31 .51 .18 .08 .27 .00 .66 .26 .44 .05 .05 .13 .16 .07 .21 .03 .22 .00 .51 .94 .09 .00 .07 .04 .47 .41 .64 .88 .02 .12 043 042 .24 .00 .10 .55 .32 .59 .02 .10 . such tIS I in.54 .19 .74 .62 .20 .48 .30 .35 .26 .17 .13 .24 .67 .03 .00 .02 .03 .04 .00 .07 .24 .25 .09 .14 .26 . wood floor.00 .09 .00 .00 .08 .14 .22 . ""_.28 .66 .Q7 .13 .65 .31 . .00 .31 .03 .62 .01 .()9 .01 .19 .15 .75 .12 .29 .19 .56 .30 ._cC :::'~.7f1 .35 .26 .00 .09 .05 .15 .51 .00 .00 .08 .23 .01 .00 .53 048 .79 .33 .90 .27 .49 .03 .36 .14 .14 .02 .11 .00 .00 .16 .12 .57 .00 .00 .42 .12 .16 .32 .19 .14 .24 .33 .17 .13 .66 .14 .15 .29 .00 . concrete floor.94 . L "" Lightweight constmction.12 .06 . L_____ .13 .18 .04 .28 .02 .19 .28 .36 .15 . Group C wall.12 .00 .16 .II 'f t . H = Heavyweight constmction.16 .15 .05 .13 .el2 H L SE w S M H ·L M H L "'" SW W NW M H L M H L M H L Hor.ttj~'t~~'~.13 .11 .80 .60 .16 .21 .~pace.29 .62 .18 .11 .17 .54 .02 .00 .43 .94 .20 . IN NORTH LATITUDE SPACES HAVING UNCARPETED FLOORS Solar Time Room Orr.13 .95 .01 .08 .11 .73 .05 .09 .73 .24 .00 .17 .01 .09 .00 .18 .20 .19 . .55 .81 .16 .56 . M H .48 .93 .79 .25 .Q7 .61 .80 . such as 2 to 4 in. .69 .:~'.01 .22 .JuIH JJ1.61 .04 .50 . with ceiling.00 . and 50% or less glass in exposed surface at listed orientation.08 .00 .65 .26 .14 .07 .28 046 .21 .14 .18 .06 .22 .23 .07 .00 .72 .00 .24 .10 .04 .23 .59 .36 .64 .32 .09 .33 .54 .00 .10 .00 .00 .00 .64 .09 .27 .38 .18 .57 .06 .46 .49 .00 .59 .45 040 .08 .73 .39 .26 .04 .08 .65 .00 .13 .04 .80 .27 .02 .00 .33 .00 .77 .05 .21 .19 .91 .19 .52 .10 .00 .23 .04 .78 .06 .15 .51 046 .24 .26 .11 .00 .05 .30 .97 .50 .16 .80 .03 .12 .24 .15 .15 .24 .09 .e.00 .01 .61 047 .04 . .00 .24 .19 .93 .00 .33 043 .00 .15 .86 .09 .08 .08 .00 .17 .98 .71 .21 .70 .17 .00 .03 .02 .07 .20 .01 .12 .58 .19 .21 .00 . Group G wall.36 .10 .19 .06 .94 .15 .97 .24 .25 . concrete floor.04 .01 .09 .50 AS .11 .1$2 .32 .63 . Reprinted with permission from the 19t19 ASHRAE Handh(}()k-Fulldamentals.07 .56 .20 .32 . M "" Mediumweight construction.18 .32 .09 .14 .

09 0.81 0.37 0.05 0.06 R.64 0.04 0.18 0.89 0.59 0.09 0.09 0.44 0.43 0.52 0.03 0.80 0.57 0.14 0.34 0.17 0.04 0.06 0.02 0.78 0.81 0.08 0.09 0.34 0.02 0.02 0.37 0.03 0.05 0.06 0.02 0.26 0.80 0.49 0.16 0.04 0.04 0.27 0.35 0.84 0.03 0.08 0. \' .02 0.81 0.06 0.59 0.07 0.68 0. II 0.17 0.08 0.17 0.15 0.0) 0.Q7 0.61 0.86 0.38 0.22 0.64 0.13 0.04 0.12 0.04 0.08 0.10 0.10 0.11 0.04 0.05 0.05 0.03 0.05 0.81 0.10 0.04 0.03 0.16 0.10 0. 0.07 0.05 0.06 0.53 0.82 0.04 0.80 0.08 0.43 0.16 0.06 0.18 0.31 0.78 0.24 0.04 0.12 0.26 0.06 0.03 0.05 0.28 0.78 0.19 0.33 0.30 0.74 0.71 0.83 0.79 0.58 0.03 0.06 0.06 0.61 0.10 0.22 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.73 0.14 0.52 0.12 0.12 0.04 0.07 0.03 0.07 0.20 0.11 0.16 0.11 0.05 0.84 0.05 0.08 0.09 0.03 0.69 0.82 0.54 0.16 0.25 0.72 0.03 0.44 0.80 0.04 0.27 0.16 0.12 0.05 0.81 0.91 0.38 0.02 0.86 0.23 0.11 0.50 0.42 0.73 0.16 0.22 0.07 0.06 0.04 0.16 0.10 COOLING LOAD FACTORS (ClF) FOR GLASS WITH INTERIOR SHADING.04 0.58 0.05 0.80 0.75 0.06 0.10 0.54 0.85 0.04 0.10 0.06 0.02 0.03 0.63 0.24 0.13 0.07 0.69 0.07 0.12 0.03 0.02 0.07 0.03 0.08 0.81 0.46 0.03 0.08 0.19 0.17 0.05 0.02 0.24 0.03 0.05 0.14 0.02 0.84 0.02 0.71 0.62 0.12 0.27 0.02 0.16 0.72 0.85 0.08 0.09 0.05 0.03 0.04 0.11 0.07 0.32 0.41 0.75 0.r TABLE 6.09 0.07 0.36 0.03 0.04 0.02 0.20 0.52 0.eprinted with permission from the 1989 ASHRAE Handbook-Fundamentals.66 0.03 0.05 0.42 0.76 0.06 0.03 0.13 0.38 0.03 0.79 0.03 0.24 0.03 0.22 0.11 0.82 0.05 0.71 0.31 0.17 0.02 0.03 0.76 0.08 0.32 0.29 0.04 0.28 0.72 0.22 0.72 0.03 0.89 0.03 0.02 0.07 0.08 0.20 0.26 0.15 0.05 0.35 0.02 0.37 0.06 0.06 0.78 0.74 0.62 0.22 0.04 0.15 0.04 0.02 0.14 0.68 0.04 0.23 0.07 0.03 0.55 0.16 0.17 0.03 0.21 0.16 0.12 0.09 0.66 0.33 0.07 0.58 0.22 0.77 0.14 0.05 0.04 0.72 0. - N NNE NE ENE E ESE SE SSE S SSW SW WSW W WNW NW NNW HOR.04 0.07 0.05 0.03 0.27 0.05 0.11 0.80 0.12 0.34 0.15 0.05 0.18 0.13 0.56 0.06 0.06 0.02 0.81 0.83 0.21 0.27 0.12 0.45 0.82 0.80 0. NORTH LATITUDES (ALL ROOM CONSTRUCTIONS) Fenes tration Facing w Solar Time.39 0.17 0.05 0.03 0.25 0.37 0.04 0.04 0.47 0.03 0.04 0.30 0.14 0.19 0.22 0.73 0.27 0.25 0.07 0.32 0.18 0.04 0.10 0.76 0.11 0.22 0.10 0.12 0.67 0.10 0.02 0.18 0. h 01000200 0300 04000500 0600 0700 0800 0900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 220023002400 w V>.06 0.03 0.31 0.24 0.66 0.22 0.65 0.76 0.12 0.06 0.30 0.14 0.07 0.04 0.19 0.16 0.12 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.54 0.65 0.04 0.23 0.75 0.02 0.41 0.17 0.20 0.27 0.

33 1. an adjacent building shades 30 ft 2 of the window.00 (Facing) - - .93 1.7. from Table 6. What is the solar cooling load? 0 Solution Equation 6.08 1. *Shading not effective.1' 6' sun 0.33 1. The vertical proportion of shade. Note: Values apply from April to September.4 shows the arrangement.03 .97.1 ft.67 - .9 = 3. For the part receiving direct radiation. -Completely shaded.85 2.63 2.61 1.I = 2.59 1.50 = 3730 BTUlhr 1' 2.00 I. Solution Figure 6. using the SHGF for north orientation.83 - - - 1. The unshaded area of window is A=3.9 .33 1. and the unshaded height is 6 .33 I.00 3.03 *' * - * - - * I Reprinted with permission from the 1985 Fundamentals.73 1. The total vertical distance the shade extends down is therefore L=0.73 .17 97 2.74 3.93 4.86 2. At 10 AM ST in June.13 1.89 1.33 - - .5 ft2 Figure 6.S5 - - - - .17 * - - * * .33 .58 - - - .13 .136 CHAPTER 6 SHADING FROM OVERHEAD PROJECTIONS 24' 32' 40' 48' TABLE 6. The glass is ~ in.33 - .S9 2.45 - * * - .1 x5= 15. The building is of heavyweight (HJ construction. single heat -absorbing glass with no interior shading device.4 will be used. ASHRAE Handbook & Product Directory.4 Sketch for Example 6.61 - - 2.93 1.74 - - 1.9 ft.67 - .00 - - - . The externally shaded and unshaded portions of the glass must be handled separately.S9 - 3.9 A room with no carpeting and a wall facing east at 40 N latitude has a total window glass area of 80 ft2. Example 6.63 - - - - .NE E SE S SW W NW 1.33 LOS - 3.9ft The height of shade on the window is 3.55 - 2.69 X 0.11 is 0.55 4.11 latitude St'dTime 56' gam Noon 3pm 6pm gam Noon 3pm 6pm gam Noon 3pm 6pm gam Noon 3pm 6pm gam Noon 3pm 6pm -N.9' shadow For the part receiving only diffuse radiation.38 2.19 1.57 4. because they receive different radiation. Q =48 X 30 X 0.69 X 3.S3 "* 3.S6 .61 .35 4.97 2.37 - 3.50 = 500 BTUlhr The total solar cooling load is· Q = 3730 + 500 = 4230 BTUlhr .45 .97x4=3. however.35 - 1.2.63 - 1.89 - - 3.83 . Q=SHGFxA x SC x CLF Q = 216 X 50 X 0.

Temperature of the space is allowed to rise during nonoccupied hours (temperature swing) These conditions cover so many possible situations that it is suggested that heat storage effects for lighting should be used with extreme caution. even though not planned for originally. June to September can be used as months for summer outdoor design temperatures in the northern hemisphere. the actual amount should be used. The value 3. What is the solar cooling load from the lighting? Solution A value of BF = 1. The outdoor summer design conditions~"are based on reasonable maximums. The table also lists latitudes and mean daily DB temperature ranges (DR). Table 6.7 DESIGN CONDITIONS The cooling load calculations are usually based on inside and outdoor design conditions of temperature and humidity. Energy conservation operating techniques may also result in one of the conditions discussed earlier. Table 1. and ventilation rate.4x WxBFxCLF where Q = cooling load from lighting. as well as the building construction.12 lists appropriate values. Occasionally. type of lighting fixture. The storage effect depends on how long the lights and cooling system are operating. using weather records. The inside conditions are those that provide satisfactory comfort.25 for the ballast heat will be assumed. The cooling system operates only during occupied hours. Previous weather data tables showed this value. The separate design WB column listed does not usually occur at the same time as the DB listed and therefore should not be used in load calculations. or other special losses.COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS 137 6. and therefore it is necessary to know the expected design conditions at those times. however. BF = ballast factor CLF = cooling load factor for lighting . The separate WB value may be needed. but if it is not. expressed in watts. Cooling system operates only during occupied hours 2. watts (6. The DB (dry bulb temperature) and coincidelll WB (wet bulb temperature) occurring at the same time are listed together and should be used as the corresponding design values. These temperatures are exceeded on average 35 hours in a year. A typical value of BF is 1. Table A.10 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 6. would result in too large a design cooling load.0 for the operating conditions. The term W is the rated capacity of the lights in use. Building use patterns often change and may be unpredictable. all of the lighting is on at all times.4 converts watts to BTUlhr. For those cases where they are applicable. and BF = 1. The factor BF accounts for heat losses in the ballast in fluorescent lamps. there is no extra loss.0. maximum cooling loads occur in other months due to solar radiation. The factor CLF accounts for storage of part of the lighting heat gain. in selecting a cooling tower or for special applications.6 lists these conditions for some cities.5) A room has eight 40 W fluorescent lighting fixtures in use. Example 6.0. Cooling system operates more than 16 hr 3. In many applications.25 for fluorescent lighting. For these reasons. they may be found in the ASHRAE Fundamentals Volume. the CLF tables for lighting are not presented here. Definitions of DB and WB are given in Chapter 7.1 lists some suggested values. For incandescent lighting. CLF = 1.8 LIGHTING The equation for determining cooling load due to heat gain from lighting is Q=3. Otherwise use a value of CLF= 1. No storage effect can be allowed for any of the following conditions: I. BTUlhr W = lighting capacity. which if used.

WI Cheyenne. TX Wichita Falls.'0 37 37 47 38 38 44 23 36 30 34 30 14 56 59 42 28 4 19 54 22 25 29 8 100 117 106 73 79 100 81 83 95 122 122 80 96 82 101 102 98 113 73 77 42 8 37 48 57 43 26 48 54 52 36 13 44 43 41 9 79 122 81 82 88 89 104 21 46 12 31 6 9 58 58 17 36 27 8 20 49 24 182 2857 667 828 793 963 2592 888 488 32 20 61 939 838 332 750 1270 3583 2787 5422 5314 277 891 1660 1236 692 674 1329 24 1151 1422 1566 3700 2858 1039 5616 331 438 1174 596 989 565 699 866 6144 69 56 50 75 70 51 40 47 53 42 58 55 58 72 74 41 49 36 70 54 59 51 52 53 55 43 63 41 49 44 82 70 60 66 71 69 61 55 80 73 53 49 52 57 49 64 61 63 75 77 44 48 42 74 60 62 54 58 58 63 47 64 63 55 54 49 41 59 64 63 69 72 74 66 74 53 56 39 40 65 64 60 63 50 54 62 64 65 65 36 39 38 44 51 56 42 53 48 69 59 57 53 45 83 96 83 59 72 81 72 74 70 73 63 73 63 78 83 86 78 85 62 72 58 74 60 76 64 78 59 76 72 82 65 79 69 82 78 84 79 84 49 62 64 72 52 73 78 84 69 81 72 80 62 70 64 77 65 75 69 79 54 73 70 83 56 70 60 74 59 76 75 83 66 75 60 69 63 78 57 75 69 81 75 84 81 88 82 88 63 73 49 68 71 83 69 82 61 64 70 83 72 83 48 70 53 73 58 69 76 87 76 59 91 99 89 62 88 74 72 79 84 93 91 83 83 82 82 84 89 84 88 89 89 77 86 83 89 87 84 80 83 81 87 81 87 82 79 84 88 84 79 82 84 86 90 94 93 81 79 87 87 86 87 77 81 76 84 99 84 66 85 80 79 77 78 86 84 74 78 78 79 79 83 79 81 88 86 69 77 74 85 74 63 72 68 75 67 59 64 76 87 83 83 77 79 74 64 65 81 77 59 64 63 66 63 68 68 71 79 79 58 62 57 77 69 69 59 64 64 64 80 78 79 73 81 77 75 77 60 71 53 64 64 86 78 73 77 78 79 84 88 89 78 70 82 81 80 84 69 74 74 73 63 59 64 58 70 70 77 76 63 58 72 72 64 69 54 72 74 71 59 55 75 }1 48 50 53 55 52 59 58 61 74 74 48 49 43 70 58 59 52 54 55 56 49 63 43 54 52 63 53 54 55 47 60 65 71 67 54 46 65 62 53 64 62 54 63 53 43 54 53 39 48 66 62 44 45 47 52 39 46 53 56 67 69 33 50 34 64 71 58 61 60 63 42 44 54 49 54 41 42 40 42 42 57 37 48 42 37 48 50 46 37 54 46 53 56 41 38 59 54 47 55 58 36 37 37 63 64 67 71 69 57 58 61 63 66 61 64 67 72 71 54 53 54 57 58 45 48 52 57 55 55 55 61 61 63 56 56 60 60 64 43 43 47 52 50 52 54 64 70 69 68 68 69 73 74 63 66 68 73 71 46 49 53 62 55 47 52 63 68 66 50 53 62 68 63 54 57 64 68 65 44 49 62 69 64 49 51 58 64 60 56 55 64 70 64 57 59 66 72 67 68 69 70 75 74 70 70 72 74 75 43 44 53 64 60 45 57 59 66 64 39 45 58 65 62 65 67 70 73 72 51 55 65 71 67 54 59 65 70 66 44 47 52 59 56 45 49 56 63 57 43 45 49 54 52 45 47 51 56 55 45 49 59 67 65 56 59 65 70 68 39 46 53 62 57 50 53 63 67 62 46 53 63 69 63 58 60 66 73 69 50 53 58 64 60 51 51 56 63 59 50 53 63 68 64 41 48 58 65 60 55 58 64 70 66 50 51 56 61 59 54 55 59 65 63 58 61 66 71 67 44 46 50 55 53 38 44 56 66 61 56 61 67 72 70 52 56 63 69 66 49 49 55 61 58 55 56 63 67 66 56 60 66 70 69 39 44 . LA 30 New Orleans.OH Tulsa. KY 38 Lake Charles. CA Los Angeles. NC Bismarck. WA Charleston. IA 41 Dodge City. VA Everett. LA 29 Portland. CA Colorado Springs Wilmington. AR Arcata. KY 39 Louisville. OH Toledo.5%) DESIGN COINCIDENT WB (2. TN Amarillo.ID 43 Chicago-O'Hare. WV Green Bay. NY Greensboro. IN 39 Des Moines. FL Augusta. KS 37 Covington. GA Minneapolis. CA San Diego. SD Bristol. VA Roanoke. CA Bishop. WI Madison. Min.5%) Jan Feb Mar Apr May Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Oct Nov Dec TABLE 6. TX Cedar City.138 CHAPTER 6 COOLING DESIGN DRY BULB AND MEAN COINCIDENT WET BULB LAT City LONG ELEV DESIGN DB (2. NO Akron-Canton.57 65 60 42 47 60 68 62 41 41 48 52 50 64 58 65 56 49 56 55 44 60 69 65 48 56 58 59 55 52 59 61 73 72 55 55 52 68 57 60 47 49 46 46 58 59 43 57 58 61 52 54 57 49 61 50 56 60 46 55 44 61 60 56 55 52 49 60 55 60 57 54 41 55-43 43 41 60 54 61 55 45 53 54 40 51 67 63 43 49 51 53 48 45 53 57 68 69 47 49 43 63 52 53 41 43 41 42 46 58 38 52 51 53 49 53 51 43 54 47 52 54 42 Reprinted with permission from the 1979 ASHRAE Load Calculation Manual. AL Yuma. UT Burlington. MI 42 Birmingham. . MT North Platte. MO Springfield. NM Albany. MO Billings. Min. OK Medford.12 Oeg. IL 41 Fort Wayne. OR Portland. WV Huntington. NE Albuquerque. 94 35 0' 93 -. PA Sioux Falls. MS Kansas City. NE Tonopah. IN 41 Indianapolis. ME 43 Battle Creek. Deg. TX Midland. VT Blackstone. 108 630 206 265 217 4112 122 37 6170 78 67 76 68 61 60 72 72 . OR Pittsburgh. 33 32 34 40 37 33 32 38 39 30 33 Boise. MN Jackson. DE Jacksonville. WY 44 34 40 44 59 22 56 44 49 40 25 22 34 59 0 44 32 46 4 II 32 39 37 45 41 38 35 42 36 46 40 41 36 42 45 40 43 36 33 31 33 37 44 13 59 39 18 53 20 7 14 48 8 4 3 45 5 46 55 36 II 86 45 114 36 92 14 124 6 118 22 118 23 117 10 104 42 75 36 81 39 81 58 116 13 87 54 85 12 86 16 93 39 99 58 84 40 85 44 93 9 90 15 70 19 85 14 93 15 90 I.AZ Little Rock.

hotels. and that the gain from a child is 75% of that for an adult male. Adjusted heat gain is based on normal percentage of men. sensible heat and the latent heat resulting from perspiration.6) (6.5. . Q/ = sensible and latent heat gains (loads) qs. but not the latent heat. Restaurant. apartments Department store. . apartments Offices. Table 6.9 PEOPLE where Qs. q[ = sensible and latent heat gains per person The heat gain from people is composed of two parts. bank Restaurant b Factory Dance hall Factory Bowling alley Factory Factory Gymnasium 390 390 450 475 550 550 490 800 900 1000 1500 1500 1600 2000 Adjusted MtF" 330 350 400 450 450 500 550 750 850 1000 1450 1450 1600 1800 Btuth 225 245 245 250 250 250 275 275 305 375 580 580 635 710 Bluth 105 105 155 200 200 250 275 475 545 625 870 870 965 1090 Notes I. and children for the application listed. The rates are suitable for a RATES OF HEAT GAIN FROM OCCUPANTS OF CONDITIONED SPACES Total Heat Adults Degree of Activity Seated at theater Seated at theater.and all others as sitting (400 Btulh) or standing or walking slowly (550 Btulh). Reprinted with permission from the 1997 ASHRAE Handbook-Fundamentals. retail store Drug store. but the a sensible heat values should be decreased by approximately 20%.0 = 1360 BTUfhr 6. Latent Heat. b Adjusted total heat gain for Sedentary work. The equations for cooling loads from sensible and latent heat gains from people are TABLE 6.7) Q = 3.13 n = number of people CLF = cooling load factor for people The rate of heat gain from people depends on their physical activity. Qs= qsx n xCLF Q[=q[xn (6.4 x WxBF x CLF = 3. and the latent heat values increased accordingly. hotels. walking Walking. light work. light machine work Bowling Heavy work Heavy machine work. lifting Athletics C Sensible Heat.4 x 320 x 1. women.25 x 1. the total heat remains the same. with the postulate that the gain from an adult female is 85% of that for an adult male. very light work Moderately active office work Standing. For 80°F room dry-bulb. Some of the sensible heat may be absorbed by the heat storage effect. includes 60 Btuth for food per individual (30 Btulh sensible and 30 Btulh latent) C Figure one person per alley actually bowling. Tabulated values are based on 75°F room dry-bulb temperature.13 lists values for some typical activities. night Seated.COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS 139 Using Equation 6. standing Sedentary work Light bench work Moderate dancing Walking 3 mph. Adult Male Theater~matinee Theater-night Offices.

800 BTU/hr Q/ = 105 x 240 = 25.7. = 245 x 240 x 1.13 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ A hotel with ISO rooms has a fan-coil air conditioning unit in each room. the heat gain (load) is Q = 1160 BTU/hr x 150 = 174. Table 6. Values vary slightly at other temperatures.16 lists heat outputs for each condition. and Table 6. no storage should be included. Solution Using values from Table 6. If the air conditioning system is shut down at night. (cooling loads) from this equipment? 6. 6. with a 0. Some values of heat output for typical appliances are shown in Table 6.090 24.0 = 58.16.000 BTU/hr The heat output from motors and the equipment driven by them results from the conversion of the electrical energy to heat.15. the heat gains should be multiplied by the proportion of operating time.000 BTU/hr For any lighting and equipment that operates on a periodic intermittent basis. . Some equipment produces both sensible and latent heat.090 BTUlhr 3750 230 9590 --13. Table 6.15 will be used.11 INFILTRATION Infiltration of air through cracks around windows or'doors results in both a sensible and latent heat gain to the rooms. The proportion of heat generated that is gained by the air-conditioned space depends on whether the motor and driven load are both in the space or only one of them is. Because the air conditioning system of a theater is normally shut down overnight. it is often not possible to guarantee predicted operations. eLF factors (not shown) apply if the system operates 24 hours. What is the heat gain (load) to the building from the units? Solution Both the motor and fan are in the conditioned spaces.12 Diane's Deli Diner has the following equipment operating in the air-conditioned area. without hoods: I coffee burner (2 burners) I coffee heater (I burner) 1 toaster (large) What are the sensible. However. as noted.10 EQUIPMENT AND APPLIANCES The heat gain from equipment may sometimes be found directly from the manufacturer or the nameplate data. no storage effect is included in calculating the cooling load. however.6. so using such factors should be approached with caution.0. and total heat gains.570 BTUlhr Example 6. Example 6. From Table 6.15.200 BTU/hr Total Q = 84.14 lists values of eLF for people. Procedures and equations for . 6.11 What is the heat gain from 240 people at night in a movie theater at 75 FOB? Solution Equations 6. Example 6. The heat storage effect factor eLF applies to the sensible heat gain from people.140 CHAPTER 6 75 F DB room temperature. Q.16 HP motor. Qs Coffee burner Coffee heater Toaster Total heat gains (loads) QL 1910 110 8500 10:520 BTUlhr QT 5660 340 18. with allowance for intermittent use. latent. and eLF = 1.

8 '.96 0.20 0.77 0.93 0.64 0.03 0.15 0.14 SENSIBLE HEAT COOLING LOAD FACTORS FOR PEOPLE Hours Atter Each Entry Into Space Total hours In space 1 2 3 4 0. Reprinted with permission from the 1989 ASHRAE Handbook-Fundamentals.93 0.02 0.18 0.13 0.36 0.04 0.25 0.08 0.18 0.61 0.60 0.90 0.01 0.20 0.03 0.08 0.05 0.81 0.11 0.06 0.03 0.86 0.09 0.70 0.04 0.21 0.07 0.14 0.31 0.53 0.95 14 0.89 0.11 0.72 0.88 0.11 0.26 0.85 0.04 0.06 0.79 0.34 0.11 0.97 eLF = 1.67 0.92 0.r" TABLE 6.94 0.12 0.06 0.69 0.Q7 0.06 om 0.04 0.87 7 0.28 0.06 0.89 0.10 0.40 21 0..01 0.62 0.16 0.91 0.82 0.51 0.58 0.04 0.90 0.38 0.21 0.08 0.0 for systems shut down at night and for high occupant densities such as in theaters and auditoriums.19 0.03 0.01 0.83 0.21 0.96 16 0.71 0.07 0.08 0.30 0.30 0.10 0.: c.83 0.25 17 18 19 0.09 0.95 0.70 0.18 0.72 0.11 0.05 0.02 0.92 0.08 0.02 0.34 0.76 0.75 0.55 0.45 0.01 0.49 0.02 0.03 0.10 0.89 0.74 0.17 0.80 0.15 0.88 0.84 0.87 0.79 0.87 0.24 24 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 0.62 0.04 IH17 0.01 0.04 0.76 0.90 0.02 0.38 0.15 0.97 0.85 6 0.21 0.49 0.13 0.67 0.14 0.06 0.80 0.79 0.17 0.27 0.07 0.15 0.01 0.28 0.66 0.23 0.94 0.) ~ ~ t-< t-< o ~ " ~ a ::j ~ ~ "" ~ .08 0.12 0.72 0.06 0.94 0.05 0.16 0.03 0.47 0.13 0.66 0.80 0.13 13 0.82 5 0.26 0.75 0.49 0.20 0.17 0.92 0.66 0.21 0.02 0.85 0.23 0.77 0.92 0.33 22 0.85 0.24 0.84 0.74 0.09 0.03 0.10 0.94 12 0.59 0.89 8 9 10 11 0.58 0.42 0.96 15 0.28 23 0.91 0.02 0.39 0.03 0.50 0.9\ 0.13 0.95 0.50 20 0.93 0.87 0.97 0.05 0.01 0.33 0.03 0.10 0.82 0.16 0.79 0.

BTu/hr 16-640 kbytes 8 pages/min 5000 or more pages/min Printer (laser) Printer (line.240 9320 8970 18.400 300-1800 7500-15.000 3500-15.000 270-600 CopiersfTypesetters Blue print Copiers (large) Copiers Miscellaneous 30-67 copies/min 6-30 copies/min 3900-42. high-speed) Tape drives Terminal 5600-9600 3400-22. .i5 HEAT GAIN FROM EQUIPMENT Recommended Rate of Heat Gain.000 1000 1500-13. BTu/hr Without Hood Appliance Size With Hood Total Sensible Sensible Latent Restaurant. per ft3 of interior Hot plate (high-speed double burner) Ice maker (large) Microwave oven (heavy-duty commercial) Toaster (large pop-up) Appliance Computer Devices Communication/transmission Disk drives/mass storage Microcomputer/word processor Minicomputer Size Recommended Rate of Heat Gain.7 ft 3 10 slice 1000 3750 230 62 7810 9320 8970 9590 520 1910 110 0 5430 0 0 8500 1520 5660 340 62 13.142 CHAPTER 6 TABLE6. electric blender.700 1700-6600 460-1700 Cash register Cold food/beverage Coffeemaker Microwave oven 10 cup 1 ft3 8 gal/br sensible latent Paper shredder Water cooler 160 1960-3280 3580 1540 1360 680-8250 6000 Abridged with pennission from the 1993 ASHRAE Volume-Fundamentals. per quart of capacity Coffee brewer Coffee heater.080 480 1810 110 0 6240 0 0 5800 Display case (refrigerated). per warming burner 1 to 4 qt 12 cups/2 bmrs 1 to 2 brnrs 610 67 ft 3 2201b/day 0.

+490 6210 7610 8680 9440 12.000 127.300 85.000 283.600 76.300 37.08 0.125 0. Driven Equipment out Btu/h Motor Nameplate or Rated Horsepower Motor Type Nominal rpm Full Load Motor Efficiencyin Percent Motor in.+00 6.400 58.000 353.000 191.000 382. Driven Equipment in Btu/h out.+0 8.500 72.25 0.5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 75 100 125 150 200 250 Shaded Pole Shaded Pole Shaded Pole Shaded Pole Split Phase Split Phase Split Phase 3-Phase 3-Phase 3-Phase 3-Phase 3-Phase 3-Phase 3-Phase 3-Phase 3-Phase 3-Phase 3-Phase 3-Phase 3-Pha.000 318.000 420.000 172.900 44.300 62.+0 1270 1900 2550 3820 5090 76-+0 12.500 38.75 1 2 3 5 7.50 0.100 24.000 255.300 102. Driven Equipment in Btu/h 0.000 240 380 590 760 540 660 850 740 850 1140 1350 1790 2790 3640 .800 50.600 15.900 21.05 0.16 HEAT GAIN FROM TYPICAL ELECTRIC MOTORS Location of Motor and Driven Equipment with Respect to Conditioned Space or Airstream A B Motor C Motor in.900 63.000 143.se 3-Phase 3-Phase 3-Phase 3-Phase "J-Phase 3·Phase 3-Phase 3-Phase 1500 1500 1500 1500 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 35 35 35 35 54 56 60 72 75 77 79 81 82 84 85 86 87 88 89 89 89 89 90 90 90 91 91 91 360 580 900 1160 1180 1500 2120 2650 3390 4960 6440 9430 15.000 509.000 636.16 0.700 114.200 50.000 699.000 212.300 35.900 Reprinted with pennission from the 1993 ASHRAE Handbook-Fundamentals.000 569.200 28.COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS 143 TABLE 6.000 153.33 0.700 19.000 130 200 320 .700 29. .700 18.500 22.

and CLF tables we can note the following: I. LCL = component total. a few calculations will determine the exact time and value of the peak load. 5. For instance. Sometimes it is immediately apparent by inspecting the tables at what time the peak load occurs. maximum solar load is in early or mid-summer in the morning. When calculating cooling loads. This results in a change in the total room cooling load. Building construction is lightweight. 2. but is a load on the central cooling equipment. BLCL = building total. These generalizations can be used to localize approximate times of room peak loads. For east-facing glass. equipmellt. maximum load is in 6.13 ROOM PEAK COOLING LOAD We have learned how to calculate the cooling loads. solar.144 CHAPTER 6 calculating infiltration heat losses were explained in detail in Chapter 3. but not how to determine their peak (maximum) value. but often calculations are required at a few different times. latent cooling loads CTCL. SCSL. For roofs. latent cooling loads 6. the wall and glass heat conduction might dominate and the peak load time would be a summer afternoon. Because the air conditioning system must be sized to handle peak loads. The room is at 78 F DB. 4. latent cooling loads RTCL. has a 60 ft2 window with an aluminum frame with a thermal break. SCL. The window is \4 in.5 and in the Appendix. maximum load is in the summer in the afternoon or evening. For west-facing glass. For south-facing glass.14. sensible. RSCL. Once the appropriate day and time are located. people. which reduces or eliminates infiltration by creating a positive air pressure within the building. From the CLTD. Ventilation air is not a load on the room. . glass. however. It can be used for individual rooms or for a small building. CLCL =coil total. 6. The same procedure is used for calculating infiltration heat gains. For southwest-facing glass. Louis. maximum solar load is in the fall in the afternoon.14 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ A room facing east.12 ROOM COOLING LOAD The room cooling load is the sum of each of the cooling load components (roof. maximum load is in the summer in the afternoon or evening. sensible. A load calculation form is shown in Figure 6. a prepared form is useful. except for entrances. RLCL = room total. Light colored interior venetian blinds are used. Some general guidelines can be offered to simplify this task. latent cooling loads BTCL. sensible. For walls. The wall is a metal curtain wall with a V-value of 0. we might expect a south-facing room with a very large window area to have a peak load in early afternoon in the fall-not in the summer! If the room had a small glass area. Example 6. Many modern buildings have fixed (sealed) windows and therefore have no infiltration loss. maximum solar load is in the fall or winter in early afternoon. Missouri. walls. TCL. single heat-absorbing glass. BSCL. The following abbreviations will be used for convenience. 3. and infiltration) ill the room. mid-summer in the afternoon. Most summer air conditioning systems have mechanical ventilation using some outside air. The external heat gain components vary in intensity with time of day and time of year because of changing solar radiation as the orientation of the sun changes and because of outdoor temperature changes. in the Shelton Motel in St. Find the time and value of room peak cooling load. SHGF. sensible. we must know how to find them.

53 x 0. wall Q = 0. For buildings that are approximately squareshaped in plan with similar construction on all four walls. glass Q = 1. Referring to Tables 6. there will be a large conduction heat loss through both glass and wall in the morning at that time of year.76 = 5220 Conduction. the peak load may occur in the fall. Each building must be analyzed in a similar way to determine time of room peak loads so that the proper room load is calculated. all air-conditioned rooms in the building at the time the building cooling load is at its peak value. wall Q = 0. mentioned earlier. the solar gain is large enough to dominate. If in doubt. because radiation is highest then.80 = 5500 Conduction. 9. the CLF for the glass is maximum at 8 AM ST. But the early morning outside temperature in April I L These suggestions must be -verified in each case because there are so many variations in building orientation and constrnction. In August the SHGF = 216. Another point that needs comment here is the possibility of peak load in April. the designer must also determine the time of year and time of day at which the building cooling load is at a peak. the peak SHGF is in April (224 BTU/hr-ft2). the following guidelines emerge: I. or 10 AM are the possible peak times for the room cooling load. For one-story buildings with very large roof areas.01 x 60 x 5 = 283 Conduction. at 8 AM Solar. wall Q=0. From Table 6. Once the peak load . 3. glass Q = 216 x 60 x 0. 2. For buildings with a long south or southwest exposure having large glass areas. Therefore.14 x 40 x 55 = 308 Total = 5710 BTUlhr at 10 AM Solar.14 x 40 x 56 = 314 Total = 4777 BTUlhr The peak load for this room is at 8 AM in August.14 BUILDING PEAK COOLING LOAD The building cooling load is the rate at which heat is removed from. the peak load is usually in late afternoon in summer. the total would be greater than the peak cooling load required for the whole building.0 I x 60 x 3 = 182 Conduction. however. We are assuming that the room is not on the top floor. and the CLTD for the wall is maximum at 10 AM. glass Q = 216 x 60 x 0. It appears as if 8. From our previous discussion and a study of the tables. the peak time might be later. However. and there is no differential influence of solar radiation on one side of a building. so the total heat gain will be maximum in August.14x40x48= 269 Total = 5830 BTUlhr at9AM Solar. if the window were smaller.6 for 40 N latitude.COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS 145 Solution The glass area in the room is large enough compared with the wall so that the solar load determines the peak load time. glass Q = 216 x 60 x 0. and the net gain would probably be less. otherwise the roof load might affect the peak time. the calculation should be made. and then calculate it. This is because the outside temperature is highest then. On the other hand.0 I x 60 x I = 61 Conduction. around mid-day. the peak load usually occurs in the afternoon in summer. because these peaks do not occur at the same ti me. If peak cooling loads for each room were added. Even though the conduction heat gain through the glass and wall increases later in the morning.2.52 x 0.10 and 6. Proceeding to check the possibilities: 0 would result in a considerable conduction heat loss from the room. glass Q = 1. This case requires careful analysis.62 = 4180 Conduction. 6. almost as large as in April. A reasoning and investigation similar to that carried out in finding room peak loads is used.53 x 0. glass Q = 1.

outside infiltration air was heing reduced by improved weatherfitting in both existing j and new buildings. The equations for determining the sensible and latent cooling loads from ventilation air. BTUlhr CFM = air ventilation rate.90.17 are often higher than the minimum listed in earlier standards. the calculated lighting load would be multiplied by a factor of 0. a diversity factor or usage factor is sometimes estimated and applied to the calculated building peak load in order to reduce it. In these cases. The excess heat is usually removed in the cooling equipment. Heat gains to ducts 3. This contributed to a deterioration in indoor air quality. For instance. 'j' -tThere are still further changes in ventilation re!' quirements that are being considered.!lb d. The sensible ~ .10) Diversity On some projects. F Wo'. if it is estimated that only 90% of the lighting is actually on at peak load time.16 VENTILATION Some outside air is generally brought 'into a building for health and comfort reasons. + Q/. Air leakage from ducts 6. The ventilation rates in Table 6.there are heat gains to the air conditioning system itself. at the time of peak load. These gains may include: I. An earlier standard permitted a minimum of 5 CFM per person. however. allowances for the amount of indoor air pollutantsi heing generated. so it becomes part of the cooling load. the cooling coil load is found. At the same time. Ventilation (outside air) 2. W/ = outdoor and inside humidity ratio. Undoubtedly new standards will j (3. usage practice may be such that all of the people are not present and some of the lights and equipment are not operating.a.15 COOLING COIL LOAD After the building cooling load is determined. Recommended outdoor air ventilation rates for some applications are listed in Table 6. explained in Chapters 3 and 7. The cooling coil load will be greater than the building load because. ft3 [min TC = temperature change between outdoor and inside air.i 7 do not make special.68 x CFM x (Wo' . the actual building peak load may be less than the calculated value because of load diversity. The new requirements ' "'' improve this situation.146 CHAPTER 6 time is determined. and latent heat of this air is usually greater than that of the room air. are Q.=l.17. so it is part of the cooling coil load but not the building load. After the necessary data are entered. (3. many designers and operating personnel often provided only the minimum CFM required. In some buildings. This table has ventilation rates similar to many state codes and standards. The total heat Qt removed from the ventilation air is Qt = Q. a complete time profile of loads for many hours can be developed in a few minutes.lxCFMxTC Q/ = 0. gr w. The search for the time and value of peak room and building cooling loads is greatly simplified by using computer software programs. The coolillg coil load is the rate at which heat must be removed by the air conditioning equipment cooling coil(s). beginning in the 1970s. For instance. Choosing proper diversity factors requires both experience and judgment about building use practices. Heat produced by the air conditioning system fans and pumps 4. the total building heat gains can be calculated.'l the values shown in Table 6. In order to save energy.W/) where Q" Q/ = sensible and latent cooling loads from ventilation air. For example.11 ) 6. it requires 15 CFM per person in an office space.

1 x CFM x TC .240. The applicable ventilation rate from the following list. 6..= 1382 tons 12. 15 CFM per person. Type of Use CFM per Square Foot of Conditioned Floor Area Auto repair workshops Barber shops Bars.W/) =0. "-. Q.1 x 15 x 40.0 -77. times the expected occupancy rate.5: Q=UxAxTD (3.a.18 lists this correction.000 = 16.000 BTUlhr The humidity ratios at the inside and outdoor conditions are 77. reflect this and other information that found in this rapidly developing field.50 0.584.w. The space design conditions are 80 F and 50% RH.000 + 7.15 Abridged from Energy Efficiency Standards. 1999. Table 6.40 1.50 0. (see Chapter 7). Example 6.1 0 and 3.11 will be used..240..000 BTUlhr The c·onditioned air flowing through ducts will gain heat from the surroundings.45 30 CFM/Guest Room 0.15 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ The Stellar Dome enclosed athletic stadium seats 40..000 BTU/hr If the peak load does not occur at the time of the day that the outdoor temperature is at a maximum.17 MINIMUM MECHANICAL VENTILATION REQUIREMENT RATES 147 Outdoor air shall be provided at a rate no less than the greater of either A.COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS TABLE 6.000 BTUlhr 1 ton x .llb d. What is the cooling load due to ventilation? Solution Equations 3.000 x 14 = 9.0 gr.17 HEAT GAIN TO DUCTS = 1.68 x CFM x (Wo' . The heat gain can be calculated from the heat transfer Equation 3. = 1.17 lists 15 CFM of outside air per person. the heat gain results in a useful cooling effect.50 0. and outdoor design conditions 94 F DB and 74 F WB.000 x (95. QI = 0.68x 15 x 40.5) . cocktail lounges..40 0. Table 6. times the conditioned floor area of the space.0) = 7.344. but for the ducts passing through unconditioned spaces it is a loss of sensible heat that must be added to the BSCL.. and casinos Beauty shops Coin-operated dry cleaning Commercial dry cleaning Hotel guest rooms (less than 500 sq ft) Hotel guest rooms (500 sq ft or greater) Retail stores Smoking lounges All others 1.0 and 95. If the duct passes through conditioned spaces.15 0. B.344. California Energy Commission. a correction must be made to the outdoor temperature used for calculating ventilation and infiltration loads.000 people.30 0.20 1. IS being Qf = 9.

Q = UxA xTD =0. duct. . What is the heat gain to the air in the duct? Solution The surface area of the duct is If there is significant heat gain to return air ducts.18 Daily Range. Using Equation 3. F It is recommended that cold air ducts passing through unconditioned areas be insulated to at least an overall value of R-4 (U =0. the heat is added to the BSCL. 1-3% of the building sensible load (BSCL) is suggested. For a draw-through fan arrangement (fan downstream from the cooling coil). it should also be calculated. In this case. A= 2x36m. 1 ft . F . BTUlhr U = overall coefficient of heat transfer. carrying air at 60 F. The duct is insulated to an overall U = 0. but it is only added to the CSCL.18 FAN AND PUMP HEAT 12 in.25.x--+2xI2m. by 12 in.) x 50 ft = 400 ft2 6. rather than going through elaborate calculations.60) = 3000 BTUlhr Some of the energy from the system fans and pumps is converted into heat through friction and other effects. 1 ft x. it might be useful to insulate the duct even though it is in the conditioned area (see Chapter 10). and becomes part of the sensible heat gain that should be added to the load. whereas for a blow-through arrangement (fan upstream from the coil) the heat gets . depending on the extent of ductwork. TABLE 6. Some designers find it reasonably accurate to add a percentage to the supply duct heat gain. For insulated supply ducts. BTUlhr A = duct surface area. 50 ft long. ft2 TD = temperature difference between air in duct and surrounding air.148 CHAPTER 6 DECREASE FROM PEAK DESIGN OUTDOOR DB TEMPERATURE.5. Example 6. care should be taken that it does not affect the distribution of cooling.16 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ A 36 in.25). runs through a space at 90 F.25 x 400 x (90 . If there is a long run of duct with a number of outlets. ( 12 in.F 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 hour 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 10 9 9 10 10 10 10 9 8 7 6 8 4 6 8 2 3 5 I 0 0 I I I I 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 I I 2 3 4 5 6 3 5 7 9 10 5 7 9 6 9 7 10 8 II 8 15 20 25 30 35 13 14 14 15 15 15 14 13 II 17 2 2 3 3 4 2 2 3 3 4 12 18 19 20 20 20 19 17 14 11 12 14 15 16 19 21 7' _0 22 23 24 25 25 25 23 21 18 14 10 6 1 12 15 17 14 17 20 26 28 29 30 30 30 28 25 21 17 12 7 30 33 34 35 35 35 33 29 25 20 14 8 1 1 25 7 12 16 20 24 27 29 Reprinted with permission from the 1979 ASHRAE Load Calculation Manual. the heat gains in the first sections of duct might be enough so that the air temperature at the last outlets is too high. not the BSCL.. where Q = duct heat gain. Although the heat gain to supply ducts in conditioned spaces is not wasted.

6. An approximate allowance for fan heat can be made as follows: For I in. The refrigeration load (RL) is the load the·refrigeration equipment. the refrigeration load is the cooling coil(s) load plus the chilled water pump heat. For a chilled water system. 7.6.14. Select indoor and outdoor design conditions from Tables 1. 5. Oil 6. the refrigeration load. I. return air fan. Calculate each room peak load.18). Search Tables 6.g.17). duct heat leakage (Section 6. adding all external and internal gains and infiltration. a careful job should limit duct leakage to 5% or less of the total CFM. this must be added to the room load. If ducts are outside the conditioned space.20 SUpPLY AIR CONDITIONS After the sensible and latent heat gains lated.13 should be helpful. the pump heat is a load on the refrigeration chiller. pressure add 2. The architect or building owner will furnish the data needed for the calculations.19). many systems have unnecessarily high air leakage due to sloppy installation. if significant. the refrigeration load and cooling coil load are equal. Calculate the building load at peak 'time. or calculate from individual R-values. Calculate areas of all these surfaces. using the values for the external heat gains determined above and by calculating and adding the internal heat gains from people. 9.9.I and A. Determine time of day and month of peak load for each room by calculating external heat gains at times that they are expected to be a maximum. then it does useful cooling. For central systems with remote chilled water cooling coils. are calcu(flow rate. and 6. and equipment.g.COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS 149 added to the CSCL load.8 to find maximum values. add blow-through fan.2. 4. If the air leaks into the conditioned space. if significant. and humidity) necessary room conditions are determined. This covered in Chapter 7. w. for each room. but the suggestions in Section 6. but not the cooling coil. if any. Find the cooling coil and refrigeration load by adding the ventilation loag (Table 6. Use architectural plans to measure dimensions of all surfaces through which there will be external heat gains. and pump heat gains. 3. Often calculations at a few different times will be required. 6.21 SUMMARY OF COMMERCIAL COOLING LOAD CALCULATION PROCEDURES The steps in determining commercial cooling loads can be summarized as follows. w. w. Unfortunately. For a direct expansion system. to satisfy subject is 2. Add supply duct heat gain (Section 6. pressure add 10% to BSCL The heat from the chilled water pump on small systems is generally small and may be neglected. the effect of leakage must be added to the BSCL and BLCL. pressure add 5% to BSCL For 4 in.17) to the building heat gains. However. Find the time of building peak load using a similar search process as in item 5 and the suggestions in Section 6. 6. and draw-through supply fan heat gain (Section 6.5% to BSCL For 2 in. . but care should be taken that it is not distributed to the wrong location. 6. Select heat transfer coefficient V-values for each element from appropriate tables.1.19 DUCT AIR LEAKAGE Duct systems will leak air at joints. 8. but for large systems it may range from 1-2% of sensible load. lights. the required supply air conditions temperature.g. If there is infiltration. 6. This leads to a new term.

V = 0. shown in Figure 6. Besides. fluorescent fixtures Outdoor ventilation rate as per Table 6. in. Peak CLF for the glass is at 5 PM. 9. single heat absorbing glass. Daily temperature range is 19 F. Conduction through the glass has not reduced appreciably. IS " "'ow. The building has only one room. No storage effect for people or lighting is taken because the system is shut down when the store closes and does not operate until shortly before the store opens.09 BTUlhr-ft'-F Floor is 4 in. prog~ j .5 PM. Peak glass load is in both July and August. in. insulation. Dimensions are shown on the plan. The procedure for finding the supply air conditions will be explained in Chapter 7. V = 0. aluminum frame Receiving door is I Y2 in.17 will illustrate these procedures. Areas are calculated and recorded on the form.llb d. The construction and orientation indicates that the roof and West glass will determine the peak load time.6. Indoor and outdoor design conditions are 76 F DB/50% RH and 90 F DB174 WB. not shaded Doors are y.18. which should be carefully studied in relation to the explanations in the example. Example 6. from 4 to. single clear glass. 10. Therefore the peak load time is in July 5 PM. concrete slab.17 . Return air fan gain is negligible. Rgore 15. 5-7. Peak CLTD for the roofis in July at 5 PM. SO/lltion The procedures recommended previously will be followed. common brick. and there is no pump. Computer Software Solution to Example 6. gypsum wallboard. concrete slab. wall loads will be higher at 5 PM than at 4 PM. 2. Latitude is " 39°N..17. m""P'" 15.35 Walls are 4 in. It is a one-story building with a basement used for storage. No infiltration is included. 2 in. gypsum board ceiling. 4.1 l The cooling load calculation results for the build'1" ing in Example ~. The supply duct is exposed in the store. 10 ft high.9. Students should see if they obtain the same values from the appropriate tables. insulation. I. Ventilation loads are calculated and shown on the form. Inside and outdoor humidity ratios are 66 and 10 1 gr w. 8. steel with urethane core Occupancy is 60 people Construction is medium (M) weight Lighting is 3 watts per square foot of floor area.11 Front window is y. face brick. w. is located in Columbus. V-values specified or found from tables are listed on the form. Construction and conditions are as follows: Roof is 4 in. Roof is No.. Ohio. h. Y2 in. aluminum frame. Calculate required supply air conditions (Chapter 7). and it is assumed the fan gain is 3%.a. Example 6. A draw-through unit will be used. 4 in. The data and results are tabulated on a Commercial Cooling Load Calculation form (Figure 6. Thi. 2 in.17 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ The Superb Supermarket. The basement is assumed to be halfway between inside and outside temperatures. therefore heat gain and leakage are useful cooling and do not add to the load. Walls are in Group B.150 CHAPTER 6 10.17 Store is open from 10 AM to 8 PM (9 AM to 7 PM Standard Time) Determine the required cooling load. 3. usi~g a co~puter softwa~e·. V = 0.5). Individual heat gains items are calculated and recorded on the form. Ventilation air is assumed to prevent any significant infiltration because the doors are not used heavily. program (and shghtly dIfferent Input data).

by Vl 3/5/01 Ave.94 ClF 0.09 0.35 0. "- " " ~ if) a: Lights 16.1 x 900 0.68x 900.120 260.000 I I Total CL SA duct leakage 0 0 SA fan gain (draw through) 3% Room/Building Cooling Load 6200 212.69 0. 11 11 11 9 15 24 15 35 7 25 SCl BTU/hr 9220 470 470 830 1390 3100 640 ·17.120 Refrigeration Load Figure 6.2 BFx 1.58 0.~F Time 5 PM (S1) Design Conditions Conduction I Outdoor I Room Dir. Energy Associates DB F 90 76 WB F 74 RH % 50 A.11 0. F Table 13 13 13 11 17 26 17 36 Corr.420 Cooling Coil Load 226. 151 .41 x 1. by EP 3/4/01 Daily Range _1_9 __ F Day July 21 lat.750 4950 1880 -r UHa: a: I J? a:x Uu a: ~IS :. RA duct gain 0 RA fan gain 0 Pump gain CFMx 14 CFMx 35 TC gr/lb 21.600 BTU/hr 224.17).39 ClTD. It' Net 830 42 42 840 840 1176 388 5400 5400 42 W' gr/lb 101 66 Calc.01 1.94 0.01 0.000 u Wx3.010 13.420 260.58 0.01 1.11 0.41 x SHGx 60 lHGx 60 Equipment Equipment Infiltration 1.11 0. no no no SHGF 216 216 216 A 830 42 42 SC 0.22 71.640 12.1 x 0. W W E N S E W D D D D D Color U Gross Glass 1..200 Lights People 250 200 Wx3.860 12. W W E Sh.000 lCl BTU/hr 12.(Example 6.COMMERCIAL COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS Project Superb Supermarket Location Columbus OH Bldg'/Room Building (peak) Engrs.700 33.5 Commercial cooling load calculations form.0 n ClF ClF ClF 66.68 x SA duct gain 0 CFMx CFMx TC gr/lb Subtotal 206.11 0.0 BFx nx 1. 40 N 0 Chk. B 1260 1260 Roof/ceiling E 27 Solar Glass Dir.230 410 Wall '" Floor Partition Door " e c.840 13.290 15.840 SA fan gain (blow through) Ventilation 1.

17 using computer software as a learning experience. M (medium). 6. Residential air conditioning equipment and controls usually do not have refined provisions for zoning. . The L (low)..+ 1 ·I Figure 6. humidity control. dustrial buildings. These factors all lead to a simplification of load calculations. There are a number of reasons for this. and lighting loads are neglected. uses the same method used in this text (CLTD) method)" It is strongly recommended that the student also solve Example 6.. The procedures for determining cooling loads for residences are based on the same heat transfer principles. and H (high) outdoor temperature ranges are listed in the footnotes to the table: these are found from Table A. roof. An allowance is made for latent loads.22 COOLING LOAD FROM HEAT GAIN THROUGH STRUCTURE The cooling loads from walls. ceiling. Only sensible loads are calculated.. Another cooling load calculation example will be carried out as part of Example Project II (Chapter 17).6.. The procedure does not require determination of peak time of load or of heat storage effect. U = overall heat transfer coefficient. but are simplified somewhat..152 CHAPTER 6 1+----------90'---------~"I --h ~C==========='="~t5 Receiving door Superb Supermarket o CD Doors: double 3' x 7' swinging Ceiling height 14'-0" N~ I( 8 3 ' .19. and part load operation. this being included in the data. BTUlllr .6 Sketch for Example 6" 17" and infiltration loads. Approximations are used for people Q= UxA xCLTD where Q = sensible cooling load.. and floor are each calculated by use of the following equation: Residential Cooling Loads The procedures described previously are used for calculating cooling loads for commercial and in. ft2 CLTD '= cooling load temperature difference. Homes are often conditioned 24 hours a day. F The CLTD values are listed in Table 6. BTUfnr-ft 2-F A = area.

correcting it for the inside design temperature of 78' F. For other indoor temperatures. of 85 Daily Temp.19 110 M L M M H M H M H All walls and doors North NE and NW East and West SE and SW South Roofs and ceilings 8 14 18 16 II 3 9 13 11 6 37 13 19 23 21 16 47 8 14 18 16 11 42 3 9 13 11 6 37 18 24 28 26 21 51 13 19 23 21 16 47 8 14 18 16 II 18 24 28 26 21 51 13 19 23 21 16 47 18 24 28 26 21 51 23 29 33 31 26 56 Attic or flat built-up Floors and ceilings 42 42 Under conditioned space.(78 -75) =39 F Q = 0. oF. duplexes. with both east and west exposed walls or only north and south exposed walls. Colors of all exposed surfaces are assumed dark. The outdoor temperature range falls in the M class. CLTD =42 . 16 to 25 OF. Example 6. over uriconditioned room. over crawl space 9 9 4 4 12 12 9 9 4 4 14 14 12 12 9 9 14 14 12 12 14 14 19 19 Partitions Inside or shaded acooling load temperature differences (CLTDs) for single-family detached houses.19. These are listed in Table 6. The inside design condition iir78 F. greater than 25 oF. Solution Equation 6. Range b L 90 95 H L 100 105 153 TABLE 6. Values should be interpolated between listed outdoor tempenittIres. The CLTD values should also be interpolated between the listed outdoor temperature values. The combined roof-ceiling V-factor is 0.20. less than 16 OF: t-. Reprinted with pennission from the 1997 ASHRAE Handbook-Fundamentals. The GLF values account for both solar radiation and conduction through glass. and H denotes high daily range. the CLTD should be corrected by I F for each 1 F temperature difference from 75 F. or multifamily.09.23 COOLING LOAD FROM HEAT GAIN THROUGH WINDOWS The sensible cooling load due to heat gains through glass (windOWS and doors) is found by using glass load factors (GLF). The CLTD will be found from Table 6.8 will be used. Find the roof cooling load.f denotes medium daily range. The outdoor daily temperature range is 20 F.18 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ A home has a roof area of 1600 ft2. .. The CLTD table is based on an indoor temperature of 75 F. bL denotes low daily range. outdoor design condition is 90 F.09 x 1600 x 39 =5620 BTUlhr 6.COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS CLTD VALUES FOR SINGLE-FAMILY DETACHED RESIDENCESa Design Temperature.

20. the GLF is 50 BTu/hr-ft>. weatherstripping. described as follows: Tight. it is usual to assume that the occupants are in living and dining areas for purposes of load distribution. The orientation and design of the building can have a major effect on energy use! = area of glass.25 INFILTRATION AND VENTILATION Infiltration rates are listed in Table 6. however.7 Sketch for Example 6. The vertical length of shade is 2 x 5. ft 2 GLF = glass load factor. 6.20 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ A south wall has a 6 ft high picture window with a roof overhang as shown in Figure 6. their output should be individuallyevaluated. Find the cooling load through the glass.11 : Q=A where X GLF (6. Georgia.6 x 2 =3.19 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ A residence has 80 ft2 of regular single glass on the west side. so the glass is completely Figure 6. north facing glass. Q = 50 BTUlhr-ft2 x 80 ft2 = 4000 BTU/hr If the glass is shaded by permanent outside overhangs. because it is not feasible to shade those orientations with overhangs.22 in air changes per hour (ACH). BTUlhr-ff 6. Example 6. A sensible heat gain allowance of 1200-1600 BTUlhr is typical for kitchen appliances. First. The outdoor design temperature is 95 F. Because the maximum load usually occurs in late afternoon. the values from Table 6.0 = 10.21. and barely covers one foot of glass. No shade line factors for northwest and northeast are shown. BTUlhr A shaded! Note how effective the overhang is. and the window cooling load is.154 CHAPTER 6 The glass sensible cooling load is detennined from Equation 6. Solution From Table 6.0. Three categories of construction tightness are shown.20. If large special appliances are used.21.9. with draperies. The shade extends vertically 1. How much of the glass area is shaded? Solution Savannah is at 32°N latitude. If the number of occupants is not known in advance. Look what would happen if the wall faced southwest. the shade line factor is 5. Well-fitted windows and doors. 50% of this load should be assigned to that room.24 PEOPLE AND APPLIANCES The sensible heat gain per person is assumed to be an average of 225 BTUlhr.0 ft.20. the extent of shading is determined. using Equation 6. the calculation is carried out differently. This can be done with the aid of Table 6. 2' T 6' ~ . From Table 6. The house is in Savannah.7. The shade line factors listed in the table are multiplied by the width of the overhang to find the vertical length of shading. are used.9) Q = sensible cooling load due to heat gain through glass. no fireplace Example 6. The bottom of the glass is 8 ft below the overhang. If the kitchen is open to an adjacent room. it can be estimated as two times the number of bedrooms. For that part of the glass which is shaded.2 ft.

venetian blinds. Btuth. where the subscripts a and t refer to the alternate and table values. respectively./SC.:=: to . Use linear interpolation for latitude from 40 to 48° and from 40 to 32°. of 32°.75).20 WINDOW GLASS LOAD FACTORS (GLF) FOR SINGLE-FAMILY DETACHED RESIDENCEsa Regular Single Glass Design Temperature. translucent roller shades fully drawn North NEandNW EandW SEand SWb South b Horizontal skylight U> U> 19 33 46 41 28 79 15 26 36 32 26 39 50 46 34 79 23 33 42 39 30 65 Opaque railer shades fully drawn North NEandNW EandW SE and SWb South b Horizontal skylight 14 25 34 31 21 60 20 31 40 36 22 27 61 64 13 14 17 23 24 27 32 33 36 29 30 33 20 20 23 57 57 60 20 30 39 36 27 63 23 32 29 20 57 aOlass load factors (GLFs) for single-family detached houses.r' TABLES. To obtain GLF for other combinations of glass and/or inside shading: GLF" = (SC. Reprinted with permission from the 1997 ASH/ME Handhook-Fundamentals. ft2.)(GLFt . 37 83 86 23 34 44 40 30 68 29 43 55 51 38 87 25 36 45 42 32 69 33 47 59 55 42 90 29 40 49 46 36 72 30 30 34 37 55 56 59 62 77 78 81 84 69 70 73 76 46 47 50 53 137 138 140 143 16 29 40 36 24 71 16 19 22 30 32 35 41 44 46 37 39 42 25 28 31 71 74 76 19 30 38 35 26 62 41 66 88 77 80 54 57 144 147 38 63 85 23 36 47 43 31 77 20 36 51 45 31 90 13 24 33 29 20 58 12 21 29 26 18 52 20 37 51 46 31 91 14 24 33 30 21 59 12 22 30 27 19 52 23 39 54 49 34 93 16 27 36 32 23 61 15 24 32 29 21 55 25 42 56 51 36 95 18 29 38 34 25 63 17 26 34 31 23 57 26 44 59 54 39 96 19 29 38 35 26 63 17 27 35 32 24 57 28 44 59 54 39 98 21 32 41 37 28 65 20 29 37 34 26 59 27 27 50 50 70 70 62 63 42 42 124 125 15 28 39 35 23 69 13 23 32 29 19 56 16 28 39 36 24 69 13 30 53 73 65 45 127 18 30 41 38 26 71 15 26 35 31 22 59 Draperies. duplexes. SCI and U I are given in Table 5. . to is the outdoor design temperature and DR is the daily range..(DRI2). or multifamily. D I ::::: ((. with both east and west exposed walls or only north and south ex- posed walls. bCorrect by +30% for latitude of 48° and by -30% for latitude. where f. . of 85 90 95 100 105 110 85 Regular Double Glass 90 95 100 105 110 Heat-Absorbing Double Glass 85 90 95 100 105 110 Clear Triple Glass 85 90 95 Na inside shading North NEandNW EandW SE and SWb South b Horizontal skylight 34 36 63 65 88 90 79 81 53 55 156 156 18 32 45 40 27 78 41 47 48 50 70 75 77 83 95 100 102 107 86 91 92 98 60 65 67 72 161 166 167 171 23 27 38 42 50 54 46 49 33 .UtD t ) + UaD{.

74 0. ft3 The heat gain due to the infiltrating air is found from Equation 3. OF Class 85 90 95 100 105 110 Tight Medium Loose 0.46 0.0 1.38 0.1 0.5 mph wind and indoor temperature of 75°F. Values are averages for the 5 h of greatest solar intensity on August 1.8 0.54 0.6 0.8 1.12: CFM=ACHx- where Q = sensible cooling load due to infiltrating air CFM = from Equation 3.68 0.0 0.52 0. Average fit windows and doors.78 Values for 7.8 Shadow length below the overhang equals the shade line factor times the overhang width.21 SHADE LINE FACTORS (SLF) Latitude.1 x CFM x TC (3.2 1.8 0.9 0.8 1. BUILDING.8 1. indoor air quality may be unsatisfactory.8 1.22) V = room volume.10: Q = 1.1 2. V 60 (3. . The quantity of air infiltrating into the room is found from Equation 3.8 0.12 TC = temperature change between inside and outdoor air If the infiltration air is expected to be less than 0.8 0.56 0. In this case.76 0.37 0. Loose.12) where CFM = air infiltration rate into room.4 1.5 ACH. Poorly fitted windows and doors. fireplace without shut-off. AND AIR CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT LOADS Room Sensible Cooling Load.8 0.0 1.5 0. Medium.8 0.8 9.1 1.10. TABLE 6.72 0.9 1.8 1.26 ROOM. some outdoor air should be introduced through the air conditioning equipment.3 0. fireplace that can be closed off. Degrees N 24 32 36 40 Direction Window Faces East SE South SW West 44 46 52 0. 'with its sensible heat contribution evaluated from Equation 3.4 0.3 2.4 3.36 0. CFM ACH = number of air changes per hour (Table 6. Reprinted with permission from the 1997 ASHRAE Handbook-Fundamelltals.6 1.8 0.33 0.34 0.8 1.70 0.6 5. The sensible cooling load for each room (RSCL) is found by .8 1.156 CHAPTER 6 TABLE 6.35 0.10) 6. Reprinted with permission from the /997 ASHRAE Handbook-FllndamenTals.48 0.8 0.22 AIR CHANGE RATES AS A FUNCTION OF OUTDOOR DESIGN TEMPERATURES Outdoor Design Temperature.50 0.

An additional 5% is suggested to be added to the building sensible cooling load due to leakage of air from the ducts.) 1.. Building Sensible Cooling Load. Latent Cooling Load.012 0. BTUlhr LF = latent factor (Figure 6. To do this.J 1. The building sensible cooling load (BSCL) is found by adding up the room sensible cooling loads for each room. the duct heat gains and leakage and the latent heat gain must be accounted for.10) where QT= equipment total cooling load.0 0.8 is used to find the LF value. The unitary (packaged) equipment used in residential work may not have quite the sensible and latent heat proportion removal capacities desired.016 1. Figure 6. . Instead the building sensible load is multiplied by an approximated latent factor (LF) to obtain the building total load. Construction: ~ 1.2 u. Equipment Sensible Cooling Load. Duct Heat Gains. The latent loads are not separately calculated when using the abbrevi- ated residential calculation procedure.1 troom = 75°F rh =50% 0.COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS 157 adding up each of the room's cooling load components described. BTUlhr Qs = equipment sensible cooling load.8) The air conditioning unit is then selected on the basis of the calculated equipment total cooling load.3 :r: 11 u. but it is rare that the resulting room conditions are in an uncomfortable range. The equipment total cooling load is then found from the following equation: . This is the sum of the building sensible cooling load and the duct heat gains and leakage.. a more detailed analysis is necessary. using the outdoor design humidity ratio from the psychrometric chart (see Chapter 7).8 Effect of infiltration on latent load factor.5% Design Humidity Ratio .014 2.010 0. (Reprinted with permission from the 1993 ASHRAE Handbook-Fundamentals. Figure 6. If the loads are such that this is suspected. (6. It still remains to find the air conditioning equipment cooling load. Suggested values for heat gains to ducts are: Ducts in attics: add 10% to the building sensible cooling load Ducts in crawl space or basement: add 5% to the building sensible cooling load Duct Leakage.4 1.

7 and A. Calculate areas of all these surfaces. Other elements are calculated in the same way.7 or A. 2. (If air quality were poor from too little infiltration. using Tables 6. Multiply the building sensible cooling load by the latent factor LF (Figure 6. Infiltration is found from Table 6. The student should go through each step independently to confirm agreement with the values shown in'Figure 6. Calculate heat gains through glass.9. in the M class. Determine infiltration or ventilation load (Section 6. Determine occupancy and appliance load (Section 6.8.20 for the windows on the south side. Heat transfer coefficients for the materials listed are found from Tables A. The wall heat gains in each room are then calculated using Equation 6.8) to find the total load. 11.) 9.20 and 6.8 and recorded.21.. The duct system is in the basement. some outside air would have to be mechanically introduced. 2-3.9 and in the Appendix. 7.:t .8.9. Calculate heat gains through walls.21 Calculate the room and building cooling loads for the residence shown in Figure 6. assume an occupancy of four: two in the living room. The result is the air conditioning equipment total cooling load. 5.1 and A.10. 6. The following example illustrates use of the calculation procedure.158 CHAPTER 6 6. and recorded in Figure 6. A residential cooling load calculation form is shown in Figure 6.9. For a two-bedroom house. Out' door temperature range is 22 F.9. adding to the load. 7. 10. The hallway is included as part of the living room because there is no separating door. for each room.12. " . 8. and floors for each room using the CLTD values from Table 6. 9. Select the CLTD values from Table 6. Assume a 1200 BTu/hr kitchen appliance load. roof. 4. The individual gains are added to find the RSCL for each room and the building. . for each room. 5. The results of each step are shown in Figure 6. The indoor and outdoor design temperatures are 75 F and 96 F. The heat gains are calculated and recorded for this and all other windows. Solution The steps will be carried out as recommended in the summary.23). '~":'" -". 8. Select inside and outdoor design temperatures from Tables 1.22 and Equation 3.:. Note that large closets in a room are included as part of the room. 4. 11. 3. The dimensions are taken from the building plans and the gross and net areas of each element are calculated and recorded in Figure 6. or calculate from individual R-values. the CLF for the type of glass and shading is 28 BTUlhr-fe at 95 F outdoors and 75 F indoors. I.25).19. Multiply the BSCL by the LF factor (Figure 6. 6. 10. Example 6.19. 'iI .9.8). From Table 6. Allow 59C for heat gain and 5% for leakage to add to the building sensible cooling load (BSCL). two in the dining area at peak load times. Use architectural plans to measure dimensions of all surfaces through which there will be external heat gain. Add individual loads to find sensible load for each room and building. Select heat transfer coefficient U for each element from Tables A. Add duct heat gains and leakage to SCL of building.27 SUMMARY OF RESIDENTIAL COOLING LOAD CALCULATION PROCEDURES The steps in determining residential cooling loads can be summarized as follows. 1.~ j.

700 392 W N 14 14 ClF 50 23 700 322 I Infiltration People Appliances 2 x 225 443 450 4672 Kitchen 9 x 10 2 x 275 119 550 2569 238 161 RSCl Room Name 2926 2288 Bathroom A Plan Size Wall D.20 66 23 82 47 1579 573 . Ud = 0. Jones Residence Location Hometown. N 21 14 13 ClF 23 128 322 D.20 106 333 N . Uw =O.--_ Roof/ceiling Floor Partition Door Living Room Bedroom No. U 37 13 96 N .20 74 23 151 W .20 . DB --.5_ _ F In. --.5". U 340 S .2".7".10 180 47 846 .0".1 Bedroom No.405 770 770 BSCl= 16.10 A ClTO BTUlhr D. blinds. U A ClTO BTU/hr D. Windows 3. 322 700 W S 14 14 ClF 50 28 D. except as noted. Ur =O. RH --.10 47 423 . DB _9_6_ _ F Out.10 336 47 .COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS RESIDENTIAL COOLING lOAD CALCULATIONS Room Name Plan Size Wall 159 Project A. = 8'0'.20 104 16 488 W .2 Dining Room 21 x12+21 x4 10x11 +3x4 9 x 10 14x12+3x4 D. ClF 1 D.20 16 262 N . WB 77 F In.47 D.20. Single clear glass.20 74 13 589 E . Doors 3' x 7'. U A A ClTD BTU/hr A ClTO BTU/hr D.R.10. S 21 40 16 ClF 28 158 1120 Windows 1 D.945 BTCl = 1.25 x BSCl = 21.0_ _ % D.47. MO Out.181 BTUlhr Unit size = 2 tons Duct gain _5_ % = Duct leak _5_ % ::: Figure 6. U N .5' W x 4' H. N 14 ClF 23 322 1 D.2.9 Residential cooling load calculations form. . ClF Windows Infiltration People Appliances RSCl 119 1200 2288 Building Total 55 662 NOTES: Ceiling ht. 34 13 88 42 47 197 U A ClTD BTU/hr D.10 122 90 S .:-_ F ACH --.20 128 192 23 304 S . U A ClTD BTU/hr Roof/ceiling Floor Partition Door 90 N 1.47 D. Sum RSCl = 15.10 6x7 ClTO BTU/hr D. U ClTO BTU/hr D..5.20 58 13 23 E .20 47 423 . N E I t4 14 ClF 23 50 D.

6. Determine the cooling load through the wall at A. These provide adequate comfort for most applications. gypsum wallboard. 7. made of !4 in.1 A building with a 120 ft by 80 ft roof. The inside design condition is 78 F. 6. Minimize use of glass in building unless used on the south side for receiving solar heat in the winter. located in Cincinnati. Avoid unnecessarily excessive lighting levels. concrete. Consider use of heat-absorbing glass. Use high R-value insulation throughout the A more detailed discussion of energy conservation in HVAC system design will be presented in Chapter IS. Maryland.4 . Ohio. 6. A building in Dallas. Nevada. 10. 9. Past practice of designing for 75 F or even lower is wasteful. has a roof constructed of I in. The inside design condition is 77 F. Use the Table A.9 summer outdoor design DB temperature and coincident WB temperature. II.28 ENERGY CONSERVATION Reducing the building cooling load provides a major opportunity for energy conservation. Some ways this can be achieved are: 1. Consider outside construction features that provide shading of glass. has 2300 ft 2 of exterior single glass with no interior shading. use proper calculation procedures that account for heat storage and time lag. 8. 4. The wall is constructed of 8 in. June IS at II AM B.21.10 Plan for Example 6. The inside design condition is 78 F. 3. Texas. Use types of lighting that more efficiently convert electrical energy into light. Provide effective interior shading devices. Orient the building so that solar radiation in summer is minimum on sides with large glass areas.160 CHAPTER 6 Bedrm 2 10'x11' Bath 6' x 7' Dining rm 9' x 10' N 1 Bedrm 1 14'x12' Living room 21'x12' 10'Wx9' H Scale 1116" = 1'-0" Basement Figure 6. Determine the net conduction heat gain through the glass at 2 PM in summer. Above all. single 2. 5.5 insulation and a suspended ceiling. wood with R-5.3 A building in Baltimore. is 90 ft by 24 ft. Determine the net roof cooling load at A. September 21 at noon B. building. Time of peak wall heat gain" 6.2 A southeast facing wall of a building located in Las Vegas. R-5 insulation and !!2 in. Time of peak roof heat gain 6. PROBLEMS 6. has 490 ft2 of windows facing west. Use inside design DB temperatures of 78-80 F.

single clear glass.5 A room in a building in New York City has a 12 ft W by 6 ft H window facing south.10 Find the peak cooling load for the general office shown in Figure 6. without a hood. The temperature is 78 F. The Greasy Spoon Cafe has a 20 ft 2 steam table. Group E Window: 20 Jt W X 6 ft H single clear glass. wood Walls: U = 0.80'-----~~ -:1. dark interior blinds Occupancy: 10 people. has the following conditions: Figure 6.11 The building shown in Figure 6. The buildirig is of mediumweight construction. The Squidgit factory. The window is iii in. The building is of light construction. Light color . 6. It has 76 (male and female) employees doing light bench work. California.11.12.8 1--------. operates from 8 AM to 5 PM.18 BTUlhr-Ji2-F. located in Ottawa. 10 in." 0 "0 Office N l t Office 20' " " 30' 6. What is the cooling load from the lighting? Find the sensible and latent load from 180 people dancing in the Get Down Disco.10. with dark roller shades.9 Warehouse 50' 6. What are the sensible and latent heat gains? "l Office r L . Lights 4 IVlfr with ballast Floor-to-floor height: 10ft 6. Canada. with the following conditions: Location: Sacramento.11. No windows. which is air conditioned 24 hours a day. Find the maximum net solar cooling load through the windows.::======~' 6.7 6. The cooling system is shut down during unoccupied hours. Group C. Inside conditions 78 F DB. Ceiling height 13'·0" Doors: 7ft H x 3 ftw.6 Note: Lightweight construction Figure 6.11 Plan for Problem 6.12 Plan for Problem 6. 50% RH Wall: U =0. A room has four 40 W fluorescent lighting fixtures and two 200 W incandescent fixtures in use. What is the cooling load at I PM? The temperature is 78 F. There is a 3 ft outside projection at the top of the window. Find the solar cooling load through the window at 12 noon on July 1.28 BTU/hr-Jr-F. In what month and hour is this? 6.COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS 161 clear glass. with medium color interior venetian blinds.

20 BTUlhrfr-F. h. wood. Conditions are as follows: Location: Your town Walls: U = 0. R-2.carmelsoft. finished ceiling Inside design conditions: 77 F. R-5.13 A room in a building in Memphis. facing east. duct and fan heat gains. 55% RH Occupancy: 80 jf2lperson.elitesoft.21 BTUlhr-Jf2-F. and located in or near your community. England. Make assumptions based on recommendations in the text on all other data (ventilation. no shading Lightweight construction. and so on). with the following conditions: Wall: A = 68 fr.20. . U GroupE = 0.com www.14 The Beetle Concert Hall in London. Tennessee. 6.com 6. Calculate the ventilation loads in summer. Find the peak cooling load. light interior blinds Roof' 2.15 Perform a complete cooling load calculation for the one-story office building shown in Figure 6.12 for the building turned 45° clockwise. Determine the peak cooling load and the load at 11 AM June 30.12 Repeat Problem 6. Lighting is 2.162 CHAPTER 6 Roof: 4 in.13.10 through 6. Inside design conditions are 75 F and 50% RH.w. Group C Glass: Single heat-absorbing glass. Light construction.5 insulation. single heat-absorbing glass. Glass: A = J30 jf2.5W~ 6. People: I per 60 ft2. to be located in your town. seats 2300 people. and 90° clockwise.5 in. concrete. 6. has one exposed wall.16 Perform a complete cooling load calculation for the residence described in Problem 3.8 insulation Orientation as assigned by instructor. Room temperature = 78 F. Computer Solution Problems Solve Problems 6.16 using cooling load calculation software available from one of the following Websites: www. 6.

'' ..~ COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS Figure 6..13 Plan for Problem 6.. I I D DD D D D ~ ~ I Window Lighting fixture '---- DD DD I I carridor fixtures 100 W/eaeh ceiling ht 10 ft AI I windows '15 ft2 S eale 1/8" = 1'·0" 0 ffiee fixtures 200 W/eaeh DD Equipment room DD II I ~ ~..I . ..?:~. 163 .:..15....c-· •.. '... . ~'-..•..

Determine mixed air conditions. The words temperature and dry bulb temperature will be used to mean the same thing with regard to air.1 PROPERTIES OF AIR The physical properties of atmospheric air are defined as follows: Dry Bulb Temperature (DB). Wet Bulb Temperature ~). 3. Hereafter. In this chapter. . we will first learn how to determine the physical properties of air. 6. Determine reheat requirements. Determine cooling coil performance specifications. Read values of properties from the psychrometric chart. as sensed by a thermometer. these processes can be complex and their understanding may require a special effort by the student. 2. it is necessary to understand how it behaves. The temperature of the air. called moist air. Psychrometries is the name given to the study of air-water vapor mixtures. A psychrometric analysis is required in selecting the proper air conditioning equipment for a job and in troubleshooting systems that are not performing properly. Examples of these uses will be demonstrated as we proceed. Because the water vapor content in air can change. 5. Some comprehension of psychrometrics is an absolute necessity. in rapidly moving air. The temperature sensed by a thermometer whose bulb is wrapped with a water-soaked wick. Determine required supply air conditions. Because this gas mixture is conditioned in environmental control systems. 164 7. Determine sensible and latent heat changes in air conditioning equipment. as conventionally done. you will be able to: 1. however.c H A p T E R Psychrometries T he atmospheric air that surrounds us is a mixture of dry air and water vapor. in order to become a competent air conditioning practitioner. 4. OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter. and then exam- ine how air is processed in air conditioning systems. we will use the word air to refer to the air-water vapor mixture that is the atmosphere.

in fe lib dry air. ft Ib/lb R V = volume of mixture. Pa = partial pressure of dry air in the mixture. This is a convention that is generally used. The maximum quantity of water vapor that air can hold depends on the air temperature. Some of the relationships between properties will now be explained. Note that the specific properties. but each occupies the total volume. the condition is called unsaturated. The weight of water vapor per pound of dry air. R The dry air and water vapor each exert only a part of the total pressure. taken above an arbitrary reference temperature at which the enthalpy is given a value of zero. called Dalton's Law. Ib/ft2 ma = weight of dry air. Ib Illw = weight of water vapor.PSYCHROMETRICS 165 Dew Point Temperature (DP). The heat content (enthalpy) of air per unit weight. is: the total pressure equals the sum of the partial pressures: P=Pa+Pw where (7.3 maT pwV=111wRwT=85. always refer to unit weight of dry air. explained in Chapter 3.3) P = total (atmospheric) pressure Pa = partial pressure of dry air Pw = partial pressure of water vapor Humidity Ratio The ideal gas laws and law of partial pressures can be used to find a relationship for determining the L . although the air ordinarily is not dry. Rw = gas constants for air and water vapor. Ib/ft2 Pw = partial pressure of water vapor in the mixture.7mwT where (7. The meaning and use of wet bulb temperature will be explained when the process of evaporative cooling is described. The temperature at which the water vapor in the air wonld begin to condense if the air were cooled.2) The dry bulb temperature is the temperature in the conventional meaning that we are all accustomed to using. The weight unit of grains is often used in order to have more convenient numbers: 7000 gr= lib The specific enthalpy of air is the enthalpy of the dry air plus the water vapor. .1 ) (7. When the amount of water vapor is less than the maximum possible. This use of the word saturated does not have the same meaning as the saturated state of a pure substance. The term saturated air is used to describe the condition when air contains the maximum amount of water vapor that it can hold. Specific Enthalpy (h). in Ib/lb dry air. In most data used in air conditioning. ft 3 T = temperature of mixture. Relative Humidity (RH). Humidity Ratio (W). This is also called the 1110isture content. It is expressed in percent. in BTUllb dry air. Specific Volume (v). or grains/lb dry air. Ideal Gas Laws Both the dry air and water vapor in atmospheric air behave as ideal gases.2 DETERMINING AIR PROPERTIES It is necessary to determine many of the physical properties of atmospheric air for air conditioning work. Ib Ra. at constant pressure. and therefore Equation 2. 7. The ratio of the actual water vapor pressure in the air to the vapor pressure if the air were saturated at that dry bulb temperature. the arbitrary zero value point is 0 F for the dry air portion and 32 F for the water vapor portion of the air. A useful principle that applies to the mixture.15 applies to each: Pa V = 111aRaT = 53. The volume of air per unit weight of dry air. those based on a unit weight.

Equation 7. lb ma = weight of dry air.622 Pw l71 a (7. or Pw 0.3) at the dry bulb temperature. Example 7.x 100 = 35'7c PWS 0.166 CHAPTER 7 humidity ratio.1 The partial pressure of the water vapor in the air is 0.0086 lIb = 60.20 psia on a day when the barometric (atmospheric) pressure is 14.5.x 100 = .llb d.6) W = humidity ratio. The definition of humidity ratio expressed as an equation is (7.178 = 14. The dew point temperature was defined as the temperature at which the water vapor in the air would condense if the air were cooled at constant pressure. Find the humidity ratio. Ib Pw = partial pressure of water vapor at dry bulb temperature PWS = saturation pressure of water vapor at dry Rearranging the ideal gas law as follows.2 gr w.3 to find the saturation pressure and partial pressure of the water vapor.69 . Pw V 85. where W' = 7000 gr x 0. In = .0086 lb w.622 x 0.Pw = 14. Therefore.a.a.622 Pw = 0.20 = 14.3T Dividing the first equation by the second results in a useful relationship for the humidity ratio: W= mw =0.5. Using Equation 7. Solution Example 7.178 psia Using Equation 7. Pa and Pw are in the same units. W = 0.4) where Relative Humidity and Dew Point The relative humidity is defined by the equation RH= Pw x 100 Pws where RH = relative humidity. at 80 F PH'S = 0. % (7.7 psi.3. lb water vaporllb dry air mw = weight of water vapor.507 psi a at 50 F PH' = 0.69 psi.llb d. 2 illustrates this.622 Pw pa J .52 psia W=0.2 What is the relative humidity and humidity ratio of air at 80 F DB and 50 F DP? The barometric pressure is 14.49 = 0.w bulb temperature The saturation pressure of the water vapor is found from the Steam Tables (Table A. and its partial pressure is equal to the saturation pressure at the dew point. Solution From the law of partial pressures..178 RH = .0. Example 7.7T Pa V m=-a 53. for both air and water vapor.5) Pa In this equation.20 Pa 14.0.7 .6. the water vapor is in a saturated condition at the dew point. Pa = P .Pw = 14.507 Using Equation 7. Pa = P .49 psia Using Table A.

45 BTUllb-F. BTUllb d.622 x 0.24t+ W(1061 + 0. The value of Pw was found at the DP temperature.·r . Enthalpy (Heat Content) The enthalpy of atmospheric air is the sum of the individual enthalpies of the dry air and water vapor.3 maT V=---"Pa 53.7111w T Pw 85.8 will be used to find Pw. h = 0. however.43 x WB) = 14. Solution Using Equation 7. Ib w.a.2.a. using TableA. Generally.2.0078(1061 + 0. Rearranging Equation 7. h = 0. V= 85.7.24 and 0..a. the dry bulb temperature (DB) and dew point temperature (DP) were known.8 BTUllb d. =0. per pound of dry air. psia P' = saturation water vapor pressure at the wet bulb temperature. ~.7 ft 311b d.a.8) = X (80 + 460) 0. psia DB = dry bulb temperature.l. In Example 7. Note that the weight of water vapor per Ib dry air is the humidity ratio.'I.7) h =enthalpy of moist air. the equation for the specific enthalpy of the mixture.00761b w. F The following example illustrates 'the use of Equation 7.p')(DB .3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Find the specific volume (per Ib dry air) of the air in Example 7. Using specific heats of air and water vapor of 0. What is the 'RH? Solution Equation 7.178 14. a pioneer in the field of air conditioning: Pw = p' _ (p . it is the wet bulb (WB) temperature and not the DP that is measured.52 Example 7.7 X 0.8.52 X 144 = 13.llb d.70 psia. F WB = wet bulb temperature.a.l78 x 144 where Pw =partial pressure of water vapor at dry bulb temperature. psia = 13. respectively. .0076 (7. whereas only a thermometer with a wetted wick is needed to measure the WB. This is partly because the apparatus for measuring the DP is cumbersome. The atmospheric pressure is 14.2 could also be used.• PSYCHROMETRICS 167 ~~' = 0. the value of Pw can be calculated from the following equation.a. Willis H. F Example 7.6 to find the RH. If the WB is known.' . Equation 7.8 ft311b d.451) where (7. W = humidity ratio. Carrier.3.45 x 80) Solution The ideal gas law will be used.5 A measurement of the air DB and WB gives readings of 90 F and 70 F.llb d. by definition.24t + W(1061 + 0. · . t = dry bulb temperature of air. As the dry air and the water vapor both occupy the same volume.1.451) = 0. which was developed by Dr.4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Find the specific enthalpy of the air in Example 7. 53. This includes the sensible heat of the dry air and the sensible and latent heat of the water vapor. then Equation 7. is P = total air pressure.24 x 80 + 0.3 X 1 X (80 + 460) =27.' c ~. remembering thatpa must be in Ib/ft 2 .2. and a latent heat value of 1061 BTUllb for water.WB) (2830 . Example 7.

2. Construction ofthe Psychrometric Chart A psychrometric chart is shown in Figure 7.168 CHAPTER 7 From Table A.6 Draw a line of 78 F DB on the psychrometric chart. The graphical form is called the psychrometric chart.5.8. at 70 f\ p' = 0. Example 7. can be considered parallel on the psychrometric chart used here. Solution The solution is shown in Figure 7.3. The location of the scales for each of the properties and the constant value lines for those properties are shown in Figure 7. the above equations may be used to determine other unknown properties. Values should be read to the best accuracy possible.8 Draw a line of 45'70 RH on the psychrometric chart.698 psia From Equation 7. (See Section 7.5 F WB on the psychrometric chart.-'----------'-----'W' (14. 7.4 LOCATING THE AIR CONDITION ON THE CHART Any condition of air is represented by a point 011 the psychrometric chart.698 x 100 =37% As illustrated by the examples shown in this section. This should be studied before using one.ipws x 100 =0. It is universally used because it presents a great deal of information very simply and because it is helpful III studying air conditioning processes. although actmilly not exactly parallel. Solution The solution is shown in Figure 7. The condition can be . The curved.) The difference is because the enthalpy values shown on the chart are for saturated air instead of for the actual conditions. a sharp drafting-type pencil and straight edge must always be used. is less than 2% when calculating enthalpy changes.36)(90 .25810. To save repeated calculations. after measuring the DB and WE or other conveniently measured properties. Example 7. Lines of constant enthalpy and constant wet bulb temperature. and on the conservative side.10 for a related discussion.70 . but not drawn to the actual scale: 7.3 THE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART The properties of atmospheric air can be represented in tables or graphical form. Solution The solution is shown in Figure 7. There are slight differences in the arrangement of charts furnished' by different organizations. Example 7.1.6. When reading values or drawing lines. interpolating between numbered values when necessary.0.258 psi From Equation 7.363 psia at 90 F. p = O 36 3 . however. RH =p". Each figure is a sketch of the psychrometric charts. Pws = 0. Their use will be the subject of the next section. charts have been prepared from the most common values of the properties of air.1ines on the chart show the corrections to be made to the enthalpy for actual conditions when greater accuracy is necessary. = 0.43 x 70) Study these sketches until you are familiar with the scales and the lines of constant values for each property.70) (2830 . The error in using the listed values.3.7 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Draw a line of 76.1.4.

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r:.0 ~ 0 0. --. (f) Lines of constant enthalpy (g) on the psychrometric chart. (d) Lines of constant specific volume (v) on the psychrometric chart.a.:.. (c) Lines of constant relative humidity (RH) on the psychrometric chart.. (e) Lines of constant wet bulb temperature (WB) on the psychrometric chart. showing lines of constant properly values.170 CHAPTER 7 / / / / / // LL / v = 13. W = 90 gr w.2 Construction of psychrometric chart.a. ~ -7':. ..~ '6 I C E ::l DB (e) DB (b) Saturation line (RH = 100%) ~ II = 27~ 27 BTU/lb d."""'~ DB (c) DB (f) Figure 7...5 ft3 /1b d.~\ 0 // ~ 0) 0 '" " DB (d) 70 Dry bulb temp.a.llb d. 90 i . (b) Lines of constant humidity ratio fY'I) on the psychrometric chart. (a) Lines of constant dry bulb temperature (DB) on the psychrometric chart.. F (a) oj -0 .

What is its humidity ratio and specific enthalpy? Example 7. the condition of the air is at the point of intersection of the 90 F DB line and 40% RH line (Figure 7. What is the WB? Solution Using the psychrometric chart. following a line of constant humidity ratio.a. Example 7. 50% DB DB .PSYCHROMETRICS 171 DP = 60 F 78 F DB 60 80 DB. located once two independent properties are known. F DB (g) Figure 7.6). Following a line of constant enthalpy from the point (parallel to WB lines) read h =23.a.2 F.5 Solution to Example 7. the condition is found by the point of intersection of the 60 F DB and 55 F WB lines (Figure 7. 80 Solution to Example 7./lb d.2 BTU/lb d. any other properties can be read from the chart.6. the WB temperature is read as 71.10 The air leaving a cooling coil is at 60 F DB and 55 F WB. Drawing a line of Figure 7. Once the condition is located.B.2 Continued. Figure 7. (g) Lines of constant dew point temperature (DP) on the psychrometric chart. Because each property is represented by a line. the intersection of the two lines establishes the point representing the condition of the air.9 The weather report reads 90 F DB and 40% RH.7. Figure 7. From the point.3 Solution to Example 7.4 Soilltion On the chart. read W = 57gr w. constant WB from this point.7).

7 Solution to Example 7. Understanding this concept enables us to determine the maximum humidity that can be maintained in a room in winter without condensation occurring on the windows. Mexico City). The reader should verify this by studying the chart. What is its specific volume? Solution The condition is located at the intersection of the 80 F DB and 23% RH lines (Figure 7. because this gives only one line. Denver. even though it may not be apparent by their name or definition.5 CONDENSATION ON SURFACES Who.172 CHAPTER 7 WB = 71. 7.7 ft 3 /1b d. this means that the property lines are parallel on the psychrometric chart. the standard atmospheric pressure at sea leveL For pressures significantly different. If the outside temperature is 30 F. Condensation should be avoided because the water will stain or damage surfaces. as a child. The psychrometric chart of Figure 7. does not remember drawing pictures on a fogged windowpane in winter? Moisture on the glass is condensed from the room air when the glass temperature is lower than the room air dew point. will require these corrections. the inside glass surface is only slightly higher than the outside temperature. Example 7.atmospheric pressures. For example. Two solutions are possible-either a chart for the actual pressure can be used. Figure 7.1 shows the properties of air at a pressure of 29. because the thermal resistance of the glass is low. :.8).g. they are measuring the same thing. we could not establish a point. The only circumstances under which two properties will not suffice to locate the air condition is when they are not independent properties. Geographical locations at high altitudes (e.: 57 90 DB. if available.92 in. Example 7. the air is saturated with water vapor when cooled to that temperature.. by interpolation. (The precise . if we know the DP and humidity ratio of an air sample. When cooled further. what is the maximum RH that should be maintained in the room to avoid condensation on the windows? Solution The inside temperature of the glass can be assumed to be at the outside temperature.9. 40% --~--~'~----------- .10.a.2 BTU/lb d. Air contacting the glass is cooled below its dew point.11 Combustion air enters a furnace at 80 F DB and 23% RH.2 F WB=55F h = 23. These corrections can also be made directly by applying the property equations.12 illustrates the use of the psychrometric chart in relation to-this problem. Practically. When properties are not independent. Example 7. it can hold even less water vapor-some is condensed. or corrections can be made to the values. some property readings from the chart'will not be correct and it cannot be used. F Figure 7.12 A room with single-glazed windows is at 70 F DB.6 Solution to Example 7. Hg. The specific volume is read as 13. For single-glazed windows. F 60 DB.a. which are at lower. From the definition of dew point.

) Room air contacting the glass surface will be cooled to 30 F.7 ft 3/1b d. Sensible cooling process 1-3 (heat removal).3~0C.9).'F~D:.':P~c:::'4. temperature can be calculated using the conduction heat transfer equation.PSYCHROMETRICS 173 Air Conditioning Processes v = 13. Showing these processes on the psychrometric chart is very helpful in selecting equipment and in analyzing problems. Sensible heating (process 1-2) results in an increase in DB and enthalpy. Figure 7. Double glazing will of course increase the inside glass temperature and permissible RH.11 . A vapor barrier co\'ering is necessary. The same problem occurs with bare cold water piping running through spaces.9 Solution to Example 7. Therefore. as shown in Figure 7. however. heating 70 F DB DB . Most processes are represented by straight lines. 7. This change is called a process.a. Using the psychrometric chart (Figure 7.12.8 Solution to Example 7. Figure 7. where the water vapor would condense. results in a decrease in DB and enthalpy. to prevent the migration of any water vapor through the insulation to the cold pipe surface.6 PROCESS LINES ON THE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART The purpose of air conditioning equipment is to change the condition of the entering air to a new condition. The direction of the process must therefore be along a line of constant humidity ratio. Chilled water lines are usually insulated so that the outside surface is well above the air dew point. F Figure 7.10 Sensible heating and sensible cooling processes. the dew point of the air must be less than 30 F to avoid condensation. The air changes properties along this line.23% RH / 3 2 Sensible Sensible cooling.10. 23%RH DB. Sensible Heat Changes The sensible heat change process is one where heat is added or removed from the air and the DB temperature changes as a result. air with a 70 F DB and 30 F DP has an RH of 23%. Enthalpy decrease Enthalpy increase / / /L-. Processes are shown by drawing a line from the initial air condition to its final condition. This would be the maximum RH that should be maintained. but there is no change in water vapor content.

24m" x TC + 0. 3. removal of water vapor results in a decrease in enthalpy.12 Combined sensible and latent heat change Figure 7. This can be done by using the sensible and latent heat equations (Chapter 2) with the aid of the psychrometric chart. and enthalpy all change. both the DB and Ware decreased. In dehumidification. and removal of water vapor from the air is called dehumidification. Sensible heating and dehumidification (1-7) 7. These processes-pure humidification and dehumidification without a sensible heat change-do not occur often in practical air conditioning processes. Enthalpy 4----1 Cooling and humidifying Enthalpy decrease Humidification Dehumidification 5---1 DB Cooling and dehumidifying DB . Combination Sensible Heat and Latent Heat Change The following combined sensible and latent processes. Sensible cooling and humidification (1-8) 4. the enthalpy of the air increases due to the enthalpy of the water vapor added.11 processes.12.11. X TC (7. It is important to determine the amount of heat and water vapor to be added or removed in the conditioning equipment and to determine the changes in properties.45111. shown in Figure 7. in the cooling and dehumidification process 1-9.174 CHAPTER 7 Latent Heat Changes (Humidification and Dehumidification) The process of adding water vapor to the air is called humidification. Sensible heating and humidification (1-6) 2. In humidification.7 SENSIBLE HEAT CHANGE PROCESS CALCULATIONS (SENSIBLE HEATING AND COOLING) The sensible heat equation applied to moist air is Qs = 0. humidification. results in an increase in humidity ratio and enthalpy. W. generally. Humidification and dehumidification (latent heat change) processes. Sensible cooling and dehumidification (1-9) Note that. However. DB. For example. shown in Figure 7.. and the enthalpy decreases due to both sensible and latent heat removal.9) -~ Figure 7. This is why it is called a latent heat change. process 1-5.. may occur in air conditioning: I. Process 1-4. the concept is important to understand in analyzing conditions.

24 for air and 0.9 expresses the enthalpy change of the dry air and the second term expresses the enthalpy change of the water vapor.14 using the psychrometric chart.15 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Solve Example 7. as seen in Example 7. The flow rate of air is usually expressed in ft 3 /min (CFM) rather than lblhr in air conditioning work.9 x 30 =39 BTUlhr Therefore.a.. The process and diagrammatic arrangement of the equipment are shown in Figure 7. the second term is often small enough so that it can be neglected.13 An electric resistance heater is to be installed in a duct to heat 400 Iblhr of air from 60-90 F..lhr The enthalpy change due to the water vapor is. using Equation 2.hI = 29. Example 7.22. x 400 Ib airlhr = 2. Always plot the process lines and sketch the equipment arrangement for every job.3 = 7.llb d.60) Example 7. BTUlhr ma = weight of air. Iblhr TC = 12 . Using Equation 7.hI) = 400 Iblhrx 7. This will aid in understanding the system performance.45mw x TC = 0. Qs = 0. Solution First plot the initial condition.9.) The first term in Equation 7. and the sensible heat equation is written (7.9 Ib w. The sensible cooling process problem is handled in the same manner as sensible heating.a.45 for water vapor are used in Equation 7. What is the required capacity of the heater? Solution The electric energy in the resistance heater is converted into the required heat.3 BTUlIb d. A sensible heating or cooling problem can also be solved using the enthalpy values from the psychrometric chart and the enthalpy Equation 2.3410 BTUlhr =0. = 2880 BTUlhr Because the capacity of electrical equipment is expressed in kilowatts or watts rather than BTUlhr. Iblhr m" = O.PSYCHROMETRIes 175 where Qs = sensible heat added to or removed from air.1I = temperature change. the humidity ratio is 0.0072lb w. the enthalpy increase of the total amount of air is Qs =ma(h2 .13. How much error was there in neglecting the term in the sensible heat equation that included the enthalpy change of the water vapor? Solution From the psychrometric chart.3 BTUIlb = 2910 BTUlhr which is in close agreement with the previous result. Example 7. and final condition on the chart.10) Q.24 x 400(90 . For approximate air conditioning calculations.13. the correct amount of heat added is 2880 + 39 = 2919 BTUlhr. Note how simple and convenient It is to use this method with the aid of the chart.24ma x TC = 0. from Equation 7.llb d.13 has an RH of 65%. units are changed as follows: I KW Capacity = 2880 BTUlhr x . mw = weight of water vapor. because most instruments read CFM..10.13.-_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ The air entering the heater in Example 7.a.0072 Ib w.. The increase in enthalpy of each pound of air is h2 .15.6 . process line. F (Specific heats of 0. The error from neglecting the enthalpy of the water vapor was about 19C of the total.14 ~.. =0.45 x 2.9.84KW and therefore. and .

x .0 hr 60 min Ib =93.a. the actual specific volumes should be used .a.16 What is the flow rate of air entering the duct heater in Example 7. For heating applications at high temperatures. I hr fr3 Ib CFMOU ( = 400 .16? Solution The specific volume leaving. Therefore. the CFM of the equipment is often expressed at standard air conditions. 1 hr ft 3 lb CFM =400 .17 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ What is the CFM leaving the duct heater in Example7.- 13. However. as noted in the Gas Laws in Chapter 2. Converting units to CFM. the range of temperatures is such that the specific volume is close enough to that of standard air so that no significant error occurs if the specific volume of standard air is used.x---x 13. Therefore. This variation in volume can lead to misunderstandings and error.3 ft3 lIl a (7.13 Sketch for Example 7. when rating the capacity of equipment such as fans.7 psia.0 ft3 Ilb d.F 90 Figure 7. The relation between air flow rate expressed in Iblhr and air flow rate expressed as ft 3 /min.3 ft31lb d. 65%RH heater h.5xCFM I Ib X ---'--.25 ft 21lb d.15. but the CFM is greater. Conversion between these units is therefore often necessary.. In many air conditioning applications.16.11) . the CFM leaving the duct heater in Example 7. the specific volume of the entering air is 13.).3 CFM The specific volume of a gas changes with temperature and pressure. In order to avoid misunderstandings. This condition applies at 68 F and 29. or where pressures are considerably different from 14. as at high altitudes..075 Ib/ft3 d. (a density of 0. Standard air is defined as having a specific volume of 13.6 BTU~b d. is 14.176 CHAPTER 7 Electric resistance h2 = 29. manufacturers do not know the conditions of temperature and pressure that each user will apply.25m hr 60 min Ib =88. unless clearly specified.--. expressed in CFM? Solution From the psychrometric chart. Example 7.15. Hg. is Ib lila - Example 7.3 CFM 60 min cu ft = CFM .hr min I hr =4. coils. as illustrated by Example 7..a.x 14.. such as selection of the wrong size equipment. and air handling units.a.x -. Problems can be avoided by always indicating the temperature and pressure at which the CFM is specified.3 60 F DB '----1----' 90 F DB 2 60 DB. Of course the same quantity by weight of air is leaving the unit as is entering.16 will be different from that entering.. using standard air conditions. =22. from the chart.92 in.a.

Psychrometries can be put to good use by the engineer or service technician in troubleshooting. gr w. if the humidity ratio is given in gr w.a.a. Solving for the temperature change in Equation 7.12) and we see that the unit is not performing as rated.WI') (7.12. as well as by the system designer.llb d. = 23 F 1.01 Ib w.12 is used.12.llb d.a. Solution Equation 7. Example 7.000 x 2000 As with the sensible heating process.13) or. Is the unit performing satisfactorily? Solution If the unit is cooling according to its rated capacity..1 x 88.PSYCHROMETRICS 177 Substituting this in the sensible heat equation (7. lb w.19 will illustrate a case.3(30) = 2914 BTUlhr 7. . for air conditioning processes. Note: When using equations with temperature changes. the reader should be careful not to make errors resulting from improper use of negative arithmetic signs.lhr l11a = air fl ow rate. it is usually acceptable to assume air at standard conditions. This convenient form of the sensible heat equation is commonly used for moist air calculations in air conditioning.18 Determine the capacity of the duct heater in Example 7.9) and also assuming a typical average moisture content of air of 0.1 xCFMx(f2-fI) (7. the result is Qs= 1. = water vapor added or removed. f2. the temperature leaving. Ib/hr W2 - WI = change in humidity ratio. How much water must be supplied? .1 xCFM 50. substituting from Equation 7. Thermometers at the air entrance and exit of the unit read 80 F and 62 F.1 Example 7.s_ 1.11 in the above equation gives (7. and the air flow rate is measured and found to be 2000 CFM.19..1 x CFM xTC = 1. lb w.a./lb d. Qs = 1. the leaving air temperature will be at least as low as that predicted by the sensible heat equation. dividing by 7000 gr/lb CFM(W.8 LATENT HEAT CHANGE PROCESS CALCULATIONS (HUMIDIFYING AND DEHUMIDIFYING) The amount of water vapor added to or removed from air in a humidifying or dehumidifying process is Ill".llb d.14) 1556 where W = humidity ratio.000 BTUlhr while handling 2000 CFM of air entering at 80 F must be checked to see that it is performing properly./lb d. using Equation 7. Example 7. In Example 7.moisture content of the air from 30 to 60 gr w.19 A cooling coil with a rated sensible cooling capacity of 50.20 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ A water humidifier in a warm air heating duct handling 3000 CFM increases the . If the air flow rate is expressed in CFM. based on entering air CFM.16.a. TC = _-=Q::. must be less than t" so 23 F is subtracted from 80 F. = lila (W2 where I11w WI) The result agrees with that found by using the psychrometric chart. Example 7.

and the need arises only in specialized industrial air conditioning. as seen in the following example. In this case. Example 7. Dehumidification is the reverse of the process described earlier.20? Figure 7.30) 1556 = 61. CFM(W2' . BTU/hr W2 ' - WI' = humidity ratio change.llb d.13 and the psychrometric chart.1 =4.6 BTU/lb d. a condition which is unacceptable for good comfort.14 Sketch for Example 7. Q/ = 0. that is.7 - 24. Using Equation 7. Pure dehumidification is not a very commonly used process. Solution Using Equation 7.15. 1556 = 581b w. Another method of humidifying is to generate steam in a separate source and to inject it into the air to be humidified. Example 7. Humidification is a desirable process in winter air conditioning. h2 . to condense water vapor from it.0 '" Find the amount of heat required for the humidifier in Example 7.14.22.14.68 CFM(W2' - WI') = 0.178 CHAPTER 7 Solution The psychrometric process is shown in Figure 7.5 x CFM =4. if the air is at 90 F. It is usually combined with sensible cooling or heating.68 X CFM(W2 ' - WI ') (7. The latent heat of vaporization of water at typical air conditioning temperatures is approximately 1055 BTU/lb.a. Using Equation 7. An inspection of the psychrometric chart shows that natural air conditions in the winter have a very low humidity. A quality environmental control system should include winter humidification.h j = 28. ma 90 =4.22 "2 = 28.68 x 3000(30) m w = CFM(W2 ' - Wj') 3000(60 .11. ~ 0> ~ Solution From the psychrometric chart (see FIgure 7.a. All of the equations for latent heat change hold true. The latent heat change problem can also be solved by using the enthalpy Equation 2.21.14).lhr Latent Heat Change As discussed previously.1 2 60 "0 .5 x 3000 = 13. the heating equipment must provide sufficient heat to prevent cooling of the air. gr w.200 BTUlhr Note: If water were simply evaporated in the air without providing the required heat. the air would cool down.7 ". = 24. (This process will be described shortly. by using the psychrometric chart. the evaporation of water requires heat.) Therefore. 30 DB Using Equation 7.500 Iblhr .15) where Q/ = latent heat change.WI') Q/ = 1055 x mw = 1055 x --'---'''----'-'- 1556 Q/ = 0. heat must be removed from the air to dehumidify it.21 How much heat is required in the evaporation process in the humidifier in Example 7.14.

The amount of moisture condensed during the process is.000 BTUlhr . the air is cooled and dehumidified.000 BTU/hrx I ton =41 tons 12.000 BTU/hr The total heat removed is Q. Q.. = Qs + Q/ = 396.12 and 7.68 x CFM (W2 ' - WI ') = 0.1 xCFMxTC = 491.PSYCHROMETRICS 179 The latent heat required is therefore.a.000 (18) = 396. and total capacity of the cooling coil and the.000 BTUlhr The total cooling capacity of the coil required for this job is 491.0 gr w. respectively.000 The Cooling and Dehumidification Process Air conditioning for human comfort usually requires a process where both sensible and latent heat are removed from air-that is.000 + 95. 7.000 BTUlhr (41 tons) at the conditions specified. In either case.12) is Qs= 1. The sensible heat removed and latent heat removed are found from Equations 7.9 COMBINED SENSIBLE AND LATENT PROCESS CALCULATIONS In many air conditioning system processes.23 can also be solved using Equation 2. The equations developed previously will provide the information.13 and the psychrometric chart. The sum.75 = 7. Q/ = 0.15. Find the sensible. Solution The flow diagram is shown in Figure 7. The problem in Example 7. = Qs + Q[. The sensible heat removed (Equation 7.100 BTUlhr The result agrees closely with that found previously in Example 7.000 (7) 1556 1556 =90 Iblhr Provision must be made for draining the water that is continually collecting in the air conditioning unit.000 CFM of air from 82 F DB and 50% RH to 64 F DB and 61 F WB.Cooling coil Q (4.13.21.6) = 62.500 . Although the sensible heat and latent heat are being removed simultaneously from the air in the = 1.1 x 20.000 (7) = 95.23 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ An air conditioning unit has a cooling coil that cools and dehumidifies 20. is the total heat removed for the process. the procedures for analysis use the sensible and latent heat equations and the psychrometric chart.14.15. These changes may take place separately or may occur together. From the psychrometric chart W2 ' - WI' = 82 . using Equation 7. Q/ = rna (h2 .llb d.hI) = 13. latent. using Equation 2. Example 7. Figure 7. CFM(W2' - WI') 20. the air undergoes both sensible and latent heat changes.amount of moisture condensed.15 Sketch for Example 7.68 x 20.000 BTUlhr or 491.23.

5 x 20. If not.24. 32.16. the latent heat removal portion is shown by I-a and the sensible heat removal is shown by a-2. some industrial air conditioning applications may require them. The other processes are encountered less often. the process line representing the total heat removal is 1-2 (the actual line is slightly curved. BTUllb d.h. Example 7.) The solution of any of the other combined sensiblelatent processes is handled in the same manner as the cooling-dehumidification process.180 CHAPTER 7 conditioner. the sensible QI = maCh.24.000 (31.hal = 90.16 Sketch for Example 7. as explained later).a .h 2 ) = 90.1 . (However.16) where Q = sensible (Qs).2) = 396.6 - 27.6) = 99.12 and 7.22 and 7. For instance. = 4.14. It should be noted that some combinations of processes may have sensible and latent heat changes opposite in direction. agreement does not ensure that there is not a possible error common to both methods. or total (Q. = Qs + QJ =495.a.000 BTUlhr heat and latent heat equations 2.7 . latent (Q/).000 (32. It is advisable to solve air conditioning process problems by both of the methods explained: 1.31.7 2 ----------. = 90.16 with the psychrometric chart.000 lblhr The sensible heat removal is Qs = ma(ha . However. Using Equations 7.000 BTUlhr The latent heat removal is Equation 7.5 x CFM (7.16 can be used for any air conditioning process represented 011 the psychrometric chart. or total enthalpy change. applying it to the sensible heat and latent heat parts of the process When the results are compared. even though these are not actual process lines. the enthalpy Equation 2. as seen in the following example.000 BTUlhr As shown indirectly in Examples 7.24 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ and the total heat removal is Q.13 can be expressed in the following form: Solve Example 7. . they can be shown separately on the chart.23 using the psychrometric chart. an error has been made. latent. Using Equation 7. I I 64 82 DB .) heat added or removed.000 = sensible. The flow rate in lblhr is ma = 4. Heating and humidification are typical to winter air conditioning systems. Figure 7. Solution Referring to Figure 7. BTUlhr CFM = volume flow rate of air being processed h2 . However. they should substantially agree. the heating and dehumidification process has sensible heat added and latent heat removed.

PSYCHROMETRICS 181 7. increasing the water vapor content of the air. This indicates that sensible heat was given up by the air. The next important fact to note about the evaporative cooling process is that it is a constant enthalpy process. in a humid Figure 7. and no external heat is added to the process. If the (dry bulb) temperature of the air is measured entering and leaving the conditioning unit.17. it is a line of constant enthalpy content. including its operating costs. However. as seen in Figure 7. it will be noted that the temperature leaving is lower than that entering. Referring to the definition of wet bulb temperature-the temperature recorded by a thermometer whose stem is wrapped with a wetted wick. There is simply an exchange of heat within the mixture. This results in a lower temperature reading of the wet bulb thermometer. Constant enthalpy and wet bulb RH 3: = 10% -- Recirculating water spray 62 DB 94 l . it would mean that no refrigeration equipment would be needed. This must be so. water is sprayed into the airstream. The unevaporated water is recirculated continuously. If wet bulb thermometers were placed in the airstream entering and leaving the evaporative cooling unit. the evaporative cooling process is practical for air conditioning only in very dry climates. Some of the water evaporates. because there is no he. Because there is no external heat source. this heat must be obtained from the air. lowering its temperature. and placed in the airstream-it is seen that evaporative cooling is the process occurring at the thermometer stem.17. The important question here is: What caused this? The evaporation of the water required heat. A process in which there is no change in total heat content is called an adiabatic process.10 THE EVAPORATIVE COOLING PROCESS AND THE WET BULB TEMPERATURE One special cooling and humidification process called evaporative cooling requires a more detailed discussion. they would have the same readings. The sensible heat decreases and the latent heat increases by the same amount. We can now determine the process line on the psychrometric chart for the evaporative cooling process. unlike the pure humidification process described earlier. Thus we can note that the evaporative cooling process is therefore a constant wet bulb temperature process.at added to or removed from the air-water vapor mIxture.17 Evaporative cooling process. even though no external cooling source is used. Look at the psychrometric chart at a typical summer outdoor air design condition. Referring to Figure 7. The air passing through the wick becomes completely saturated. If the evaporative cooling process can produce air at temperatures low enough for sufficient cooling of spaces (at least as low as 60-65 F DB).

( . evaporative cooling could produce air at only 74 F DB.. and a small portion of the water evaporates. typical of a desertlike climate. there may be some days where the humidity is high enough so that the effective evaporative cooling will not occur. without significant loss of accuracy: DB. but the high humidity of the supply air would result in extremely uncomfortable humidity conditions. as in parts of the southwestern United States. This process occurs frequently in air conditioning.=2. applying the principle of conservation of mass-that is... Referring to Figure 7. DB3=~~--~--~----=- (1111 x DB I ) + (1112 x DB 2) 1113 (7.182 CHAPTER 7 climate. DB. The water is sprayed into an airstream. the conditions after mixing can be found. 2 Figure 7.-"--'------'':=:-------'=----=3CFM 3 (7.-.11 THE AIR MIXING PROCESS The air mixing praces.18) The humidity ratio W3 of the mixed air is found in a similar manner.:.18 and 7. The heat necessary to evaporate the water is taken both from the air and from the water that does not evaporate.I )_+_(..17) If the specific volumes of the unmixed streams are not widely different. = (1111 x WI) + (1112 x W2) Solving for W 3 . If the conditions of the two airstreams that are to be mixed are known. That is As before.20) For determining mixed air conditions. in these cases the decision must be made as to whether the lack of adequate air conditioning is acceptable for those periods or whether the investment in mechanical refrigeration equipment is wiser. the procedures for finding the DB and W will be explained. If we follow a constant wet bulb line..) W 3 =1113 (7. The evaporative cooling process also occurs in a cooling tower. The use of cooling towers in refrigeration systems will be explained in Chapter 13.= ..:. This occurs under most outside air (OA) and return air (RA) design . However.a. According to the Conservation of Energy Principle. Cooling towers are equipment used to cool water. Equations 7. m3 X DB3 = (1111 X DB I) + (1112 X DB 2) Solving for DB 3.X __ W. say 90 F DB and 74 F WB. note that if the outdoor air were at 94 F DB and 10% RH (60 F WB). When considering using evaporative cooling type air conditioning units.. suitable for air conditioning. of each other..5 ft 3 /1b d. CFM.11. W. Not only would the DB not be low enough for sufficient cooling. the water vapor content before and after mixing is the same: 1113 x W. The cooled water is then circulated to where it will be used. Even in some normally dry climates.18. rather than lblhr.:12:. particularly in mixing outside air with return air from rooms.18 Air mixing process. the following approximately correct equation can often be used: (CFM I x WI) + (CFM 2 x W2 ) W . even with complete saturation. (CFM I x DB I) + (CFM 2 x DB 2 ) CFM 3 (7.' is one where two streams of air are mixed to form a third stream._111-'. the equation can be written using flow rates in ft 3/min (CFM).20 are accurate enough if the specific volumes of the unmixed airstreams are within 0. the sensible heat content of the air before and after mixing is the same.1_X_W-.19) 7. evaporative cooling could produce supply air at about 62 F DB. m.

Solution The mixing process line is' drawn between points I and 2.19 Sketch for Example 7.20 would produce satisfactory answers for the mixed air condition. The mixing process can also be solved graphically on the psychrometric chart.94 1000CFM 90 FOB.20.a.25 graphically. l.) Example 7.llb d. Solution The conditions are close enough so that the approximate equations can be used.a. Using Equation 7.. Find the mixed air DB aud WB. It is usually convenient to use the DB scale to locate the mixed condition.a. AL) shows a specific volume of about 14. usmg the psychrometric chart. starting from point 2. The mixed air condition will lie along a straight line connecting the two conditions of the unmixed airstreams. Reading from point 3 on the p~ychrometric chart..llb d. In studying this problem.llb d. The location of the mixed air condition on this mixing line will be inversely proportional to the quantities of the unmixed airstreams to the total. 2. The construction is shown in Figure 7. RA DB3 = 80 F. at 80 F DB and 72 gr w. Point 3. 50% RH 2 WB 3 =66F l i . a RA condition of 78 F DB and 50% shows a specific volume of about 13. the WB=66F. we .20. 72 FWB 3 DB=? WB=? l -- All of the air processes usually encountered in air conditioning have now been described. Equations 7.a.26 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Solve Example 7.18 and 7. (This is simply a graphical expression of Equations 7. Under these conditions. for most applications.19 are mixed. For example. on the psychrometric chart. 2000 CFM 75 FOB. W' _ (1000 x 89) + (2000 x 64) 3 3000 = CFM 2 2 3 = 72 gr w. The total distance on the DB scale is 90 ~ 75 = 15 spaces.8 ft3 /lb d.' = 89 and W2 ' 64 gr w. the mixed air condition. Example 7.a.3 ft'/ib d. The proportion of each airstream to the total IS DB = (1000 x 90) + (2000 x 75) 3 3000 80 F --'-= CFM I 1000 3000 2000 3000 CFM 3 CFM 3 = I 3 From the psychrometric chart W.25. Using Equation 7.18 and 7. This requires determining the conditions of air to be supplied to the rooms. Locating the mixed air condition on the psychrometric chart.25 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Outside air and return air as shown in Figure 7.18.20. An OA condition of 94 F DB and 75 F WB (Birmingham. Our next task will be to learn how to put this information together in designing an air conditioning system or in analyzing performance problems.PSYCHROMETRICS 183 conditions. from the following two facts: Figure 7. is therefore located one-third of the total distance. Any proportional distance on the DB scale is the same as that on the mixing line. The one-third distance from point 2 is 75 + !6 x 15 = 80 on the DB scale. This distance is projected vertically to the mixing line to locate point 3.

21 Psychrometric Analysis of the Air Conditioning System In the following discussion. (7. These relationships are shown in Figure 7. The procedures for finding these heat gains were discussed in Chapter 6.Ws') where RSCL = room sensible cooling load. or cooling effect. we will use the basic psychrometric processes to analyze a complete air conditioning system.21 and are expressed by the sensible and latent heat equations: RSCL = 1.68 x CFMs (W/ . BTUlhr RLCL = room latent cooling load. This heat extraction.ts) RLCL=O. W~ QL Room Return (room) air tAo tR' W'R W'R .26.184 CHAPTER 7 89 ?---j-----+------164 75 DB 80 90 Figure 7. will also learn some new concepts used in psychrometries-the sensible heat ratio and the coil process line. is provided by supplying air to the room at a temperature and humidity low enough to absorb the heat gains.20 Sketch for Example 7. Supply air Qs CFMs ts. two parts.1 x CFMs (tR . and will also briefly consider some more advanced psychrometric concepts. it is composed of Supplying conditioned air to absorb room heat gains.22) 7. BTU/hr Figure 7. The rate at which heat must be extracted from a room to offset these heat gains was given the name room total cooling load (RTCL). Some familiarity with types of air handling equipment and systems (Chapter 12) will aid in understanding the following material. the room sensible cooling load (RSCL) and room latent cooling load (RLCL).12 DETERMINING SUPPLY AIR CONDITIONS The rooms in a building gain heat in the summer from a number of sources.21) (7.

. and therefore W/ = 71 gr w.. 0. 55.22 are used to find the required conditions of the supply air to offset the sensible and latent loads for each room.. It is usual practice to apply the RSCL equation (7. as shown in Figure 7.a. 7.. The supply air temperature is therefore Is = 78 - 25 = 53 F The required humidity ratio of the supply air is then found from Equation 7.llb d. and tR and W R' are selected in the comfort zone (Chapter I).1 x 2000 Figure 7.-::-::-::.. and then apply the RLCL equation (7. determine the required supply air DB and WB.22 Satisfactory supply air conditions fali along a straight line./lb W/.68 x CFMs ~ 1 DB -.000 l .a.. Ws' = humidity ratios of room and supply air. the conditions found would of course be different. IA IE 2000 2500 3200 53 58 62. as well as the results already found. W s' = 71 . Table 7. and furthermore.16 = 55 gr w. R.1 shows the results for two other assumed values of CFM. and the remaining unknown is then calculated from the equation. the RSCL is known from the cooling load calculations (Chapter 6). WBs = 52 F.2:!) to determine the supply air humidity ratio W s'. If 2000 CFM of supply air is furnished.27 for other CFM quantities..= 16 gr w.13 SENSIBLE HEAT RATIO If we recalculate the supply air conditions required in Example 7.PSYCHROMETRICS 185 CFMs IR'!S = CFM of supply air = temperature of room and supply air..21. CFMs and ts. solving it for the supply air temperature change If all three satisfactory supply air conditions are plotted on the psychrometric chart.a.000 -----. a. The room conditions are to be maintained at 78 F DB and 50% RH.21.21 and 7..000 BTU/hr and latent cooling load of 22.27 Supply Air Condition CFM DB.. TABLE 7. Example 7.-. From the psychrometric chart d. F W' gr w..27 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _-:-:-_ The Unisex Hair Salon Shop has a sensible cooling load of 55. thIS line also passes through the room air condition. Solution Applying Equation 7.ll b d. Reading from the chart.000 BTUlhr. F gr/lb d.= 25 F 1.22.27 illustrates the calculation of the supply air conditions. In applying Equation 7.. Equations 7.68 x 2000 22.1 SATISFACTORY SUPPLY AIR CONDITIONS FOR EXAMPLE 7.4 55 60 62.llb d.21) first to determine the supply air CFMs and Is.6 Example 7.0.a.----. a surprising fact is noted: All of the points lie on a straight line.22: I W' R - RLCL W'-----S . One of these is chosen according to "good practice" (such as costs and job conditions). This still leaves two unknowns.

000 BTUlhr and a latent cooling load of 15. Draw the RSHR line. is the same for both.71 ~'" cV" A R . Following that.23): 11. its importance will be explained. locate the 0. Any supply air condition that will satisfactorily remove the proper proportion of room sensible and latent heat gains will be on this line.. (It is also called the room scmi· bie heat facto!. can also be shown by geometry to be equal to h/h t • To sum up this idea: Ax AR = 7.75 slope. RSHR. which is defined as the ratio AxfAR.23 Sensible and latent heat removal for two different supply air conditions. = 0. The slope of line RA. There is also a guide point for the SHR scale. RSHF) That is RSHR= RSCL RTCL (7.23 ) RSHR= RSCL RTCL =--~--- 45. will be used to explain this important fact. we would find that every one would lie on this same line.000 + 15. The shop is maintained at 77 F DB and 45% RH. encircled on the chart Figure 7. .75 2.1. Figure 7. On the SHR scale on the psychrometric chart.7 /"''I<:' R x DB DB .24. .lh. the ratio of sensible to total heat removal. If we were to assume still other air supply rates and then calculate the required supply air conditions. in addition.1 30.000 BTUlhr. any supply air condition that is not on this line will not be satisfactory. The following steps are carried out: I. This is not a coincidence.1 h.000 0. B ' ----------------tx 24. 30.14 THE RSHR OR CONDITION LINE The RSHR line is defined as the line drawn through the room conditions with the room sensible heat ratio slope RSCURTCL.186 CHAPTER 7 This line has considerable significance. It will also be true for any other point on line RA (this can be proven by the geometry of similar triangles). A scale for sensible heat ratio slopes is shown on most psychrometric charts to make it easier to draw lines with this slope. using the data from Table 7. Solution The solution is shown in Figure 7. We note from this figure that for air supply at either A or B.000 45. The following example will illustrate how to plot the RSHR line. ht = RSCL RTCL The ratio RSCLIRTCL is called the room sensible heat ratio. Calculate the RSHR (Equation 7. h/ht.28 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ The Big Boy Hamburger Shop has a sensible cooling load of 45. Example 7.23.

(located at 80 F and 50% RH). Soon all of the wealthy jet set customers leave. 2.000 203. IT: Supply air 61 F DB 59FWB I (fJ ~air RSHR line DB --. Using Equation 7. Van Astor. This is the RSHR line. a regular patron of the swank Francais Restaurant. because it has the RSHR slope. The SHR scale on the chart enables us to plot the RSHR line in a much easier manner than was done there. RSHR= RSCL RTCL = 150.1 by plotting a number of possible supply air conditions. Fixum looks up the air conditioning system design data.28).75 'R .) The importance of the RSHR line is that it is the line on which any satisfactory supply air condition must lie. turning down the thermostat lowered the supply air dry bulb Figure 7. 4.000 BTU/hr RLCL = 53. using instruments. let us look at an example of applying the RSHR line concept in troubleshooting a service problem.74) that passes through the room air point. 50% RH Design supply air = 62 F DB Solution The solution is shown graphically in Figure 7. (Two drafting triangles will aid in drawing an exact parallel. Fixum. and it is seen that it does not lie on the RSHR line.74 3. This procedure will be <iiscussed later.29.PSYCHROMETRICS 187 i-----L-----Guideline 45% RSHR line DB Guide point IT: I (fJ 0. and passes through the room condition." The manager turns down the sured. which are RSCL = 150. Therefore. Mrs.000 BTUlhr Room design conditions = 78 F DB. The actual supply air conditions are first mea- s: 77 Figure 7. if the supply air condition is on the line.--- 0. The RSHR line is plotted on the psychrometric chart. First. Example 7.25 Sketch for Example 7. Finally she stalks out.000 0. Therefore the proper room design conditions will not be maintained. This is the line with the slope equal to the value of the RSHR (0.29 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Mrs. troubleshooter. Draw a line parallel to the guide line through the room condition point. 1. The reason for this is that it has the slope representing the correct proportion of sensible and latent heat removal. Van Astor gets so cold she puts on her mink stole. 3. complains on one July day that it feels very "sticky. They are 61 F DB and 59 FWB. it will remove the correct proportion of the RSHG and RTHG.74 78 F DB 50%RH ( . The manager calls 1. In selecting air conditioning equipment. In the preceding example. the usual practice is to plot the RSHR line and then choose a supply air condition on this line. The RSHR line is the same line that was developed from Table 7.24 Plotting the RSHR line (Example 7. the RSHR is calculated.75 through the guide point.23.25. Draw a gnide line from SHR = 0. ooma" condition thermostat. The actual supply air condition is located on the chart.

6 = 734.16) Qs = 4.h2 ) = 4. - hJ = 4.000 (36.5 x CFM(hx . can be determined from the coil process line. However. = 734.8) BTU =1. Example 7. .000 + 670. Fixum knows that the air conditioning unit was not removing enough latent heat (uot dehumidifying enough) because the supply air condition is above the RSHR line.404.404. . The required coil capacity.000 CFM of air entering at 86 F DB and 73 F WB.000 (30. Yet this did not sufficiently reduce the room humidity level. There could be a number of common causes for the uncomfortable conditions existing in the example cited.6) = 670. called the cooling coil load.23.5 x 24.a. . it is possible to locate a straight line on the chart that. latent. will enable us to select a coil or check the performance of a coil.15 COIL PROCESS LINE A line can be drawn on the psychrometric chart representing the changes in conditions of the air as it passes over the cooling and dehumidifying coil. Actual coil process line .26 Coil process line.5 X CFM(h.26.000 (36. and total heat that it removes from the air it is conditioning. The sensible. These matters should become clearer as we continue our analysis of air conditioning processes with the powerful graphical aid of the psychrometric chart. The coil process line may then be defined as the straight line drawn between the air conditions entering and leaving the coi/. as illustrated in Example 7. The coil capacity is therefore (Equation 7. Perhaps an improper cooling coil was being used. The capacity of a coil is defined as the sensible. = 4. .000 BTUlhr Q/ = 4. or perhaps the amount of outside air used was more than that designed for.8 . and total heat content change per Ib d.5 X 23. although it is not the true coil process line.30. as shown in Figure 7.30 _ _ _ _~_ _ _ _ _ __ A cooling coil handles 24.188 CHAPTER 7 temperature to an approximately satisfactory valne (61 F) compared to the design value (62 F).8 . The direction of this line depends on the coil configuration.5 x 24. We will call this the coil process line anyway. Turning down the thermostat even further probably would still not solve the problem.000 BTUlhr = ll7 tons The total capacity could also have been found directly: Q. are as shown. Perhaps the refrigerant temperature was not low enough.30. Determine the coil capacity.5 x 24.8) CFM(h. The air leaves the coil at 59 F DB and 56 F WB.000-hr.000 = 1.000 BTUlhr Q. air velocity.h2 ) 7. Solution The coil process line is drawn on the psychrometric chart (Figure 7. )----t ~-Leaving air t s: Entering arr Coil process line DB Figure 7.27) from entering condition I to leaving condition 2. and refrigerant temperature. This is called the coil process line. It is a curved line and is difficult to locate. = 4. latent.

t3) 740.31 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ The following design data has been established for the High Life Insurance Company office building: 2 .000 BTUlhr Outside design conditions-94 F DB. Supply air conditions C.21.. 2. It is advisable to sketch a diagrammatic arrangement of the system and also each process on the psychrometric chart. and the remaining air is returned (RA) to the air conditioning unit. RLCL = 150.27 Sketch for Example 7. Using Equation 7.. Cooling coil sensible. based on the following known information (Chapter 6): 1.1(1. latent. 50% RH Outside air required is 6730 CFM Supply air temperature difference is 20 F DETERMINE DB Figure 7.20 = 58 F To find the remaining supply air conditions.PSYCHROMETRIes 36. Coil process line 23.640CFM DB3 = 78 . Factors such as the type and location of air supply outlets will affect the temperature difference selected (see Chapter 10).000 BTUIhr.16 THE COMPLETE PSYCHROMETRIC ANALYSIS We are now prepared to determine all of the required supply air conditions and the cooling coil capacity for proper conditioning of the space.000 1. 4. 3. Supply air CFM 7. Fortunately this is usually not a problem if the supply air temperature and ventilation air quantity are selected within acceptable values.8 189 ~. to prevent discomfort from staleness or drafts. However. . RSCL CFM3 = . ---------- RSCL =740.8 Example 7..28. as shown in Figure 7. Room sensible and latent heat gains. = RSCL RTCL 740. Either CFM or DB temperature of the supply air. A. The slope is RSHR = Qs Q. and total load Solution Each part of the problem will be solved in order.30.31 will illustrate a complete psychrometric analysis. A.006 0. plot the RSHR line. both must be in a range that is considered satisfactory for "good practice.~ ~\" Example 7.83 .1 x 20 Supply air temperature values are usually chosen so that the temperature difference between room and supply air is between 15-30 F. 75 F WB 56 FWB 59 86 Inside design conditions-78 F DB.000 890." B. The supply air CFM must neither be too little nor too great. = 33. Conditions entering cooling coil D. Note that as some outside air (OA) is introduced. Ventilation (outside) air requirements. One of these is selected and the other is then determined from the sensible heat equation. Outside and inside design conditions. the same amount of air leaving the space must be exhausted (EA).1.

1 x 33.31."::=:":"':::"':'::+<-i RSHR line DB Figure 7. Note that in the preceding example the coil loads are greater than the room loads.8 = 862.24.18.29.000 BTUlhr = 95.5 x 33.3 F.h3) e. Identify these and relate each point to the equipment and.145.600 BTU/hr Q.B.= 1. the coil latent load is Q. the coil sensible load is Q. The heat removed from the outside air is called the outside air load.0) The total cooling coil load (refrigeration load) is .:.2 F DB line will locate point 2.28 closely.910(78) = 81.------. Draw the coil process line 2-3. .:::::. Using Equation 7.640(77.4 tons which agrees quite well with the results from part D.) + 26.5 x 33.68 X CFM 2 (W/ .5 x CFM(h.1) = 1.2 F.15. It is useful at this time for the students to study Figure 7.1 X = 287. duct arrangement.5 X CFM(h 2 .-I_x_D_B::. Q. = 1.190 CHAPTER 7 Mixing Coil process line 2'" line 1 $: "". =4.-7_x_D--.12..W3') =0.:._--4.16 and the psychrometric chart Qs =4.1_+_C_F_M--.640(81.2 = 858.:::.28 Sketch for Example 7 .7 6730 CFM OA 1 ----.h3) =4..h. the mixing line. _ C_F_M--.5 X 24.640(29. Using Equation 7.1) CFM(h2 . We have drawn the RSHR line.000 BTUlhr 65. The intersection of the RSHR line and 58 F DB line determines the remaining supply air condition WB3 = 56. The condition entering the cooling coil will be the mixed air condition of outside air and return air.DB 3 ) 58) = 1.4 tons E. must remove the excess heat from the outside air. the condition entering the coil.0 x 3 6730 CFM EA -l1-1f--"-":..7 .000 BTU/hr = 95. CFM 2(DB 2 . The results should be checked by using Equation 7. This is because the coil.640 x 33.5 =286.. and the coil process line.7 .640(31. = Qs + Q.500 BTUlhr Using Equation 7.c.7 DB 2 = CFM 2 = 6730(94) = 4.68 x 33.8) Draw the mixing line 1-7 on the chart. The intersection of this line with the 81..900 BTUlhr Q.6.2 F 33.5 = 4. D. Read WB 2 = 67. = 4.15.. as well as r~move the room heat gains.640(31.. = 0.150.

This data will enable the system designer to select the proper coil from the manufacturer's tables. which need not be discussed here. latent.18 THE EFFECTIVE SURFACE TEMPERATURE The temperature of the outside surface of a cooling coil is not the same at all places along the coil tubing. and is therefore not cooled.5 x 6730(38.30. Figure 7..400 BTU/hr. Determine the cooling coil load and compare the result with that found previously. Of course it is not possible for a coil to have a CF = I. It will vary due to a number of factors. because some air through the unit must bypass the surface.000 QrCOA) = 257.147. Therefore. the air would leave at a temperature equal to the EST. and total loads. This can be considered as the temperature to which the air that contacts the surface is cooled. (It is also called the apparatus dew point.PSYCHROMETRICS 191 Example 7. we can think of an average coil surface temperature that will be called the effective swface temperature (EST). The amount of air that bypasses the surface depends on tube size and spacing.17 THE CONTACT FACTOR AND BYPASS FACTOR When air passes across the outside surface of a coil.16 and the psychrometric chart to find the total outside air load (we could also use the sensible and latent heat equations). 7. only part of the air actually contacts the sur- . the air leaving the coil can never be saturated.6 .ured for a coil at each face velocity. and CFM.32 the outside air load includes only removing the heat necessary to bring the outside air to room conditions-the excess heat in the outside air.400 Coil load = 1. based on the following fact: 7. Once this is known. face and is cooled. a greater understanding of how a coil performs can be achieved from some further concepts that will now be explained. we can predict the performance of the coil. This air would be saturated when the EST is below the air dew point.31. the total load on the coil) must be the heat necessary to remove the outside air plus the room loads. and number and arrangement of rows.e.) From the definition.1) =257400 BTU . The bypass air is untreated-it leaves the coil at the same conditions as it entered.hs ) = 4. From this definition. air face velocity. entering and leaving conditions.000 BTUlhr RLCL = 150. The psychrometric analysis explained previously provides information on the coil requirements-the coil sensible.5 x CFMOA (hI . These ideas are useful in troubleshooting as well as in selecting new equipment. it follows that CF+BF= 1 The next section will explain the use of the contact factor and bypass factor. The Contact Factor (CF) is defined as the proportion of air passing through the coil that touches the cooling surface (contact air) and is thus cooled. However. or RSCL = 740.29 shows this process. The Bypass Factor (BF) is defined as the proportion of air that does not touch the surface (bypass air).32 Calculate the outside air load for Example 7. Note in Example 7. Solution Using Equation 7. This would be expected because there is a spacing between tubes. It can be assumed that only the air that contacts the cooling surface (contact air) is cooled and dehumidified. However. which checks with the previous results. Qr (OA) = 4. hr The cooling coil load (i. The CF and BF factors can be mea!. it follows that if all the air passing over the coil contacted the surface (CF = I). because moisture is being removed.

The contact factor is calculated from Equation 7.33 Find the required effective surface temperature (EST). The cooling coil process line is drawn on the psychrometric chart (Figure 7. EST = 50 F. 85-56 =0. contact factor (CF). F The following example illustrates the use of the contact factor and effective surface temperature concepts. and EST values for each coil are used by some manufacturers. The CF for a coil is the ratio of the length of the coil process line to the total length of that line extended to the effective surface temperature along the saturation line.DB2 DB.-----"""1 air Leaving air (saturated) DB : Coil process li~e . 2.29 and 7. Figure 7. Solution I. . B F. the contact factor is equal to the following temperature difference ratio CF= ~ DBI -DB2 a . F EST = effective surface temperature of coil. Note from the psychrometric chart that a steep coil process line may not intersect the saturation .17 Cooling coil selection tables showing CF.-EST "(:: a EST ~~~~ring b .24.30 illustrates this.24) Example 7.83=0.192 CHAPTER 7 CF = b/a = DB. DBI-EST where DB I = dry bulb temperature of air entering the cooling coil.30 Determining CF for a cooling coil.3\) from point I (entering air) to point 2 (leaving air). Coil selection will be discussed in Chapter 12.30 that the coil effective surface temperature is the intersection of the coil process line with the psychrometric chart saturation line. After finding the required values of these terms by the procedures just shown. As seen in Figure 7. The contact factor is CF=b/a. I Leaving air I I I 2 DB Figure 7.30. The contact factor can also be determined graphically on the psychrometric chart by using the temperatures of the air entering and leaving the cooling coil and the effective surface temperature.83 85-50 Therefore the bypass factor is BF= I-CF= \-0. the proper coil can be selected from the tables. Note from both Figures 7. . The process line is extended to the saturation line to obtain the effective surface temperature. F DB2 = dry bulb temperature of air leaving the cooling coil. Figure 7. 3. (7.29 Coil process line for a cooling coil with CF = 1. and bypass factor (BF) for a cooling coil that is to cool air from 85 F DB and 69 F WB to 56 F DB and 54 F WB.

it is par- .33 shows the air handling unit arrangement using a reheat coil. and that the air leaving the coil is far from being saturated. passing through the required supply air condition.33 illustrates the psychrometrics of the situation. (The service engineer would have to check further to see if the refrigeration equipment would allow the lower refrigerant temperature and.:::::::'--f--RR process line RSHR line 56 DB 85 Figure 7. this air is at a high humidity level. The coil entering conditions could be measured and the coil process line drawn. 62 F DB line at all.32 Sketch for Example 7.'. greater load.34..29. Example 7. The air entering the cooling coil is either all outside air. tially reheated before being supplied to the airconditioned space.31 Sketch for Example 7. Sometimes reheat is used because it is difficult to achieve the desired design supply air conditions by a one-step cooling coil process.. The required supply air condition is point 3. The reheat process may be accomplished with a reheat coil or by using return air or mixed air. Note this results in a steep RSHR line on the psychrometric chart.. where the space humidity was too high? Solution Referring to the psychrometric chart in that example. we note that the supply air temperature was not on the RSHR line. 2. Note that this coil process line does not intersect the saturation line. Figure 7. The most common conditions that may cause this problem are: 1.33. and if the coil CF was satisfactory. The room latent cooling load (RLCL) is a high proportion of the room total cooling load (RTCL).34 What might be a solution to the problem that was shown to exist in Example 7. The desired cooling coil process line is l-3-A. or a large proportion is_ outside air..) Figure 7. We will discuss ways of resolving this problem shortly.19 REHEAT The term reheat refers to the process where.PSYCHROMETRICS 193 EST~50F~ ---2 t Coil process line ESTB 2ESTAJ __ 2' Old coil process line t 1 ~Newcoil ~ J.32. This indicates that the ESTA is too high. Commercial cooling 7. Lowering the coil refrigerant temperature results in a new coil process line l-B and new EST B that might result in a satisfactory supply air condition 2'. after the warm air is cooled by the cooling coil. and furthermore. Figure 7.. on the RSHR line. Assume the coil process line 1-2-A is as shown in Figure 7. This means that this required coil process cannot be achieved by any actual coil.

Fortunately. be checked graphically on the psychrometric chart. / / « ::. In smaller commercial equipment. and then there is a heating load 2-3. and perhaps freeze-up if a chilled water coil is used.194 CHAPTER 7 Desired cooling process line Real cooling coil process line . the closest line we could draw to it that does intersect the saturation line might have a very low EST. part load capacity is sometimes accomplished by using . applications where reheat may be required at full load design conditions do not occur often. It is approximately safe to say that the air leaving a cooling coil will not have an RH of less than about 85-90% under typical conditions. a change in the indoor design conditions might avoid the need for reheat. which are two-fold.. we will see that reheat is sometimes used when the air conditioning system is operating at part load. 7. such as a dance club. coils will not process air in this manner. The coil has an EST B = 49 F. Is some cases. The psychrometric processes are the same as shown previously in Figure 7. note that the cooling load is increased (1-2 instead ofl-3). This is called part load operation. Of course the conditions must remain in the comfort zone. A solution to the dilemma is to provide an actual cooling coil whose process line is 1-2. It can be further seen from Figure 7. First. The objections to this solution are the increased capital cost of the reheat coil and especially the increased energy costs. otherwise the space will be overcooled. The decreased cooling capacity can be achieved by partially reheating the cold air off tbe coil to the new required supply air temperature. In the next section. because of their heat transfer characteristics. C C / R H C --- SA coil line DB Figure 7. This would require increased refrigeration power costs. Now. the excess use of energy is even more objectionable since there are many other less wasteful ways of providing part load capacity. .20 PART LOAD OPERATION AND CONTROL When the cooling load is lower than the design value.33 Reheat coil used to provide satisfactory supply air condition. the air conditioning equipment must supply less cooling capacity. followed by a reheat coil whose process line is 2-3. however.33. A reheat coil can also be used for this purpose. possible frosting on the air side of the coil. An example is when the latent heat gain is a very high proportion of the total. so that a feasible cooling coil can be selected. This should .33 that even though the line 1-3-A does not have a real effective surface temperature. . / / / ~RA R ~ / -OA /.

when there is a more in-depth coverage of the equipment involved.21 FAN HEAT GAINS The heat gains from the supply and return air fans have not been included in the psychrometric analysis we have explained. The greater the fan pressure. so comfortable conditions are maintained. Therefore. We will find then that there are less energy-wasteful methods of operating at part loads than by using reheat.elitesoft. If the air handling unit has a blow-through fan arrangement. A further discussion of the psychrometrics of the air conditioning processes involved in part load operation is best deferred to Chapter 12. Therefore. because the reheating air is adding humidity. Part load capacity can also be achieved by reducing the volume flow rate of air to the space.34 Effect of draw-through supply air fan heat gain. There is no precise rule for determining when they should be considered. these will also affect the process line locations on the psychrometric chart. 7.wrightsoft.com Figure 7. The psychrometric processes with the supply air fan heat gains included are shown in Figure 7. Useful Websites Psychrometric charts and analysis can be found at the following Websites: www. If supply or return duct heat gains are significant.com www. the space humidity may rise at part loads. for a draw-through type air handling unit (the fan is downstream from the coil). the greater the heat gain. The system design project in Chapter 17 will provide an opportunity for seeing some of these effects. for small systems with short duct runs the effect can often be neglected. It is best to calcu- late the gain in each case and then decide if it is significant. their effect can be neglected. 4 Mixing line Room 2 7 t 1 Supply air fan heat DB . rather than increasing the supply air temperature. Often the space humidity increase is small. is at a higher DB than the condition leaving the cooling coil. the fan heat gain is imposed on the coil load but does not increase the supply air temperature. 1. Heat gains that raise the air temperature one or more degrees F should usually be included in the analysis. Note that the supply air condition. Procedures for calculating this effect have been explained in Chapter 6. the cooling coil load is greater and the psychrometric analysis should include this. 7.34.PSYCHROMETRICS 195 bypassed return air or mixed air for reheating. In these cases. however. If these heat gains are a small proportion of the total.com www.carmelsoft. however.

and humidity ratio. WB. At what RH in the room will moisture condense on the pipe? Air initially at 90 F DB and 70 FWB is cooled and dehumidified to 56 F DB and 54 F WB.% W.2 Using the psychrometric chart for conditions (a) to (e).11 Air enters a cooling coil at 80 F DB and 66 F WB and leaves at 60 F DB and 57 F WE. 7. 50% RH. The room design conditions are 77 F DB and 50% RH.000 BTUIhr and a RLCL = 9000 BTUlhr. An air handling unit mixes 1000 CFM of outside air at 92 F DB and 75 F WB with 4000 CFM of return air at 78 F DB and 45% RH.0000 BTUlhr.196 CHAPTER 7 DB.8 7. A cooling coil cools 5000 CFM of air from 80 F DB and 70% RH to 58 F DB and 56. Detennine the required supply air flow rate in CFM.a. Draw the process line on the psychrometric chart.5 F WB. A space to be maintained at 75 F DB and 50% RH has a RSCL = 112. Determine the mixed air DB. The effective coil surface temperature is 55 F. Conditioned air is supplied at 56 F DB and 54 F WE. An air supply of 5000 CFM is provided. latent. (a) (b) (e) (d) (e) 80 75 60 40 65 50 50 40 70 70 7. 7. 59 F DB.4 7. and required coil CF.000 BTUlhr and a RLCL = 2 I .15 A space with a RSCL = 172. solve Problem 7. tt'llb d. Determine the RSHR.6 7. outside air load. A space has a RSCL = 83. RLCL = 235.000 BTUlhr. Determine the sensible.16 The following results have been found from a cooling load calculation for a building in Chicago. Find the DP.12 Air at 82 F DB and 67 F WB passes through a coil with a CF of 0. and RH of the air leaving the heater. enthalpy.000 BTUlhr and RLCL = 8000 BTUlhr. 7.5 7. Determine the wasted energy consumed if a reheat coil is used to maintain design conditions.000 BTUlhr. 7. Supply air is delivered at 58 F. latent.F RH. The outside air conditions are 95 F DB and 74 F WB. Will the unit maintain the room design DB and WB? What are the approximate conditions maintained in the room? 7. RTCL. Illinois: RSCL = 812.000 BTUIhr is to be maintained at 76 F DB and 50% RH. 7. BF. RLCL.000 BTUIhr. WB.7 7. Using equations.F DP. and 1000 CFM of ventilation air are furnished. list the properties not shown.F WB. Determine the coil CF. and total heat removed per pound of dry air. A cold water pipe with a surface temperature of 52 F passes through a room that is at 75 F DB. Draw the process line on the psychrometric chart and find graphically the sensible. Determine the supply air DB and WB.a. ventilation air = 6000 CFM.9 . Determine the following: RSCL. Determine the DB and WB of the air leaving the coil.a..14 A room has design conditions of78 F DB and 50% RH and a RSCL = 18. What is the supply air WE? 7.10 A room has a RSCL = 20. BTUllbd. and total load on the coil and the OPH of moisture removed. An air conditioning unit supplies 900 CFM of air to the room at 58 F DB and 56 F WB.3 7. and effective surface temperature. Sketch the apparatus arrangement and show conditions at all locations.000BTUlhrand a RLCL = 88. supply air". I 7.13 An air conditioning unit is supplying 4000 CFM of air at 55 F DB and 53 FWB to a room maintained at 75 F DB and 55% RH.4.000 BTUlhr and a RLCL =3 I . Air at 40 F DB and 60% RH is heated by an electric heater to 80 F. Design the air system: :~ Problems 7. space design conditions = 77 F DB.91. gr lib d.

(Include ventilation cooling load. The outdoor air. humidity ratio. and total load E. G. latent. Sketch apparatus arrangement B. showing known information. the partial pressure of the water vapor in the air is 0. B. latent. A. is mixed with return air before it enters the air conditioning unit. and moisture content ingr/lb and Ib/lb.000 BTUlhr. find the specific enthalpy of air in Problem 7. find the relative humidity. or through a spill (exhaust) air opening.7 psi. and moisture content in gr/lb and Ibllb entering the unit. . The room design conditions are 76 F DB and 50% RH. relative humidity. which is at the design conditions of 95 F DB and 76 F WB. find the wet bulb temperature.19 Using equations. Determine the outside air sensible. walls. Give the answer in BTUlhr and percent.20 There is 20.PSYCHROMETRICS 197 A.22 An air-conditioned space has a room sensible cooling load of 200. Rate that water is removed from the air in Iblhr C. find the humidity ratio. and total load F.18. Compare the results with those found from the psychrometric chart. Cooling done by the unit in BTUlhr and tons D. when the barometric pressure is 14.17 On a day when the barometric pressure is 14. For the above supply air. For the mixed air. Air leaving the unit is at 57 F DB and 90% RH. Determine the required air flow rate into the room in CFM.000 BTUlhr and a room latent cooling load of 50.21 On a hot September day. enthalpy. It is mixed with return air from the room before it enters the air conditioning unit. showing known information. E.) F. Using equations. It is maintained at 76 F DB and 64 F WB. C. 7. Dew point of the air leaving the air conditioning unit F. in BTUlhr and tons. Determine the coil sensible.300 BTUlhr from occupants. This means that the outdoor air flow rate is 1200 CFM. Compare the result with that found using the psychrometric chart. There is 1200 CFM of air vented through cracks and hoods in the space. Sketch the equipment and duct arrangement. a room has a sensible cooling load of 20. Determine the required size of the refrigeration equipment required to condition this room. Supply air will enter the room at 58 F DB. determine the dry bulb temperature. windows. enthalpy.68 psi. Determine the A. 7.18 Using equations. Determine supply air CFM and WB C. Effective surface temperature (apparatus dew point) 7. 7. It is known that 260 CFM of outside air is required for ventilation in this room. A. B. wet bulb temperature. 7. arid so on.17 psia. The outside air is at 94 F DB and 76 F WB. Determine the savings in equipment capacity if the outside ventilation air requirement is reduced to 130 CFM. lights. Calculate the room sensible heat ratio (RSHR). Sketch all psychrometric processes and label all points 7. and specific \'olume of air at 70 F DB and 60 F DP. Sensible load on the unit in BTUlhr and tons D. B. Determine the required coil CF and BF The latent cooling load for the room is 9000 BTUlhr. Determine mixed air conditions D.000 CFM at 80 F DB and 60% RH entering an air conditioning unit. Sketch the equipment and duct arrangement. Latent load on the unit in BTUlhr and tons E.

21.7. and moisture content· C. Find the required supply air flow rate in CFM for a supply air temperature of 60 F DB. RH. B.25 The supply air for Problem 6. and moisture content D. Supply air WB. What is the operating cost per hour of these heaters if power costs 10 cents per kilowatt hour? Computer Solution Problems Using the psychrometries software program from www. What is the load on the chiller due to the coil in the air conditioning unit? Give the answer in BTUlhr and tons. and 7. enthalpy. A.16 is at 60 F. Mixed air DB. Mixed air DB.25. enthalpy. enthalpy.7.198 CHAPTER 7 C. E.7. What is the coil CF and BF? 7.7. latent.13. Calculate the total cooling load in BTUlhr 7. Supply air WB. Coil sensible.12 is at 58 F DB.com solve Problems 7.2-+.16.24 The supply air for Problem 6. The unit takes in 3000 CFM of outdoor air at 95 F DB and 76 F WB. and moisture content C. 7. Coil sensible. enthalpy. The required air flow rate in CFM B. and moisture content D. The required air flow rate B.5 F DB with electric heaters.This outdoor air mixes with 20. and total load and tons. 7. RH. WE.000 CFM of return air at 78 F DB and 50% RH. F. What is the effective surface temperature (apparatus dew point)? G. latent. Conditioned air leaves the cooling coil in the air conditioning unit at 52 F DB and 90% RH. Determine A.7. .22. WB. Determine A.carmelsoft. Assume the conditioned air is reheated to 58.7.4.20. and total load 7.23 A refrigeration chiller supplies chiIled water to an air conditioning unit. Determine the cooling load of the outside air in BTU/hr and tons. D.

Similarly. it is often necessary to determine pump and fan pressure requirements and piping or duct pressure losses. and air in air conditioning systems. OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter. Steady flow means that the flow rate of fluid at any point in a section of pipe or duct is equal to that at any other point in the same pipe or duct. Find velocity from total and static pressure. 2. ask. there must also be 10 GPM flowing past section 2. 4. what happened to the remaining 6 GPM that left section t? It cannot disappear or be lost (unless there is a hole in the pipe!). For example. Steady flow is a special case of a general principle called either the conservation of mass principle . you will be able to: 1. the flow is called incompressible. say 4 GPM. These and related problems can be solved by an application of some principles of fluid flo\\' which apply to the flow of wate. regardless of the pipe or duct's shape or 199 cross section.1. the density of the air or water flowing generally does not change significantly. In HVAC systems. suppose the flo\\' rate of water past section 1 were 10 GPM (gallons per minute). there cannot be more flow at section 2 than at section 1 because there was only 10 GPM available initially. if less than 10 GPM were flowing past section 2. Use the continuity equation to find flow rate. Use the energy equation to find pump and fan pressures. Determine pipe and duct sizes. That is. the same quantity oOfliid is passing through every section ar a given moment. When the density remains constant. To see this more clearly. 3.c H A p T E R Fluid Flow in Piping and Ducts I n planning or servicing an HVAC system. in Figure 8. 8~1 THE CONTINUITY EQUATION The flow of water through piping and air through ducts in HVAC systems is usually under conditions called steady flow. If there is steady flow.

mass equals density times volume. VFR =AI X VI = 2 ft2 X 10 ftlsec = 20 ft 3 /sec Converting from ft 3 /sec to GPM or the continuity principle.) The continuity equation can also be expressed using mass flow rate (MFR) rather than VFR. MFR = constant =dxVFR=dxA I =dxA 2 x V2 X VI (8. Occasionally unsteady flow exists. (Analysis of this situation is beyond the scope of this book. ~ A2 X V2 ~ constant Figure 8. at any given condition. For incompressible steady flow. Since VFR = constant =A I VI =A 2 V2 Solving for VI (or V2 ).1 The continuity equation for steady flow of air through a duct or water through a pipe. Then. (8.) Example 8. The velocity (speed).1 A service engineer wishes to check if the proper flow rate is circulating in the chilled water piping on a job. Example 8.1a) V" V2 = velocity of fluid at any points I and 2 (Figure 8.3) duct at a rate of 1200 CFM (ft 3 /min). the flow rate of the fluid (quantity flowing) does not change.1 illustrates uses of the continuity equation. which is called the continuity equation. however. The continuity principle can be expressed as an equation. if the size decreases. the continuity equation is VFR = constant =AI where VFR = volume flow rate of fluid A I. Do not confuse flow rate with velocity. A2 = cross-sectional area of pipe or duct at any points I and 2 X ft3 60 sec x VFR = 20 sec I min X ----'0. X V. the velocity changes inversely with the cross-sectional area. (8. so Equations 8.lb can be used.lb) where MFR = mass flow rate d = density of fluid Most flows in HVAC work are incompressible steady flow.-+- VFR Example 8. Examples 8.1. The cross-sectional area of pipe is 2 ft2. What is the water flow rate through the pipe in GPM (gaVmin)? Solution Using Equation 8.3 illustrate uses of the continuityequation.la.1 illustrates Equation 8. with constant density (d).200 CHAPTER 8 2 VFR_). The duct .- 7.1 c) That is. the velocity increases.la and 8.1 a) VI =A 2 X V2 (8. This engineer measures a water velocity of lO ftlsec. This is shown in Figure 8. will inevitably change with pipe or duct size.2.48 gal I ft3 = 8980GPM Area and Velocity Change The continuity equation may be used to demonstrate how velocity is affected by changes in the pipe or duct size.2 and 8. From Equation 2. VFR ~ A. the velocity decreases.2 Air is flowing through a I ft x 2 ft (Figure 8. regardless of any change in pipe or duct size. With steady flow. If the pipe or duct size increases.la.

2 X 600 ftlmin - A2 0.x48 In.1a to find V" VI = . The energy lost is due to friction..xA I = .1. and elevation (potential energy). What is the air velocity in the second section of duct? VI 2400 . or where E" E2 = energy stored in fluid at points 1 and 2 Eadd = energy added to fluid between points and 2 1 Figure 8. = tlmm 2ft X 3 As the flow rate is constant. 2 Solution Using Equation 8. E lo >( = energy lost from fluid between points 1 and 2 1200CFM'2'( A. A I Solving for V2 . VFR ----. V .5 ft X 1 ft.g..2 THE FLOW ENERGY EQUATION When the energy balance principle (Section 2.= Al A duct that has this cross-sectional area would be substituted (say II in. V velocity increases 2 =~ V A2 x I Figure 8. =88 V2 l300 In. 8.5ft 2 The energy of the fluid at any point consists of .=2ft2 19 O. but they are usually small and may be neglected. it may be stated as follows: between any two points 1 and 2 (Figure 8.3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Air is flowing in a duct of 48 in? cross-sectional area at a velocity of 2400 ftlmin. X 8 in. The HVAC contractor wants to reduce the velocity to 1300 ftlmin.). Al 2 ft 2 Vo = X VI = .2 Change of velocity with change in cross-sectional area of duct or pipe.. This high velocity results in a disturbing noise.S' )-1200CFM l' A2 = 0.FLUID FLOW IN PIPING AND DUCTS 20[ Area increases. pressure. . velocity (kinetic energy). 2 A 2 = . The energy added may be that of a pump or fan. decreases size to 0.4). What size duct should be substituted? Solution Using Equation 8.5 ft = 2400 ftlmin Example 8. a temperature change).11) is applied to flow in a pipe or duct. solving for A 2 .A2 I Area decreases. .~ x V velocity decreases 2 .2. VI = Ae X V 2..3 Sketch for Example 8.20--- 1200 ft /min 600 f .. There may be other energy changes (e.

The friction loss in the piping.202 CHAPTER 8 Figure 8. If the energy balance is expressed as an equation using units of head pressure (ft of fluid).2b) Solution Using Equation S.4.2b.H. = static pressure of fluid (pressure at rest).He') + Hf ..-z .V. IO ftlsec. 180 ft above.4 The flow energy equation applied to flow in a duct or pipe. The water enters the pump a~ a gage pressure of 10ft and is delivered at atmospheric pressure (all values are gage pressure). + Eadd= E2 I H" + - I V. ft E10s t I (8.2a) -=----'. What is the required pump pressure? 2g He = elevation.H" E. 2g +He' + HI' =H"2+---+ . Example 8.2b. ft H" = pressure added by pump or fan. as in Figure 8. ft Expressed in the form of Equation 8.= change in velocity pressure. in the Abraham Lincoln Apartments.. ft where H. Equation S. It is used often to determine the pressure requirements of pumps and fans and in testing and balancing systems.He' Hf V2 2 . (V2 2 . ft = gravitational constant.v2 .Hs') + "':""'=---"'-'2g + (He2 . ft Hs2 ..2a is called the fiowenergy equation or generalized Bernoulli equation.V12) H" = (R.Hell + Hf (S. 32. ft = pressure lost in piping or duct from friction. the energy equation is used to find the required pump or fan pressure for a system. ft Hf =pressure lost in piping or duct from friction.2a can be arranged in a useful form by solving for the term H" and grouping other terms as follows. and fittings is 12ft w.4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ The piping system shown in Figure 8. H" = (Hs2 .2 I I I V?2 + = change in static pressure.(vl. fUsec g V2 = velocity pressure. The velocity at the pump suction is 2 ftlsec and at the piping exit is. = change in pressure due to elevation change. valves..2 ft/sec 2 V = velocity. ft 2g He2 . it becomes where H" = pump or fan pressure. ft Equation 8.5 is to deli\"er water from the basement to the roof storage tank. 20 He2 +Hf ..2) .) + 2g + (He2 .

5 Sketch for Example 8. Starting at the pump discharge.w. and since all the above terms =0. In some cases in piping systems.).5 shows that the pump head in a closed hydronic system is equal to the pressure loss due to friction around the complete circuit.the flow energy equation.4 was small. When using the energy Equation 8. and going around the complete loop back to 1. cannot be neglected.5. Air pressure values in ducts are usually measured in inches of water gage (in.Hel ) is either zero (the duct layout is horizontal) or is usually small enough to be negligible. Figure 8. however. Hp=-IO+ 1. L ___ ~ V .. . A hydronic system is a closed system.V l 2 2g 64. Hel . point 1. Note' that any elevation change is included in -determining the pump head.Hel Vl2. the term expressing the change in pressure due to elevation change (Hel .2b. there is no net change in elevation of the water around the whole circuit.4 is an open syste\ll.g. Hsl -H" =0 Using Equation 8. and if so.6 Sketch for Example 8.5 ft (change in velocity pressure) Hed = 180 ft (change in elevation) Hf = 12 ft (friction pressure loss) = 184 ft w. is sometimes significant. however. it is small enough to be neglected. A closed system is one where the water is recirculated continuously and there is no gap Or opening in the pipin. In a closed system. (Hs2 -Hsl )=0-1O = -10 ft (change in static pressure) (V22 .6 is 24 ft w. Hp=Hf =24 ft w.g.2a. Example 8. A condenser-cooling tower water system is also open.4.S The pressure loss due to friction in the hydronic system shown in Figure 8.4 (He2 - = 1.5+ 180+ 12 = 0 (no net change in elevation) =0 The additional pressure required because of the velocity pressure change in Example 8.. Example 8. and therefore the change in He is 0 in . 8.(2)2 ExampleS.FLUID FLOW IN PIPING AND DUCTS 2 I 203 r------180' V2 = 10 ft/sec . What is the pump head required? Solution This is a closed system. Air duct systems are almost always open systems. = 2 ft/sec I Figure 8.3 PRESSURE LOSS IN CLOSED AND OPEN SYSTEMS An open piping or duct system is one that is open to the atmosphere at some point.2a or 8.V?) (10)2 . The velocity change term.g..

2 ft air (33. as will be explained in the next sections. ftlsec g = gravitational constant.10 + 0 . w. 16.10 in w.. fUsec 2 Hv = velocity head.).0. Hs2 Hp = Hsi + Hp - Hf + ( V 1 2 ~V 2 2 ) + (Hel .4) =8. w. The velocity pressure is defined as = 500 fUmin x .4 for V: V=Y2gH v (8.204 CHAPTER 8 Example 8. w.d +H +\ vl\ ) 8.6. V2 2 .4 Thus the total pressure energy that a fluid has at any point can be considered to consist of two parts. This occurrence is of importauce in airflo\\' in ducts.g.(8. w.4 TOTAL. 69.5) where 8000 CFM A2 = 16 ft2 V = velocity. = total pressure Hs = static pressure H.1. 64.23 in. If the velocity pressure can be measured. In Example 8.2a to solve for H s2 . If the static pressure at 1 is 1. STATIC. AND VELOCITY PRESSURE The total pressure (HI) of a flowing fluid is defined as (8. ft of fluid . 1 in. The friction loss from point 1 to 2 is 0. its static pressure energy and its velocity pressure energy.60 sec I min V2 H =v 2g (8.33 fUsec Therefore VI 2 2g Figure 8.43 + 0.> = velocity pressure The static pressure is the pressure the fluid has at rest.2 ft air x Hs2 The duct shown in Figure 8. the velocity can be found by solving Equation 8.g. w. what is the static pressure at 2? Solution Writing Equation 8. it was found that the pressure decreased from point 1 to 2 because of the pressure loss due to friction.33)2 .H e2 ) = 0 (because there is no fan between 1 and 2) Hel .He2 =0 (insignificant elevation change) iV122g The static pressure is therefore f H. w.. but there was a partial increase in pressure because of the velocity decrease (0.23 + 0 = 0.60 sec = 33.23 in.2 =li._-'-_-'----'_ = 16. = 1.7 has 8000 CFM flowing through it.0.3) Finding VI and V2 from Equation 8.6 ft air 0.43 in.6.90 in. The velocity pressure concept is useful in measuring velocities and flow rates in piping and ducts.6 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Converting units to in.. 8000 ft 3/min where = 2000 fUmin x ..33)2 .33 fUsec 1 min H.7 Sketch for Example 8.

and therefore receives the velocity pressure energy as well. static.4 and 8. -±Air f l o w _ (a) Static pressure (b) Total pressure (e) Velocity pressure .3 and 8. the air velocity is V =4000VD. the impact tube at the end of the manometer faces the The duct cross-sectional area is A=28in. in.100CFM Figure 8. ft/min H v = velocity pressure.5. What is the air flow rate in the duct? Solution From Equation 8. w. and velocity pressure. w. In Figure 8.7 ft w. and velocity pressure. Hv = H t .9) is another air flow measuring device that works in the same manner.I is VFR =A x V = 3.64. By connecting the two manometers as shown in Figure 8.11 ft2 x 3580 ft/min = 11.5 ft w. the difference between total and static pressure-the velocity pressure-is read directly.7 ft = 10. The pitot tube (Figure 8. total.7 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ The total pressure and static pressure are measured as 66.8 = 3580 ft/min where V = air velocity. if the appropriate conversion units are substituted in Equations 8.5 ft/sec When measuring airflow. so the velocity pressure is read directly.8(c).8 in.8 shows an example. they become oncoming airstream.2 ft/sec 2 x 1.8 = 1. Many testing and balancing instruments for measuring flow utilize the relationships among total. The contractor takes a set of readings with a pitot tube.11 ft" and the flow rate from Equation S. averaging 0. Figure 8.7) ExampleS. What is the velocity in the line? Solution Using Equations 8.8(a). respectively.8 Manometer arrangement to read static. a manometer reads total pressure because in addition to being exposed to the static pressure. x 1 ft" 0 144 in. duct.FLUID FLOW IN PIPING AND DUCTS 205 Example S.8 ft w.5 .6) (8.7.: (8. Hv = (4:00)" V =4000VH.. using in. a manometer is connected to the duct to read static pressure. The probe that is inserted in the duct has two concentric tubes.x 16 in. x 16 in. The opening facing the airstream measures the total pressure and the concentric holes are exposed to static pressure. V = V2gHv = \12 x 32. In Figure 8.8(b).5. A number of readings are usually taken across the duct to get an average velocity.Hs = 66. in the condenser water pipe line from a refrigeration machine. and 64. w.S A contractor wishes to check the air flow rate in a 28 in. as the unit of pressure and velocity in ft/min.- 3.

7 to 0.10. depends on the shape of the transition that changes velocity. the difference in velocity between points 1 and 2 is H V ]2 [V? ]2) ([4000 4000 _1__ -_ (8. The actual static pressure regain (SPR) is therefore SPR-R Figure 8.4000 If we now apply the flow energy Equation 8.2a.9 can be achieved with reasonably gradual transitions. 8. (8. Solution Using Equation 8. It is a phenomenon that we have all experienced. This is caused by a conyersion of velocity energy to static energy.9) Recovery factors of 0.9 Pilot tube used for measuring velocity pressure.7.8. Using Equation 8. the actual static pressure regain is never as high as that shown in Equation 8. Hs2 -Hsi VI)2 (V2)2 vl -H v2 = (4000 . assuming there is no friction loss Hf and the change in elevation is negligible. Velocity energy has been converted to pressure energy.9 with R = 0.10 Sketch for Equation B. Consider the diverging air duct section in Figure 8.B. This effect is called static pressure regain. V. called sraric regain. w. The proportion of static regain that can be recowred. If we hold a hand in front of the stream of water from a hose. Example 8. then =0.9 _ _ _ _ _ _ _~---_ Find the increase in static pressure (regain) from point I to 2 in the duct system shown in Figure 8.8 shows that ifrhe velocity decreases in the direction of jfOlt' (because the pipe or duct size has increased) tizen the staric pressure increases.8) Equation 8.7[(:~~~r -(:oo~on =0. called the recoven' factor R. thereby keeping friction losses low. . if the recovery factor is 0. Pitot tube Hs1 V2 Hs2 Figure 8.5 CONVERSION OF VELOCITY PRESSURE TO STATIC PRESSURE (STATIC REGAIN) One of the remarkable things that can occur in flow in a duct or pipe is that the static pressure can increase in the direction of flow if the velocity decreases. Because there is always some friction loss.6.206 CHAPTER 8 Airflow.13 in.7.11. we feel the pressure that is a result of reducing the velocity energy and converting it to pressure.

Figure 8.12).10. static pressure decreases. Rougher surfaces will cause increased frictional resistance.11 Sketch lor Example 8. 1 (a) (b) . This effect occurs in a nozzle. will occur in a converging transition. friction decreases and less energy is used.9. Actually we must be able to calculate it. where the velocity increases. = 1800 Itlmin V2 = 600 It/min 2g (8. Although Hf could be calculated each time from Equation 8. the pressure loss or drop due to friction can be found from the following equation (called the Darcy-Weisbach relation): L V2 Hf=fD V. The opposite event to a static pressure regain. resulting in a decrease in static pressure (Figure 8. This means that by using and maintaining smooth surfaces. static pressure increases. In previous examples. Lower velocities and larger diameters reduce H( and therefore result in lower energy consumption. (a) Diverging transition-velocity decreases. 8. The other terms in the equation also indicate useful information. charts that are much easier to use and show the same information have been developed for water flow and air flow. a conversion of static pressure to velocity pressure.12 Conversion between velocity pressure and static pressure. (b) Converging transition-velocity increases. Hf = pressure loss (drop) from friction in straight pipe or duct f = a friction factor L = length of pipe or duct D = diameter of pipe or duct V = velocity of fluid The friction factor f depends on the roughness of the pipe or duct wall.FLUID FLOW IN PIPING AND DUCTS 207 2 For the type of flow usually existing in HVAC systems.6 PRESSURE LOSS FROM FRICTION IN PIPING AND DUCTS We have seen from the flow energy equation that one of the effects the pump or fan must overcome is the pressure loss due to friction. called turbulent flow.10) where Figure 8. although the pipe or duct cost then increases. we have assumed values of friction pressure loss. Friction is a resistance to flow resulting from fluid viscosity and from the walls of the pipe or duct.

Figure 8. resulting in a higher friction loss. the pressure drop will be greater than 3 ft w.13. the pressure drop will be less than the maximum allowed.14 accounts for this. at the point of intersection of a 40 GPM flow rate and D = 2 in. This is a result of the change in viscosity and density with temperature. Example S.. Pressure drop charts for other piping materials and liquids can be found in appropriate handbooks. per 100 ft pipe. Schedule 40.16.. Copper tube wall will usually not roughen significantly with age in open systems. Figure 8. is asked to check if the .13 is suitable when the pipe wall is in a clean condition. For hot water systems with temperatures in the vicinity of 200 F. diameter.Il A copper tubing system is to be used to circulate 30 GPM of water at 60 F./IOO ft Example S. Figures 8. 8. L. Note that the actual rather than the allowed pressure drop should be recorded. Type K or L copper tubing is widely used for water under pressure in HVAC installations. The Type K. and 8. Three of such charts are presented in this book. diameter is used. systems open to the atmosphere at some point. If a 1!6 in.0 ft w. The intersection point of 30 GPM and 3 ft w./IOO ft at 30 GPM.208 CHAPTER 8 8.2 ft w. this is the correct solution.10 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ What is the pressure loss due to friction and the velocity in 500 ft of 2 in. = 3. is supposed to circulate 200 GPM in a chilled water system. a service troubleshooter.12 A 3 in. Hfper 100 ft = 3. 100ft x 500 ft = 16.14 are suitable for water at 60 F flowing in steel Schedule 40 pipe. Figures 8. This is generally true in a closed hydronic heating and cooling system that is reaSonably well maintained.14. Fixit. The velocity at the intersection point is V fUsec. Figure 8.15 will be used. the pipe wall is usually rougher than in closed systems. the pressure loss due to friction is about 10% less than shown and should be corrected. For chilled water temperature ranges (40-50 F) and condensing water temperature ranges (80-100 F). If a 2 in. The solution is shown in Figure 8. In such systems.15 may be used without correction. and 1!6 in. and M lines on the chart refer to different tube wall thicknesses. The solution is indicated in Figure 8.13 and 8. so this is unacceptable. Figure 8.9 Example S. Schedule 40 pipe is widely used for water under pressnre in HVAC installations (see Chapter 9). which is then converted to the loss in the actual length of pipe.. Figure 8.0 ft w.15 is suitable for water at 60 F flowing in copper tubing.7 FRICTION LOSS FROM WATER FLOW IN PIPES The pressure loss or drop caused by friction with water flow in straight pipe has been put in a convenient chart format for commonly used materials and conditions. At 40 GPM and D = 2 in. Hf = 2. Schedule 40 steel piping through which 40 GPM of water at 60 F is flowing in a closed system? Solution The information can be found from Figure 8. The following example will illustrate use of the friction loss charts.13 (closed systems).14 is suitable for open piping systems -that is. The solution is D = 2 in.17. I.15 is suitable for both closed and open systems./100 ft pipe lies between a 2 in. Note that the chart lists friction loss per 100 ft of pipe. steel pipe.2 ft w. therefore. The system is to be designed to have a friction pressure drop no greater than 3 ft w. What is the smallest size tubing that can be used? Solution Figure 8. diameter is used. The water piping system between a refrigeration condenser and cooling tower is an example of an open system. therefore Hf = 3. The Schedule number refers to the pipe wall thickness.

5 1.. V V' \ / / ./ \ / VV ~ V 1\ /' 2.5./ V K / .V \ V / ". "./ ~ " 15000 IDOOO 8000 8000 6000 5000 I\.I 20000 15000 15 20 25 3 4.0 1\ ./ \ S./ 1'\' V ~ \ 1\ V ./ V / \ 1/ / V 6000 5000 I). . / \ '0 ~ V / )...:> V .0 f->< J5..?-O 4000 3000 2000 1500 / V\ \ / P\ / V K IX' -..5 3 V . / \"." \ ./ 200 150 100 80 60 50 40 30 20 15 10 8 6 5 4 3 2 1.... V / V '<0 \ / . K /" \j.\.4 /1"'" K ." . \ " '?-~ \.0 V '" 0 ~ . X ..3 2 1\ >. 0 4000 3000 2000 1500 1000 V .".5 6 8 1. ~ 1\ 1\ ~ . V ~ V ~ . . (Courtesy: Carrier Corporation./ V 2 \ v' "" 1./ K V-'I >(\ '" V I\.). \ / 800 600 500 400 300 :=./ / . 6 5 4 V V VVK \ V ~ /' 1. / "- K I(" V / \ f( \ \ / ..0 I5 2 2./ \ / I' 'Y.2 ./ ~ / / / / ./' . / 1\ .J \ . NY.. V \./ \.' \~I " vl\ . \ \'} P\ ~'k . \ \.6 ./ // / )( >I ~ \ \ i\ -.. 0 " . .' 'I-<t. V V ).. \ .... 0../' V V . V V / \ ./ V ./ y 8 10 ) 15 .\/' X \ \ / \v \ ~ . V / ''I. \v-\ "/' i\ i.I .. \ \V 200 150 1\ V V \ \ / / V 100 80 60 50 40 / '\ / /\ .../ / . / . '" ~ ~ ~ Il<" . \ ./ \ '\ K \ V " i\ \. ~ .5 3 4 5 6 8 10 15 20 25 30 40 60 80 100 1\ ~ \ 10000 \ 1\ ).. / 1\ \ ...5 1.~ P\ / 1\V X )(.."KfA'.~ ~'l.'0" X ~ .. V \ .) ..13 Friction loss for water in Schedule 40 steel pipe-closed system./ / 1/\ / 1\ / \ V \ \ [\ \ \".'\ ./ X 10DO / / V \./ / / 1\ .1--' 5 6 20 25 30 40 60 4 80 100 FRICTION LOSS (FEET OF WATER PER 100 FTl Figure 8..' / ../ X / ~ . ~ K: ./ ' \./" ~ .' V " V 30 20 15 . /'\ 1\ / "PI \ \ \ i/ ~ l\. ~ s~ 1.-P.~ <' " ~" ./ \.5 V ..V\ . 1 '{~ 6' _ .8 1../ / K' V '\ 600 500 400 300 V V V I\..-v \./\ / 1\ V i<'". Syracuse." / ) """ V 1\ ./ \ I\... ~-'o'~ /' / k"'" V ... '" . \. ). ~'/ ./ /' V\ ".25./ ./\ . " . 10 8 / \"'«. / Y V~" / ~ S- I .>./ 20000 ./' /"( \ ~ /\ f 800 / ..

...... 10 8 ......../ . !-" ".-. ~ 80 . V"'\ \ ............. \ I)'!-" V V ~ It-' / t.... ~ 6(1-- V \... 80 100 FRICTION LOSS (FEET OF WATER PER 100 FTl Figure 8.'\ .-... .. "" V 300 200 1\ "..25. :y \ . I ' / . /1\ / . K ....0 ~ V 1. • I~ ........ "" .3 . ." \ V '2:" "'" .. \ ->c:...\V '\ ..4 .- \-< \ ...... ............ 1\...../ \ / / ~ . ......../ • \ 1\ ..6 ..0 1.......5 3 4 5 6 8 10 15 20 25 30 40 60 eo I 0 2 0000 1\ r\ \ \ \ \ f\ \ ...... V' \ ..5. "\-..--"" 20 15 10 8 7 6 5 4 3 V L .2 1.K ....... IV ..... V ...... / .14 Friction loss for water in Schedule 40 steel pipe-open system....- 2 1.... \ .... NY.5 2........15 ..: 1/ ..... .'1 ... 600 500 400 200 150 V .......--"" Dc . l)/ \ / ..... . ~/ V / . \ K \ r\ V~ r\ \ 1\ 1\ ...-'\ / \...-' V .. .. v .... . .......) ..... Vo· V\ V X ...\ l.I V ... vK 5 ) V ... V / 1\ ....... ..... ... I 5000 I0000 8000 6000 ........ .. 1\ / V V ~ ~ Ill: LI V \....->I \ ...- r\. \ V IV . K ~ ( • ..: V' l>( 2000 1500 1000 rs ..5 ~ f\ 3 4 ................./ 0/:\ \ ...... \ / )...... V i\ I.. ~i'_ /i\ I....... ..... \.8 ........ .--"" / .5 2 \ \ \ V 6 8 10 \ V 1\ 15 \ ...- 60 40 30 V p( \ \ \ \ ... ~ \ /'\ X.. V \ V ".I .. """\ lX r\ ..x . \ i\ .....-/' .... ....... ~ . [k !-" / V / ".. 2000 \ V \ ......-"\ ~ g "- 100 80 60 50 V . 1\ K / \ / \ .15. V \ 1\ 40 20 25 ~O V 4 3 / ...... ........: ~~ ...... V / \ 1\ . .0 2....... . \ '\ ~ ........-..20000 15000 ..- K .. I( "... !-" "../\ ~ ~ ~ / ... ".......... .... V 6000 5000 4000 3000 1\ \ ..x / .4.\ V 1\ i V 1--"'\ ~ 1\ "........ 1\ 50 40 30 .....V V ..2 .. V \ 10000 8000 ....3. (!) V ~ ... !-"V ..\ 20 15 ) ... ..... 150 100 \...... ..5 ~ .1 >( / \ ....../ V""\ ...........\" f\ ....- I 500 I 000 800 800 600 500 400 300 ~ Q....-K l.5 ... .....8 1..-/ . \ \ 1\ V \ ... 1\ 7 6 5 .. !-" \.- l. ... (Courtesy: Carrier Corporation. 1 ......6.- . ..- '\ / !-"".. Syracuse..\ ~ ........ \ .. ~ .. \ / \ ....1\ 60 2 1. 5000 4000 3000 ...

Syracuse.'~ ~f.15 Friction loss for water in copper tUbing-open or closed system. '" "~ 0 .0. ~~ FLUID FLOW IN PIPING AND DUCTS 211 4000 3000 2000 1500 1000 800 600 500 400 300 200 150 100 80 . (Courtesy: Carrier Corporation. NY.) .J 60 50 40 30 20 15 10 8 6 5 4 3 2 1.5 Figure 8. I 150 a.

16 Sketch for Example 8. For 800 ft. Hsi .11. Otherwise oversized equipment or wasteful energy losses will result. flow rate is actually 200 GPM.212 CHAPTER 8 ~ Il. 32 ft w.10.Hs2 = Hf =40 - 32 correcting this for hot water = 8 ft w.13. pipe. Reading from Figure 8. .) Note: For hot water systems. Figure 8. there will be pressure losses from turbulence and change of direction through fittings and valves. 200 ft Hf = 4.0 Friction loss (feet of water per 100 tt) Figure 8. 200 ft apart. Perhaps a valve is throttled closed too much. or perhaps a pump is not performing properly. per 200 ft pipe or HJ100 ft = 0. HJ1 00 f tplpe= x 100ft=4ftw.13 What would be the friction pressure drop in 800 ft of 2 in. 100ft x 800 ft = 36..17 Sketch for Example 8. far less than nQrmal. the actual flow rate is l30 GPM.2 Friction loss (feet of water per 100 tt) 2.9 x 5 = 4. the pressure drop is · 8 ft w.0 ft w.8 PRESSURE LOSS IN PIPE FITTINGS In addition to the pressure loss in straight pipe. Is the system delivering the proper flow rate of water? How much is being circulated? Solution The actual pressure drop (equal to the friction loss) IS Example 8. the second. in a 3 in. the pressure drop for cold water is HJ100 ft = 5 ft w. copper tubing through which 50 GPM of water is flowing in a hydronic heating system? Solution From Figure 8. These are called dynamic losses.15. Fixit puts two pressure gages on a horizontal run of the straight line. (Fixit now must look for the cause of the problem. 8.5 ft w.5 ft w. Best possible SOIU~ 30~----~--__~----~---7~ ~ ~ 40~----~--------~~ ~ u: 3: o u: 3: o Desired solution 3. at a friction loss of 4 ft w. The first gage reads 40 ft w. the correction of 10% less pressure drop should be made.0 4.

A loss coefficient (called C.2 4.5 4. The listings for a particular fitting of a given size show the equivalent length (E.3 2.0 6 8 10 13.7 1.5 110 22 40 .2 2. 11.3 55 24 12 20 5.13).0 14.8 43 .1.5 4.0 9.0 1.2 ft w. 0 In addition to the equivalent length method of determining pressure drop through pipe fittings.0 220 .L.0 lOA 7. Solution From Table 8.FLUID FLOW IN PIPING AND DUCTS 213 These pressure losses are shown in Table 8.2 82 l7 30 8.8 12. 18 9 16 4.1 EQUIVALENT FEET OF PIPE FOR FITIINGS AND VALVES Nominal Pipe Size (inches) % % 0. Cw or K) for the fitting is determined from an appropriate table listing C-values.7 1. the appropriate friction loss chart is used to find the actual pressure drop through the fitting.L.0 5.0 6 20 27 2 7 1 1% 1% 2 2.0 ft=0.2 3. = 11.0 8. The system pressure drop is simply the sum of the losses through each item in one of the paths or circuits from pump discharge to pump suction. H/100 ft = 5.0 8. Hf = 5. The pressure drop through the fitting is TABLE 8.1.9 PIPING SYSTEM PRESSURE DROP A common problem is to determine the pressure loss from friction in a closed system in order to determine the required pump head.44 80 22. The pressure losses are expressed in this table in a way that is called the equivalent length. 100 ft x 11.0 ft 8.8 90 0 Elbow standard 1.0 42 3 9 14 83 7 17 14 104 8 14 125 13 126 IS .0 Gate valvlOl open 0. The loss coefficient method will not be used for pipe fittings here.3 10 11 60 4 11 2.9 22 9 4 8 2.7 3. there is another procedure called the loss coefficient method.6 1.6 0 90 Elbow long 1.L.0 11. including piping.0 7.1.6 Radiator angle valve 3 Diverting tee Flow check valve Air eliminator Boiler (typical) 5 1. Using Figure 8.4 6.3 2.8 67 14 25 6.L) standard elbow in a chilled water system though which 300 GPM of water is flowing.4 0.5 2% 3 4 5 6.6 13.6 8 14 1. find the equivalent length of the fitting E.5 11.0 8. Example 8.3 13 12 63 5 13 3.3 2.0 268 56 100 26.0 22.0 5.0 4.0 164 34 60 16.8 5. from Table 8.) of straight pipe that would have the same pressure drop as that fitting. 90 cast iron (C.0 16.6ftw.~ 45° Elbow 0.13. It will be used for duct fittings (see Section 8. After finding the E.9 2.7 Globe valve open l7 Angle valve 7 Tee-side flow 3 Swing check valve 6 Tee-straight through flow· 1.5 2.0 134 28 50 13.3 1.5 36 15 7 14 3.0 26.3 6.5 3.0 27 12 5 10 2.0 16.14 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Find the pressure drop through a -+ in.2 ft w.

It usually does not work out that way. the valve might be throttled considerably. Therefore. List all of the features related to the task in this table. It would seem. determine the required pump head. Information on pressure drops through equipmeut is obtained from the manufacturer. Figure 8. to find the total system pressure drop in a multi circuited system. Usually. Figure 8. Example 8. Occasionally it is a shOlter circuit that has such an exceptionally large number offittings. each valve is throttled to a position that results in the correct flow rate in that valve's circuit. labeling each point (intersections. the pressure losses through only one circuit are considered. from this explanation.15 For the steel piping systems shown in Figure 8. because each pressure gage has one fixed reading. the pressure loss through a partially open valve in an actual installation cannot be determined. Pressure drop from points A to D is always the same. Therefore. this is the circuit that has the longest straight pipe length. Therefore. however. By throttling (partially closing) the valve.214 CHAPTER 8 fittings. valves. and Example 8. Prepare a table listing each section and item in that circuit (and only that circuit) chosen for the calculation.1 and other measured results are valid only for fully open valves. as well as indicating all flow rates. using our example above. To determine the system pressure loss. valves. lengths. that in this case the pressure drop ABD would be greater than that through A CD.19. that it would not matter which circuit one chooses for actually calculating the system pressure drop. Most piping systems are designed to have equal friction loss per foot of length. calculate the pressure drop through this circuit and only this circuit. This certainly is not possible. ignoring all others. Figure 8.2. the pressure drop through the longer circuit ABD is the same as that through ACD. 2. Table 8. In circuit ACD. and pipe sizes in each section.19. The pressure drop from A to D is indicated by the difference in readings on the two pressure gages located at A and D. This idea is quite similar to that in electric circuits. It will be helpful to draw a sketch of the piping system. This is because the pressure losses are the same through every circuit. and equipment. where the voltage loss through parallel electric circuits is the same. Having decided on the basis of this investigation which circuit has the greatest TEL. bearing in mind the following: A. equipment). B A D c . it is customary to select the longest circuit in a system to calculate the pressure drop and to assume that the valves in this circuit are full-open. B. regardless of path length. and equipment that makes this circuit the one with the longest total equivalent length (TEL).15 illustrate the procedure. using the procedures we have explained. therefore. It would seem. proceed as follows: 1.18 illustrates this. Examine the piping layout to determine which of the parallel connected circuits has the longest total equivalent length. What happens in most hydronic systems is that valves are used to "balance the system". an additional pressure drop in that circuit is created.18 For this reason. Pressure drops in Table 8.

1 Figure 8.. of Items Total Length. the longest circuit.2 5 110 22 11 948 100 9 109 600 67 13 7 687 100 9 109 x 5. Such cases must be checked.2 85.. the friction pressure loss for each item in circuitABCCDEF is found and summed up.19 Sketch for Example 8. ~ . (It is possible in unTABLE 8.1 Pump head = Total Hf . This information is presented in an organized form in Table 8.8 67 6.71100 4. ft 800 4 300 7.5 1 2 1 x 3. the required pump head rise F -A is equal to the pressure drop due to friction from A-F through the system.8 = 49.FLUID FLOW IN PIPING AND DUCTS 215 F L A I D .2/100 4.2..5 6.1.2 usual cases that one of these two shorter paths may have a greater pressure drop if it has items with great resistance.1 '0----.0 9 x 4. only the circuit with the greatest pressure drop is chosen.) Using Figure 8.300 ' .1 0 0 ' + 2 0 0 ' . GPM V FPS E.15. Section EFAB EFAB EFAB EFAB B Subtotal BC C Subtotal Item Pipe Gate valve Globe valve 90° std ell Tee D. But to find this.13 and Table 8..4 3V2 Tee 200 7.L. Solution From the energy equation. Circuits ABEF and ACDF are ignored.3 Pipe Tee 3!h 200 7. This is ABCCDEF.+ 1 + .5 110 11 11 1 2 5. Review PIPING PRESSURE DROP CALCULATONS FOR EXAMPLE 8.in. Total 100 ft ft w.8 = 25.4" B C 21/2" l' Gate Pump Globe valve valve 300 GPM 200 GPM 70 GPM Globe valve :..0 9 1 x '4.r 200' 21/2" D = 4" E 3" D 31/2" _t 1. ft No.7 = 5.8 4.15 Friction Loss Hf ft w.2 CD C' CD D Subtotal DE E Subtotal Pipe Globe valve 90° std ell Tee 2Y2 70 4.8/100 3.8/100 = = 5.

5 to allow for fittings and valves. The value of the new friction loss rate chosen is then used as a desired standard to select the pipe sizes for the rest of the system. because the choice of anadjacent standard pipe size is always necessary. In this case.10 SYSTEM PIPE SIZING An important task in designing a hydronic piping system is to determine the appropriate size (diameter) of each section of pipe. as before. use one of the two adjacent pipe sizes. Check the velocity limit guidelines before selecting the desired friction loss rate. affected largely by expected system piping costs as well as the guidelines cited. 8. Be sure to record the actual friction loss rates in . based on all of the following recommendations: A. B. The friction loss rate should be between approximately I to 5 ft w.216 CHAPTER 8 each entry carefully. values in the higher end are usually used for larger systems. and piping costs are very substantial in large projects. 5. Within these limits. In a two-pipe system. as explained in Chapter 5. Judgment is needed here. Choose a value of friction loss rate to be used for the system piping. Continue selecting the size of each section of supply main pipe. since some of the water branches off at each unit: in the return main. it may differ slightly from that originally designed. The velocity in the largest mains should not exceed 4-6 FPS in small systems. This problem is more common in small branch lines. change the friction loss rate used so that the velocity is in conformity with the standards. The reverse procedure is used for the return main sections. the flow increases in each section. based on its flow rate. based on its flow rate. A quick estimate method sometimes used for detennining the system pressure drop is to multiply the straight pipe friction loss (in the longest circuit) by 1.5 FPS. The author does not recommend this rule of thumb. or 8-10 FPS in large systems. Based on the friction loss guidelines. 2. This is why the procedure is called the equal friction method. Determine the flow rate (GPi'vll through each unit. Often the friction loss rate chosen will result in a selection between two standard sizes. dirt or air may be trapped in the line. The velocity in any pipe section should not be below about 1. The velocity in any pipe passing through occupied areas should not exceed 4 FPS. comparing it with the piping diagram and the pressure drop charts. select a pipe size for the supply main leaving the pump. since this reduces pipe sizes. Note that a new friction loss rate results from the necessity of selecting a standard pipe size.llOO ft are commonly used in most applications. usually that which is closest to the originally designed friction loss rate. the flow progressively decreases in each supply main section downstream from the pump. C. each with a friction loss rate as close as possible to the desired standard value.5-3. These friction loss rates will again not be identical. Find the flow rate through each section of pipe. 3.5 ft w. 4. Prepare a diagrammatic sketch of the piping system.llOO ft pipe. At lower velocities. This is usually satisfactory. The most common procedure for doing this is called the equal friction method. except for preliminary studies. since excessive noise may result. 6. The simplest way to do this is to start from the last terminal unit supplied and progressively add the flow rates to each preceding section of the supply main. including each terminal unit. The steps in this procedure are as follows: 1. regardless of system size. blocking water flow. to see if you arrive at the same results. If there is a violation. Values from 1.

Using Figure 8..20. When all the piping in the system has been sized.. C. 8. 6. 80' 30 GPM c 20 GPM : 60' 100' r . this unbalance can be improved somewhat.FLUID FLOW IN PIPING AND DUCTS 217 each case. ------------~I I 80' I 40' HI I I I t. The water flow will tend to short-circuit through ABIJ and other short loops.20... ____ J : 20GPMI 10 GPMI 100' I 60' I D ~I. either a 2 \6 in.16. 3...15.. 5. This makes balancing of flow easier... you may find that the minimum velocity requirement determines the pipe size... until the flow rate change becomes great enough..16 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Select the pipe sizes for the chilled water piping system shown in Figure 8.. In two-pipe direct return systems. The branch pipe size is sometimes chosen to equal the fitting connection size at the terminal unit. to maintain a friction loss reasonably close to the initial friction loss. rather than 1!4 in. Type L copper tubing is used. It is decided that the 2 in.20 Sketch for Example 8. Each terminal unit takes 10 GPM. this can reduce installation costs.. size will result in the friction loss rate between 1-5 ft w. Figure 8. Branch piping mnout sizes to units may also be selected using the equal friction method. The branches to each terminal unit are a total of lOft long. 2. The pressure drop in this circuit is then calculated.. as described previously./IOO ft. which in this case will have some circuits much shorter than others.. The piping system shown is a direct return arrangement. starving the last units. or 2 in. the circuit with the greatest total length is determined. 1. Note that not every successive pipe section will change size.3. 7. Lengths of mains are shown on the sketch./IOO ft. 7. The tabulation of pipe sizes selected for each remaining section in the longest circuit is shown in Table 8. r . A check should be made that the velocities are not excessive. Main AB has 40 GPM. ABCDEFGHIJ is clearly the longest circuit. pipe size will be selected to minimize initial costs. the branch piping in those circuits with short total lengths is sometimes deliberately undersized to reduce the tendency to excess flow in those circuits. within limits of available pipe sizes. but there are potential exceptions: A... By increasing the pressure drop in the branches. Example procedures. Note that the pipe size is decreased gradually as flow rate decreases. 8. B. The piping sketch is first drawn as in Figure 8... 4..16 will illustrate pipe sizing Solution The stepwise procedure explained previously will be used to size the pipe.3 ft w. The pipe size selected for branches is 1 in. ~---------J 10GPM G ______________ 80' F~--.JE . starting with the last as shown. The friction loss is 3.. The flow rate in each section is found by adding the flow rates from each unit. Example 8. When using the selection charts.

23 must first be used. It can be used for the g~l1eral range of HVAC temperatures and for altitudes up to 2000 ft.21. by 19 in. It Friction. w.2 4. . This chart shows equivalent round duct sizes. w.7 2. and with air at standard conditions.50 in.7 2. To find the friction loss in rectangular section ducts. 2 2 80 60 100 60 80 100 40 80 20 20 20 3.l100 It V.5 2. 8. Figure 8.20 in. 1\4 1\14 IV.15.0 7. Figure 8.20 in. It w. by 19 in.in. This is still probably not enough to solve the problem completely. as seen in the sketch in Figure 8. ::: 3 AB BC CD DE FG GH HI IJ 40 30 20 10 10 20 30 40 10 10 10 2 2 IV. L. What is the friction loss per 100 ft? Solution Referring first to Figure 8.7 3.17 _ _~_ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ A 12 in.3 3. 100ft x 250 ft = 0. the equivalent round diameter to a 30 in. as shown previously: Example 8. V= 1300FPM 8.11 FRICTION LOSS FROM AIR FLOW IN DUCTS Pressure loss from friction for air flow in straight round ducts is shown in charts in a manner similar to water flow in piping.0 7. duct is D=26 in.23. diameter round galvanized duct 250 ft long has 100 CFM of air flowing through it.2 3.3 7. w. What is the pressure loss due to friction and the velocity in the duct? HJIOO ft = 0. rectangular duct is delivering 7000 CFM of air.24.21 shows this infornlation. In reality. Solution The solution is found from Figure 8. Hf = 0. as seen in the sketch in Figure 8.3 PIPE SIZING PROCEDURES FOR EXAMPLE S. This is left as a problem for the student.3 2. and balancing valves would be required. w.22: HJIOO ft = 0. . This chart is suitable for clean galvanized steel round ducts with about 40 joints per 100 ft. FPS 1 .7 2.21 can now be us~d to find the friction loss in the rectangular duct.18 A 30 in.0 3.5 3. Example 8.0 " BRANCHES BI CH DG I I in order to accomplish this.17 in.7 2.3 4.0 4. a reverse return system would be a better choice of piping arrangements than the one shown.0 3. The pressure drop in the longest circuit can now be calculated by the same procedures as used in Example 8. The equivalent round duct is defined as the round duct that would have the same friction loss as a rectangular duct found in the chart.0 4.16 Section GPM O.7 3.218 CHAPTER 8 TABLES.~. Figure 8.0 4.

03 .1 . in.06 .0 Friction Loss. per 100 It 2 3 4 6 8 10 Figure 8.21 Friction loss for air flow in galvanized steel round ducts.04 .01 . w.3.6.4 ..8 1. 219 .02 .08.2 .

220

CHAPTER 8

c

D=12in.
1000~--------~~~
LL

U

'D

"
CD

2

0 30

U

'w
Ol

'D

0 -.J

c

D = 26 in.

0.2

HI' in. w'/1 00 It duct

19 Short side of duct, in.

Figure 8.22
Sketch for Example 8.17.

Figure 8.24
Sketch for Example 8.18.

Figure 8.23
Equivalent round duct sizes.

8.12

ASPECT RATIO

c

5
4

'\

'"

1 ' \

' \

""-..

c-

."

"'","

_ v'\
3 I

3

4

~

'"
5

i'r--.I I , ' ' ' ' I I If..., "" 6 7 8 9 10 15 20

I""

,,~,J~': ~ ~l'-... ~

~

:---.....

At first consideration, it might seem that the equivalent round duct would have the same crosssectional area as a rectangular duct for the same friction loss. This is not quite true. A rectangular duct with the same friction loss will have a greater area than a round duct. This is because the rectangular shape, with a greater ratio of surface to cross section, causes more friction. This problem becomes worse as the aspect ratio increases. The aspect ratio is the ratio of the dimensions of the two adjacent sides of a rectangular duct. As a general rule, the aspect ratios of rectangular ducts should be as low as possible to keep friction losses reasonably low and thereby avoid excess energy consumption. A high. aspect ratio will also mean more sheet metal and therefore a more expensive system. Unfortunately, the height available for horizontal ducts is often limited by the clearance above hung ceilings, resulting in high aspect ratios.
Example 8.19 Ace Sheet Metal, a contractor, wants to install a duct handling 3000 CFM in a hung ceiling that has 12 in. of vertical clear space available for the duct.

",,~
25

30

Side of rectangular duct, in.

FLUID FLOW IN PIPING AND DUCTS

221

The velocity in the duct is not to exceed 1600 FPM to avoid excessive noise. What size duct should Ace install?

H 1100 ft = 0.12 in. w. x 100 ft = 0.24 in. w. f 50 ft

From Figure 8.21, at this friction loss, Flow rate = 2400 CFM Of course this check is accurate only if the installation is similar to the one on which the friction charts are based, as described previously.

Solution Ace wants to keep the aspect ratio as low as possible to reduce friction loss and also to save money on sheet metal cost, so they will try to use as much of the 12 in. as possible. Let us say that Ace is going to put 1 in. of insulation on the duct; therefore, the maximum duct depth can be 10 in. From Figure 8.21, with 3000 CFM at 1600 FPM, a 19 in. round duct is found. From Figure 8.23, for a round duct of 19 in., the equivalent rectangular duct with one side 10 in. is 33 in. by 10 in. This is a reasonably good solution. because the as.. pect ratio is 3¥Io = 3.3. The frinion loss charts can be used for testing and troubleshooting as well as design and installation, as illustrated in Example 8.20.
Example 8.20 A 20 in. by 11 in. duct is Supposed to be handling 3000 CFM. The engineer from Top Testing Co. is assigned to check the performance. The engineer takes pressure readings on manometers 50 ft. apart in the duct and reads 1.75 in. w. and 1.63 in. w. Is the system handling the proper air flow? If not, what is the flow?

8.13 PRESSURE LOSS IN DUCT FITTINGS
In addition to the pressure loss in straight lengths of duct, there is a pressure loss when the air flo\\'s through duct fittings (elbows, tees, transitions). These pressure losses, called dynamic losses. are due to the turbulence and change in direction. They can be expressed in either of two ways. One is the equivalent lel1g1h method, exphlined :(! ScctlC'!1 :3.8. where it was used for pipe fittings. Another procedure is called the loss coefficient method. With this method, the pressure lc'ss through a duct (or pipe) fitting is expressed as follows:
Hf=CxH,.= Cx

(~)2 4000

(8.11 )

Solution From Figure 8.23, the equivalent round duct diameter to a 20 in. by 11 in. rectangular duct is 16 in. Using Figure 8.21, the friction loss for this duct at 3000CFM is
H/100 ft =0.37 in. w.

where

HI = total pressure loss through fitting, in. w.

C = a loss coefficient
Hv = velocity pressure at fitting, in. w.
V = velocity, ft/min Some values of C for various duct fittings are shown in Tables 8.4-8.8. Example 8.21 A 900 smooth radius elbow without vanes has the dimensions shown in Figure·8.25. It has 1500 CFM flowing through it. Find the pressure loss through the fitting.

and for 50 ft is

". 0 37
HI = - '- x50=0.19 in. w. 100
The friction loss is actually
Hf = 1.75 - 1.63 = 0.12 in. w.

and therefore the riu", is supplyin~ less than 3000 CFM. The actual conditions are

222

CHAPTER 8

TABLE 8.4

LOSS COEFFICIENTS, ELBOWS Use the velocity pressure (H") of the upstream section. Fitting loss (H,) = C x H"

A. Elbow, Smooth Radius (Die Stamped), Round

Coefficients for 90 Elbows' (See Note)

0

RID
! ! I \

1

0.5 0.71

0.75 0.33

1.0 0.22

C
.

1

I

1

1.5 0.15

2.0 0.13

I 2.5
I
0.12

~.~ ( ,'.....l:\
o

I

R

Note: For angles other than 90" multiply by the following factur:;:

e
K

180 0 0.45 0.60
lAO

-....::..

B. Elbow, Round, 3 to 5 pc - 90 0

Coefficient C

No.
of

RID
0.5

Pieces

0.75 0.46
0.50

1.0
0.33

1.5 0.24 0.27 0.34

2.0 0.19 0.24 0.33

5 4

-

0.37
0.42

I I(
c.

3

0.98

0.54

o

Elbow, Round, Mitered

Coefficient C

90°

1.2

D. Elbow, Rectangular, Mitered
Coefficient C

e
20° 30° 45° 60° 75° 90°

H/W

2.0 0.G7 0.15 0.31 0.49 0.73 . l.l
3.0

0.25 0.08 0.18
0.38

0.5 0.08 0.17 0.37 0.59 0.87
1.3

0.75 0.08 0.17 0.36 0.57 0.84

1.0 0.07 0.16
0.34

1.5 0.Q7 0.15 0.33 0.52 0.77 l.l

4.0 0.06 0.13
0.27

5.0 0.05
0.12

6.0 0.05
0.12

8.0
0.05

0.06 0.13 0.28 0.46 0.67 0.98

0.11
0.24

0.26 0041 0.61 0.89

0.25
0.39

0.60 0.89 1.3

0.55 0.81
1.2

0043

0.38
0.57
0.83

0.63
0.92

0.58 0.85

1.2

FLUID FLOW IN PIPING AND DUCTS
TABLE 8.4 (Continued)

223

E. Elbow, Rectangular, Smooth Radius without Vanes
Coefficients for 90° elbows' (See Note) R!W 0.25
/

HIW

0.5 1.4 0.52 0.25 0.20 0.18

0.75

1.0 1.2 0.44 0.21 0.17 0.15

1.5
1.I

2.0 1.0 0.39

3.0 1.0 0.39 0.18 0.14 0.13

4.0

5.0 1.1 0.42 0.20 0.16 0.14

6.0 1.2 0.43 0.27 0.17 0.15

8.0 1.2 0.44 0.21 0.17 0.15

0.5 0.75 1.0 1.5 2.0

1.5 0.57 0.27 0.22 0.20

1.3
0.48 0.23 0.19 0.16

1.1
0.40 0.19 0.15 0.14

/

I

0.40 0.19 0.15 0.14

~R

O.IS
0.14 0.13

F. Elbow, Rectangular, Mitered with Turning Vanes

·'.ow.~ ~[i1
. R
Trailing edge

1

SINGLE THICKNESS VANES
Dimensions. inches *No. Coeff.
L

R
2.0 4.5 4.5

S
1.5 2.25 3.25

C
0.12 0.15 0.18

It
2 3

0.75

0
1.60

H~

*Numbers are for reference only.

I

~I

-i-When extension of trailing edge is not provided for this vane. losses are approximately unchanged for single elbows. but increase considerably for elbows in serio;;'s.

DOUBLE THICKNESS VANES
Coefficient C *No. 1 2 3 4 Dimensions. in.
Velocity (V), fpm

Remarks 4000 0.17 0.23 0.24 0.16
Embossed Vane Runner

R
2.0 2.0 2.0 4.5

S
1.5 1.5 2.13 3.25

1000 0.27 0.33 0.38 0.26

2000 0.22 0.29 0.31 0.21

3000 0.19 0.26 0.27 0.18

Push-On Vane Runner
Embossed Vane Runner

Embossed Vane Runner

*Numbers are for reference only.

Reprinted with permission from the SMACNA HVAC Systems - Duct Design manual. Second Edition, 1981.

~

....

224

CHAPTER 8

TABLE 8.5 LOSS COEFFICIENTS, TRANSITIONS (DIVERGING FLOW) Use the velocity pressure (Hv) of the upstream section. Fitting loss (Ht) = C x Hv

A. Transition, Round, Conical
V
Coefficient C (See Note)

R"
0.5 x HJ'

8
AlIA

16" 2 4 6 10
~16

2()" 0.19

3()"

45" 0.33 0.61 0.66

6()"

9()"

120" 0.31 0.63 0.73

18()"

0.14

0.32 0.46 0.48 0.59
0.60 0.23 0.36 0.44 0.43 0.52 0.12 0.38 0.46 052 0.56

0.33 0.68
0.77 0.80 0.88 0.27 0.59 0.70 0.80 0.87 0.27 0.56 0.69

0.32
0.64 0.74 0.83 0.88 0.27 0.59 0.71 0.81 0.87 0.27 0.58 0.71 0.83

0.30
0.62 0.72 0.83

0.23
0.27

0.30
0.33 0.38 0.38 0.12 0.18 0.28 0.24 0.28 0.07 0.24 0.29

0.29
0.31 0.07 0.15 0.19 0.20 0.21 0.05 0.17 0.16 0.21 0.21

0.76
0.84 0.28

0.84
0.88

A
:2 x 105

0.88
0.26 0.57 0.69 0.81 0.87 0.27 0.57 0.70 0.83

2 4 6 10
2::16

0.27
0.58 0.71 0.81 0.87

0.55
0.90 0.76 0.76 0.27 0.51 0.60 0.60 0.72

When: Re= 8.56 DV where:

e = 180

0

;::6 x lOS

2 4 6 10
2::16

0.27
0.58

0.70 0.84
0.87

D = Upstream diameter (inches) V = Upstream velocity (fpm)

0.33 0.34

0.76 0.79

0.85

0.89

B. Transition, Rectangular, Pyramidal

Coefficient C (See Note I)

AlIA
16" 2 4 6
2:10

8
20"
0.22 0.43 0.47 0.49 3()" 0.25 45" 6()" 0.31 0.61 0.72 0.80 90" 12()" n.33 0.63 180" 0.30

0.18 0.36 0.42

0.29
0.56 0.68 0.70

0.32
0.63 0.76 0.87

0.50 0.58 0.59

0.63
0.75
0.86

0.76 0.85

0.42

i
Note: A = Area (Entering airstream), A I = Area (Leaving airstream)
.j

When:

e''';

180 0

Reprinted with permission from the SMACNA HVAC Systems ---..,. Duct Design manual. Second Edition, 1981.

FLUID FLOW IN PIPING AND DUCTS
TABLE 8.6

225

LOSS COEFFICIENTS, TRANSITIONS (CONVERGING FLOW) Use the velocity pressure (Hv) of the downstream section. Fitting loss (H,) = C x Hv

A. Contraction, Round and Rectangular, Gradual to Abrupt
Coefficient C (See Note)

e
AlIA

10" 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05

15"-40" 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.05

50"·60" 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.08

90" O.lZ 0.17 0.18 0.19

120" 0.18 0.27 0.Z8 0.Z9

150" 0.Z4 0.35 0.36 0.37

1800

2 4 6
10

0.26 0.41 0.42 0.43

A

When: 0 = 180 0
Note: A = Area (Entering airstream), A I = Area (Leaving airstream)

Reprinted with permission from the SMACNA HVAC Systems - Duct Design manual. Second Edition, 1981.

Solution The loss coefficient is found in Table 8.4e. Referring to Figure 8.25
H 12 R 16 - = - = 1.5' - = - = 2.0 W 8 'w 8

The duct cross-sectional area and velocity are I ft 2 A = 12 in. x 8 in. x ----== 0.667 ft2 144 in. z ft3 I V = 1500 -.- x - - - - 0 = 2250 ftlmin mm 0.667 ftUsing Equation 8.11, the pressure loss is

From Table 8.4e C=0.14

2250)Z HI = 0.14 ( 4000 = 0.04 in. w.

Figure 8.25
Sketch for Example 8.21.

,

-/"----~
/

Dr=8in.

R=16 in.

The pressure loss in transition pieces is calculated in the same manner. With converging transitions, the downstream velocity is used, and with diverging transitions, the upstream velocity is used.

226

CHAPTER 8

TABLE 8.7 LOSS COEFFICIENTS, CONVERGING JUNCTIONS Use the velocity pressure (Hv) of the downstream section. Fitting loss (H,) = C x Hv

A. Converging Tee, Round Branch to Rectangular Main
Branch Coefficient C (See Note)

Vo
< 1200fpm > 1200 [pm

QJQo
0.1 -.63 -.49 0.2 -.55 -.21 0.3 0.13 0.23 0.4 0.23 0.60 0.5 0.78 1.27 0.6 1.30 2.06 0.7 1.93 2.75 0.8 3.10 3.70 0.9 4.88 4.93 1.0 5.60 5.95

I

When:

.i

AJA,
0.5

I A,/Ao I 1.0

AJAo
0.5

B. Converging Tee, Rectangular Main and Branch

Branch Coefficient C (See Note)

V,
< 1200 fpm

QJQ,
0.1 -.75 -.69 0.2 -.53 -.21 0.3 -.03 0.23 0.4 0.33 0.67 0.5 1.03 1.17 0.6 1.10 1.66 0.7 2.15 2.67 0.8 2.93 3.36 0.9 4.18 3.93 1.0 ·1.78
5.13

> 1200 fpm

When:

AJA,
0.5

A,/A,

AJAo
0.5

1.0

Note: A

=Area (sq. in.), Q =Air flow (cfm), V =Velocity (fpm)

C. Converging Tee, 45° Entry Branch to Rectangular Main
When: At!As

AiAc
1.0

AllAc

0.5

0.5

Branch Coefficient C (See NOle)

Yo

QJQo
0.1 -.83 -.72 0.2 -.68 -.52 0.3 -.30 -.23 0.4 0.28 0.34 0.5 0.55 0.76 0.6 1.03 1.14 0.7 1.50 1.83 0.8 1.93 2.01 0.9 2.50 2.90 1.0 3.03 3.63

< 1200 {pm > 1200 {pm

,.------; -

FLUID FLOW IN PIPING AND DUCTS

227

TABLE 8.7 (Continued)
D. Converging Wye, Rectangular

R W =1.0
A"IA,

Branch, Coefficient (See Note)

At/A<;;

Q"IQ<

0.1 -.50 -1.2 -.50 -1.0 -2.2 -.60 -1.2 -2.1

0.2 0 -.40 -.20 -.60 -1.5 -.30 -.80 -1.4

0.3 0.50 0.40 0 -.20 -.95 -.10 -.40 -.90

0.4 1.2 1.6 0.25 0.10 -.50 -.04 -.20 -.50

0.5 2.2 3.0 0.45 0.30 0 0.13 0 -.20

0.6 3.7 4.8 0.70 0.60 0.40 0.21 0.16
J)

0.7 5.8 6.8 1.0 1.0 0.80 0.29 0.24 0.20

0.8 8.4 8.9
1.5

0.9
II II

0.25 0.33 05 0.67 1.0 1.0 1.33 2.0

0.25 0.25' 0.5 0.5 0.5 1.0 1.0 1.0

2.0 2.0 1.9 0.42 0.38 0.30

1.5
1.3

0.36 0.32
0.25

Main, Coefficient C (See Note)

AJA c

Q"IQ<

At/Ac

0.1 0.30 0.17 0.27 1.2 0.18 0.75 0.80

0.2 0.30 0.16 0.35
1.1

0.3 0.20 0.10 0.32 0.90 0.27 0.38 0.80

0.4 -.10 0 0.25 0.65 0.26 0.35 0.68

0.5 -.45 -0.08 0.12 0.35 0.23 0.27 0.55

0.6

0.7 -1.5 -.27 -.23 -.40 0.10 0.05 0.25

0.8 -2.0 -.37
-.42

0.9 -2.6 -..l6 -.58

0.75 1.0 0.75 0.5 1.0 0.75 0.5

0.25 0.5 0.5 0.5 1.0 1.0 1.0

-.92
-.18
-.03

0 0.18 0.18 0.40

-.80 0 -.08 0.08

-1.3
-.12

0.24 0.36 0.87

-.22 -.10

Reprinted with permission from the SMACNA HVAC Systems - Duct Design manual. Second Edition, 1981.

Example 8.22 The diverging transition piece in Figure 8.26 is handling 12,000 CFM. Find the pressure loss through the fitting. Solution From Table 8.5b;·with AliA Using Equation 8.11,
Figure 8.26 Sketch for Example 8.22.

= 2.0, read C = 0.25.

ft3 1 V= 12,000 x - - 2 = 1500ftlmin min 8 ft
Hf = 0.25(1500)2 = 0.04 in. w.

4000

.

TABLE 8.8 LOSS COEFFICIENTS, DIVERGING JUNCTIONS Use the velocity pressure (Hv) of the upstream section. Fitting loss (H,) = C x Hv
A. Tee, 45° Entry, Rectangular Main and Branch
Branch Coefficient C (See Note)

V.,IV,
0.1 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 0.91 0.81 0.77 0.78 0.78 0.90 1.19 1.35 1.44 0.79 0.72 0.73 0.98 1.11 1.22 1.42 1.50 0.70 0.69 0.85 1.16 1.26 1.55 1.75 0.2 0.3

Q.,IQ,
0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

0.66 0.79 1.23 1.29 1.59 1.74 0.74 1.03 1.54 1.63 1.72 0.86 1.25 1.50 2.24 0.92 1.31 1.63 1.09 1.40
1.17

B. Tee, 45° Entry, Rectangular Main and Branch with Damper
Branch Coefficient C (See Note)

VtlVc
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8

Q.,IQ,
0.1 0.61 0.46 0.43 0.39 0.34 0.37 0.57 0.89 1.33 0.61 0.50 0.43 0.57 0.64 0.71 1.08 1.34 0.54 0.62 0.77 0.85 1.04 1.28 2.04 0.53 0.73 0.98 1.16 1.30 1.78 0.68 1.07 1.54 1.69 1.90 0.83 1.36 2.09 2.40 1.18 1.81 2.77 1.47 2.23 1.9: 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8
0.9

Note: A = Area (sq. in.), Q = Air flow (cfm), V = Velocity (fpm)

C. Tee, Rectangular Main and Branch
Branch Coefficient C (See Note)

V.,IV,
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8

Q.,IQ,
0.1 1.03 1.04 1.11 1.16 1.38 1.52 1.79 2.07 2.32 1.01 1.03 1.21 1.40 1.61 2.01 2.28 . 2.54 1.05 1.17 1.30 1.68 1.90 2.13 2.64 1.12 1.36 1.91 2.31 2.71 3.09 1.27 1.47 2.28 2.99 3.72 1.66 2.20 2.81 3.48 1.95 2.09 2.21 2.20 2.29 2.57 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7

.

0.8

0.9

i

!
j

228

-:;

,

TABLE 8.8

(Continued)

D. Tee, Rectangular Main and Branch with Damper
Branch. Coefficient C (See Note)

Vt/V,
0.1 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 0.58 0.67 0.78 0.88 l.l2 1.49 2.10 2.72 3.42 0.64 0.76 0.98 1.05 1.48 2.21 3.30 4.58 0.75 0.81 1.08 1.40
1.25 :2.84 3.65

Q,IQ,
0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

LOI 1.18 I.51 2.29 3.09 3.92 1.29 1.70 2.32 3.30 4.20 1.91 2.48 3.19 4.15
2.53

3.29 4.14

3.16 4.10
4.05

E. Tee, Rectangular Main and Branch with Extractor
Branch Coefficient C (See Note)

Vt/V,
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8

Q,IQ,
0.1 0.60 0.62 0.74 0.99 1.48 1.91 2.47 3.17 3.85 0.69 0.80 1.10 l.l2 1.33 1.67 2.40 3.37 0.82 0.95 1.41 1.43 1.70
2.33 2.89

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

0.90 1.24 1.52 2.04 2.53 3.23
.

1.21 1.55 1.86 2.31 3.09 1.64 1.98 2.51 3.03
2.47

3.13 3.30

3.25

3.7-1

4.11

Main Coefficient C (See Note)

Vt/V,
C

0.2 0.03

0.4 0.04

0.6 0.07

0.8 0.12

1.0 0.13

1.2 0.14

1.4
0.27

1.6 0.30

1.8
0.25

F. Tee, Rectangular Main to Round Branch
Branch Coefficient C (See Note)

vtlVc
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8

Q,IQ,
0.1 1.00 1.01 l.l4 l.l8 1.30 1.46 1.70 1.93 2.06 1.07 l.l0 1.31 1.38 1.58 1.82 2.06 2.17 1.08 1.12 1.20 1.45 1.65 2.00 2.20 l.l3 1.23 I.31 . 1.51 1.85 2.13 1.26 1.39 1.56 1.70 2.06 1.48 1.64 1.76 1.98 1.71 1.80 1.99 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7

-

0.8

0.9

1.88 2.00 2.07

229

03 0.12 0.35 0.5 0.48 0.60 0.62 0.48 O.25 0.28 0.6 0.23 11.1 1.06 -.0 At/A.26 0.2 0.52 0.30 0.5 1.8 0.1 0.2-10.33 0.5 0.0 1.06 - 0.1 8 0.05 O.4 0.27 0.1 0.05 -.25 0.50 0.29 0.33 2.05 -.W O.85 0.29 0.01 -.25 0.44 0.09 0.9 OA6 O.01 0 -.42 0.40 0.0 Qt/Q.21 ~ =1.2 -.33 2.70 0.92 1.13 Qt/Q. 0.67 0.0 1.2 0.3~ 0.0 1.02 0.0 1.3 1.4 0.0 1.10 0. 0.35 0.5 1.10 Reprinted with permission from the SMACNA HVAC System.0 1. IffJ ) .3 0.~ 1.13 0.3 3.5 0.75 0.8 0.25 0.01 0.t 0.0 1.230 CHAPTER 8 (Continued) TABLE 8.29 0.3.0 1.67 1.1 2.01 -.48 -.01 0.I~ 0.41 0.50 0.38 0.29 0.08 O.D lief Design manual.92 0.0 5.q 0. C 0.78 0.8 0.8 G.62 0. L"' 0.16 0.23 0.08 -.0 0.04 0.0 -.52 0.6 Qb 1.40 0.02 0.37 0.80 0.17 0.33 0.6 1.35 0.1 H.0 1.W O.7 3. 1.. Coefficient C (See Note) v.5 0.90 1.8 4. 0.02 0.33 0.5 1.17 Main Coefficient C (See Note) At/A.0 At/A.25 0.04 0.0 031 0.55 0.50 0. Rectangular (15) Branch Coefficient C (See Note) At/A.68 0.03 0.5 0.4 1. .72 -.5 1.06 -.62 0.30 0..46 0. Second Edition.0 90' Branch 0.04 0 0.37 0.19 0.25 0.0 1.13 -.52 0.08 030 038 030 lL20 0.04 0.01 0.10 0.4 0.60 0.26 037 0.38 0. 0.43 0.5 0.44 0. 1981.01 0.02 -.05 0.83 0.03 0.67 1.3 -.v. Tee Rectangular Main to Conical Branch (2) Branch.28 -.06 -.38 0.1 0.03 0 -.5 1. 0.03 0.38 0.80 0. 0.8 2.51 0.32 0.22 0.21 0.9 6.60 0.20 0..5 0.60 0. Wye.30 0.15 1.55 0.40 0.40 0.7 0.2-1- 0.

23 The total pressure at point I for the fitting in Example 8. and the value of each depends on the shape. The following example illustrates this. In this case. The more gradual a transition or change in direction in a fitting. The pressure loss due to friction (HI)' however.( 4000 )2 2.21 in. In order to reduce the fabrication cost of fittings. the higher the recovery factor will be. the theoretical SPR would be SPR = 0. as defined in Section 8. If it is important to minimize losses. and the branch pressure loss can be calculated as an elbow.21 = 0. Example 8. they are often made as shown in Figure 8.27.70 0. and static pressure (Hs). The total pressure at point 2 is therefore H/2 = HII .).35 - ( 1500)2 4000 = 2.g. The proportion of actual to theoretical SPR is 0.32 . This results in a lower fan power to overcome these losses and a resultant savings in energy: Often however.35 in. the pressure loss through the branch may be considerable. w. Using Equation 8. the static pressure at point I is Hsl = H'I - Hvl = 2. as well as a profile of the pressure changes in the fitting. Figure 8.22 to be HI = 0.3. 1 2 Hv ----- To put this another way.28.g. w. If there was no frictional pressure.5.23. w. If there had been no frictional pressure loss. Also. w. The net result of the two effects (conversion of pressure and the frictional pressure loss) on the static pressure is found by algebraically summing them up.5.07 R=-=. the pressure loss in the straight main run and in the branch are separate. The actual regain was SPR = Hs2 . there will be less of a frictional loss.4 and 8.35 - 0.23 illustrates a case of static pressure regain (SPR).27 Sketch for Example 8. w.28 - 2.03 = 0.g.32 in. Example 8.22 is 2.10 in. which shows the results of the calculations following. The frictional pressure loss was found in Example 8. velocity pressure (Hv). Find the static pressure at point I and the total and static pressure at point 2.Hsl = 2. Solution Refer to Figure 8.07 + 0.28 in.g. the total pressure would remain the same. w. we discussed total pressure (H. w. this more gradual fitting will be more expensive to fabricate. the decrease in velocity pressure would exactly equal the increase in static pressure. resulting in an increase in static pressure. the pressure loss· through the straight run can usually be neglected.29. In this case.FLUID FLOW IN PIPING AND DUCTS 231 In Sections 8. that is. causes a decrease in total pressure. It was noted that for flow through a diverging transition. 70% of the preSSure loss in the fitting is recovered. Where there is a combined transition and branch in a duct system.03 in.HI = 2.03 = 2. 750 The static pressure at point 2 is Hs2 = H/2 = Hv2 = 2. particularly at high velocities.07 in.10 R is the recovery factor. the shape should be as shown in Figure 8. = . velocity pressure is converted to static pressure.

4 OA 0. 1981.29 Branch with high pressure loss. the value of which depends on the shape of the fan-duct connection.0 0 20 50 1.8 0.= 0. A list of system effects can be found in the Air Moving and Conditioning Association (AMCA) Manuals. This is called the system effect.7 0.9.28 Branch with low pressure loss.9.30(b). using Equation 8. Note the greatly increased pressure loss with the poor connection.24 A contractor installs the inlet connection to a fan as shown in Figure 8. TABLE 8.2 0.= 0.30(a) instead of as shown in Figure 8. A further discussion of recommended duct fitting construction can be found in Chapter 9.25 0. 4000 ?000)2 Good Hj = 0.2 and C = 0.9 Example 8.. An inspection of the types of connections in Table 8.14 PRESSURE LOSS AT FAN INLET AND OUTLET There will also be a pressure loss at the fan inlet and outlet. lOSS COEFFICIENTS (C) FOR STRAIGHT ROUND DUCT FAN INLET CONNECTIONS Length. ( 4000 .232 CHAPTER 8 . w.06 in. The pressure loss for each. Figure 8. resulting in wasted energy.< Figure 8.7 0. is Poor Hf 2000)2 .5 0. What is the pressure loss inlet to the fan in each case') Solution From Table 8. Second Edition.2 (.9 will show the importance of considering the system effect and of installing fans with good connections.75 1.3 0. Some values of the resulting loss coefficient C are shown in Table 8.30 tn. 8..20 Reprinted with permission from the SMACNA HVAC System-Duct Design manual.3 1. . of duct inlet loss coefficient C length of Inlet in Diameters RJO 0. w.11.25 for the poor and good connection.0 3. we read the values of C = 1.0 2.6 1. = 1.25 . The fan inlet velocity is 2000 ftlmin.

.31 Sketch for Example 8. The manufacturer will furnish this data. It is better to work with total pressure loss rather than static pressure loss when analyzing duct pressure losses. and balance air quantities.. .g.-..... diffusers) must be included.30 Sketch for Example 8. w.70' ----+-1 (4000 CFM) 9 x 13 30" t G t H t FT 10' . The pressure losses for the straight ducts and fittings are read from the appropriate tables.25 For the duct system shown in Figure 8.20 in.24. w.--.5 (1000) Typical branch take-off t .. and the outlet loss is 0. path XABCDEF is the longest. filters. 8. This gives a better understanding of the total pressure available at any point in case problems exist.15 DUCT SYSTEM PRESSURE LOSS The duct pressure losses must be found in order to determine fan capacity. (b) Long straight inlet duct.25.1 in. determine the system total pressure loss and fan requirements. but it has been found that the system effect inlet loss is 0.---. The fan inlet and outlet connections are not shown... T~ 50' . (3000) 24x13 x 13" B t 20' C 9x 13 J (2000) 17x13 9 x 13 D -.FLUID FLOW IN PIPING AND DUCTS 233 Fan Fan (a) (b) Figure 8... .L 13 x 13 E 1 Note: All elbows have R/W ~ 1. It is also the path with the greatest pressure loss.08 in.. w. This path is often the longest one.. Example 8..90' . Solution From inspection of the duct layout. because none of the shorter paths have unusual pressure losses. To find the system total pressure loss. the losses are summed up for each section of straight duct and each fitting in the path chosen. Pressure losses through any equipment (coils. ' .-.31. The total pressure required at each air outlet for proper distribution is 0. (1000) (1000) (1000) I A I. jl-< <--.. The system total pressure loss is defined as the total pressure loss through the duct path that has the largest pressure losses.I~. check equipment performance. The results Figure 8.50' --~. but it may be a shorter path that contains an unusual number of fittings or devices with large pressure losses.-.. (a) No straight inlet duct.

20 . Example 8. in. quired (0. because the total pressure can be found anywhere in the duct.08 .19(1700)2 = 0. 4000 For duct BG H/100 ft Duct HI 100 = 0.48 in. HIW = 0.g.w.~> '-" . w.1 in. = 0.48 = 0.17 90 0.09 1000 13 x 13 14 852 0. w.02 in. The pressure loss XAB has already been found.10.07 .2 in. w.. 4000 30x 13 21 1477 1477 1385 1385 1303 1303 0. w. The solution to the excess pressure at the outlet in Example 8. w.) required at the air outlet. Section X A AB B Item Fan inlet Fan outlet Duct Diverging transitions Duct Diverging transitions Duct Diverging transitions Duct Elbow Outlet FPM Friction Loss/100 ft. There is a complaint about drafts near outlet G. The diverging transitions have a negligible pressure loss due to the gradual transformation and relatively low velocities. The fan selected for the system would be specified for a total pressure of 0.79 in. in.0. V.26 might be handled by partially closing a damper in the branch duct.5.25 is also valuable in solving balancing problems. Therefore.03 in.26.w. in.09 C CD D DEF E F 2000 17 x 13 16 0.03 + 0. This pressure is much greater than the pressure re.19 Elbow Hf = 0.2 x (~) = 0.02 The fan total pressure is 0. w.g. in. w. From Table 8. = 0.17 50 0 .18 50 0 .1 in. C Velocity Pressure loss. The total pressure loss in this path is therefore XABG Hf = 0.79 .31 in.. .20 + 0.10 SUMMARY OF RESULTS FOR EXAMPLE 8.43 + 0. Press. in.17 .) and will result in excess air at uncomfortable velocities being delivered through outlet G.25 Flow Rate.234 CHAPTERS TABLES. w.08 + 0.g.15 =' 0.15 0 ~ ( 11 .25 is installed in Governor Jawbone's offices.26 The system in Example 8.10 Total system pressure loss = 0.g. For the transition elbow at B.10 it is XAB Hf The pressure loss from B to G is now found. The pressure loss is calculated now through path XABG.01 .43 in. BC 3000 24 x 13 19 0. If RIW = 1.79 are listed in Table 8. the total pressure in the duct at outlet Gis· H'G = 0. What is the trouble? Solution We will find the total pressure at outlet G and check it against the value (0. CFM Duct Size.09 80 . Each item should be checked by the student.g.7. C=0. as shown in Example 8.79 in. The method used in Example 8. if one had been installed. ft Loss Coeff. Equivalent Round.w. w. w. Length. = 0.

FLUID FLOW IN PIPING AND DUCTS 235 This might create noise problems. Reprinted with permission from the 1967 Systems and Equipment ASHRAE Handbook & Product Directory.16 DUCT DESIGN METHODS In the previous section. The corresponding friction loss rates may be as high as 0.llOO ft of duct. A better solution would be to design the duct system so that excess pressures are dissipated in duct friction losses. FPM Schools. Typical ranges of design equal friction loss rates used for low velocity systems are from 0. other velocities are for net free area. Theaters. sound attenuation devices and duct sound lining can be used if needed. Duct systems for HVAC installations may be loosely classified into low velocity and high veloc- ity groups. High velocity duct systems are primarily used to reduce overall duct sizes. However. although these are not strictly separate categories. Procedures for doing this will be explained shortly. The friction loss rate is chosen to result in an economical balance between duct cost and energy cost. however. The noise produced at the high velocities requires special sound attenuation.6 in. The higher pressures result in certain special features of these systems. The ducts and fans must be constructed to· withstand the higher pressures. In designing a new system. w. not the net free area.15 in. 8.08 to 0. . FPM Schools.11). In many large installations. Public Buildings Maximum Velocities. w. Theaters. however. the same value friction loss rate per length of duct is used to size each section of duct in the system. the equal friction method and the static regain method. High velocity duct systems are designed with initial velocities from about 2500 FPM to as high as about 4000 FPM. The following example illustrates duct sizing by the equal friction method.11 SUGGESTED VELOCITIES IN LOW VELOCITY AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS Recommended Velocities. Equal Friction Method With this method. space limitations (above hung ceilings. Public Buildings Designation Outside air intakesll Residences Industrial Buildings Residences Industrial Buildings Filters" Heating coils" Air washers -Suction connections Fan outlets Main ducts Branch ducts Branch risers II -~- 500 250 450 500 700 1000-1600 700-900 600 500 500 300 500 500 800 1300-2000 1000-1300 600-900 600-700 500 350 600 500 1000 1600-2400 1200-1800 ·800-1000 800 800 300 500 500 900 1700 800-1200 700-1000 650-800 900 350 600 500 1000 1500-2200 1100-1600 800-1300 800-1200 1200 350 700 500 1400 1700-2800 1300-2200 1000-1800 1000-1600 These velocities are for total face area. the duct sizes must be determined first.ll00 ft. we explained how to find the pressure losses in ducts after their sizes were known. in shafts) make it impossible to use the larger ducts resulting from low velocity systems. Two methods of sizing ducts will be explained here. A higher friction loss results in smaller ducts but higher fan operating costs. TABLE 8. Maximum velocities in the main duct at the fan outlet are limited where noise generation is a problem (see Table 8.

in the range of 2500-4000 FPM. using Table 8.12.5 in.32 Sketch for Example 8. 5. If the outlets closest to the fan are on long separate branches. the appropriate procedure would be to find the total equivalent length of the system. using the equal friction design method. The result may cause difficulties in balancing the flow rates and possibly excess noise.27. 500 500 400 500 CFM With systems that use package air conditioning units. With this method. Use rectangular ducts. This was demonstrated in Example 8. In reality. The equal friction method of designing ducts is quite simple and is probably the most popular one used. C 60' D E F Static Regain Method The static regain method of sizing ducts is most. 3. Sum up the CFMs backward from the last outlet. w. but some branches are chosen at a higher friction loss rate thus using up the excess pressure. The equivalent round duct diameter is read as 20. For systems that do not have great distances between the first and the last outlets. From Figure 8. Select a design velocity for the main from the fan. it works quite satisfactorily. After the initial velocity is chosen. the friction loss rate for the main section AB is read as 0. A velocity of 1400 ftlmin.13 in. the static regain method of duct design may also be used.!100 ft) and the CFM for the section.21. those near the fan will be over-pressured. the available pressure to overcome the friction loss is limited to the external pressure that the fan in the unit can develop. the duct proportions chosen would depend on space available. this problem may be overcome by modifying the equal friction design method. Return air ducts are usually in the low velocity category. often used for high velocity systems with long duct runs. however.23.27 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Find the size of each duct section for the system shown in Figure 8. 2. The results are shown in Table 8. The pressure loss in the system can be calculated as shown previously. Dividing the external fan pressure by the length will establish the maximum friction loss that can be used.236 CHAPTER 8 Example 8.13 in. The rectangular duct sizes are read from Figure 8. Return air ducts can be sized by the equal friction method in the same manner as supply air units. to find the CFM in each duct section.21 at the intersection of the design friction loss rate (0. especially in large installations. the velocities in each successive section of duct in the main run 70' r:--:":::"":B 80' G 60' H 60' J 400 300 500 . 4. In the actual installation. Solution 1. The equivalent round duct diameter for each duct section is read from Figure 8.11. The system serves a public building. this limitation seldom occurs. 6. an initial velocity in the main duct leaving the fan is selected. If there are long distances between the outlets at the beginning and the end of the system.!100 ft. w.32. which should be reasonably quiet for the application. The longest run is sized by the design friction loss rate. To reduce extreme pressure differences throughout the system. will be chosen. In this case. since package units are mostly used with systems of relatively short duct length.26. even if the supply ducts are of the hig~ velocity type. Figure 8.

in.56 x 5MOO = 0. There will not be a complete regain.13 0.13 0. Let us try a velocity of 2400 ftlmin. w. so the noise level will not determine the maximum velocity. 237 Section CFM V.13 0. 100 ft x 40 ft =0. per 100 ft Rect. A trial-and-error procedure is necessary to balance the regain against the friction loss. We will assume a 75% regain factor for the fittings. the duct size and static pressure loss due to friction in section AB is determined.5 17 15 12. w. 1 AB BC CD DE EF BG GH HI 3100 1900 1400 900 500 1200 800 500 1240 1140 1050 900 889 1029 914 889 0. .12 SUMMARY OF RESULTS FOR EXAMPLE B. Figure 8.) An initial velocity of 3200 ftlmin will be chosen.13 0. due to dynamic losses in the transition at B. and therefore the friction loss in the section is 0.13 0. The following example illustrates how to size ducts by this method.28 Determine the duct sizes for the system shown in Figure 8.13. 2. Because of this.27 Friction Loss. From Figure 8. there generally will not be extreme differences in the pressures among the branch outlets. The steps are as follows: I.13 20. 3. w. in section Be. Round duct will be used.5 10 14 12 10 24x 15 20x 12 16 x 12 16 x9 9x9 14x 12 14 x9 9x9 are reduced so that the resulting static pressure gain is enough to overcome the frictional losses in the next duct section. in. Duct Size.33 Sketch for ExampleB. using the static regain method.FLUID FLOW IN PIPING AND DUCTS TABLE 8. in. The friction loss is Loss in BC = 0. Solution The results of the work are summarized in Table 8. (This system is a high velocity system. each . so balancing is simplified.2B. A velocity in the initial section is selected. The result is that the static pressure is the same at each junction in the main run. The friction loss per 100 ft is 0. ftlmin Eq.28 in. ABC t. Example 8.56 in.32 in. Sound attenuating devices must be used.50'-+1-40'-+1-30'-+1-35'--+ 4 diffusers 2000 CFM D E ~~--~Q~--~O~--~O~--~Q .21. The velocity must be reduced in Section BC so that the static pressure gain will be equal to the friction loss in Be.13 in.13 0.13 0. w. w.D.33.

:'. w. [( 4000 4000 5..75 . '.com www. For systems at high velocities.09 0.com 3200)2 Regain at B = 0. The trial-and-error process at D results in a duct size of 15 in..(2200)2] 4000 =0..trane.16 in.13 SUMMARY OF RESULTS FOR EXAMPLE 8.56 0.w. w... in. if the equal friction method had been used. 4..09········ The static pressure regain available to overcome this loss. C 0.. The result of this method is that the static pressure in the duct at outlets B... The results are Loss m CD = . this method is recommended.w. C. w.16 . and E will be the same. This trial is satisfactory.9.com www.·. 'i TABLE 8. the static pressure at B would be considerably higher than at E. Try a velocity of 2600 ft/min. 0.!100 ft Friction Length.. .64 0. . Velocity Pressure. using Equation 8. in. Computer software is available for all popular duct sizing methods. w. Continue the same procedure at transition e Let us try a velocity of 2200 ft/min.com www. however. D.18 0.. w. for section DE. The regain at B is precisely enough to overcome the loss in section Be The duct size of BC is 21 in.10 in.. Assuming that these outlets all required the same static pressure for proper air distribution..16 in.43 0. ..elitesoft.33 0. ··'·'··1'·'. w..fVmin Eq. in. loss.. D. .." . AB B BC C CD D DE 8000 6000 4000 2000 3200 2600 2200 1700 22 21 18 15 0.carrier.40 in.40 0.26 50 40 30 35 0 16 0. On the other hand.com www.. the static regain procedure provided duct sizes that will reduce air balanc· ing difficulties. 0.10 .. w.. These programs can save con· siderable time.30 0. One disadvantage of the static regain method of duct design is that it usually results in a system with some of the duct sections larger than those found by the equal friction method.33 in.. Regain at C= 0... w.. No further trial is needed....09 in.... ft Static Pressure Regain. The duct size is 18 in. x 30 ft 100 ft = 0.~ Section CFM V. w. is 3200)2 .21 in. in.carmelsoft.28 in..75 [(4000 4000 = 0. LossmB = x40ft 100 ft = 0. The reader should check this. . 0 09 0.75 [(2600)2 4000 .28 Friction Loss. This is too large a regain. This first guess is satisfactory. causing air outlet balancing problems. especially if the static regain method is used.wrightsoft. Useful Websites The following sites have soft· ware programs that calculate pipe or duct pressure drops and sizes: www. in CD. the equal friction duct sizing method is generally used. -(2600)2] -= 0.· 238 CHAPTER 8 ".-(2400)2] -Regain at B = 0. For return air duct systems. 0.

35.=100psig t___ _ FigureB.34.2 8. To avoid excess noise the maximum velocity of air allowed in the duct is 1750 ft/min. pipe has water flowing through it at 4 FPM._-------------FLUID FWW IN PIPING AND DUCTS 239 Problems 8. deep duct has a flow rate of 18. What is the volume flow rate of air in the duct in CFM? A pipe with a cross-sectional area of 8.B. determine the pressure drop due to friction between points 1 and 2. The water leaves the condenser at atmospheric pressure and flows back to the river by gravity. What is the velocity in the 3 in. What is the required pump head? For the piping system shown in Figure 8. and condenser is 31 ft w. The condenser requires 920 GPM. For the piping system shown in Figure 8. It Figure B. The diameter is increased to 3 in.9 8.3 8.000 CFM of air.5 8.10 A hydronic cooling system has a pressure drop due to friction of 41 ft w. What should be the width of the new section? Cooling water is pumped from a river to a refrigeration machine condenser 80 ft above the pump intake.7 entering and leaving the system is the same. What would be the reading of the pressure gage at point 2? 8. 100 It --+-~----~--------------------- )]-+-----Jl -r 70 It 2 ~ . What is the water velocity in ft/sec? A duct is to be installed that will carry 3600 CFM of air.7. The depth of the duct is to be lOin. It is desired to reduce the velocity to 1800 ft/min. The friction loss through all of the piping. in psig? 8.36 Sketch for Problem 8.1 The average velocity of air flowing in a 24 by 18 in. The friction loss is 27 ft w. determine the required pump head. What would be the reading on a pressure gage at the pump suction.>---1_ . The pump discharge pressure is 83 ft w. For the piping system shown in Figure 8. section? A 42 in. The depth of the duct is fixed. The velocity of the water 8..34 Sketch to Problem B.6 Figure B.4 in? has 12 GPM of water flowing through it.8 8.g.9. valves." ' ___________________ P. P2 =63 psig 2 52 It 1 ----. fittings.35 Sketch for Problem B.4 8. the friction loss between points 1 and 2 is 18 ft w. The pressure gage at point 1 reads 23 psig. duct is 1300 ftlmin. if the pressure gages read as shown.36. What is the minimum width of the duct? A 2 in. wide by 20 in.

Schedule 40 steel pipe at a velocity of 4 fUsec. 1 Figure 8.5 ft w. per 100 ft. 8. size the piping by the constant friction loss method. 8. = 2000 It/min V2 = 1200 It/min '""'( I f ..20 Find the pressure drop through the cold water piping system shown in Figure 8. through which 1100 GPM is flowing. Schedule 40 steel pipe in a hydronic cooling system through which 200 GPM of water is flowing.12 The average velocity pressure in a 48 by 18 in. composed of Type L copper tubing.200' -----1·--11 Figure 8.38 Sketch for Problem 8.15 What would be the pressure loss in the piping in Problem 8.39 Sketch for Problem 8. What is the minimum pipe size that can be used? What is the actual friction loss? 8. 8..8. Schedule 40 steel pipe.21 Find the pressure drop through the condenser-cooling tower water system shown in Figure 8.g.17 Water flows through a clean 3 in.22 For the piping arrangement shown in Example 8.13. . It shall have a friction pressure loss no greater than 4 ft w.18 A Schedule 40 steel pipe is to be used to deliver 150 GPM to a cooling tower. . . Determine the flow rate inCFM.37.14 if it were in a hydronic heating system? 8.16. What is the flow rate and friction loss per 100 ft? 30GPM -'v1 Gate ':' Check t t 2" t t *""Gate ~18GPM t 1'/2" Globe ~2" -1 100' 1+-11f2" ~--------------~------------' V.14 Find the pressure loss due to friction and the velocity in a 250 ft straight section of 4 in. using a value of about 1...240 CHAPTER 8 '-1: -. if the friction loss is 2.23 For the piping arrangement shown in Example 8.38 has a recovery factor of 0. 8. with each unit circulating 6 GPM.20. 8.13 The duct transition shown in Figure 8. Type L copper tubing. cast iron globe valve through which 40 GPM is flowing in a hydronic heating system.. 8.19 Determine the pressure dropthrough a 1!6 in.." ~" '. ~ .16. -"_l'l --~ 8.40.16 Determine the friction loss per 100 ft of pipe for 10 GPM flowing through 1!4 in. 8. Determine the static pressure regain.39. between the points? 8.++--'---+--+ ~ = = V..'I ---w-+--. w.+-1. what is the pressure change from point 1 to 2. 8.5 in.11. per 100 ft. 8. composed of 8 in.. duct is 0. CD (2) 1100 It/min V2 2300 It/min Figure 8. w.300' -----+.37 Sketch for Problem 8.11 In the duct system shown in Figure 8.1 in.

20 in. at a Be DE 48" x 12" Fan f+..... All ducts shall be lOin. 8.75.6 in. The boiler has a pressure drop of 3 ft w..24 Determine the pressure drop in the piping system in Problem 8.43 by both the equal friction method and by the static region method. .. deep. What is the total pressure at this location? 8. Determine if the duct is supplying the proper air quantity. A f A 12"x 8" B 12" x 6" 1000 CFM 1000 CFM size the piping system. by 12 in.-:::~~:. w.29 Find the static pressure change from A to B in the duct shown in Figure 8.42 from the fan outlet at A to F and also to C. Assume a typical set of valves and auxiliaries.33 Size the rectangular ducts in the system shown in Figure 8.\ 1 Figure 8." . 8.. 241 Figure 8.25 Find the equivalent round diameter of a 36 in..32 Find the total pressure loss in the duct system shown in Figure 8. 50' ~---¥. The length of each branch is 12 ft. The pressure loss through each air outlet is 0. 8.g. What is the smallest round duct size that could be used? 8. per 100 ft.42 Sketch for Problem 8. Test readings on static pressure manometers 80 ft apart in a straight section of the duct read 2.-.32. by 12 in. w. at 4 ft w. without vanes. Find the friction loss per 100 ft and the velocity. rectangular duct.10 in.27 A straight length of duct 420 ft long has a flow rate of 2000 CFM of air.23.g. 8. galvanized duct is supposed to be delivering 5000 CFM.. using 'lYpe L copper tubing.29.21. Cooling tower I I I11III-I T 20 ft EL= 40 ft Condenser H~t---t><:t--( Check )]--1'4--1)<1--- I_ Globe Strainer 300 ft .FLUIDFWWINPIPINGANDDUCTS Figure 8.. by 14 in.28 Find the loss coefficient of a 30 in.. 8. 90° duct elbow with a mean radius of 12 in. assuming a recovery factor of 0.3 I A 24 in. w.41 Sketch for Problem 8.4 I... 8.------ 3 outlets 2500 CFM each certain location. If the elbow is carrying 5000 CFM. The friction loss in the duct must be limited to 1.90 in. and 1.+rF'-::':""'+rt-'=-~-=-. duct has a flow rate of 4000 CFM.30 A 24 by 12 in.40 Sketch for Problem 8. w..26 A 28 by 14 in. wh:u'is the pressure drop? 8.g. w. The static pressure is 3 in. galvanized steel duct has a flow rate of 5000 CFM of air.g. 8.

carmelsoft. 8. Compare the duct sizes and pressure drop found by the two methods. 8.14.15. Use both the equal friction and static regain methods.38 Solve Problems 8. Outlets have a pressure loss of O.com.34 Find the pressure drop in the duct system in Example 8.242 CHAPTER 8 ~A an • V=1800ft/min B C D 60' I 60' I 60' I 1500 CFM 1500CFM 1800 CFM Figure 8.35 Size the ducts in Example 8.33 using the duct sizing software program of www.36 Determine the pipe sizes and system pressure drop for the house in Problems 3.43 Sketch for Problem B. .20 and 5.27 using the duct sizing software program of www. Assume reasonable shapes of transitions and elbows.32 and 8.33.27. w. Computer Solution Problems 8.37 Determine the pipe sizes and system pres- sure drop for the building in Problems 3. 8. starting with the same initial velocity.39 Solve Example 8.27 by the static regain method. i 0 in.21 and 5. 8.com. 8.carmelsoft.

and Insulation T he selection of the correct types of piping. 3. 5. 2. Valves. ~"' ~""o_"""'_ . and vibrations. Use correct practices for pipe installations. Physical specifications of steel pipe and copper tubing are standardized by the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM). and the proper choice depends on the service for which the piping is intended. 2"""'... ducts. supporting. cost and availability also affect choice of materials.____ ~_p . considering such problems as expansion. Specify the appropriate materials for HVAC duct installations. Finally. 2. and values for an HVAC piping installation..1 PIPING MATERIALS AND SPECIFICATIONS \-. 1. Determine the need for pipe expansion and vibration treatment. For severe problems of oxidation or corrosion. Properties of the ft uid being carried Temperature Pressure Exposure to oxidation or corrosion 9. Specify the appropriate materials. OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter.~ Piping is made of many possible materials. In addition. The piping material most commonly used in hydronic systems is either . The term black steel pipe is used in the trade. codes and regulations usually limit the choice of materials for a given use.~~~ ______ . valves. Use correctIJractices for duct installations.. Ducts.. but this actually refers to . It is the responsibility of the HVAC specialist to be aware of the codes that apply to each installation before selecting materials. c H A p T E R Piping."'-"'>'.. 4._____ _____ ~ ~~_. and insulation for a particular HVAC system is an important task. 4. other materials may be necessary.. hanging.. anchoring... low carbon ("black") steel pipe or copper tube... 3. the proper method of installation should be understood. fittings.. The service includes: 243 In addition. you will be able to: 1."'27.

0449 0. The outside diameter (OD) is the same for any size for all three types. L..506 .250 15.154 0.750 14.2.597 4. For the interested reader.258 0. Type M is used for low pressure plumbing. Copper is more expensive than steel.625 8.1.652 5.790 7.216 0.824 1.050 1.047 6. where Schedule 30 or 20 is sometimes used. ASTMA-120 or ASTMA-53 low carbon steel.622 0.026 5.610 2. or 80.500 5. M.800 54.203 0. Type K.850 1.237 0.049 1. The wall thickness is referred to by a Schedule number.168 9.790 14. Schedule 40 pipe is usually specified. Type K has the thickest wall and is used with high pressures and refrigerants. The allowable pressures can be calculated from formulas established in the American Standard Code for Pressure Piping.315 1.400 0.248 0. The allowable pressure is only part of the story.365 0. In hydronic systems at pressures commonly encountered.375 2.067 2. The decision to choose between steel piping or copper tubing for an installation is based primarily on cost.380 1.272 2. Figure 8.501 2.106 0.1 ness over a period of years. Hard temper as opposed to soft temper tubing has greater rigidity and will not sag as much as soft tubing when hung horizontally. The engineer should always specify the pipe intended by the ASTM number. the inside diameter (ID) changes. however. The pressure drop will therefore be greatest for Type K. The specifications for Type L tubing are shown in Table 9.244 CHAPTER 9 ".875 3.174 0.133 0.0774 0. Therefore. 30.469 3.563 6.l30 1.750 12. SPECIFICATIONS OF STEEL PIPE Outside Diameter Onches) Inside Diameter (inches) Wall Thickness (inches) Pipe Size (inches) Schedule Weight.322 0.0158 0.383 0. Type L has an intermediate thickness wall.280 0. Type DWV is used for drainage.140 0. but in smaller sizes the labor cost for copper is often less.039 1.717 3. extra strong. Some specifications for black steel pipe are shown in Table 9. These numbers supersede a previous wall thickness description called standard. The engineer should recognize that corrosion and erosion may reduce the pipe wall thickTABLE 9.600 62.000 16.020 12.513 0.000 0. gal/ft Y2 Y4 I V4 I V2 2 2Y2 3 3Y2 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 30 30 30 0. and DWV.375 0.15 confirms this. such as 20.678 2.090 13.970 28.110 10.226 0.550 40.145 0.000 4. except in very large diameters.620 18.500 4. Ibs/ft Volume.660 1.375 0.840 1. the chemical composition of those materials can be found in the ASTM publications. and double extra strong.330 0.548 4. 40. selecting piping with a substantial wall thickness may mean a longer life system.981 10.109 0.068 3.900 2.065 7.250 0.098 5.0276 0. It is usually adequate for hydronic system piping.625 10.974 7.480 43. The choice of the correct Schedule number of piping depends on the pressure and temperature service.113 0.660 1. The wall thickness of copper tubing is specified by a lettering system.570 9.

660 0.200 19.040 0. Example 9.750 2.1 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _.140 1.2470 0. 1 IV.362 0. The specification tables contain much useful information. Pipe weight = 14. When this is done. which does not always COfrespond exactly to either the inside diameter or outside diameter.4780 0. Note that pipe and tubing diameters are specified by a nominal size.0250 0. Sometimes the larger piping is made of steel and smaller branches to units are copper.090 0.250 0.565 0.945 3.0925 0.0442 0.-8 5Ls 6t s SlS 10[. Schedule 40 chilled water steel pipe is to be hung horizontally from a floor slab above.025 1.505 1.9710 1.080 0. resulting in the possibility of smaller pumps and less power consumption.! 'Yo ~ "% 14. 4 5 6 8 10 12 Y.3900 2. This is black steel pipe that has a coating of a tin alloy which resists oxidation.6) Ib/ft x 60 ft = 1392lb .0655 0.380 7.055 0.884 1.070 0. On the other hand.100 40.1.1610 0.300 30.400 0.785 1.110 0.905 4.s 1< 41.A 60 ft long.6lb/ft Water weight = 1. DUCTS.035 0.875 5. 3 3V. such as piping to a cooling tower.00753 0. and much more costly wrought iron or cast iron pipe is used.545 0. VALVES. steel is a stronger material and therefore does not damage as easily.430 0.655 0.140 0.3 Ib/gal =8.6230 0.050 0.060 0. as shown in Example 9. 1'" 1% 2~s 2:"'8 3 l -8 _'.285 0.04 gal/ft x 8.3540 0.042 0.2 SPECIFICATIONS OF COPPER TUBING (TYPE L) Nominal Size (inches) Outside Diameter (inches) Inside Diameter (inches) 245 Wall Thickness Weight.265 1. IV.125 0. the frictional resistance is less than for steel.6 + 8. because otherwise corrosion may occur at the joint due to electrolytic action.625 11.200 0. galfft l:i ¥S Y.! 'Yo :y.985 2. Using Table 9. Solution The weight includes the pipe and the water it carries.198 0. Copper tubing has two advantages that should be noted. In very severe corrosion applications. l:~!l s 0.845 7. oxidation may occur if black steel is used.4500 It is common to see larger installations in steel and smaller ones in copper. First. 2 2V.1.0181 0.725 9.100 0.4300 3.280 0.290 5.6lb/ft Total weight = (14. In open piping systems.425 3.610 10. a plastic bushing should be used to separate the copper and steel.330 4. AND INSULATION TABLE 9.455 0.7900 5. Ibsfft Volume. Galvanized steel pipe is sometimes used in these applications.0121 0.465 2. Second. 5 in. galvanized piping is not adequate. it is not subject to oxidation and scaling to the same extent as steel.480 3.PIPING. The structural engineer asks the HVAC contractor to determine how much extra weight the flOOf will have to carry.045 0.

(a) A 90° elbow. Specifications for fittings are established by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) for both steel pipe and copper tube. Elbows (ells). METHODS FOR STEEL PIPE In hydronic systems. (t) Union. welded. For typical hydronic systems.246 CHAPTER 9 9. threaded. the system Figure 9. (d) Bushing. RI) (a) (b) (e) (e) (d) (t) (g) (h) (i) . welding. Screwed fittings for steel piping are generally made of cast or malleable iron.2 FITTINGS AND JOINING . unions should be used so that the connection may be disconnected for service. tight spaces require standard ells. however. however. welding. fittings with a 125 psi pressure rating are usually adequate. are available in 30°. When joining to equipment. and thus have a lower pressure drop.1. Long radius ells have a more gradual turn than standard ells. and 90° turns. or flanged fittings. (il A 90° elbow. (Courtesy: Grinnell Corporation. (e) Coupling. With welded fittings. (g) A 90° elbow. used for changing direction.1 pressure should be checked. Providence. Sometimes. threaded. If in doubt. (h) Tee. mating welding flanges on Steel pipe fittings. (e) Nipple. joining of steel pipe is usually done with either screwed. threaded. flanged. 45°. threaded. and couplings are used to join straight lengths of threaded pipe. Typical pipe fittings are shown in Figure 9. . (b) Tee. Tees are used for branching.

yet allowing the rest of the system to operate. Surfaces must be clean of all oxidation.3). except that a different soldering material is used which melts at a higher temperature (above 1000 F) and makes a stronger joint. Solder fittings are made to slip over the tubing with enough clearance for the solder to flow in the annular space between the fitting and the tube. Welding makes a very strong joint. it is more difficult to make pressure-tight threaded joints in very large sizes. (a) A 90 copper elbow. In hydronic installations. the Y-type is generally used. Strainers are used to remove solid particles from the circulating system. screwed steel pipe joints are commonly used up to about 2-3 in. VALVES. This procedure is useful in isolating equipment for service or in isolating sections of a system so that it may be serviced. When the joints must withstand high temperatures and pressures or severe vibrations. Straight lengths of pipe may be butt welded directly together without couplings. a basket type is used (Figure 9. (b) Copper tee.3 FITTINGS AND JOINING METHODS FOR COPPER TUBING Copper tubing joints in hydronic systems are made either by soldering (also called sweating) or by flaring. The water passes through a perforated plate or wire mesh in which the particles are trapped.. Stopping Flow Valves in this group are used only to shut off flo\\. Bushings are used when connecting from a pipe of one size to a piece of equipment that has a different size opening. Flared fittings are expensive but are removable. (a) 0 (b) Figure 9. resulting in a low pressure loss. This generally results in the lowest cost of labor plus materials in most U. locations. 9. .2 Copper tube solder fittings. We will discuss mainly general service valves. In small pipe sizes.4). DUCTS.PIPING. and welded joints are used for larger sizes. Note that a gate valve has a straight through flow passage. The strainer is cleaned at regular intervals. it forms a pressure-tight joint between the two parts to be joined. Flared joints are made by flaring out the end of the copper tubing and using a flare fitting union that will make a pressure-tight seal when tightened against the flare (Figure 9.4 VALVES There are many types and uses of valves. a soldering process called brazing is used. types that are used widely in piping systems. and in large sizes. Strainers are usually installed at the suction side of pumps and before large automatic control valves. Soldering is a process where a metal alloy called solder is melted (between 400 and 1000 F) and when it solidifies.2..S. Welding fittings similar to screwed fittings are available. and therefore should be used when access to equipment is required for service or maintenance. Automatic control valves will be discussed in Chapter 14. Valves for controlling flow may be grouped into three classes according to their function. Gate valves (Figure 9. 9. Welding is a process where the two metal ends to be joined are melted and then fused together with a metal welding rod that also liquifies and fuses. Typical solder fittings are shown in Figure 9. AND INSUlATION 247 the pipe and equipment serve the same purpose as unions.5) are used for this purpose. The heat may come from either a gas torch or an electric arc. Basically it is no different from lower temperature soldering. Furthermore. A chemical coating called flux is then used to prevent further oxidation.

) Limiting Flow Direction Valves that allow flow in only one direction are called check valves.3 Copper tube flaring fittings. Reverse flow may damage equipment or empty out a line· or equipment unintentionally.""i-. as the system must then be balanced again. The swing check can be installed only in horizontal lines. However. reverse flow could occur when the system is not operating. J' . This should only be done in an emergency.. a pressure regulating valve (PRV) is used. This is desirable in setting proper fl ow rates through equipment and different circuits in a system.. These valves are often used in the make-up water supply line to a system where the make-up is from a city water supply at high pressures. Their internal construction is not suitable for throttling flow..6). A vertical lift check or spring-loaded check. Regulating Flow Rate Valves in this group are used to adjust flow rate manually.. needle valves..248 CHAPTER 9 (a) (b) (e) Figure 9. 1. Gate valves should not be used to regulate flow.a .5 PRESSURE REGULATING AND RELIEF VALVES Where water pressure may exceed safe limits for equipment. ". Globe valves (Figure 9. wiredrawing (erosion of the valve seat) may occur.. In water circulating systems. ball valves. Figure 9. (Courtesy: Grinnell Corporation. (a) Tee. :. (e) Tee with nuts assembled.: . . and they must be closed or left completely open. Check valves are usually installed at a pump and other critical points in a system.4 V-type strainer. .- . . most flow regulation valves can be used to stop flow. can be used in vertical lines. RI. and butterfly valves can be used to regulate flow. angle valves. 9.7 shows some types of check valves. .._____""""'"i . If partially closed. Providence. Figure 9. plug valves. This valve limits the discharge pressure to a preset value. (b) Nut. particularly if there is a static head of water.

.... ... rising stem..:lk!:t=---........Bonnet f C c .. AND INSULATION 249 .Bonnet u .. A relief valve opens when the valve inlet pressure exceeds a preset value.Identification plate ~ Pressure reliefvalves are not the 'same as a PRY.. Refer to Figures 9. Figure 9. ____ Hand wheel ~-------------Stem t-r_-------.......~---------Body ~------- (a) (b) Figure 9. VALVES...Stuffing nut '~~--------Gland il+E-----------Packing ~---------Packing ' ..PIPING..Stuffing nut 9..Bonnet ..6 VALVE CONSTRUCTION rrrt----------.......E ...5 and 9...Gland '~~---------Packing \ : o o f ...W h e e l nut ..... (b) Union bonnet...Identification plate . r ...Lock washer ~:......5 Gate valves..... Knowledge of valve construction will enable you to select the correct valve for each application and to understand how to service it.....Lock washer ~.....Gland r .6 Globe valve........c ... .... (a) Screwed bonnet. Relief valves are used as safety devices to relieve excess pressure in boilers and other equipment (Chapter 4)...Stuffing nut K ..Hand wheel ~-----------Stem 1.. DUCTS..Disc The construction of gate and globe vajves will be discussed in more detail here........ .......ra----..... A solid wedge is simplest and is often used in ...Wheel nut .....One-piece wedge ~------- Seat ring Body ...J The part that closes off flow is called the disc or wedge....6 to see what each part looks like and how it is assembled.Union bonnet ring ~----- One-piece wedge ___..Stuffing box \::o!Ec----------........ nonrising stem.W h e e l nut ---===------........D i s c locknut ...Lock washer Identification plate wheel I.Stem ~--------.. Disc or Wedge .

r--------Disc 1 . This arrangement takes up less space. Valves are available with screwed.. the disc and stem rise together. and the stem stays in one position.. The packing is held in place and compressed against the stem by tightening the packing nut. For many applications. the threads are exposed to the system fluid.. There is therefore no visual indication of whether the valve is open or closed. . This is accomplished with the stuffing or packing. In the nonrising stem type. -J Valve Materials For hydronic service.. usually made of a soft material impregnated with graphite. flanged. which screw directly to the valve body (Figure 9. This is advantageous to the operating engineer. (a) Swing check. (b) Horizontal lift check. The length of exposed stem therefore provides a quick visual indication of whether the valve is open or closed. arrangement. A two-piece split wedge is less subject to sticking and is often used at high temperatures and pressures.6).6). • Figure 9. In the OS& Y type (Figure 9.Cap Cap cap ring Disc holder Disc Body Disc retaining nut (a) (b) ?-.Hinge '-f<'f----.----------~~~----------~ 250 CHAPTER 9 . At extremely high pressures.Hinge pin ' + . particularly if the service is one where an incorrect position of the valve might result in immediate harm to some process or even danger to people. The valve may be constructed so that the stem has an inside screw or outside screw and yoke (OS& Y). The valve may be constructed with a rising or nonrisillg stem. steel valves may be required... A screwed union type bonnet is used when frequent disassembly is expected. are common in small valves.7 Check valves. Stem The stem lifts and lowers the disc or wedge. The OS&Y arrangement might be used when corrosive fluids or extreme temperatures'-and pressures exist to prevent damage to the threads. In the rising stem type (Figure 9..8). the disc travels on the stem. because the valve stem does not travel. gate valves. Packing Nut and Stuffing The val ve must have a means of sealing around the stem to prevent the fluid from leaking out under high pressure.. Flat composition discs are not recommended for close throttling. Bolted bonnets are used on larger valves. valves with a 125 psi pressure rating are suitable. or welded ends... however... With the inside Bonnet The bonnet connects the nut to the body of the valve. the threads are outside the valve body and are held by a yoke. but this should be checked before selection. but they have the advantage of being replaceable without removing the valve. Bevel and plug discs can usually be reground in place when they wear. either all bronze valves or iron body with bronze parts are generally used. . ..Disc hinge nut _ _ _-'-__ Disc nut split pin .::-----. the stem threads are inside the valve body. In the inside screw arrangement. Globe valve discs made in bevel or plug shapes are best for throttling service. Screwed bonnets..

Gate valves should be used only for stopping flow. Use them for isolating equipment and sections of a system.. Failure to do so may result in broken piping and damaged equipment.)fi-. "~"'" . However. plug. Of course. butterfly valves have become popular in hydronic systems because they cost considerably less than globe valves. VALVES.\' .-~~-:. AND INSUlATION 251 Hand wheel --~~~~!)~.. Therefore. and temperature change. " l . Some guidelines will be suggested here..:. it is usual to provide for some expansion.S OS&Y globe valve. The engineer provides for expansion where desirable and for proper anchoring of piping where expansion is undesirable .. not for throttling. size. because cast iron is brittle and may crack.8 PIPE EXPANSION AND ANCHORING Most materials (unless constrained) will change their length when their temperature is changed.Offset 1: :. needle. Using expansion loops or offsets (Figure 9. DUCTS.7 VALVE SELECTION Although the types of valves were described previously.." .+ j Packing Gasket --->-F-?=~ ~_Body --Disc Seat ring . Use these valves in any section. or butterfly valves.. the bending itself results in stresses on the pipe.- Figure9. particularly in small installations. specific recommendations on choosing the proper valve for an application will be discussed here. material.Lock nut Yoke nUl-_ _ __. considerable forces and stresses may result in the piping.. which could rupture it. 9. Loop ")~(-----':=--.J ~----Stem 9.9 Expansion loop an"d offset. Cast iron fittings should not be used in expansion loops. Regulating or throttling flo\\" can be accomplished with globe. angle.. so the size of the loop or offset must be adequate and depends on the length.. they should not be used where extremely tight shut-off or very close regulation is required. This fact must be accounted for in the piping design and installation. Each system layout is unique and must be analyzed to determine the correct solution. )( \ Anchor \ I L5----==---"' ~l=--f. or unit where flow needs to be manually adjusted or balanced. Often a run of piping will have enough natural offsets to accommodate expansion. Figure 9. !' 'p- PIPING. branch.r'-)~(- Guide L . y'W • . This may be done by the following methods: 1.. For large diameters. thus accommodating the expansion.9) allows the pipe to bend at the loop or offset. Pipe lines in hydronic heating systems will therefore tend to expand from their initial lengths when brought up to system temperature.. Gland Bonnet .. If pipe expansion is completely prevented.

Expansion joints. but does not exclude the need to provide proper anchoring methods. Horizontal piping is supported by hangers. The supports also mayor may not serve as anchors. An example is where machinery is located on a lightweight penthouse floor above office spaces. Anchoring connections must be made so that any force is transmitted to a part of the building structure adequate to take the force. Branch connections must be provided with sufficient flexibility so as not to break.10 Swing joint. or at a number of points. It may be best to anchor at both ends. If hung from the concrete floor slab above. It is sometimes necessary to solve this problem with the aid of the structural engineer. inserts can be driven into the concrete slab with a gunlike tool. Pumps and compressors usually are the source of vibrations. the equipment is mounted on J . This is done by offsets--changing directions at a branch connection. This type of offset is called a swing joint (Figure 9. Equipment should not be used as anchoring points. Reciprocating machinery generally creates more vibrations than rotating machinery. which are manufactured items. they should not be installed in inaccessible locations. Both of these problems must be examined. hanger inserts are installed before the concrete is poured. Supports must be provided at frequent enough intervals not only to carry the weight. There are various types of cradles. ~ I2'ZZZ?J ~Swingjoint Pipe movement • Figure 9. roll-type hangers should be used. Pipe supports are necessary to carry the weight of the piping and water. or only in the middle. however. where prevention of any transmission of vibration to the building structure is critical. but to prevent sag. 9. Therefore. Expansion joints are subject to wear and leakage and mnst be periodically inspected and maintained. j . where expansion loops are provided.reduced forces at points where the piping is anchored. depending on the length of the run. When vibration transmitted to the structure requires treatment' it may be reduced by use of heavy concrete foundations and by suitable machinery locations. In some cases. Vibrations may be transmitted to the building structure or to piping. Do not allow rigid connections to equipment where expansion occurs. as shown in Figure 9. Location of anchoring points can be determined only by studying the particular installation. Vertical piping may be supported at the. The effect that expansion of a long run has on branchpiping must be provided for. and no further consideration is necessafy. and where equipment connections are located. If extra hangers are needed after the construction is completed.252 CHAPTER 9 2. may be used. j . and there is a bellows type where the joint is a movable bellows. This requires careful planning and coordination between the HVAC and structural engineers. Movement at the offset then prevents a break.9 VIBRATION Consideration must be given to possible vibrations occurring in the piping system. There is a slip type where the pipe slides inside the joint. The hanger usually consists of a rod and a cradle. The provisions for expansion described above will result in.10).1 I. use offsets or flexible connections. Access doors must be provided if they are located in shafts or otherwise closed in. or at one or more points along the height. In this case.bottom. Where considerable movement occurs. the intensity of vibration produced by machinery may not be great enough to result in significant transmission to the piping or structure. There are cases.

_-_. (Courtesy: Vibration Mountings and Controls. or steel springs (Figure 9. Difficult vibration problems may require the aid of a specialist in these fields. (a) Rubber pad. rubber. AND INSULATION 253 o o (a) Figure 9. vibration isolators. (b) Spring.12).. Use of flexible pipe connections to the troublesome machinery.. Using an isolation material (cork. (b) Roller support and hanger._----- -----~.-----~------'---- PIPING..- (b) . DUCTS. 2. VALVES. Use of isolation hangers. Inc.12 Vil>ration isolation mountings.-. and the HVAC engineer should not hesitate to call on such help when necessary..) (a) . Isolating supports may be made of cork.. flexible connections tend to become inflexible at high pressures. (a) Clevis support and hanger. felt) between the cradle and pipe may sometimes be adequate. For a more serious problem. Figure 9. However. One or more of the following procedures may be used when vibrations are transmitted to the piping: l.11 Pipe supports. spring hangers can be used.

The surface is then sized. thus resulting in low labor costs.254 CHAPTER 9 9. In chilled water systems. Pipe insulation may be furnished in blanket form or premolded to the size of the pipe to be covered. and thus operating costs are reduced.13 Pipe insulation with vapor barrier covering. Molded sponge rubber insulation is very popular on small diameter chilled water lines. Vapor barriers are made from treated paper or aluminum foil. the correct insulation thickness is generally that which provides the minimum owning and operating cost.) Low thermal conductivity Noncombustible Not subject to deterioration or rot Adequate strength Pipe insulation may be made from natural materials such as wool. For existing systems that have asbestos insulation. thermal insulation serves two purposes: 1. When exposed. However. which have an extremely low thermal conductivity and other excellent properties. To reduce incorrect distribution of heat. It is impervious to the flow of the water vapor in the air. painted with a material which makes the surface smooth and stiff. it is also necessary to prevent condensation of moisture from the air on the outside of the cold piping.13). It is very easy to cut and install. the surface of insulation is often provided with a canvas cover.10 PIPE INSULATION Thermal insulation should be used on all cold or hot hydronic system pipiug. cork. This is usually done by trowelling on an insulating cement mixture. On both hot and chilled water systems. The latter is preferable because it requires less labor and will have a neater appearance. 2. Figure 9. Use is now generally prohibited. that is. the less the energy losses. Exposed piping and equipment. In recent years. felt. To reduce energy waste and possible increased size of heating or refrigerating equipment. The question of what thickness of insulation to use is an important one. which could both damage the insulation and drip onto surrounding surfaces. rock. the insulation costs increase with thickness. Therefore. and rubber. A good insulation should have the following characteristics: 1. Premolded. Asbestos was formerly used as a pipe insulation because of its excellent insulating properties and inflammability. because the particles can cause a form of lung cancer. or glass fi bers. Fittings and valves are also insulated. The prevention of condensation is achieved by covering the insulation with a material that serves as a vapor barrier. 3. shaped insulation is also available for some typical fittings. The installer must take special care not to cover operating parts of valves or removable flanges when applying the insulation. special techniques are required to safely remove it. however. . synthetic materials such as polyurethane have been developed. Uninsulated piping may result in the water being at an unsatisfactory temperature when it reaches the conditioned spaces. (Courtesy: Owens Corning Fiberglas Corporation. Usually the manufacturer furnishes it already wrapped on the insulation (Figure 9. is usually painted when the installation . 2. The rubber serves as both a thermal insulation and vapor barrier. whether insulated or not. There are a great many materials from which pipe insulation may be made. The greater the thickness. 4.

9. nor safety and code requirements. 8. This list should be mounted in a highly visible place. 3. the piping is often color-coded. and methods of joining sections. Brass name tags should always be furnished and attached to valves. because this permits the contractor to make small adjustments in the location of the diffuser. lighting. do not run piping in front of a control panel. When lines carrying different fluids exist. 6. Piping should generally be parallel to building walls. the transition should preferably have a slope of 7: I and should not be less than 4: I to minimize pressure loss (Figure 9. such as stainless steel. Round flexible duct is often used to make final connections to air diffusers. Install horizontal piping with a slight pitch and take all branch connections from the top so that any entrapped air will flow to high points. The piping must not interfere with installations of other trades. Round duct is fabricated by machinery in standard diameters. . both for appearance and protection. Provide air vent devices at all high points (see Chapter 11). VALVES. each system is painted a different color. The most commonly used material for general HVAC ducts is galvanized steel sheet metal. Exhausts from kitchens and chemical laboratories are examples where special materials would be required. although heavy gage rectangular duct is also used. 9. Both for this reason and because round duct is lighter in gage. w. the structural engineer must be consulted. DUCTS. For example. copper. lines should be stenciled with their proper names and direction of flow at reasonable intervals. This list does not include special features peculiar to each project. 5. The installation should provide simple access to and maintenance of equipment. These are usually numbered. The standards depend on the air pressure in the duct.urn PIPING.1 4 shows a transition and branch fitting for minimum pressure loss. Direction changes should be minimized to reduce the number of fittings. Figure 9. Machine-made round sheet metal duct is popular in high velocity. I 5 shows a simpler lower cost fitting. Where this is unavoidable. This must be checked with the plans of ducts. When the air being carried is corrosive. such as the operating engineer's office. AND INSULATION ~<""'-'< 255 is completed. high pressure systems. These standards specify the sheet metal thickness (gage). Figure 9. Rectangular duct is usually made to order for each job. In any case. Glass fiber ducts are recommended only for low pressure systems. or aluminum.12 DUCT CONSTRUCTION 9. 7.11 THE PIPING INSTALLATION Some good general practices for installing the piping system will be listed here. and so on. 1. static pressure). When changing duct shapes. Rectangular duct fittings are very expensive because of the labor cost involved and should be as simple as possible. methods of bracing and reinforcing the duct to prevent collapse or sagging.• 1 lC l . Provide a short pipe connection and gate valve at all low points in order to drain the system. 4. The details of recommended duct construction can be found in SMACNA publications. to make operation and maintenance easier. SMACNA (Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National Association) . Piping should avoid penetration of beams or other structural members. it is less expenc sive than rectangular duct for high pressure systems. and a key list is made identifying them by crossreferencing. High pressure systems require stronger construction. 2. but it will have a greater branch pressure loss. The piping location must not affect the building function. unless minimum pressure loss is important. molded glass fiber ducts have also come into use. An obvious example is running piping across a door opening. Rectangular-shaped sheet metal duct is most commonly used in lower pressure HVAC applications (up to 3 in. In recent years.has established standards for construction of ductwork. more corrosion-resistant materials are used.16).:.g. that is.

14 Branch connection with low pressure loss. round elbows with a wide sweep radius should be used to keep pressure loss low. For further information. Ducts are frequently lined internally with acoustical insulation to absorb sound. Duct connections to fans and air distribution devices will be discussed in Chapter 10.17). When changing direction. using a sealant if necessary. In addition. Glass fiber or similar material with a high thermal resistance is used for insulation. Figure 9. There is concern that inhaled glass fibers may cause serious lung disease. Duct joints should be made as tight as possible to reduce air leakage. 9.15 Branch connection with high pressure loss. The vapor barrier is usually aluminum foil. Slope b:a of 7:1 preferred Slope b:a of 4:1 minimum recommended .18). Ducts for residential use are simpler in construction and will not be described here. care must be taken that the glass fibers do not flake off in the air stream and get delivered to the occupied space. The rigid board costs considerably more and is used only when the duct is exposed and appearance is important or abuse is likely. Small horizontal ductwork is supported by sheet metal straps. Insulation comes in either rigid board or blanket form (Figure 9. the acoustical lining often also serves as thermal insulation.13 DUCT INSULATION Ducts carrying hot or cold air are covered with thermal insulation to reduce heat loss. If short radius or square elbows are necessary to save space.256 CHAPTER 9 Figure 9. Figure 9. the insulation is covered with a vapor barrier to prevent condensation of water on cold ducts. Figure 9. turning vanes should be installed in the elbow (Figure 9. In this case. However.19). see the ASHRAE Systems Volume. It is not unusual to find installations losing 10% or more of the design air flow due to poor installation.17 Square elbow with turning vane. The ductwork standards described here apply to commercial applications. Heavier ducts require angle iron support cradles suspended from rods (Figure 9.16 Recommended slope for duct transition.

4.PIPING. List the types of materials used for HVAC ducts and their applications. Describe the joining methods used for copper tubing and steel pipe. 3.) (a) (b) . 7. VALVES. (Courtesy: Owens Corning Fiberglas Corporation. S. List the good practices for duct design and installation. List the pipe fittings described in this chapter and explain their uses.19 Duct insulation. List the major types of valves and their uses. Figure 9. 6. DUCTS.18 Duct hangers. (b) Trapeze hanger. Discuss the features and uses of rectangular and round ducts. straps Screws Angle iron Nuts (a) (b) Figure 9. Review Questions 1. Describe the systems for specifying wall thicknesses of both steel pipe and copper tubing. (a) Blanket. List recommended good practices for pipe installation. AND INSULATION 257 k---Rods---I .-_Metal_-. 2. (a) Strap hanger. (b) Rigid board. What are the two forms of duct insulation? What is a vapor barrier? 9. 5.

Use the fan laws to determine the effect of changed conditions.1). OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter. we will discuss air distribution devices and their selection and sound control in air distribution systems. 3. and vaneaxial types. selection. 5. which differ in the shape of their impeller blades (Figure 10. Analyze the sound conditions in an air distribution system. 10. application. Select an air distribution device. 6. air is pulled along the fan shaft and then blown radially away from the shaft. In addition. Select a fan. you will be able to: I. Centrifugal Fans Centrifugal fans may be subclassified into forward curved.1 FAN TYPES Axial Fans Axial fans may be subclassified into propeller.3). F and some installation and energy conservation recommendations. 2. we will study types of fans and their perfonnance. backward curved blades with a double-thickness blade are called aiifoil blades. radial. Distinguish the types of air distribution devices and their applications. Distinguish the types of fans and their characteristics. which differ in the .c H A p T E R Fans andAir Distribution Devices ans are necessary to distribute air through equipment and through ductwork to spaces that are to be air conditioned. and backward inclined types. 4. centrifugal fans and axialflolV fans. In the first part of this chapter. backward curved. direction of air flow through the fan. and construction. In an axial flow fan.2). The air is usually collected by a scroll casing and concentrated in one direction (Figure 10. The propeller fan 258 Fans may be classified into two main types. In a centrifugal fan. air is pulled along the fan shaft and then blown along in the same direction (Figure 10. After that. tubeaxial.

(Courtesy: Buffalo Forge Company.. Other performance characteristics of importance are efficiency and brake horsepower (BHP). ·..: ••. Figure 10. consists of a propeller-type wheel mounted on a ring or plate.i·.2 Vaneaxial fan.) Figure 10. which exerts a force on the air. caused by friction..2 FAN PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS In the general discussion on fluid flow (Chapter 8). FANS AND AIR DISTRIBUTION DEVICES 259 .4(b) has a vaned wheel mounted in a cylinder.1 Centrifugal fan.cr. plied to the air. resulting in both flow of the air and an increase in its pressure. The vaneaxial fan in Figures IO.3 Types of centrifugal fan impeller blades.• .4(c) and 10.. (Courtesy: Buffalo Forge Company.• tOO 2? " . . (~. to the flow of air through ducts.. except that it also has guide vanes behind the fan blades which improve the direction of air flow through the fan. we noted that there is a resistance. The tubeaxial fan shown in Figure IO. . To overcome this resistance. ~..) shown in Figure 10.2 is similar to the tubeaxial type. Figure 10. This is accomplished by the rotating fan impeller.4(a). energy in the form of pressure must be sup- cw~~ Radial tip Backward curved Forward curved . The volume flow rate of air delivered and the pressure created by the fan are called performance characteristics. i. airfoil blade type. ~C@)~ Radial blade Backward inclined Airfoil 10.

w. Knowledge of the fan performance is useful for correct fan selection and proper operating and troubleshooting procedures.. For both forward curved and backward curved blade centrifugal fans. and then falls off.g. The BHP required for the forward curved blade fan increases sharply with flow. in. (a) Propeller.t:= Brake horsepower Flow rate. = total pressure. w. Figures 10.5 Typical performance characteristics of a forward curved blade centrifugal fan. 00·Q).4 Types of axial flow fans. peaks at a maximum. \V. then the pressure drops off as flow increases. CFM ..) Hv = velocity pressure. Efficiency is highest in the middle ranges of flow. inches of water gage (in.. BHP = brake horsepower input N = speed. revolutions per min (RPM) d = air density.g..g.--~~ Static <l> >. ft 3/min backward curved bladed centrifugal fans. Mechanical efficiency Flow rate.. Hs = static pressure.5 and 10. The following symbols and definitions will be used in discussing fan performance. Ib/ft 3 ME = mechanical efficiency = air horsepower outputIBHP input Ht -{ Fan performance is best understood when presented in the form of curves. in. 2. the pressure developed has a slight peak in the middle range of flow. Some important features seen are: I. the BHP increases only gradually.. Q5 ~ 0 .Q f/) ---'--~ Mechanical efficiency Brake . but with the backward curved blade fan.260 CHAPTER 10 Stationary vanes (a) (b) (e) Figure 10. .: ::J C 0 Q) pressure o:~o "''''0. A higher maximum efficiency can often be achieved with a backward curved blade fan. CFM = volume flow rate. CFM .. (e) Vaneaxial.6 Typical performance characteristics of a backward curved blade centrifugal fan.3 FAN SELECTION The choice of the best type of fan to be used for a given application depends on the fan performance Figure 10. (b) Tubeaxial. 10.6 are typical performance curves for forward and Figure 10. 3. 4.

7 Performance curves of a 33 in. BHP... Hg. These fans are often used in packaged air conditioning units because of low cost. k-M~ / 80 ~ 0 After the best type of fan is selected for an application. 4 a.' . Fans are usually rated with air at standard conditions: a density of 0.1) for each fan size. Performance curves at different air conditions may be available from the manufacturer. tables are used more often than curves for fan selection.. sity. C> 10.. the operating condition of maximum efficiency is not apparent when using tables.• n· YYAY »< TUYS FANS AND AIR DISTRIBUTION DEVICES 261 .. Operating near maximum efficiency generally results in the lowest noise output by a fan. However. but if not. Manufacturer's fan ratings are presented as either performance curves (Figure 10. The rising BHP characteristic curve could result in overloading the motor if operated at a condition beyond the selected CFM. they may be predicted from the fan laws to be described in a later section.075 Ib/ft3 at 70 F and 29.S -.4 FAN RATINGS .. thus making them undesirable for air conditioning systems. Curves and tables each have their good and bad features. Note that each fan curve represents the performance at a specific fan speed and air den. In effect. and typical applications are as wall.S 0) '". the fan must develop a static pressure (fan Hs) and CFM equal to the system requirements. Propeller fans cannot create a high pressure and are thus used where there is little or no ductwork. however. 2 / II 0 / I-- B~P ""'" H-"" s I" 1"- '\ 60 w ::?: "0 1\ '\ 40 c: 20 co I !L '" \ 1\ 10 20 CFM. Centrifugal fans are the most commonly used type in ducted air conditioning systems. Manufacturer's data are then used to select a fan that will produce the required CFM against the system static pressure resistance.i 8 .6 / ::. characteristics and other features that will be discussed. Their compact physical construction is useful when space is limited. ... To select a fan. (We will discuss the fan-system interaction in more detail shortly.. but usually have lower operating costs due to high efficiency. Airfoil bladed fans have the highest efficiency of any type. and therefore replace a large number of curves.7) or tables (Table 10. Some manufacturers resolve this by noting the point of maximum efficiency on their tables (usually in boldface). For this reason. Tubeaxial and vaneaxial fans can be used in ducted systems.. Performance curves enable the engineer to visualize changes in static pressure. Forward curved blade centrifugal fans are usually lower in initial cost than backward blade types for the same performance.92 in. They are low in cost. diameter backward inclined blade centrifugal fan at 1440 RPM. The limiting horsepower characteristic reduces the possibility of overloading the motor or electrical distribution system if the fan is delivering more air than it was designed for. but for now we will focus on the fan selection. the duct system static pressure resistance (duct Hs) is first calculated using the procedures explained in Chapter 8. and efficiency easily. They usually produce a higher noise level than centrifugal fans and therefore may require greater sound reduction treatment. Tables list fan performance at different speeds. due to lower efficiency. Backward (curved or inclined) blade centrifugal fans are generally more expensive than forward curved types. The air distribution from tubeaxial fans is uneven. g (fJ '" '" 0).1000's 30 :l§ 0 0 40 . The operating cost will often be higher.or window-installed exhaust fans. Vaneaxial fans are suitable for ducted air conditioning systems. the next task is to determine the proper size to be used.) Figure 10.

.38 .32 2.44 3000 1264 3..64 1330 9.' .44 6. .42 .49 1.55 2... 2...28 1100 518 .87 3.49 .75 1.26 1.39 1..94 1..56 1.29 1. -.95 7.63 6.. .40 BHP RPM .28 5.75 3.5"J 1..56 1.17 3..40 1.13 ..25 4.78 .16 2..00 1. 1..' 617 631 651 673 697 723 751 779 807 837 867 897 928 960 992 1023 1056 1089 1122 1156 1190 1224 1257 1291 1325 1360 1394 1.04 3....""' .79 1.02 5.46 5..35 .54 6.26 1011 4.69 5.4-SP 2"SP BHP RPM BHP RPM BHP .61 8.S-SP 3.53 3.19 5.00 598 ..54 CFM 2575 3090 3605 4120 4635 5150 5665 6180 6695 7210 7725 8240 8755 9270 9785 10300 10815 11330 11845 12360 12875 13390 13905 14420 14935 15450 15965 16480 16995 17510 18025 OV "i.15 . .23 2..75 1.92 2. 876 895 917 941 967 996 1025 1056 1088 1119 1151 1184 1217 1251 1285 1320 1355 1390 1425 1461 1498 1535 1571 1608 2.07 6..16 4. . .81 ..()<) 1.87 1. . .27 .....99 9....72 4.08 6.96 8.68 4.05 3.29 . 686 702 723 748 775 804 834 866 897 930 963 997 1031 1066 .05 4..23 1.41 6. . ....04 5.15 .20 5. j 2502 2919 3336 3753 4170 4587 5004 5421 5838 6255 6672 7089 7506 7923 8340 8757 9174 9591 10008 10425 10842 11259 11676 12093 12510 12927 13344 13761 14178 14595 500 325 ..95 8.86 2300 2400 1023 2.99 1900 823 1.4-SP 1-SP 1 "i.26 3.12 895 3.06 1231 7..01 3.55 1263 8.1 PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF TYPICAL AIRFOIL BLADE CENTRIFUGAL FANS (27 in.92 6.89 .89 1.61 .06 6..60 2.93 4..79 5.42 3.51 ..37 3.60 6.59 2700 1142 2.43 ..S-SP 11.87 868 3.90 5.66 2.71 5.13 234 2..44 5.... .45 3.14 1..96 3..65 5.56 4. ..73 J. ...69 1.41 7. 1.83 10.91 900 933 966 999 1032 1066 1100 1134 1168 1202 1236 1271 1306 1341 1377 1065 1101 1138 1174 1211 1247 1284 1320 4.S1 2.84 433 BHP .....76 6.62 .31 3.66 . ..19 3.65 1600 707 .14 .55 1.75 5.57 .43 1431 11.15 3. . '-' .69 6. ... .70 .19 ...53 9.75 5..76 3. ...642....45 BHP RPM .95 6.75 .63 841 2...45 3..28 .19 900 447 . .63 6.32 6.55 .92 2.27 tAJ 1.4-sp RPM 292 316 344 373 403 434 466 499 533 566 601 636 671 707 741 777 812 848 884 921 956 992 1028 BHP .88 1.87 1800 785 ..86 7..16 2.43 4..62 L78 1. 394 412 435 461 489 518 548 578 609 &.62 5.09 2500 1062 2..91 3.67 6.. f'J. .70 .47 3.85 5.24 2.63 3.72 4....74 5..59 .96 I..26 6_75 7.43 6....01 2.41 1.65 982 1.60 1041 ·4.94 .38 .78 3100 1304 4.79 1102 1137 1173 1210 1247 1284 1321 1359 1397 1434 1472 1510 1549 1. .95 7.83 5..54 3.57 3.86 3.18 1.54 4.11 2. ..87 2.. .49 .41 1.54 5.64 1.24 5.16 RPM BHP 339 11trSP RPM BHP RPM .13 2000 863 1. .80 2.32 2.67 1.OI 3.74 1. 482 .l3 627 658 689 7" 755 789 82~ I. 1.96 3.08 4.l3 1..48 3.53 3.. 863..03 2.4-sP 3.07 1.13 2.44 6.16 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 3500 356 379 405 433 463 492 524 556 589 6. .11 6.16 .94 5.4-SP 1-SP 1"kSP BHP BHP .14 5.00 2.54 3.. . .81 2...24 ..54 .34 .% 8.08 1.05 3.40 1300 592 .76 1700 745 .74 7....91 4...3.2.29 1.28 .1..59 7.85 2800 1183 3.2 . .01 3.60 5. ..47 8. .50 S-B 87R 9U 9-48 983 1018 1053 1088 1124 1160 1196 1232 1268 1304 1340 '" 2..57 .45 1.92 7....09 1..61 .12 3. .24 1.80 .38 3.42 815 2.87 4.79 4..67 5.&.._ 1.79 . .82 2.47 2.....07 12-sp RPM 438 458 484 513 543 575 609 642 677 714 749 786 823 860 898 936 975 1014 1053 1092 1131 1170 1209 1"49 1289 1328 1368 1408 1449 1489 %-sp RPM 481 495 516 542 571 602 634 667 700 734 770 806 842 878 915 952 990 1028 1068 1106 1145 1184 1223 P62 1301 1340 1379 1419 1459 1499 3.40 1.31 2.74 4..52 .76 1.32 4.96 3.85 4....76 .22 .24 6.14 3200 1345 4.23 1.44 1.58 2.24 . . 744 753 770 791 815 842 870 900 932 963 995 1028 1061 10951130 1165 1200 1..30 . .4-sP I· %-sp RPM BHP RPM BHP 376 395 421 450 481 514 547 582 618 654 691 728 765 804 842 881 920 960 998 1037 1077 1117 II 56 1196 1237 1277 1316 1356 1396 1437 1477 ..58 .88 6.89 1.69 .05 2. 532 548 572 .98 ..08 1297 8.41 5. ....35 6. . .07 5.91 7. .68 .. 805 816 834 855 880 906 934 964 995 1027 1058 1090 1123 1157 1191 1226 1261 1296 1331 1367 1403 1440 1477 1514 1552 1590 ....53 2.89 3. 613 629 650 676 703 733 765 796 828 861 895 930 965 1000 1036 1073 I I 10 1147 1184 1222 1259 1297 1335 1373 1412 1450 1490 1529 .39 7.00 7.00 Ll2 1.18 . 1.. .37 1..10 600 351 .73 2.58 1.39 1..26 7.20 5..37 .79 ... .00 1.55 5. 551 566 585 608 633 660 688 716 745 775 806 837 869 ..02 6.35 5:72 6.40 2.19 .00 1. .99 ..94 2. .47 5.21 5..4"7 .11 2.59 1.77 3.. ..40 2.84 2. .16 3.94 8...28 2.5 I 1.16 4.02 8.61 860 896 933 969 1006 IO·B 1080 1119 1158 1196 1236 1174 1313 1353 1392 1430 1469 1509 ..65 952 H4 981 4.45 8.69 5.92 4..18 9.62 6.31 7.26 4.35 5. .98 6.76 4.58 6.6+ 3. ...30 2.79 6...35 3500 1466 5.42 4. .05 5.34 1200 555 .72 1135 6..07 2.46 5. . .00 2.37 .61 1. . .05 5...99 7.. .. .94 3..50 2.76 4.21 3.88 3.21 .044. .82 6. ' 445 465 488 5[4 542 570 600 630 661 693 715 758 791 824 857 891 926 961 996 1030 1066 1101 1136 1171 1206 1242 1278 1313 1349 BHP RPM ..56 5.09 3.99 1.78 ...62 1.. .47 1.235 1271 1308 1344 1381 1419 1456 1494 1531 1569 1.... .22 3. wheel diameter) CFM OV 1.71 1..31 2. .60 7.36 3.16 9..33 4.36 2..23 1.11 1...09 1.26 3.28 3.61 1198 7..82 .57 1...63 2.. .45 7.34 1.. LN 1.92 7.80 1397 10..21 2.00 5.94 2.67 2.14 5..7.46 .58 .. BHP RPM .00 3.79 2..05 4. .33 2600 1102 2.79 .92 6.97 L09 1.96 1072 5.42 735 1...47 .rSP 5...15 4.10 6. -.38 4.49 4.53 2.75 3.45 .71 .20 133 1.39 1.88 2.. .74 3.40 4.. ....74 1...85 .. .55 2.15 3. .22 .10 1.....13 700 382 .68 2.21 4..14 8....84 4..12 7.28 2100 903 1.37 924 3...33 1103 5...01 7...42 .16 800 414 ...69 .00 4..81 10.94 8.29 ..50 8..21 792 2.58 9.11 777 789 805 825 847 871 896 923 951 979 1007 1036 1065 1095 1126 1157 1188 1220 1251 1283 1315 1348 1382 1415 1448 2. .46 ILl 1 11.66 .. .02 770 2.45 6. .46 7....81 5.20 1. ' ' .09 4.69 4.63 4:98 5..84 4..52 .23 1.12 5.98 1.40 2..2 9...26 .12 674 707 741 774 808 RPM 478 49-' 514 538 565 592 620 650 680 710 742 774 807 839 872 906 939 973 1007 IO·B 1077 1112 1147 1182 1218 1253 1288 1323 U5B BHP RPM BHP RPM .23 2...32 .89 1.53 .78 . 669 678 693 712 734 758 783 810 839 867 896 925 955 986 1017 1049 1080 IIl2 1144 1177 1210 1243 1277 1311 1345 1379 1413 LID 1.44 2.22 655 689 723 758 793 828 864 899 934 969 1005 1041 1077 1113 1149 1185 1221 1257 1294 1330 . .38 4.42 156 1'l4-SP 2"SP RPM BHP RPM BHP .13 1.07 4. .66 9. ..29 3.55 9.73 1.00 2...31 ..49 6. .52 7.36 4..16 6.76 .88 3.. . .49 4.97 6..82 4.02 2.45 3.97 1.51 3.02 5..z-SP RPM BHP .35 .48 2...44 7.25 4..34 AI .45 2200 942 1.81 .91 . ..262 CHAPTER 10 TABLE 10. " .02 4.40 2.03 2.81 3..92 3400 1426 5.13 2900 1223 3..96 2.2~ 2085 j ! j j j j ..87 . .87 2. .87 6..75 4.... .. .40...45 725 1...23 1000 ..24 2.15 1167 6. .08 1.80 8. ..25 lAO 1..47 5.. .47 1400 629 .56 1500 668 .38 3...67 .59 1.54 1..39 1.. .36 . " ..-G 2.' 13.64 1..43 2.86 750 2.50 .26 4.72 1.18 ..73 . ..93.35 . .66 7.1 .95 2. .54 8. .95 7.60 2.72 2.. .40 5.20 3.59 3.21 1363 9. . "'. " .51 1.63 .47 1.. .20 2.64 2.9S -4.79-· 2.42 ..86 .52 3300 1385 4....43 7.81 3.20 6..33 .

11 2.64 9.51 846 7..53 719 3.21 485 1.51 LI27..35 14.56 7.08 2.45 1.54 2..50 10.80 878 6.26 6.. .52 11. 625 636 649 665 682 701 722 743 765 787 811 835 859 884 909 934 959 985 1011 1037 1063 1089 1116 1142 1169 3..28 12.29 725 3.12 1.12 782 4.80 975 8.56 556 1.01 1. .77 8. .42 508 1.80 .32 1...30 1072 10.02 1064 10. ...55 350 .18 7. 1. ..36 .1 CFM OV 263 (Continued) (33 in.62 9. .74 3.01 720 746 773 2.76 7.84 444 1..80 10. .61 741.sp I RPM I BHP ffiI".67 1.28 8...30 4.38 388 .~I::~ ~9~1~7 cc'" I 3.. ..44 •••.82 496 526 .23 712 3..42 1.47 16.27 255 .6S 1. 5008 800 332 ...46 16040 17. .75 583 592 605 620 637 657 677 698 720 743 767 791 815 840 865 890 916 942 968 994 1020 1047 1074 1101 1127 1153 2. . "M-sp 1-'..50 880 4.51 3.15 535 1.8~ 544 571 2.50 6.. .77 584 2.00 I ~~I. .14 337 3...13 .57 5.02 801 833 16902 2700 17528 I :~~ 18154 I z'uu =I=:~=I~=!~=~=~:~:~=~I.99 516 544 1.. 360 .38 906 6..10 9.08 1136 1169 1201 1231 '. .. ..06 5.58 . . .44 846 .81 621 644 1. ..50 ..~ 11.98 2.02 984 8.79 8. .39 513 1..81 2.51 15..36 5..62 374 . .63 12... .04 SA3 5.. .59 11...87 634 6.32 2.77 403 ..73 3. .89 1021 9.01 3. .40 703 2. ~:~~ :~~ ::!~ 20032 3200 20658 3300 ~~~ I ~ ZIYlU I I 1I I . .40 950 977 6. .84 951 9. .58 440 .24 1141 15.60 534 1.88 8.11 647 ~~~ /00 1. .76 6. . I~:.04 771 5.27 1.44 9.23 CFM 3830 4596 5362 6128 6894 7660 8426 9192 9958 10724 11490 12256 13022 13785 14554 15320 16086 16852 17618 18384 19150 19916 20682 21448 22214 22980 23746 24512 25278 26044 26810 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 3500 1.67 859 6.. .34 348 .. ... .47 4. ..64 1263 13.19 652 3.77 7..88 631 661 691 1...83 4.95 2.51 373 . ..70 14..96 1..47 1..28 ..93 ..69 4. .36 7..60 1..80 569 1.. .lo 11118 &..19 4382 700 306 . ..30 6..15 1004 11.00 4.17 992 8.42 . .~ ..35 798 4.61 397 ...4.93 6. .07 4... ..::~:I'~~ 1~ cSP 2-SP BHP IRP..73 1014 9.96 10. .32 5. . ...01 1002 6.04 2300 2400 787 2.26 1...85 5.96 8.32 277 .13 4.14 1059 10. .~8: 1002 '5...2t 5.. .70 .86 449 1..98 1148 8.-3.35 326 325 ..23 722 4..99 8.:~: :.11 708 3.2-sP RPM BHP Sz-SP RPM BHP "M-sp RPM BHP ..22 Y..41 5. . .48 3. wheel diameter) 'A-sp %-sp 'a-SP !iscSP.52 924 6..43 491 509 524 541 562 582 604 627 651 675 699 724 749 775 801 827 853 880 906 933 959 986 1014 1043 1071 1098 1126 .00 475 1. 9.% 935 7..89 2.34 2.23 3. 13.4-SP RPM BHP 442 467 -192 518 1.85 838 868 3.. .78 4.35 385 .31 5.05 598 231 625 2.05 585 231 612 2.36 II !~~ lUI 1204 11.....69 IIUU 5.74 488 .87 508 1.54 359 .33 3.6311262 ~:~~ :!~ ~:~~ i: :~.. 11.96 8..23 1198 10.:~ ~g~ :~~.41 1.46 12.76 13.17 946 7....69 491 .. ..71 803 5.34 529 1. . . .. . ..42 1088 1122 1154 1186 6..07 1.91 796 3. ..23 287 ..37 980 1012 1044 6.94 436 1. .23 .78 9...86 1.42 1.. 13. .YI I OUZo 5. 385 398 414 433 454 477 500 524 548 574 599 625 651 678 704 731 758 785 813 841 868 897 925 953 981 1010 1038 1067 1095 .46 746 772 799 3.98 ~: 5...51 <w :. .38 8. .17 502 1.03 228 2.96 .40 4.50 1005 8.77 10. .66 5.59 898 8.83 414 . .1089 9.15 .87 3.08 ~I 2.16 573 2. .."uu OV 4.54 1129 7.22 . .80 821 5.69 819: 3..84 7.3 7..04 1061 6. . . . .. .21 2046 2..63 610 3.79 10...89 : 1022 1051 1081 735 7. . .88 13.87 698 437 4.03 3.87 0'0 957 5.61 . I BHP I RPM I BHP 3130 500 261 ..03 928 959 991 939 4.63 5. .86 1099 I: I 11.46 833 3.86 .07 ~.61 746 5. . .26 337 .. ..59 541 1. 317 .8711193 19.24 10..71 393 .65 1180 937 1211 10.52 2..05 457 1...~~ I ..66 1050 10049 1078 11....55 15.96 12.59 867 5..~~~: 1700 ~~~ 579 1.24 484 1..55 7.48 2.15 653 675 2..90 5. .21 11.~~ ~!~ Z. ~~m~_~410~~aW~_~_'~=I_ .12 I~?: ~..16 3..16 564 1..28 9.59 ...0 12. .. .12 822 4.74 950 971 5.34 663 691 720 2.29 775 4.86 1234 12...68 . .s-Sp RPM BHP RPM BHP 235 ."/j) ~.91 830 5.31 2.96 430 4.82 4.45 1<'.50 11.48 1043 10. . . .07 10.99 857 4.97 :.18 273 ..05 6.27 1 I::: .•.P 1'A-SP I RPM I BHP I RPM ~ I RPM I BHP IRPM BHP I RPM BHP I RPM BHP 302 .39 590 2.83 8. .43. ..78 6..07 2.16 896 653 916 6....16 4.. ...66 351 674 4. . ...28 3..95 1097 7..53 9. .21 3. . .59 538 1..60 9.! 7512 8138 8764 =I~=~~:~~=~:I::::~=~~~~~~~ 1200 446 . ..36 3.75 .00 821 6.52 1084 13..66 615 645 676 1.90 5.Lj o>w 13772 14398 15024 598 630 661 1.21 887 6.72 11~~1 12.....59 468 ..79 2.55 2.FANS AND AIR DISTRIBUTION DEVICES TABLE 10.38 792 4.64 783 2.64 5.70 8.75 925 7.56 736 3.89 957 1117 7.13 862 892 4.17 808 3..54 964 8.34 4..89 11.57 3~ 772 ?97 822 3.92 696 3...94 3. .39 . .62 1.74 11.88 6S0 3.06 9.16 7.61 668 2.25 1. . ....09 460 1.25 7.69 1057 12.23 1034 9.28 2. .04 770 4.48 587 612 1...88 1087 11.32 640 259 655 2. .~~ J. ...31 1.. 3756 600 282 .89 1031 11.16 3.87 665 3.51 977 10.11 9.. ..89 2.73 916 730 944 7.. .. .51 4.~~: 960 1078 IllI 1144 1177 6.72 .00 1061 8.61 1. . :...74 8.69 7.. .~:i~ I:~~1 ~:!~ I :~6! ~~! I:: 1107 1139 1171 1203 7.34 10..32 908 936 5.69 753 4.03 872 7.~3 .59 1...92 684 2.60 14. .90 430 .37 954 7..96 1.32 367 . 546 2.95 814 845 3.55 1169 to.84 3. .78 1.76 634 2.51 3.26 849 5.73 886 914 4.57 8..73 423 ..90 631 3.46 300 .04 598 2.59 651 2. . . ..95 764 4...84 7..06 839 539 859 5.34 456 471 489 510 531 553 577 601 625 651 676 701 727 753 780 807 834 860 886 915 944 971 998 1027 1057 1086 1114 1..10 1...71 2. ~. .48 414 . .. .22 1.15 831 5.82 559 2.97 1154 1184 1214 1245 9...62 6.50 426 .... ...89 8. .68 4.51 1032 7...80 ~=:~:~~~=~=~~~:~=~~~::~ 2200 756 2.22 7.43 ..39 770 2.53 13.40 12.46 599 1. ..63 11....84 6.55 6..88 5. .41 397 .....19 1161 8.58 692 719 747 2.47 799 4..94 887 6.79 4.. 351 . 317 332 350 371 394 417 1-SP RPM BHP . . . .90 1230 11. ...... ..02 527 1. ..42 349 . . .94 558 2.65 377 .19 692 3.23 4. .51 ·796 6.58 826 857 3.64 3.37 129314.4-sP 3.4-SP 112-SP 2-SP RPM BHP RPM BHP RPM BHP . .. . .57 810 4.88 747 4..03 611 230 626 2.68 12. ...10 6.16 562 11..15 7. .31 553 10642 11268 :I:==I~::~~I:~=I::::::~:~:~. :j~ :~:i~ 10.~~~ ~i: :g.69 1001 9.13 7.46 1335 1112 14.97 973 8.42 1030 10..75 1300 1400 476 506 . .58 638 2.28 305 . . . . ••.18 924 8.

65 7.91 lO. ...41 13. 492 496 505 519 535 552 569 588 606 626 646 666 687..51 19.91 727 6.~ ~~ ~~ j .09 15. .88 9.. The system static pressure resistance is often called the external static pressure and is frequently abbreviated SP or ESP in manufacturers' literature (as in Table 10. .29 765 7.94 2.69 935 13.34 702 5.16 6.26 ..03 404 1..75 4..08 555 3. .40 3..09 3.44 579 3. ..07 394 1.80 8'0 9.70 448 1.39 288 .62 3.33 . w.....83 10.91 475 2.70 7.18 7.56 317 .54 1.44 18.66 741 7.35 8.78 713 6. ..12 969 .000 CFM at 6 in.29 3. . .87 2.61 10.91 484 2.89 4.78 555 3.81 4.09 9.11 796 8.26 4...93 15. 2.50 7.:!:! 5..16 919 13..23 16.90 629 4.31 15.83 602 4. ..03 1....17 497 2....83 5.. ..52 6..86 861 10.43 4.74 8. ..32 5..36 869 11. However..08 670 5.24 16. .65 813 9.07 836 9.91 4.1.05 3. Assume that energy conservation is important.. Perhaps a more efficient choice exists..18 2.61 .06 8. ..57 693 6.36 2.47 771 8..47 520 2.. .59 911 12.66 960 14...09 717 6.22 3. .24 626 4.47 591 3. 1. . Other fan pe1formance curves could be studied to determine these possibilities. ...75 350 .. or if the emphasis is on initial cost.12 392 1..19 12. .g.69 .18 497 2. .16 392 1..69 698 6.07 16.40 1.0412.. In our examples..39 13..35 14.30 7.02 6. as Example 10.4-sp TABLE 10.94 7.1).42 12. Solution The selection will be made from Table 10.50 .. .46 .56 13.43 2...30 3.94 14. .13 2.68 650 5..71 8.78 354 .99 13. .20 1.:SP 1~SP Z"SP BHP RPM BHP RPM BHP RPM BHP RPM BHP RPM BHP RPM BHP RPM BHP RPM BHP RPM BHP 22344 23275 24206 25137 26068 26999 27930 28861 29792 30723 31654 32585 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 3500 ..40 IS.72 460 1. .. .63 1..27 15..52 5..95 789 8.90 9.9:37 10..11 4A-3 4..62 11.n 11.47 432 1.27 688 5.34 653 4.59 11.15 861 10.43 2.37 580 3. 709 731 753 776 798 821 845 869 893 917 941 965 989 1013 ..13 3. Hs = 6 in. . static pressure.. .13 7.13 2.34 17.75 602 4.7.78 544 3.56 7.28 5.. static pressure.76 3.45 438 1..50 428 1.35 427 1.01 375 1. wheel diameter) 1..99 3.92 373 1.21 8..05 5.74 . it is simpler to use fan tables for selection...74 533 3.70 985 ..58 3.67 460 1.96 .08 12.264 CHAPTER 10 (Continued) (40 1/4 in.25 13.94 479 2. .27 15.51 8.87 1....31 18.... ..41 14.09 6.31 8.g.54 12..54 3...17 508 2.56 19.63 5... 3.81 677 5.57 8.34 737 6.77 911 12.39 10.81 6. Either basis is satisfactory for low velocity systems.. .19 10..73 .. 570 577 587 602 617 634 652 670 688 707 727 747 767 788 810 832 854 876 899 921 944 968 992 1016 1040 .. .52 3.72 339 .87 360 1..07 8.61 647 5.99 6. Examples 10..25 416 1. 3.98 751 776 802 827 852 878 903 929 955 . .32 14.62 2.. .37 11..08 5..17 624 4...70 20.67 5.17 489 2.84 355 . The . .g.92 468 2.56 9.19 9...67 335 .44 511 2..68 886 11.2 Select an airfoil blade centrifugal fan to supply 8400 CFM at I \2 in..1 What static pres~ure (Hs) will the fan whose performance curves are shown in Figure 10.. .92 886 11.94 2..38 838 10..58 2.. ..09 10.31 811 9. Example 10. .83 8..51 604 3..24 17. .99 7.000 CFM and the Hs curve.37 2.. ...59 96? ..000 CFM? What will be the brake horsepower (BHP) and mechanical efficiency (ME) at this condition? Solution Using Figure 10..97 373 1...12 12.56 845 10. a smaller fan might be found... .95 4.. ..99 4.69 6.28 16. 1..81 3..61 325 .57 936 13..68 453 1..96 The fan may also be selected on the basis of total pressure rather than static pressure.2 illustrate the use of fan manufacturers' curves and tables.92 11.58 9..58 12.09 7. static pressure will be used..71 .22 6.40 4.77 664 5. At this CFM. .89 5... 532 537 547 561 577 594 611 630 648 667 687 707 728 749 771 793 815 838 860 883 907 931 955 979 1003 1027 7...50 6.87 615 4..91 .7 develop at a delivery of 20.54 12..25 722 6. .1 CFM 4655 5586 6517 7448 8379 9310 10241 11172 12103 13034 13965 14896 15827 16758 17689 18620 19551 20482 21413 OV RPM 213 230 248 268 289 312 335 358 382 406 431 455 480 504 529 554 579 605 630 656 682 707 733 758 784 809 835 861 887 913 939 3.92 3.52 318 .34 . 7:! 12. at the intersection of 20.16 674 5. .53 443 1. . .30 17.36 6. . .51 248 259 276 293 313 333 354 376 399 422 446 470 494 519 543 567 592 616 641 666 691 716 742 768 793 819 845 870 896 921 947 ..94 5.31 639 4.85 9.66 .76 6...32 409 1.13 580 3.28 412 1.48 6. it is sometimes more accurate to use total pressure (see Chapter 8).23 11.69 10.95 761 7. w. .. .trSp "k-sp 1-SP 'iirsP "kSP 11<4-SP 11J. 1.42 . w.14 17.04 558 3.72 1.11 568 3.91 8..23 894 12.85 747 7. we also note BHP=27 HP ME=80% This example does not indicate if there are better choices of fans to deliver 20.47 301 .2 illustrates.48 4..26 4..43 517 2... .. I and 10..38 1.22 ..17 413 1.. ..81 5. .5~ 10.70 2.72 537 3. .40 9.46 532 2. Example 10.13 944 14.. .14 14. 452 461 475 490 507 525 544 563 583 603 624 645 667 689 712 735 758 782 806 830 854 878 902 926 950 974 999 .10 4.28 .84 11. For high velocity systems. ..60 786 8..

but if initial cost were the most important consideration. The saving on energy use is negligible with the 36 V. BHP 27 30 33 36\2 40!4 8400 8400 8400 8400 8400 3. the results are shown in Table 10.1. o a 2 3 CFM. in.g. fan uses I 0% more energy. The 30 in. Note that the pressure loss rises sharply with CFM for any duct system. .8. because it is less efficient. it might be selected.1 can be used to find the changed pressure loss in a duct system for a changed CFM flow."p 7 ~5?7 pr? FANS AND AIR DISTRIBUTION DEVICES 265 following possible selections are noted from the data in the table. w. 7000)2 . (Interpolation between listed values is carried out where necessary. thousands . By plotting a few of such Hfversus CFM points.3 The ductwork in a certain ventilating system has a pressure loss of 2 in.0 2. with 5000 CFM of air flowing.i .4 The best selection is probably a 33 in. fan.9 3. a system characteristic curve can be determined. however. What would be the pressure loss if the air flow were 7000 CFM? Solution Using Equation 10.8 Sketch for Example 10. if the pressure loss is known at some other flow rate.3. fan.1 to plot a few points.9 10.4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Plot the system CFM versus Hf curve for the duct system of Example 10.4 (system characteristic curve). Hf2 = 2 ( 5000 =3. Solution Using Equation 10. as follows: Figure 10. in.2 and plotted in Figure 10.g. w.3 2.4 2.9 m.5 SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS In a manner similar to considering fan performance characteristics of CFM versus pressure developed.g. we can examine the duct systelll characteristics of CFM versus pressure loss (HI)' The pressure loss due to frictional resistance in a given duct system varies as the CFM changes. (10.0 2. 4 OJ H = H) CFM2)2 f2 .6 2. in. Hf .5 1.4 CFM 0 2500 4000 5000 6000 7000 Wheel Size.2 RESULTS FOR EXAMPLE 10. It will be noisier.CFM. w. Example 10. TABLE 10.3 2. Example 10.) CFM @1'hin. 0 0. as shown in Example lOA. I) cO 3 U> U> Equation 10.

5. Because the fan can only perform at conditions on the fan curve.10 Fan and system curves for Example 10. as a "safety factor" in calculating the pressure loss. An occupant may readjust damper positions.3 in. 4.-_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ For the fan whose performances characteristics are shown in Figure 10. An examination of the fan and system curves will aid in analyzing these situations. what will the actual operating conditions be'~ . w. ~ " ~ '" ~ Point of -------. The contractor installs the ductwork in a manner different from that planned.1O? Solution The intersection point of the fan and system pressure characteristic curves is the operating condition.. J\lE = 60% at this condition. 25. what will be the operating conditions when used with the duct system whose characteristic curve is also shown in Figure 10.5 _. the following important principle is always true: The point of intersection of the system andfan curves is the operating condition of the system.10.. and the system can only perform at conditions on the system curve. Some reasons this may happen are: I. calculated from Equation 10. System pressure en ~ 8 Fan static pressure Point of ~ I 80 60 I I . Filters may have a greater than expected resistance due to excess dirt.:--------I : ~operation Q. Examining the fan and system curves is not only useful for selecting the operating condition.that the duct system has a different characteristic than planned.6 FAN-SYSTEM INTERACTION By plotting both the fan and system characteristic pressure versus flow curves together.s 6 . • "m 00 ~ 0 ~ w 4 2 a: w Mechanical effiCiency 40 <.9 Fan and system curves plotted togetherintersection is point of operation.. thousands Figure 10. we can find the condition of operation of the fan and system (Figure 10.g. An error in calculating pressure loss. The fan BHP = 35. The system design performance curve A. Assuming that there is no real extra pressure loss.I 266 CHAPTER 10 10.6 For the fan whose performance is shown in Figure 10. w. is also shown. the system-required CFM is 5000 and calculated pressure loss is 4.1.. :I: 20 0 °0L-~--L--L--L-~-~-~-~ 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 CFM. The result of this type of condition is . but Figure 10. Allowance of an extra resistance as a "safety factor" by the designer... aids in analyzing changed conditions and in finding causes of operating difficulties.0 in. w. System I I I I I I Fan I I CFM Example 10. A common occurrenee in air conditioning systems is that the actual system resistance for a design CFM is different from that calculated by the designer. 2. The system designer has allowed an extra 1..9).4 in. 5. Example 10.000 CFM and a static pressure of 5.g. 3.11.g. The design operate ing condition is therefore point I.

. . Of course. '" '" ~ 2 ::> (0/) /1. at the design CFM.. . the actual flow rate could be throttled by using dampers. Fans should not be selected to the left of the peak pressure on the fan curve (Figure 10.0 instead of 5.. The manu- . However. These are called system effects. but the operating cost will be high. . a pressure at least equal to the duct system pressure loss.. . size. I. For fans that are part of a packaged unit. The real system pressure curve can be plotted (curve B). connections should be made to minimize losses.5. the flow rate is 5500 CFM. Some of these factors will now be examined. the system operation may be unstable-there may be pressure fluctuations and excess noise generated.1. Fans should be chosen for close to maximum efficiency. as would have occurred with the design condition. This temptation is great. at 5000 CFM (point 2). I.-" -. I 2). 10. the fan ratings are based on testing the fans in a manner prescribed by the Air Movement and Control Association (AMCA). The system will be delivering too much air to the spaces. This will fall in the middle ranges of the pressure-CFM curve. therefore the next step in selecting fans is to decide what further criteria should be used in selecting the "best" choice. Also note that the BHP = 6. ®--: ."" "WN 2 .. The result will be that there are additional pressure losses at the fan inlet and fan outlet. Figure 10. Another solution might be to change the fan speed. 4 / I. will satisfy the pressure and CFM requirements.-® . because it may mean a smaller fan and therefore lower initial cost. The actual operating condition is the intersection of the fan and real system pressure curves (point 3). . .8 SELECTION OF OPTIMUM FAN CONDITIONS Often a number of fans of different sizes. This is a considerable waste of energy and money. 8 .g. The precise loss at fan inlet and outlet depends on the shape. which must be added to the systenl pressure loss before selecting the required fan pressure. particularly with high energy costs.. near maximum delivery. 10 C.i I I 'I I I I c ~ 3 a. thousands facturer's fan rating curves or tables are used to find a suitable fan. as described later. and direction of the connections to the fan. which we have shown how to determinejn Chapter 8. the manufacturer usually has allowed for the system effect pressure loss for the unit. In any case. each arrangement of inlet and outlet connections to the fan will probably differ from that of the laboratory arrangement in which the fan was tested. t~ 3 FANS AND AIR DISTRIBUTION DEVICES 267 5 .4 .7 SYSTEM EFFECT The fan that is chosen for a given application must develop.0 = 3. w. 2.6. 1/ I ~ y''------\-----=16 ~ o :r: ~ CFM. .. At this point.11 Sketch for Example 10. Solution The actual system pressure loss is 4. . .--_ '~O- n .4 in. Avoid the temptation of selecting a fan far out on the CFM curve. Because every fan installation is unique. or ope rat ing at different speeds. At these conditions. 10.

5. (10. N2 = CFM2 CFM 1 xN 1 There are a number of relationships among fan performance characteristics for a given fan operating at changed conditions. When using forward curved blade centrifugal fans. check the system to see if it might operate at significantly greater than design CFM. these are called fan laws. These relationships are useful for predicting performance if conditions are changed. Fans may have pressure curves of varying steepness (Figure 10. 4. If it is expected that there will be considerable changes in system resistance.12 Unstable operating condition. a flat curve type is desirable.2 to find the new speed. The operating engineer wants to increase the air supply to 9000 CFM.2) (10. CFM Figure 10. where the CFM varies considerably. If so. or for different size fans of similar construction.5 BHP. a fan with a steep curve is desirable.13).268 CHAPTER 10 System Unacceptable operating point \ Flat fan curve-large CFM change with small pressure change .13 Steep and flat fan pressure curves. (10. but constant CFM is required. and a larger motor may be necessary.7 _________________________ A ventilating fan is delivering 8000 CFM while running at a speed of 900 RPM and requiring 6. For variable air volume (VAV) systems (Chapter 12). At what speed should the fan be operated? What must be checked first before making such a change? 10.4) (10.3) 3. the motor horsepower required will increase. Allow for system effect according to the duct inlet and outlet connections as explained previously.9 FAN LAWS Solution Using Equation 10.---Fan Steep fan curvesmall CFM change with large pressure change CFM Figure 10. We will present some of these relationships and their possible uses: = (9000) x 900 = 1010 RPM 8000 .5) ExampklO.

Class III / / / / ~ I ~ <> 5 c~. The motor would have to be changed.. which would be likely because it originally required only 6. and Motor Position Direction of rotation is described when viewed from the opposite side of an inlet and is referred to Inlet Single width single inlet (SWSI) fans have the air inlet on one side. and 3 (Figure 10. centrifugal fans are classified into groups of different allowable maximum pressures (Figure 10. Rotation..2. Inc. double width double inlet (DWDI) fans have air inlets on both sides (Figure 10.£ :::l <J) <J) '" 3i 10 ~ I I Q. Figure 10. the motor would now be overloaded.16) are often used in HVAC applications because of lower cost and convenience. Discharge.5 HP. 15 I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1010)3 ( . If the fan had a 7. t X N FANS AND AIR DISTRIBUTION DEVICES 269 Equation lOA shows that the horsepower will increase. and the fan capability itself should be checked with the manufacturer.14).15). (Courtesy: Air Movement & Control Association.14 Fan construction classes for allowable pressures./ I Class II / / / / 1~~0~O------~3~OO~O~----~5~O~OO~----~7~OOO 10. resulting in unnecessary cost. as might the wiring.5 HP motor. ments 1. Outlet velocity. DWDI fans would thus be suitably installed in a plenum-type cabinet..x 6.2 HP 900 This is a considerable increase in power.15 Single width single inlet and double width double inlet fans. so this must be checked: BHP2 = .10 CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT The AMCA has established standards of centrifugal fan construction and arrangement that are generally followed in the United States.. and yet not to overdesign the fan.I------j DWDI .. The engineer should select and specify fans in the pressure class required for the job. par1icularly Arrangement 3. [AMCA]) Pressure Rating In order to construct fans of sufficient strength to withstand air pressures to which they will be subjected. Arrange- -SWSI . A different pressure classification has been established for fans mounted in cabinets (see AMCA standards). FPM Figure 10. backward inclined type.5 = 9. Arrangement Centrifugal fans are available in nine different arrangements of bearings and air inlets.

1. (Note: Rotation direction determined from drive side of fan.3. rotation. Inlet and discharge connections to the fan should be made to create air flow with minimum pressure loss and equal velocity across the duct section. The manufacturer should be consulted about correct choice of isolator.16 Examples of bearing arrangements commonly used in HVAC system fans.2. SWSI D Arr. The standard motor positions available are shown in Figure 10. SWSI Arr. Adjustable pulleys are available so that a limited speed adjustment can be made on the job. discharge. Fans should be mounted or hung on vibration isolators. SWSI Figure 10. Connection between the inlet and discharge duct and fan should be made with canvas. In addition. Some good and ppor examples are shown in Figure 10.11 INSTALLATION The above specifications of fan construction. Several discharge arrangements are available. installation.) Clockwise down blast Clockwise up blast Clockwise top angular down Clockwise top horizontal Counterclockwise bottom horizontal Counterclockwise . bottom angular up Counterclockwise down blast Counterclockwise top angular up . Centrifugal fans are usually belt driven. 10.- I D Arr.17 Examples of discharge arrangements. 270 CHAPTER 10 Bearings "~ .--------~~-~t. 2. and motor position must be decided upon when planning the HVAC system Figure 10. --. to reduce vibration transmission. Spring and rubber type isolators are available. there are other general installation procedures that should be followed: 1. Different size pulleys make it possible to change speeds.-----. as clockwise (CW) or counterclockwise (CCW).18.19. as shown in Figure 10..17.

4.-.18 Motor positions. 15' maximum spread Poor Sharp discharge turn. from drive side.12 ENERGY CONSERVATION ~ar Motor w Drive t ]j~ t Figure 10. inlet guide vane dampers (Figure 10.20) are preferable to outlet dampers. 6.. Fan Fan & Fan~ .. Airfoil blade centrifugal fans have the highest efficiency and therefore use the least power.. (Note: Specify motor position by letter. Air Distribution Devices The conditioned air that is being supplied.> ~!}-' .) 3. 2. 5. where efficiency is highest.. However.. Select fans in the mid-range of total flow.-" FANS AND AIR DISTRIBUTION DEVICES 271 n Fan 10.':-~ ~. 3.. L '" . less power will be used when the volume flow rate is reduced.to each room must be distributed throughout the space in a Examples of good and poor inlet and discharge connections. Allow space for the motor installation.. Do not allow extra pressure loss as a "safety factor" in the duct system.~- !~\. . Access openings should be provided if needed for inspection and service of bearings. A belt guard with a mesh front should be provided so that the belts can be seen without removing the guard.. Reducing fan speed to· reduce flow is the most efficient method for reduced power consumption.. uneven flow Better Turning vanes straighten flow .. 5. ' .•. Inlet and discharge connections should be arranged to provide minimum pressure loss.w . multispeed fan drives are expensive.t.Better Turning vanes straighten flow ~ Good Long. .. ~.19 1. Adequate clearance for inspection and removal should be provided on all sides of the fan. fullsized inlet Poor Sharp inlet turn.- \-¥: Good Long straight discharge. uneven flow . 4.. If volume control of the fan is to be used. straight. Figure 10.

·The occupied zone of most spaces is considered to be from the floor to an elevation of 6 ft. uncomfortable conditions will result. We . 3. I. and yet often the' occupants are quite uncomfortable. This is an aspect of the environmental control system that is often neglected because it seems simple. it will drop. their features. We will consider the types available. Lower velocities also result in discomfort.272 CHAPTER 10 will investigate some of the principles of air distribution. 2. 10. if it is not. and then will look at some of the devices (terminal units) that are used to provide proper air distribution. 2. This is because the air is not distributed properly in the room. In applications where people are moving around and occupancy is for a short period. When air higher in temperature than room air is supplied (as in winter). Higher velocities (drafts) cause discomfort.20 Inlet guide vanes for volume control. (Courtesy: Buffalo Forge Company. When air lower in temperature than room air is supplied (as in summer). it will rise. higher air velocities are acceptable (50-70 FPM). When air is supplied parallel to and near a ceiling. Figure 10.13 ROOM AIR DISTRIBUTION Good room air distribution requires the following characteristics for comfort: 1. as in department stores. Air velocities throughout the occupied zone (called residual velocities) between 25-35 FPM for applications where people are seated. it will tend to "hug" the ceiling for certain manner. usually a feeling of stuffiness or staleness. Temperature fluctuations greater than this will usually result in discomfort. greater temperature fluctuations are permissible. Above this height. Temperatures throughout the occupied zone of the room within ± 2 F (1 C) of the design temperature. Air at the proper flow rate and conditions may be supplied.14 AIR PATTERNS There are a few facts about how an air supply to a room will behave which are important to understand in order to select and locate air supply devices properly and to balance and adjust the devices. and selection.) 10.

.:.23). will induce room air (called secondary air) into the airstream. thus rapidly mixing the supply air and the room air. leaving a stagnant zone in the occupied area. 1.21 illustrates these terms. a ceiling outlet should be mounted below the obstruction. The throw from a supply air device is the distance that the supply air travels before reaching a relatively low velocity. sending a cold draft down to the occupied zone (Figure 10. The temperature differential is the temperature difference between the supply air and the room air.25).. out the occupied zone will occur. Floor or sill (Figure 10. d It) Occuple zone (6 -I t . because the warm air will rise..22). This is a good location for heating because the warm air will rise naturally.21 Description of terms used in air distribution.. J. forcing the cold air to rise and circulate: Beams and ceiling-mounted lighting fixtures create a problem for ceiling or high wall air outlets. resulting in residual velocities of 20-70 FPM. Separate heating (under the window) should be used in this case. High wall (Figure 10. because it counteracts the cold air downdraft that would otherwise result near the glass. The primary air hugs the ceiling due to the ceiling effect. There are certain other terms used in studying air distribution that need to be defined. 4. Terminal velocities of 75-200 FPM are recommended. The drop is the vertical distance the (cold) supply air drops by the end of its throw. because the cold air will tend to remain near the floor. This is an excellent location for heating if located under windows.1. It is not a very good location for heating because the warm air will rise.~------Throw-------. 3. For a high wall outlet. 4. This is called the ceiling or sUrface effect. The supply air to the room (called the primary air) when distributed from an air supply device. unless forced down at a high velocity. It can also be used for cooling if an adequate outlet velocity is achieved.FANS AND AIR DlSTRIBUTIONDEVICES 273 some distance. The spread is the horizontal divergence of the airstream. This is an excellent location for cooling because the cold air will drop naturally. called the terminal velocity. 2. In this case. and then bounces off the obstruction. Ceiling (Figure 10. 10. This is a good loca- tion for cooling because the cold air will drop naturally and adequate air circulation through- Figure 10. but is not desirable for cooling. Low wall.24).l'I ~:.l:~f~~&d~f Induced secondary air Residual velocities here are 20-70 FPM Terminal velocity here is 75-200 FPM . the air should be directed to clear the obstruction.15 LOCATION The location of air distribution devices in the room is an important consideration in achieving good air distribution. Figure 10. It is not a good location for heating.

. Grilles with two sets of bars at right angles to each other are available and are called double deflection grilles (Figure 10. Grilles witb volume control dampers mounted behind the grille are called registers.. it is usually better to install ceiling and high wall outlets below or at the level of lighting. if needed.. Grilles and Registers These devices consist of a frame and parallel bars.--. Figure 10. 3.26).22 High wall outlet location.27). In this way.24 Floor or sill location under window for heating provides good air distribution. or rectangular in shape. which may be eitber fixed or adjustil..ble. to adjust tbe throw and spread of air. 10. Ceiling Diffusers These devices usually consist of a series of separate concentric rings or louvers with acollar or neck to connect to the duct (Figure 10.. saving energy. and if the bars are adjustable. Grilles and registers Ceiling diffusers Slot diffusers Plenum ceilings Figure 10. . square. The bars serve to deflect the supply air in the direction tbe bars are set. When locating floor or sill outlets.. 2. 274 CHAPTER 10 Stagnant zone may not get heated Cooling-good air distribution Heating-poor air distribution Figure 10. cooling of unused space near tbe ceiling is reduced.23 Ceiling outlet location for cooling provides good distribution.. In addition to those that distribute air equally in all directions.--.16 TYPES OF AIR SUPPLY DEVICES There are four types of air supply devices used for creating proper air distribution in the conditioned space: 1. -----t~ ' '. For very high ceilings. 4. They may be round. care must be taken not to let drapes or furniture block the air flow.-. They enable control of the air distribution in both directions.

26 Supply register.25 Effect of obstruction at ceiling.) . FANS AND AIR DISTRIBUTION DEVICES 275 \ Figure 10. Figure 10. (Courtesy: Figure 10. double deflection type.) Tuttle & Bailey®. Division of Interpace Corporation. (Courtesy: Tuttle & Bailey®.W' .27 Ceiling diffusers. Division of Inteipace Corporation.

In this Figure 10. The space above the ceiling is used as a large plenum through which the supply air is delivered. depending on the number of bars or vanes (Figure 10.276 CHAPTER 10 they can be designed to distribute air in any desired direction. the mixed air temperature will not be unacceptably lower than room temperature before it drops to the occupied zone. as well as the supply diffuser. (The slot openings are at the long edges of the fixture. In any case. it then will follow the ceiling due to the ceiling effect. The air is discharged horizontally when used for cooling. The design and balancing of plenum ceiling systems is a specialized procedure and will not be discussed further here. a high sidewall location is one of the preferred locations. This location is popular}n residential installations. vertical spread. When used for cooling. providing a significant energy savings.28). The air can be directed slightly arched upward. and return air locations could make the installation satisfactory in mild winter climates. This type is sometimes used because it blends architecturally with the appearance of a suspended panel ceiling. but blankets the glass with warm air. air can be distributed evenly throughout the whole space to be conditioned. resulting in more light output per unit of power input. a careful selection of outlet throw. Ceiling Diffusers These are usually located at the ceiling. which can serve as supply air outlets. It usually results in low installation costs in this application because the ductwork in the basement below is relatively simple. However.) The fluorescent tubes are. therefore cooled somewhat.17 Grilles APPLICATIONS Plenum Ceilings Suspended (hung) ceilings are available with slots or perforations throughout most or all of the ceiling. Division of Interpace Corporation. way.28 Slot diffuser. a perimeter location under windows discharging vertically upward from the Hoor is ideal in cold climates. because their appearance is not considered aesthetically pleasing in a ceiling. When used for warm air heating. For warm air heating. Another version also has the return air openings in the fixture. This not only provides good mixing of primary and secondary air. They are not installed in ceilings as often. and . A combination fluorescent lighting fixture and slot diffuser is also available. (Courtesy: Tuttle & Bailey®. Manufacturers of these ceilings will aid the interested designer or contractor. caution is urged. 10. mixing well with induced secondary air. offsetting cold downdrafts. however. In this way. the discharge air velocity must be adequate to overcome the gravity effect of the denser air. Slot Diffusers This is a long strip-shaped outlet with one or more narrow openings. It is also called a linear or strip diffuser.) When used for cooling. Ceiling diffusers are also available in the fonn of perforated panels. the high sidewall outlet may result in stratification of the wann air. Adjustable deflection vanes are used to set proper air direction. Grilles and registers can also be used at ceilings with results similar to high sidewall locations.

and floors may restrict the location of ductwork and thus the air outlets. 2. better air distribution is achieved by using a number of diffusers. Ceiling diffusers generally have a high induction ratio of room air. When distributing cold air. In this case. They are also often installed in the bottom of horizontal ductwork below the ceiling when a suspended ceiling is not used. This is more common in industrial applications.18 SELECTION The air outlets chosen for a project depend on the following: Figure 10. this will increase the cost ofthe installation. 5. 3. This choice depends on a number of factors-air quantity. This popularity is due to the use of low sills and long expanses of glass in many modern buildings. I I §I I I I I I t I t t ~ ~~ t I I t ~~~ I Ceiling Ceiling Ceiling LJ Sidewall Ceiling I Ceiling 1. The architect will also set certain requirements. However. 10. n = FANS AND AIR DISTRIBUTION DEVICES 277 follows the ceiling for some distance due to the ceiling effect. Grilles are generally limited to 25 FTD. Warm air supply outlets are preferably located at the perimeter discharging vertically upward. The structural engineer must be consulted on this. For large cooling temperature differentials (TD) between supply and room air. Some types can be used up to 35 F TD. 4. 2-. An alternate location for cold air supply is a perimeter location discharging vertically upward from below the windowsill. Generally. and will want the ceiling to have a certain appearance in regard to location of diffusers. the diffuser may have to be located below the beam line. Architectural requirements. (This is called the reflected ceiling plan. the danger of unacceptable air temperatures entering the occupied zone increases. therefore lessening this problem when large temperature differential is needed.) If there is a likelihood of rearranging partitions l . Quantity. supply outlets may be located at the ceiling or high on sidewalls. Slot Diffusers These are available in arrangements enabling them to be used either at ceilings or sidewalls. Temperature differentials. cost.. they may deflect the air down to the occupied zone.. Some types of ceiling diffusers can be used for heating by adjusting the air pattern to discharge vertically downward at a high velocity. In addition. The building structure behind walls. which may guide the type used and their location. If there are exposed beams. the return air location becomes important-it should be located in the interior of the room. preferably at a low elevation to avoid short circuiting. Structural requirements. in a large space.29). they are popular in perimeter applications discharging vertically up from the floor under sills. diffusers are available with 1-. or 3way blow to cover rectangular-shaped room areas (Figure 10. Often more than one supply outlet is located in a room. ceilings. A part of the outlet can be blanked off with a piece of sheet metal to get directional air patterns. However. In this case. and architectural requirements. Round and square diffusers that have equal openings all around are used to cover a square floor area.29 Use of 1-. or 3-way blow diffusers. Location. 2-. The architect usually wishes the space to have a certain appearance.

000 1.8 Select a single round ceiling diffuser for Betina's Boutique (Figure 10. 7 . The sound level produced by a diffuser depends on the air velocity. This is done with the aid of manufacturers' rating tables. for this will result in drafts bouncing off walls. "-. NC-39 sound level This is a satisfactory selection. When the above decisions regarding selection have been made. Example 10.C) "-1 278 CHAPTER 10 in the future.3. a smaller diffuser will mean a higher sound level.7). throw. needed when balancing the air flow. The diffusers will be located in the center of each square. Size. A selection should never be made with a throw greater than the maximum.3).1 X 25 = 650 CFM The maximum radius of diffusion permitted is 10ft (from the center of the room to the wall). for a given required CFM. Figure 10.30 Sketch for Example 10. The minimum throw for adequate circulation is recommended by the manufacturer (usually :y.000 BTUlhr. 6. Figure 10. Therefore. The diffuser manufacturer usually lists sound ratings of the diffusers by NC (noise criteria) levels. and show corrections for other heights.4. of maximum). The maximum throw allowable is the distance to a wall or to the edge of the zone of the next diffuser.9 Determine suitable diffuser locations and throws for a room with a 60 ft by 30 ft floor pran if two diffusers are to be used. Using the sensible heat equation (3. The throw of radius of diffusion is the horizontal distance that the diffuser projects the air. The variable performance characteristics of ceiling diffusers that are of major importance are CFM. This information is. a Size 10 diffuser has the following listed rating: 650 CFM. Solution The required CFM must first be determined. the proper sizes of outlets can be chosen.B. . Note that the pressure requirements are also given.30). The maximum throw therefore is 15 ft. The supply air temperature differential is 25 F. but a lower cost. This is a weighted perceived sound level. Ratings for one type of round ceiling diffuser are shown in Table 10. The NC level suggested for a small store is from 40 to 50 (Table 10.. mounting height. f+1'--20'--~'I T 20' 1 0.4. The engineer must balance these needs according to the applications. Acceptable throws are from 12-15 ft when the diffuser size is selected. The RSHG is 18. The CFM is the quantity previously determined as required to condition the space. From Table 10. Solution The diffusers will have equal throws in all directions.. Recommended NC levels are shown in Table 10. CFM = 18.16 ft radius of diffusion. Air diffuser Plan view Example 10.31 shows the floor plan divided into squares. Most manufacturers give ratings acceptable for a mounting height between 8 and 10ft. and sound level. diffuser location and quantity may be chosen to allow changes without having to move ducts and diffusers.

lobbies Washrooms and toilets RESTAURANTS. courtrooms Post offices. LOUNGES Restaurants Cocktail lounges Private rooms Operating rooms. gymnasiums Swimming pools TRANSPORTATION (RAIL. drafting rooms Halls and corridors Tabulation and computation AUDITORIUMS AND MUSIC HALLS Clothing stores Department stores (upper floors) Department stores (main floor) Small retail stores Supermarkets SPORTS ACTIVITIES.35-45 40-50 45-55 40-50 40-55 40-50 45-55 35-45 35-50 35-50 40-50 30-40 35-45 40-50 35-45 35-50 35-45 40-50 Individual rooms or suites Ballrooms.and 3-family units HOTELS 25-35 30-40 35-45 35-45 35-45 40-50 45-55 45-55 30-40 35---45 20-30 25-35 30-40 30-40 30-40 35-45 40-50 40-50 25-35 30-40 35-45 40-50 20-30 25-35 30-40 30-45 35-45 35-50 40--60 Laboratories Recreation halls Corridors and halls Kitchens . museums. RETAIL 40-50 -f5-55 25-35 30-40 35-45 35-50 40-50 40-55 -f5-65 Boardroom Conference rooms Executive office Supervisor office.3 RANGES OF INDOOR DESIGN GOALS FOR AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM SOUND CONTROL Range of A-Sound Range of A-Sound Range of Levels.mate theaters. 2. NC Criteria Oecibels Curves ) . TV audience studios Semi-outdoor amphitheaters Lecture halls.FANS AND AIR DISTRIBUTION DEVICES 279 TABLE 10. halls and corridors Lobbies and waiting rooms Washrooms and toilets OFFICES Nightclubs Cafeterias STORES. 40-50 40-55 40-55 45-55 . wards Laboratories. Type of Area Range of Levels. BUS. . . lobbies Garages Kitchens and laundries HOSPITALS AND CLINICS PUBLIC BUILDINGS Public libraries. PLANE) Concert and opera halls Studios for sound reproduction Legiti. planetarium Lobbies CHURCHESANDS~HOOLS 20-30 30-35 35-l5 15-25 25-30 30-35 35-45 20-30 30-40 30-40 Ticket sales offices Lounges and waiting rooms EQUIPMENT ROOMS 40-50 25-35 35-45 35-45 8 hrlday exposure 3 hrlday exposure (or per OSHA requirement) Sanctuaries Libraries Schools and classrooms I Note: These are for unoccupied spaces with all systems operating . CAFETERIAS. banquet rooms Halls and corridors. general banking areas. INDOOR 40-50 45-55 45-55 35-45 40-50 45-60 35-45 40-55 <90_ <97 35-45 40-50 40-50 30-40 35-45 40-55 30-40 35-50 Coliseums Bowling alleys. reception room General open offices. multipurpose halls Movie theaters. NC Criteria Decibels Curves Type of Area RESIDENCES CHURCHES AND SCHOOLS (Con'L) Private homes (rural and suburban) Private homes (urban) Apartment houses. Reprinted with pennission from the 1976 ASHRAE Handbook & Product Directory.

063 120 2-3-5 15 210 3-4-7 16 330 3-5-8 17 470 4-6-10 18 635 5-7-11 19 840 5-8-13 19 1060 6-9-15 20 1310 7-10-16 21 1880 8-12-19 22 2940 10-15-24 23 4230 12-18-29 24 I i j Press Vertical Flow Rate.132 .016 . ft.03-1 600 . Baltimore. 390 3-5-8 - NC 14" 425 3-5-8 - 785 7-10-16 34 1060 8-\2-19 35 1400 9-14-22 36 1770 10-15-24 36 2190 11-17-27 37 3140 14-20-32 38 4900 17-25-41 39 7040 20-30-49 40 1255 11-16-26 50 1695 13-19-30 60 22-10 14-22-35 51 2830 16-2-1-39 52 3500 J8-27-B 52 5020 22-32-5:! Flow Rate. 53 78-10 27-40-65 54 1960 7-10-16 NC 36" Flow Rate..063 . cCrn Radius of Diff.. ft. Total Horizontal 400 .346 . ft. I 270 3~-7 NC 12" - 220 2-3-5 315 3-4-7 - 48 Flow ~te. Re 10.010 .12 watts.70. ft.189 . Maryland. cCrn 6" Radius of Diff.256 .246 235 4-6-10 36 420 5-8.065 . rpm Vel.333 275 5-7-11 41 490 6-9-15 43 765 8-12:19 44 1100 9-14-23 45 1490 11-16-26 46 1960 13-19-30 46 2480 14-21-34 47 3060 16-24-38 48 4400 19-28-45 49 6860 24-35-57 50 9850 28-42-68 51 1600 . cfrn Radius of Diff. cCrn Radius of Diff.027 80 1-2-3 - 500 .040 . ft...051 .084 . Press.023 . ft..2820 8-13-::!O 17 ·3520 32 5630 16-24-39 33 8-12-20 1O-IS-2-t 18 ** NC - 1l. middle to 100 fpm. ft.139 180 3-5-7 27 315 4-6-10 29 490 5-8-12 30 70S 6-9-15 31 955 7-11-17 32 30 1000 .048 . .. cfrn Radius of DitT. cfrn 10" Radius of Diff~" ft..090 . cfrn Radius of DitT. .107 .122 . If diffuser is moumed on exposed duct. cfrn Radius of Diff.. 530 4-6-9 L3 700 5-7-11 14 560 4-5-9 - NC 18" Flow Rate.109 160 3-4-7 24 280 4-5-9 26 435 4-7-11 27 630 5-8-13 27 850 6-9-15 28 1120 7-11-17 29 1420 8-12-20 30 1750 9-14-22 30 2510 11-16-26 31 3920 13-20·32 900 . 175 2-3-5 315 6-8-11 45 560 7-11-17 47 870 9-13-~2 I 140 2-3-4 - NC Flow Rate.031 . ft. Reprinted with pennission from Environmental Elements Corporation.O..437 Size Neck Velocity. 2. ft. 15 1570 7-10-16 16 2~50 1260 5-8-13 - NC 30" Flow Rate.0-1-1 100 2-3--1 NC Flow Rate.. in W.4 PERFORMANCE DATA FOR 1YPICAL ROUND CEILING DIFFUSERS NC 20 700 . 1260 8-12-20 32 1590 9-14-22 33 1970 10-15-24 34 2820 12-18-29 35 4410 15-23-36 36 6340 18-27-44 37 710 4-6-10 - NC 20" Flow Rate. . The NC values are based on a room absorption of 18 dB. ft. 885 5-8-l2 15 875 4-7-11 - llOO 6-9-14 NC 24" Flow Rate. Re 10.260 32-48-78 55 Note: I.I3 38 655 7-10-16 39 940 8-12-19 40 1270 9-14-22 41 1680 11-16-26 41 2120 12-18-29 42 2610 13-19-32 43 3770 16-24-39 44 5880 20-30-49 45 8450 24-36-58 46 1400 .13 watts or 8dB.160 . Values shown are for a horizontal pattern. Minimum radii of diffusion are to a temlinal velocity of ISO [pm. cfrn Radius of Diff. multiply radii of diffusion shown by 0.085 140 2-4-6 20 245 3-5-8 21 380 4-6-9 22 550 5-7-11 23 745 5-8-13 24 980 6-9-15 25 1240 7-11-17 26 1530 8-12-19 26 2200 9-14-23 27 3430 12-18-28 27 4930 14-21-34 28 800 .172 200 4-5-8 31 350 5-7-11 32 545 6-8-14 33 40 1200 . cfrn Radius of Diff. add I dB for a vertical pattern. and maximumo to 50 [pm. NC 16" Flow Rate.280 CHAPTER 10 TABLE 10. cfrn 8" Radius of Ditr.021 .

and eight diffusers could be used.34).31 Sketch for Example 10.· FANS AND AIR DISTRIBUTION DEVICES 281 ~I . Anti-Smudge Rings A strip of dirt on the ceiling surrounding a ceiling diffuser is a common sight. because they will not result in uneven flow. (a) Poor air distribution in duct collar.· . A ring that surrounds the diffuser is available which will reduce this problem.32(a). • (a) (b) . but they can cause both uneven flow and additional noise (Figure 10. The interested student can refer to manufacturers' catalogs.~~:. This would greatly increase the cost. ~:Figure 10.----60'----+1·1 Air . Opposed blade dampers are preferable to those that rotate in the same direction.32(b).33).t.19 ACCESSORIES AND DUCT CONNECTIONS There are a number of accessories that are used with air supply devices to control or improve air distribution. Splitter Dampers These are sometimes used to direct air into the outlet and to control volume. (b) Equalizing grid evens flow. . Figure 10.~'. Selection procedures for supply grilles and slot diffusers are similar.•• "f_ - x :-. resulting in poor room air distribution. can be used to equalize the air flow pattern to the outlet.' ·~. as shown in Figure 1O.. The dampers can usmilly be adjusted from the face of the outlet with a special key. each 15 ft square. An equalizing grid installed in the duct collar. il. Control Damper These are used to adjust the volume rates of flow to the desired quantity (Figure 10.32 Use of equalizing grid in duct collar." >. 10. m • . the air may flow unevenly from the outlet. 15'--+ ifdiffTers * 1 5 k--15' I I I 1 30' T Equalizing Grids When an air outlet is connected to a duct as shown in Figure IO.9. Of course the space could also have been divided into eight areas.

Solution Referring to Table 10. to check the possibility of short-circuiting. What should be the grille face area? Above occupied zone Within occupied zone. The required face area istherefore Area = _1_5_0_0_ft_/_m_i_n 800 ft/min 3 = 1. .. The selection of return air devices is usually quite simple.5.. a velocity of 800 FPM is acceptable.. it is advisable to extend . minimum). We will examine only a small part of this complex subject.the duct beyond the outlet neck (about one-half the take-off diameter. not near seats Within occupied zone. )_ t ). FPM A return air grille is to be located high on a sidewall in a room. but will present enough information so that the student will have an understanding of the problems that occur and how they may be resolved. When air is being returned to corridors or adjacent spaces.10 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Air conditioning systems generate sound.34 Control damper.20 RETURN AIR DEVICES 10.. however. because of their lower cost.5 RECOMMENDED RETURN AIR INLET FACE VELOCITIES Location Velocity.11 ""'1'1'1 tI -" \ Figure 10. or the door may be undercut. The face velocity refers to the velocity calcuhlted by using the overall dimensions of the grille. Grilles are the most commonly used. with a 6-in.5. Cushioned Head For a diffuser that is at the end of a duct... Sound power is the sound level generated by a noise source.r V ~~~~~~ \ I \ I Figure 10.33 Splitter damper to control flow-poor air distribution. The actual velocity is higher because of the grille bars.. The magnitude of sound is measured in a unit called the decibel (dB)... We are interested TABLE 10. It is therefore the responsibility of the designer and contractor to provide adequate sound control when necessary. Recommended face inlet velocities that generally provide acceptable noise levels are shown in Table 10. exhausting 1500 CFM. this results in more even air distribution to the outlet. t.21 SOUND All of the devices used for air supply are suitable for return air. near seats Door or wall louvers Door undercuts 800 600-800 400-600 200-300 200-300 . It is nevertheless a wise rule to locate return air inlets far from outlets.9 ft2 (use 2 ft2) 10. and. if this is not possible. The location of return air devices is not as critical as supply devices because the air will not short-circuit in most cases.282 CHAPTER 10 1 Splitter damper I -:- / Turning /vanes 1. Example 10. transfer grilles or louvers may be located in partitions or doors. which may be objectionable in some cases.

5. Some general recommendations are: I. 7. However.. When two sources produce sound. we do not need to be overly coucerned with distinctions between these terms. a higher pitch sound of the same dB level as a lower one seems louder to the individual.12 The sound power level in a duct approaching an air diffuser is 52 dB. . sound also has frequency. 4. Often the resultant sound levels in the rooms are satisfactory and no special treatment is necessary. the combined level is f~und from Table 10. the system design and installation should be carried out to minimize sound problems.3 lists recommended dB-A levels as well as NC-Ievels. Sound level measuring meters are available that read dB-A levels. Both are used in setting standards. : 7 FANS AND AIR DISTRIBUTION DEVICES 283 _'1 in the sound transmitted and received. Avoid abrupt changes in direction in ducts. The average dB-A is 40 and NC is 35.. Table 10. Select fans near their most efficient operating point. The sound power level of the diffuser is 49 dB. Balance the system so that throttling of dampers is minimized.6. particularly by humans.6. Use duct velocities recommended for quietness. Install dampers only when required. For our purposes. Some of the wasted energy is otherwise converted into noise. That is.11 What are the average recommended dB-A and NC sound levels for a hotel room? Solution From Table 10. the sound levels at each frequency sometimes need to be analyzed..6 EFFECT OF COMBINING TWO SOUND LEVELS Difference between Levels. This is called sound pressure. n ¥tnaxft . Example 10. What is the sound power exiting into the room? . In studying an actual sound problem. 3. Example 10. Most sound generated has a range of frequencies. TABLE 10. Avoid obstructions in the ductwork. an average of the levels at each frequency is often sufficient to work with. In addition to magnitude. Make duct connection transitions as gradual as possible.000 Hz (cycles per second). This provides a simple means of measuring effective surrounding sound levels.. We are particularly interested in frequency because the human ear has less sensitivity to lower frequencies (low pitch) than to higher pitch sounds. In any case. Difference = 52 -49 = 3 dB dB to be added to higher level = 2 dB Combined sound power level = 52 + 2 = 54 dB 10.. This would be a suitable sound level in a hotel room. dB 0-1 2-4 5-9 10 or more dB addition to highest level to obtain combined level 3 2 1 0 Solution Using Table 10. 2. The weighted average that corresponds well to human response to sound is called the A-scale ne(work (dB-A). Use wide radius elbows or turning vanes. A weighted average is used to account for the change in sensitivity ofthe ear to different frequencies. Isolate fans from their supports by using vibration isolators and from the ductwork by using flexible connections. however.22 SOUND CONTROL The main sources of sound generation in an air conditioning system are the fan and the noise generated by air in the ductwork.. The audible range is from about 2020. 6. the recommended range of dB-A is 35-45 and of NC is 30-40.3.

but are suitable for noncritical applications. Determine the room effect from tables. Rooms also have sound-absorbing characteristics. Ductwork. The following procedure can be used for predicting sound levels and required sound treatment: I.7). Combine the sound power level in the duct (item 3) to that of the outlet (Table 10.7 NATURAL DUCT ATTENUATION Ducts Radius Elbow Size.6).: 9. and elbows provide some natural sound attenuation. TABLE 10. then the difference between them is the amount of additional sound attenuation that must be added.) 24 x 24 (large) 72 x 72 dBlft Size.j G Figure 10. As an exercise in understanding the procedure.10 0. we will assume some figures in the following example. using tables. If item 7 is less than item 8 (the desired room sound level). This will be the sound generated at the outlet exit to the room. Determine the recommended dB and NC level for the type of room. Tables for determining this effect are also available. Values range from 0 up to 20 or 25 dB. 3.5 dB Elbow=3 Natural attenuation = 5.5 dB .7. which would be taken from the tables recommended. in. the attenuation is Duct 0.13 Determine the natural attenuation in the duct system shown in Figure 10. which depend on the size and sound-absorbing qualities of the surfaces and furnishings. (small) 6 X 6 (med.13. If item 7 is greater. Determine the amount of natural sound attenuation from ducts and fittings. Solution From Table 10.35. They are not precise. using tables. Determine the sound level generated by the fan. 6. 7. }-oj (f-----50·----~. Subtract item 6 from item 5. a series of calculations are made. 4. In many applications.i 284 CHAPTER 10 J 8.05 om !Ox 10 20x20 over 20 Branches Ratio of branch to main CFM. This involves first determining the sound level generated at each frequency and then the amount of sound attenuation (reduction) required to meet the sound level required in the room. In a thorough sound analysis. and the attenuation varies with the sound frequency.35 36" x 24" 1 Sketch for Example 10. dB 2 3 0. 5. This is the sound absorption from room materials.05 dBlft x 500 ft = 2. This information is usually available from the manufacturer. Tables listing this information can be found in the ASHRAE Systems Volume. no treatment is required. Select air outlets at sound levels as recommended by the manufacturer.% dB attenuation 5 10 10 20 30 50 13 753 Example 10. in. This will be the room sound level if no special sound treatment is used. This will be the sound level in the ducts to the air outlet. Tables that list average attenuation for all frequencies are also available (Table 10. Subtract item 2 (natural sound attenuation) from item I (sound generated). particularly in high velocity systems where considerable noise is generated. Determine the sound level of the air outlet from the manufacturer. 8. branches. special· sound treatment must be carried out. 2.

It can be accomplished by lining ducts internally with a sound-absorbing material. Room sound level (item 5 less 6) 8. is 55 + 2 6. Describe the use of equalizing grids. anti-smudge rings.com Problems 10. These devices have special internal configurations of sound-absorbing materials and perforated plates. 12. and cushion heads. 13. How is the point of operation of a duct system determined? C 5. Vibrations from fans. control dampers. =72dB = 17 dB =55 dB =51 dB =57 dB = 10 dB =47 dB =40dB 3.com www. I I. Fan sound power level 2.1 Find the static pressure developed. . 9. What is the difference between a vaneaxial and a tubeaxial fan? 2. Useful Websites Information on selection and specification of fans can be found at the following Websites: www. What are the main features of centrifugal fan construction? What good practices should be followed when installing fans? What energy conservation practices should be considered with fans? Describe what is meant by the terms throw. They are quite effective and are used frequently in high velocity systems. with the following data: Solution I. Manufactured sound traps can also be used.14 Find the additional average sound attenuation required (if any) for an air conditioning system for a private office. For more accurate results. Attenuation in ducts 3 Sound power to diffuser (item I less 2) 4. and total pressure. 10. Sound power level from diffuser. using Table 10. Often a combination of these sound attenuation methods is used on a system. 7. ceiling effect. What criteria should be used in selecting a fan? 6. Describe the effect of changing fan speed on the CFM.acmefan. Diffuser sound power level 5. List the types of air supply devices and their applications. spread.7. BHP. Required additional sound attenuation Review Questions I.000 CFM. This subject is discussed in Chapter 9. 4. Room effect attenuation 7. Sketch the three performance curve shapes for a backward and forward curved blade centrifugal fan. Recommended room sound leyel (executive office) 9. splitter dampers. There are a few methods for achieving sound attenuation. List the types of centrifugal fans and sketch their blade positions.6. the above analysis would be carried out at each sound frequency in order to determine how much additional sound attenuation is needed. It is also very effective to internally line the air handling unit casing. drop. terminal velocity. and compressors can also transmit sound if not isolated.nyb. pumps. and primary and secondary air. List the recommended procedures to minimize sound generated by a duct system. BHP. and ME of the fan whose performance curves are shown in Figure 10. 14.FANS AND AIR DISTRIBUTION DEVICES 285 Example 10. List the considerations in choosing the location of air supply devices. = 7 dB 8. at a flow of 25. residual velocity.

Locate and select three ceiling diffusers.8 The sound lower level of the fan shown in . Use 1. 10.7 What are the recommended NC-Ievel and dB-A level for a classroom? 10.5 CFM/ft2. 10. then four diffusers.8 is 8 dB.10 Select air diffusers for the warehouse shown in Figure 6. Figure 10. :1 -J • I. and 10.9 If the room attenuation in Problem 10.titus-hvac.S.6 A louver is to be installed in a door to return 400 CFM of air to a corridor.com B.2 A 30 in.4 Select a ceiling diffuser to deliver 2000 CFM in a 30 ft by 30 ft classroom. then four diffusers.25. A.13. Use the results of your solution t6 Problem 7.hartandcooley.36 is 44 dB and 40 dB for the diffuser.000 CFM at 1 in.3 A fan is deiivering 8100 CFM at I )2 in. Use 1. Use www.---SO·-----+l. Computer Solution Problems 10.11 Select air diffusers for the office building shown in Figure 6.12.5 A 100 ft by 50 ft pharmacy requires 8000 CFM of air. The fan speed is changed to 700 RPM. 10. 10.1 0.1 is specified to deliver 10.12 Use the Internet to select the round diffusers in Problems 10. A.286 CHAPTER 10 ~I (---I. At what speed should the TAB technician set it? What would be the expected motor BHP? 10. what additional attenuation would be required for a conference room? 10. 10.3 B HP. Determine the duct attenuation and sound level exiting from the diffuser.1 CFM/ft2.com . First select two. centrifugal fan of the type shown in Table 10. B. Use www. SP while running at a speed of 650 RPM and using 2. Select two.! 20' a Figure 10. What is the recommended louver area? 10. A. SP. Use the results of your solution to Problem 7.5. 10. 10. B. and BHP. 10.24.4. Find the new CFM.36 J 20" x 1S" 1- t Sketch for Problem 10. SP (static pressure).11.

2 PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION The centrifugal pump increases the pressure of the water by first increasing its velocity. and Venting A pump is a device that circulates liquids through piping systems. Pumps can be classified into two groups according to . Determinehow to locate and size expansion . the way they develop this pressure-either by positive displacement or centrifugal force. Use pump characteristic curves for rating and selecting a pump. and rotary pumps. Figure 11.1 shows the operating elements of a centrifugal pump. It is very reliable. vane. gear. In this chapter. 2.1 TYPES OF PUMPS A pump provides the pressure necessary to overcome the resistance to flow of a liquid in a piping system.H A p T E R Centrifugal Pumps. tanks. including use of the expansion tank. in- stallation. Identify the basic parts and construction of a centrifugal pump. rugged. Expansion Tanks. The centrifugal pump is generally used in both hydronic ·and cooling tower water systems. The subject of controlling and venting air from the circulating water system will also be discussed. Use pump similarity laws to find the effect of changing speed. because this subject is closely related to how the pump is used. and maintenance of centrifugal pumps. In the first group are included reciprocating. The centrifugal pump is the type most widely used in circulating water in HVAC systems. selection. 3. 11. screw. you will be able to: 1. They are used only in specialized cases in HVAC work and will not be discussed further here. we will discuss the principles of operation. 4. 287 11. and efficient. construction. OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter. and then converting that velocity energy to pressure energy.

Flow rate versus brake horsepower 3. Three curves are usually presented: I. _--'c. The velocity energy is converted into pressure energy by decreasing its velocity. This is accomplished by increasing the flow area in the volute and diffuser section of the pump casing.. The pump casing contains and guides the water toward the discharge opening.. Flowing from the pump suction line. these are used to select the correct pump for an application. Flow rate versus efficiency Figure 11.. The action of the impeller has increased the velocity of the water.1 Operating elements of a centrifugal pump. The water is forced in a centrifugal direction (radially outward) by the motion of the impeller vanes. driven by a motor or other prime mover. The characteristics are usually presented in the form of curves or tables.-L'-/~. The general shape of the curves is similar for all centrifugal pumps.p4----CaSing Longitudinal section . Analyzing these curves is often quite useful in troubleshooting operating problems. The impeller rotates.288 CHAPTER 11 The impeller is the part that transmits energy to the water.Impeller Volute \-.¥. Flow rate versus head 2.Shroud Vanes Eye Discharge Impeller t Diffuser 1. water enters the opening in the center of the impeller called the eye.~ Vanes ~~=z:2~.3 PUMP CHARACTERISTICS The items of major importance in the performance of a pump are the pressure (head) it will develop. the flow rate it will deliver. the horsepower required to drive the pump. and its efficiency.Impeller ik-¥J. Refer to Chapter 8 where this principle is explained. but not its pressure. These are called the pump characteristics..4-. 11. The velocity of the water is increased considerably by this action..

= specific gravity of liquid. Notice that the flowlhead curve indicates that a centrifugal pump develops less head at greater flow. = I for water) The power input to a pump is always greater than the power output because of friction and other unavoidable losses.I) WHP = 200 x 36 3960 . Figure 11.2.g. The ratings of the pump in Figure I 1. Example ILl A chilled water pump for the air conditioning system in the Five Aces Casino is delivering 200 GPM at a total head of 36 ft of water. also called ratings. The condition of no flow is called shut-off. especially for reasons that will be discussed shortly. The BHP is the power input to a pump. In reality.performance depends on the speed at which the pump is operated.2 also shows the flow versus rate efficiency curve for the same centrifugal pump.x 100= . GPM H = total pump head.3 are for a power output WHP x 100 = .g. ijJ :r: OJ :r: £Il <L Flow rate Flow rate Flow rate . are shown for a particular pump in Figure 11.0HP E 60 s. given by the following equation: WHP= GPMxHxs.3.. a larger nominal size motor might be used to prevent possible overloading of the motor. What is the minimum size motor . x I = 1.82 HP Using Equation 11. The manufacturer " lists the pump efficiency as 60% 'at this condition. that should be used to drive the pump? • Solution We must find the required power input (BHP). BHP=-. The efficiency (E) of a pump is defined as: E= This would be the minimum power needed for a motor. then it rises to a maximum. at which the head is at or close to a maximum. Note that at shut-off efficiency is zero because there is no flow. They are determined by the manufacturer by testing the pump. (1l.g. The power required to drive the pump is called the brake horsepower (BHP). AND VENTING 289 The curves for a typical centrifugal pump are shown in Figure 11. HP GPM = flow rate. 3960 where WHP = water horsepower (output).x 100=3.CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS. The flow ratelBHP curve indicates that the BHP increases with flow rate for a centrifugal pump.82 .2.2 Typical performance characteristic curves for a centrifugal pump. The power output is the power transmitted to the water... The pump performance characteristics. and then decreases again at the pump's maximum flow rate.wer output. ft of liquid Figure 11.x 100 power input BHP (11. Using Equation ILl to find the po.2) This efficiency is sometimes call the mechanical efficiency (ME). EXPANSION TANKS. (s. The . WHP 1.

Suction and discharge gages at the pump read 30 psig and 45 psig. what BHP is it using. and what is its efficiency? j . H= 35. is delivering 120 GPM.3 Performance curves for a 616 in.----------~17~5~0~R~PTM~----. find the head it is developing.2 illustrates. c: '0 50 ~ '" ~ 'c 20r_------------~_b~------------~------_r--------r_----__11 40 'o " ::. at 120 GPM. respectively. in diameter. Figure 11.5. a manufacturer may show the performance curves for a number of different size pumps together. lines of constant BHP and constant efficiency are shown. pump of the type shown in Figure 11.) The performance of a given pump is found from its curves. Instead of BHP and efficiency curves.---------~----r_------------_... BHP and efficiency are not indicated. BHP.3 A 6 in.5 is operating at 1750 RPM. the BHP it uses. proceed vertically up to the intersection with the head.5 ft w. BHP= 1. GPM Figure 11.JHead 70 40~-------------+~~--------~~----~--~--~----~ 60 ~ o .290 CHAPTER 11 Data: 61/2" impeller diameter 5o. (Its performance would be different at other speeds. and its efficiency. To conserve data space..2 If the pump whose ratings are shown in Figure 11. pump at 1750 RPM. and efficiency curves. Reading horizontally across. as Example 11.) This speed and 3500 RPM are the most commonly used in the United States because they are the natural speeds resulting from direct connection to a 60 Hz motor. ~_ _ _ _ _ _+-. In this case. Solution Using Figure 11. the flowlhead curves are shown for a few pumps with impeller sizes ranging from 5-7 in. operating at 1750 RPM.3. How much water is the pump circulating..0 . speed of 1750 RPM.3.4 is a set of flowlhead curves for a number of small pumps. Example 11. Another form of presenting pump curves is shown in Figure 11. all using the same casing.t:: 10~--------------~--------------~--------------~~----~0 30 o 50 - 100 150 Flow rate.6 HP E=64% Example 11. 1450 RPM and 2900 RPM would be the usual speeds. (In countries that use 50 Hz current. Each pump is furnished with a motor large enough to handle the maximum BHP. '" .

I (]) I Flow rate Flow rate Flow rate .82) BHP=-. The condition of no flow is called shut-off. In reality.g. especially for reasons that will be discussed shortly. The pump performance characteristics.1 A chilled water pump for the air conditioning system in the Five Aces Casino is delivering 200 GPM at a total head of 36 ft of water.3 are for a The power input to a pump is always greater than the power output because of friction and other unavoidable losses. The power output is the power transmitted to the water.x 100= x 100=3. and then decreases again at the pump's maximum flow rate. (s.2..3.82 HP Using Equation I 1.2) This efficiency is sometimes call the mechanical efficiency (ME). The flow ratelBHP curve indicates that the BHP increases with flow rate for a centrifugal pump. l (ILl) WHP = 200x36 3960 : x 1 = 1. What is the minimum size motot that should be used to drive the pump? { Solution . = 1 for water) Figure 11. also called ratings.2 Typical performance characteristic curves for a centrifugal pump. at which the head is at or close to a maximum. Figure 11. AND VENTING 289 The curves for a typical centrifugal pump are shown in Figure 11. "0 (]) C1l a.2. The power required to drive the pump is called the brake horsepower (BHP). The performance depends on the speed at which the pump is operated. Note that at shut-off efficiency is zero because there is no flow. HP GPM = flow rate. They are determined by the manufacturer by testing the pump.g. then it rises to a maXimum. ft of liquid s. The ratings of the pump in Figure 11. Example 11.CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS. a larger nominal size motor might be used to prevent possible overloading of the motor.· given by the following equation: WHP= GPMxHxs. 3960 where WHP = water horsepower (output). WHP 1. are shown for a particular pump in Figure 11. EXPANSION TANKS. We must find the required power input (BHP). The efficiency (E) of a pump is defined as: E= power output WHP x 100= . GPM H = total pump head. The BHP is the power input to a pump.g. Notice that the flowlhead curve indicates that a centrifugal pump develops less head at greater flow. Using Equation I Ll to find the poter output.2 also shows the flow versus rate efficiency curve for the same centrifugal pump.0HP E 60 This would be the minimum power needed for a motor. = specific gravity of liquid. The manufacturer lists the pump efficiency as 60% a\ this condition.x 100 power input BHP (I 1.

pump of the type shown in Figure 11.3.0 (I) .2 0 ~ c: III . c: m '" '" ~ . BHP and efficiency are not indicated.c ::. and what is its efficiency? j i .i . at 120 GPM.. pump at 1750 RPM. the BHP it uses. In this case. BHP= 1. and its effieiency.2 If the pump whose ratings are shown in Figure 11.. what BHP is it using. Suction and discharge gages at the pump read 30 psig and 45 psig. BHP.3 A 6 in. the flowlhead curves are shown for a few pumps with impeller sizes ranging from 5-7 in._--..5 ft w.J Head 70 40 . respectively. <D 50 ~ III . H=35. operating at 1750 RPM. as Example 11.) This speed and 3500 RPM are the most commonly used in the United States because they are the natural speeds resulting from direct connection to a 60 Hz motor. (In countries that use 50 Hz current.._------------_. speed of 1750 RPM. Instead of BHP and efficiency curves.c 30 2I 0. GPM ~ ~ . a manufacturer may show the performance curves for a number of different size pumps together. Example 11. Each pump is furnished with a motor large enough to handle the maximum BHP. (Its performance would be different at other speeds. and efficiency curves. Solution Using Figure 11.3 Performance curves for a 6* in. Another form of presenting pump curves is shown in Figure U. Reading horizontally across.4 is a set of flowlhead curves for a number of small pumps. 1450 RPM and 2900 RPM would be the usual speeds. is delivering 120 GPM. proceed vertically up to the intersection with the head.S.3." 60 ~ 0 . To conserve data space. in diameter.290 CHAPTER 11 Data: 61/2" impeller diameter 5or---------~----..2 ill ustrates.-----~17~5~0~R~PTM~----~ f-______-I-. find the head it is developing.6 HP E=64% Example 11. lines of constant BHP and constant efficiency are shown._~------J0 30 Figure 11. Figure 11. all using the same casing.) The performance of a given pump is found from its curves.5 is operating at 1750 RPM. How much water is the pump circulating.: 20 1 40 (I) 10L-______________ ______________ ______________ o 50 100 150 Flow rate.

EXPANSION TANKS. That pump might be used by throttling flow rate.12 HP) '"~ "" ~ ~ ~ 20 15 Flow. In Example 11. .. . GPM ~ ~ ~ t'-. I pSI Example 11. 8 6 4 2 -:r--. which is more than enough. AND VENTING 16 i-- 291 14 l. Converting this to ft of water. o o 5 Figure 11. . 10 3: --. = 34. at the required flow rate we see that the smallest pump that will provide the required head is a size 103. . but it would be unnecessarily expensive-and would use more energy. interpolating if necessary. At this flow. The size 102 pump does not develop adequate head at the required flow rate. These two system characteristics are the primary ones in selecting a pump.4 Performance curves for a group of small in-line pumps. the flow rate is 78 GPM.~ 30 Solution The pump head is the difference between the suction and discharge pressures. Another situation is the need to select a pump for a system. pump from Figure 11.. The pump must have a capacity equal to the system flow rate and a head equal to the system pressure loss.CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS. as BHP= 1. --K 10 1b1 (118 . we read the BHP and efficiency.4 For the group of pumps shown in Figure 11.g. . This gener- ally falls in the mid-range of pump flow capacity.5 ft w.. at a pump head of 34.:. Using the f10wlhead curve for the 6 in.j 1~) -= os Q) I . I.. however. based on size. A pump that is operating near the point of maximum efficiency should be selected. there are a number of factors that should be considered in selecting the most appropriate pump.5 ft of water..--12 '--.5 ft water. .4 PUMP SELECTION In the previous section.N 1750 RPM ~/4HP) 6HP ) t.0HP E=67% 11. we learned how to determine the performance of a pump from its curves.. '" " "" '" "" "'" "'" "" 25 ~ ~ " 35 .4. there was only one suitable pump for the application. and the head it develops is 11.. 100 (1.5.30) psig x 2. This is useful for the operator or TAB engineer in testing an existing pump. which one would be the best choice.. :--. Usually.. and the larger size 104 develops much more than required. H = (45 . for a system with a required flow rate of IS GPM and 10 ft water pressure loss? Soilition Locating the system point A in the figure.3 ft water .. .4.

3. It is not advisable to select a pump operating near its maximum capacity..md steep head curve pump. / II' 6r 50 2 "0 6 1/2'" ." / rr A".'>~ '''' '-I I ~. . . . where the pipe will roughen with age. .? X '>< .6 shows examples of afiat head curve . increasing frictional resistance. A cooling tower circuit might be an example. For hydronic systems. even though a smaller pump results from this choice... figure 11. curve pump might be used in a system where the system pressure resistance is expected to gradually increase with time. the pump will not have the extra needed capacity... r-. . depending on their design. . yet where it is desired to maintain reasonably constant flow rate. If the system flow rate actually required is greater than designed for.) 2.292 CHAPTER 11 4J% 60 7" Q. / . gallons per minute ~~HP -~ K><:: )< . .. it is preferable to select a pump operating at 1750 RPM rather than 3500 RPM. ." ". The steepness of the flowlhead curves varies among centrifugal pumps. ~ .: K V l" " r-I"f ~L Rr-. This makes balancing and controlling flow rates easier. k ". at 1750 RPM. A steep head.. a smaller pump can be used. Z.. "'K% 6~% 6 % 60% )'.17--. If there is a large change in flow rate.5 Performance curves for a group of pumps with impeller sizes ranging from 5-7 in. At 3500 RPM. ~ " o i"-r-. (Courtesy: IlT Fluid Handling Division. 1/2 HP 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90100110120130140150160170180190200 Capacity in U. It is recommended that pumps with flat head characteristic curves be used for hydronic systems.45% '3 HP V\I ~ :> ~P V 2 HP 1'1 1/2 ~P Figure 11.. . ~ L ~ > . 5~%60% I I . but the higher speed results in higher noise levels that may be disturbing in occupied areas. Figure 11. and therefore also increasing the required pump head. Select a pump in the vicinity of 50-75% of maximum flow.S./ .. 4. Steep Flow .6 Flat versus steep pump head characteristics. ~ ~ ~ "i"-. there will be a corresponding small change in pump head.55% /-: ~ I. 6] 40 30 5" 20 10 ~ ..b<V \.c (ii 13 f" 51).

7).8). The pressure loss-flow rate relationship is called the system characteristic. GPM2> GPM) = flow rates at conditions 2 and I. the static head would be added to account for the net height the water is lifted. not any static head. If the flow rate were GPM. If the pressure loss is calculated at one flow rate. This is very useful in analyzing operating problems. Figure 11. Therefore. This characteristic curve includes frictional pressure loss only. then to find the total system resistance. using Equation 11. Although System and pump head characteristic curves indicating point of operation. Example 11. it can be found at any other flow rate.3. Hf2 = Hf ) ( GPM GPM) 2)2 = 30(80)2 = 53 ft w. Typical system characteristic curve.3) Flow. If the circuit is open. it applies to a closed circuit only (see Chapter 8). this may be a significant convenience. GPM where Hf 2> Hf ) = pressure loss in piping due to fric- Figure 11. 60 A system characteristic curve can be plotted for any piping system by calculating the pressure loss at a few different conditions (Figure 11. EXPANSION TANKS.5 SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS The pressure loss in a piping system changes with the flow rate through the system. one must be careful not to become locked into using only that manufacturer's product. if there is any. Note that the system frictional resistance rises very sharply with increased flow rate.7 tion at conditions 2 and I. what would be the pressure loss due to friction? 80 11.3.5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ A piping system has a pressure loss due to friction of 30 ft water when the flow rate is 60 GPM. Some manufacturers offer computer software to the system designer for pump selection.6 SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS AND PUMP CHARACTERISTICS The system and pump characteristic curves can both be plotted together (Figure I \. which can be determined from the following equation: H f2 Hf ) = (GPM2)2 GPM) (11.8 Solution Using the system characteristic Equation 11. Pump ~ l---------::::::~~=__ Operating point -g Q) I System Flow . AND VENTING 293 11.CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS.

through point 2. point 3. . The real operating condition must be where this curve intersects the pump curve. could also be plotted. we plot a new system characteristic curve. Then what is the operating condition? To find it. the real curve B. that the actual system pressure loss at the design GPM was only that indicated by point 2. if the excess and unnecessary pressure loss had not been allowed for originally. and the pump will thus use more power than expected.9). This is a waste of energy.!. the expected system characteristic curve." Pump head '0 f------------. The system design pressure loss and flow rate is given by point I.'-'----"'~~~ ----------------" / ® G)?--. /. Point I therefore represents the expected point of operation. This may overcool or overheat the building. and if the motor has not been oversized. but many types of problems encountered in balancing and operating systems can be understood by studying the curves together. Curve A. This might occur because the system designer allowed for a "safety factor" in calculating the piping friction loss. and there are many variables that might cause operation at higher than design flow. using less power." ' 0' t B \G).// A~' . a smaller pump might have been chosen (at point 2). This would bring us back to point I. It is not usually necessary to plot both curves to make a pump selection. But notice what has happened. However. however. The only point where this is true is where the system and pump head curves intersect.3. Therefore. Furthermore.. using Equation 11. we know that the real operating point is farther out on the pump curve than expected. Instead of the safety factor. For instance.294 CHAPTER 11 The head developed by the pump must be exactly equal to the system pressure loss. A pump is selected to develop this head. The extra motor cost is a nominal part of the total cost. the following important statement always holds true: The point of intersection of the system characteristic and pump characteristic jlow/head curves is always the actual operating condition for the system/pump combination. with a capacity greater than the BHP at maximum flow.. 1 . . it is often advisable to select a motor for nonoverloading conditions. Even though it is proper to select a pump with head close to the actual system pressure loss. I DeSign operating condition Actual operating condition lE I .~. Figure 11. consider the situation where the actual system pressure loss is less than the design pressure loss (Figure 11. the condition may be less safe! The problem could be resolved after installation by adding resistance in the circuit. say by throttling a balancing valve. 1: 11# I ~ .® Flow Excess power BHP In I n.. we may have a burned out motor. The pump is actually delivering more flow than is desired.~ 1 .9 Illustration of excess power use and incorrect operation condition by use of "safety factor. Point 2 of course cannot be the system operating point because it is not a point of intersection with the pump curve. Suppose.

ships a centrifugal pump to Argentina. (Courtesy: ITT Fluid Handling Division. RPM BHP = brake horsepower I. The in-line pump (Figure 11.4HP ( 1750 There are also pump similarity laws for determining the effect of a change in impeller diameter. 11.5ftw. low head applications. AND VENTING 295 11. A few of these are: (11. It is advisable. In-line pumps.6) where H = pump head. are popular for small hydronic heating systems.11) has the impeller mounted on and supported by the motor Figure 11. 0ftX . to consult the manufacturer if a change in impellers is being considered.6 The Pumpernickel Pump Co.= 315 GPM 1750 H2=4 .CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS. Because of this amingement and the relatively light weight.4) Note that the centrifugal pump similarity laws are identical to those for a centrifugal fan (see Chapter 10). using 6 BHP.. The pump is rated at 380 GPM and 40 ft head. and head for any given centrifugal pump that are sometimes useful to the HVAC engineer. N = pump speed. The close-coupled pump (Figure 11.5) (11.7 PUMP SIMILARITY LAWS There are a number of relations concerning flow rate. ft w. power. 2 = any two operating conditions Example 11.=3.) 1450)2 ( 1750 1450)3 BHP2 =6BHPx . The pump and motor are mounted integrally..=27.10 In-line type pump.8 PUMP CONSTRUCTION (11. however. sometimes called booster pumps or circulators. the pump can be supported directly by the piping and is inexpensive and simple to install. 1450 GPM2 = 380 GPM x . speed.1 0) is used for small. . EXPANSION TANKS. each having different applications. ----- Centrifugal pumps are available in varied arrangements and features of construction.. where 50 Hz electric current is used. and the pump suction and discharge connections are in a straight line (inline). at a speed of 1750 RPM. Using the similarity laws. What will be the pump's rating in Argentina? Solution The pump will operate at 1450 RPM on the 50 Hz current.

Ball bearings are lubricated with grease. it is called a closed impeller. The close coupled pump is relatively inexpensive and is available from small to medium capacities and heads.) shaft.12) for convenience of installation. if it has shrouds on one side. it is called an open impeller. Another arrangement uses cotton waste packing that is impregnated with oil. in which water enters either through one or both sides of the pump. The pump can be opened on the job for ac· cess to bearings or other internal parts. and motor may be preassembled by the manufacturer on a common base plate (Figure 11. The horizontal split case is used on very large pumps so that the very heavy upper part of the casing can be lifted vertically by a mechanical hoist. Some motor ball bearings are sealed and cannot be lubri· cated in the field (Figure 11. (Courtesy: ITT Fluid Handling Division. The flexible coupling aids in alignment of the two shafts and helps to reduce vibrations. The casing is cast iron and the impeller is bronze or brass. if it has no shrouds. Open-type impellers are not generally used in HVAC applications because their purpose is to permit handling of liquids containing solids. The pump and motor shafts are connected by a flexible coupling. . pumps are also furnished as separate items.and ball-type bearings are both used. The pump has an end suction connection.11 Figure 11. coupling. Both horizontal split case and vertical. The motor has a mounting flange for supporting the motor/pump combination from a suitable base. In addition to the in-line and close-coupled pump and motor combinations. With larger pumps the contractor mounts the pump and motor and connects them together through the coupling.or double-suction construction. The split casing makes repairs more convenient.) Pump and motor connected by flexible coupling and mounted on common base plate. The pump casing can be one cast piece or can be split-manufactured in two halves that are bolted together. One arrangement has a reservoir of oil and an oil ring that flings the oil around as it rotates. Sleeve bearings are lubricated with oil. Sleeve. (Courtesy: ITT Fluid Handling Division. Large pumps may have an oil pump for forcing the oil to the bearings.13).296 CHAPTER J J Figure 11. CentrifugaLpumps can have either single. it is called semi-open. If the impeller has walls (called shrouds) on both sides.12 Close·coupled pump. the pump. The bronze·fitted pump is generally the combination of materials used for hydronic systems. split case construction are used. In the medium size range. such as sewage. Larger pumps are constructed with double-suction inlets.

EXPANSION TANKS.CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS. very smooth mating surfaces. they will prevent any significant leakage.. (a) Sleeve bearings. Seals are required to prevent leakage of water under pressure. Either packing or mechanical seals are used (Figure 11. A small leakage is expected and normal. (b) Ball bearings.13 Sleeve and ball bearings. Mechanical seals have two hard. Packed seals use a soft material that presses against the shaft with an ad- justable tightness. The packing will wear and must be inspected and replaced at intervals.14). Larger "pumps may have either sleeve or ball bearings. one that is stationary and one that rotates. Sleeve bearings are quieter and are therefore recommended for hydronic service with larger pumps.) Ball bearings are generally used on smaller pumps. AND VENTING 297 Oil cup Sleeve bearing Oil ring . They cannot be used where there are any solid particles in the system because the surfaces .yWaste Motor shaft "----n-'--lr==tl A'HHJ:::r--" Drain plug Oil return port Oil reservoir Oil ring lubrication (a) Waste packed lubrication Outer bearing face Bearing housing I Ball bearing Inner bearing face (b) Figure 11. Properly applied. (Courtesy: ITT Fluid Handling Division. and a dri p pan and drain lines should be provided to handle this.:A!iQ77.

14 (a) Packed seal..+ 1 Stuffing box -----t77j-~~~~~~ Packing rings (a) • Impeller Liquid side Atmosphere • Rubber bellows Pump body wall Fastener ring Insert gasket (b) Figure 11.+ I ' Pump shaft .298 CHAPTER 11 • Atmosphere Swing Liquid side • Packing gland . (b) Mechanical seal. (Courtesy: ITT Fluid Handling Division) ...

. if open) H: Hf = elevation of the liquid suction above (+) or below (-) the centerline of the impeller =friction and velocity head loss in the suction plpmg H. Friction and velocity head loss in the piping is 2. an allowance must be made for this. The steam bubbles formed may collapse in the pump.31 ft w. Atmospheric pressure is 14. The possibility of cavitation is usually of concern in an open system where there is suction lift to the pump and where the temperature is high.2 ft w. Substituting in Equation 11. It results when the water pressure at the pump suction is too low. the piping arrangement must be changed. Determine the available NPSH. and will be explained later.CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS. however.3 = 6. AND VENTING 299 will become scored and the seal will be lost.7 A pump takes water at 180 F from an open tank that is 8 ft below the pump centerline.1 psi Ha= l4. and temperature. causing erratic operation. The available NPSH can be determined from the following equation: (11. SO/lIIion The vapor pressure of water at 180 F is 7.7x2.17. 11.3).9 NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD Under certain conditions in circulating water systems. a phenomenon called cavitation may occur in the pump suction.2.31 =34ftw. a minimum pressure must be maintained at the pump suction. In a hydronic system.. EXPANSION TANKS.7) where 11. momentarily leaving pockets or cavities. Hv=7. If this occurs.H.5 . To avoid this. 2. causing operating problems and possible damage to the pump. Example 11. = 34 .. Changing all units to ft w.5 ft w.8 . Boiler condensate return systems are also subject to cavitation if they are not designed and installed in accordance with the NPSH requirements.10 THE EXPANSION TANK Water expands when its temperature increases.7. Hn = H" ± Hz .7 psi. noise. The required NPSH for a pump can be obtained from the manufacturer. The available NPSH is calculated from examining the suction system arrangement of pressure loss. 17.5 psia (Table A. the vapor pressure of the water in the pump may fall below its corresponding saturation temperature (Chapter 2) and the water will flash into steam. H" = available NPSH Ha = absolute pressure at surface of liquid where pump takes suction (atmospheric pressure.5 psi x . If this happens. lift. The problem is not usually encountered in hydronic systems because the static head in a closed system acts on the suction. the pump or tower may have to be relocated. = absolute vapor pressure of water corresponding to the temperature The units in Equation 11. unless it is restricted.3 ft w. The pump used must have a required NPSH less than 6. and possible damage to the pump. The placement of the compression tank is an important factor relating to this.. The water will rush into these cavities at great force. If the piping system . They are very popular in hydronic systems because no maintenance is required and they can last many years.Hf .2 ft w.. The available NPSH must be greater than the pump requires. If it is too low. called net positive suction head (NPSH). It can be a problem in cooling tower systems if the pump is elevated to a location requiring a high suction lift.7 are in feet of water.

For this reason. which would therefore be the maximum allowable pressure at the boiler. Vent Water level (hot) Gage glass Overflow Water level (hot) (cold) Water level (cold) To system below Open expansion tank (a) Compression (closed) tank (b) . Figure 11. As mentioned previously. however.300 CHAPTER 11 is completely filled and there is no space for the water to expand. Because the tank is open to the atmosphere.and compression-type tanks. When the water expands. this may occur particularly at the pump suction. the total volume of water in the system increases.15(a) shows that as the water temperature increases. The minimum pressure requirement is based on two factors: 1. The pressure at any location must not be lower than the saturation pressure of the water. the piping or equipment might break. the system has some of the defects of open hydronic systems.15 Expansion. For these reasons. Figure 11. it partially fills the tank. leading to operating difficulties and possible equipment damage. compression tanks have largely replaced open expansion tanks in hydronic systems.11 SYSTEM PRESSURE CONTROL The pressure in a hydronic system must be controlled within certain maximum and minimum limits. This is a subject that is often not understood correctly. the water will boil and the steam created will cause operating problems. the effect being a rise in the water level in the tank. In a low temperature hydronic heating system. An open expansion tank can be provided at the highest point in the system to solve this problem. The compression tank serves an additional purpose beyond that of providing for the water expansion-it aids in controlling system pressure. the closed expansion tank such as the one shown in Figure l1. If this happens. compressing the gas. for example. 11. Particularly undesirable is the continual exposure to air and its possible corrosive effects. the boiler relief valve is often set at 30 psig. i l I f . The maximum allowable pressures are usually based on the permissible equipment pressures.15(b) is usually called a compression tank. A much better solution is to use a closed expansion tank containing a gas (air or nitrogen).

we must understand how the compression tank functions.CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS. Let us see what happens if the tank is located at the suction side of the pump. (a) Tank at pump discharge. . air may enter the system. we can see what effect the tank's location has on controlling system pressure. The pressure at the tank must be the point of no pressure change. If the pump head is low and there is a static head of water above the pump and tank elevation. this arrangement is usually still not advisable.16(b) shows what happens to the pressures when the pump runs. Figure 11. because the boiling point of water at 5 psia is only 160 F. Once the system is filled with water and the water is heated to operating temperature.16(a). Assume that the pressure throughout the system initially is 10 psig (25 psia) without the pump running as seen in Figure II. But 5 psia is -10 psig.17(b). Effect of compression tank location at pump discharge. When the pump runs. (a) (b) . The pressure at any location should not be lower than atmospheric pressure. The water in the tank will be at the same pressure as the gas in the tank. the pressure at the pump suction might not fall below atmospheric even if the tank is located at the pump discharge. or 5 psia. the total volume of water in the system remains constant. The volume of gas in the tank therefore also remains constant and its pressure does not change.16. not at the pump discharge. The following statement summarizes this fact: The point at which the compression tank is connected to the system is the point of no pressure change. Assume the pump has a head of 20 psi. By assuming two different tank locations and utilizing the above principle. Consider first the compression tank located 'at the discharge side of the pump for the system shown in Figure 11. The value of this pressure will depend on how much the gas in the tank is compressed. The pressure at the pump suction must therefore be 20 psi less than this value. the pressure at this point is still 25 psia. The compression tank acts similarly to a spring or an air cushion. All of the piping is on the same level.l7(a). The pressure throughout the system is well above atmospheric. pump operating.. Air would undoubtedly leak into the system at the pump suction. the pressure at the pump discharge must be 45 psia (30 psig). which is far below atmospheric pressure. If this happens. the initial pressure is at 25 psia throughout the system.16 . This example shows that the compression tank should be connected to the system at the pump suction. AND VENTING 301 2. In Figure 11. Figure II. As the pump adds 20 psi. except for small residential systems. so when the pump runs. Control of maximum and minimum pressures to ensure that none of these problems occur is achieved by proper sizing and location of the compression tank and by correctly pressurizing the system when fiiling. To know how to accomplish this. This holds true regardless of where the tank is located and whether or not the pump is operating. as seen in Figure 11. because the pump adds 20 psi. EXPANSION TANKS. (b) Tank at pump discharge. However. the pressure at the tank location remains at 25 psia. as before. Cavitation in the pump might also occur in a heating system. pump not operating.

J .12 COMPRESSION TANK SIZE The size of the compression tank for a system must be adequate to receive the increased volume of water from expansion and also to keep the pressures within minimum and maximum limits. boiler. j . When the pump is operated.8. Static pressure. To keep the pressure exerted on the boiler as low as possible. the pump should be located to discharge away from the boiler. prevent the pressure from going below atmospheric and thus leaking air in. (The recommended arrangement of pump.17 Effect of compression tank location at pump suction. this depends on where the compression tank is located. the static head at the boiler.302 CHAPTER 11 (a) (b) Figure 11. pump operating. Pressure/temperature increase. or a steam boiler and hot water heat exchanger might be used (Chapter 5). On a high-rise building. Pump pressure. If the system were initially filled without pressure.. In this case. a hydronic heating system. This is the pressure due to the height of water above any point. the pressure at the highest point in the system would be atmospheric. (a) Tank at pump suction. if it is in the basement. 4. (b) Tank at pump suction. If the tank is connected at the pump 11. .I Boiler T-():rPump Ie. The size depends on the following sources of pressure: I. In order to provide a safety margin to . 3. the contractor should fill the system under pressure. when the temperature is raised in. so that the boiler is not subject to the pump discharge pressure. Initial fill pressure. Usually the critical point is the boiler.18 Sketch for Example 11 .) sure of 4-5 psig at the top of the system is adequate for hydronic systems. After the system is filled with cold water and pressurized. the boiler could be located in a penthouse. As explained earlier. the pressures change in the system by the value of the pump head. which is often at the bottom Of·the system. Accessories are not shown. 2. A pres- Figure 11. the pressure will increase further due to expansion of the water compressing air in the tank. pump not operating.18. might be above the maximum pressure. 25 It I Tank I . and compression tank is shown in Figure 11.

ft water absolute H. In using the fonnula. These factors have been combined in the following formula developed by the ASME for determining tank size: ( .O_. The system volume is determined from the pipe sizes and from equipment volumes. That is. ft water absolute The required tank size in this case becomes Ho = maximum pressure at tank. air unavoidably enters the system./I psi = 34 ft w. absolute Ho = 30 psig = 45 psia x 2. H. equal to the fill mately 150 gal capacity would be used on this system. The flexing of the diaphragm allows for the expansion and contraction. EXPANSION TANKS.. further air will enter even a carefully designed and .3 ft w.0.8 Determine the required size of the closed expansion tank for the hydronic heating system shown in Figure Il.CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS. If the tank is connected at the pump discharge.19). H.13 AIR CONTROL AND VENTING When the system is initially filled. Example II.0466]600 .-5 V. = 72 + 20 = 92 ft w. If the tank is connected to the discharge side of the pump. For residential and other small hydronic heating systems.3 + 25 = 38 ft w. = 21.g. = 5 x 2. absolute Substituting in the equation HalH.3 = 104 ft w. Example 11.S) 1=200F Vs = 600 gallons Ha = 14. v. + 34 = 72 ft w.8 will be used. The design average water temperature is 200 F. it is usually not necessary to calculate the size of the compression tank.HalHo v_ where [0.lS.. Eventually.S will illustrate how the compression tank is sized._00_0_4_11_-_0_.34172 _ 34/104 146 gal v.7 psi x 2. The tank is located atthe boiler elevation. AND VENTING 303 suction. the minimum pressure at the tank must be increased by the amount of pump head. information that can be obtained from manufacturers.0_4_6-. Tables are available from manufacturers that list the appropriate tank size according to the building heating load. if connected at the suction side of the pump. Fill pressure is 5 psig. The pump head is 20 ft of water:The pressure relief valve on the boiler is set at 30 psig. Solution Equation 11 . the head is added at every point.00041 (200) . The high point is 25 ft above the boiler. For small systems. = minimum pressure at tank. the terms in the equation are 11. gallons t = design average water temperature. Dissolved air is in the fi II water and the compressed air is in fhe tank. a convenient flexible diaphragm-type compression tank is often used (Figure 11. the pump head is subtracted from the pressure at every point.=(I I. pressure loss from friction is usually neglected. . = required volume of compression tank.of the system water. ft water absolute The term in the parentheses in the equation represents the expansion of water.2 34/92 _ 3411 04 493 gal Note that the tank size must be increased greatly because of its location. absolute pressure plus static pressure at tank. The system volume is 600 gal. From the previous information. gallons A compression-type expansion tank of approxi- V5 = volume of system.:6)_V. F Ha = atmospheric pressure.

20 Automatic air venting valve for terminal units.armstrongpumps. . which Figure 11. Automatic air vents are convenient.) often occurs at the pump connections. but often there are many rises and drops in piping. they could cause considerable water damage to a building. It is helpful to pitch horizontal piping slightly up toward high points when installing it. Control of air in the system is necessary for two reasons: The presence of air will block the flow of water.14 ENERGY CONSERVATION I. An eccentric type reducing fitting (Chapter 9) is recommended when changing pipe size. Useful Websites Information can be found at the following Websites for pump selection and specifications: www. therefore it will indirectly reduce efficiency." 3. Inc. Ideally. After the system is filled and put into operation. Provide for venting air from the system in design. some air probablY will not be collected in the tank.taconet. Sometimes an air separator device (Figure IUS) is located at the tank connection to divert air to the tank. Do not allow an extra pressure loss in the piping as a "safety factor. which are small valves. installation. 2. must be provided at all high points in the system. When the water in the system is first heated to operating temperature. This air must be vented from the system or it will block flow through terminal units. (Courtesy: Taco. It is also advisable to install a vent at-each terminal unit. Select pumps in their range of greatest efficiency.304 CHAPTER 11 Flexible diaphragm Figure 11. each resulting in a high point.com Review Questions I.19 Diaphragm-type compression tank. but will find its way to other high points in the piping system. List the basic parts of a centrifugal pump and their functions. the contractor opens each vent and bleeds air until none are left.20). Air will block flow and prevent proper operation. However.com www. This prevents the trapping of air at the top of the fitting. and the air and water together may promote corrosion. Much of this air will find its way to the compression tank. which is usually in the range of 50-70% of their maximum capacity. a system should have only one high point. installed system. but if they stick in an open position. Vent valves may be manual or automatic (Figure 11. 11. Air vents. through makeup water and when the system is opened for maintenance and repair. and maintenance. dissolved air is released from the water as air bubbles.

1 4. If its speed is increased to 1450 RPM. The actual pressure drop is only 25 ft w. 13. 3. .and (c) high point of the system.4) is used. List the methods of bearing lubrication and the types of bearings to which they apply. 5.. Pump 103 (Figure 11. the engineer calculates the pressure loss at 37 ft w. The system pressure loss is 6 ft w. 12. the power it is using. The system volume is 290 gal. 7. show the typical centrifugal pump characteristics curves. w. What is the minimum size motor required to drive the pump? I 1.3.3 Pump 6!h (Figure I 1. Find the GPM it is circulating. closecoupled.com. 4. (b) pump discharge. Computer Solution Problems I I.4 for this application. Try the provider at www.I I Select an in-line pump for a head of 30 ft w. Produce the pump curve and specifications. Produce the pump curve and specifications. head at 1750 RPM. selecting the pump in Figure 11.8 11. 11. Select a pump from Figure 11. 12 Select a horizontal split case pump for a flow rate of 300 GPM and a 125 ft. It is decided to increase the flow rate to 18 GPM. Determine the actual operating conditions of GPM and BHP if no changes are made in the system. Find the required compression tank volume if it is located at the (a) pump suction. I I.taconet. what will be its expected rating and required BHP? A hydronic heating system has a design average water temperature of 220 F. when the flow rate is 15 GPM. WiII pump 103 be satisfactory? For a system requiring 110 GPM.3 is circulating 100 GPM. Try the provider at www. For Problem I 1. 10.taconet. The high point is 20 ft above the boiler. Try the provider at www. EXPANSION TANKS. I A pump for a hydronic solar heating system is circulating 60 GPM of an antifreeze solution that has a specific gravity of 1. 9. Name the two types of pump bearings for hydronic systems and their features. and 18 GPM flow rate. I I. 6. and a flow rate of 100 GPM. and closed or open impeller. 11.6 I 1. at this flow rate. What factors should be considered in selecting a pump for a hydronic system? What is the relationship between the pump and system characteristics? Explain the following terms: ill-line.5) is operating with a total head of 38 ft w. against a total head of 23 ft w. A centrifugal pump has a rating of 120 GPM and 36 ft w. total head at a speed of 1150 RPM. single-.7 11.I 0 Select an in-line pump for a head of 8 ft w. 8. List the two types of pump seals and their features. The system is filled under a pressure of 4 psig. The pump head is 30 ft w. BHP. It requires 2 BHP at these conditions.9 Problems I I.6 how could the proper flow rate be achieved? Determine the BHP and head at this condition. The pump efficiency is 55%. or double-suction.4 A hydronic system requires 20 GPM of water. What is the importance of NPSH? What are the functions of a compression tank" What considerations are important for minimum and maximum pressure control? Where should air vents be installed? How should the piping be installed to improve air venting? 11. AND VENTING 305 2.5 The pressure loss due to friction in a hy- dronic system is 10 ft w.com.taconet. and its efficiency. and efficiency? I 1. I 1.com. The pressure relief valve on the boiler is set at 30 psig.CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS. On one sketch. What is the head.2 The pump whose characteristic curves are shown in Figure I 1. Produce the pump curve and specifications.

2. zoning requirements. and costs are some of the variables that determine which type of system is to be used.1 SYSTEM CLASSIFICATIONS Air conditioning systems can be classified in a number of ways. These systems use only air for cooling or heating. OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter. The cooling/heating fluid that is used There are three possible groups iii regard to the fluid used: I. 3. . the planner must consider the features of each type of system and decide which is the best choice. Identify the types and performance characteristics of air cleaners. 6. 3. All-water (hydronic) systems. such as A. 2. Select a cooling coil. you will be able to: I. space available. Identify the types of zoned air conditioning systems and their features. In every application. Identify the components of single zone central system air conditioning equipment and their functions. Describe the features of all-water and air-water systems. Describe the features of the different types of unitary equipment.c H A p T E R Air Conditioning Systems and Equipment T here are a large number of variations in the types of air conditioning systems and the ways they can be used to control the environment in a building. Air-water combination systems. 7. Describe the causes of and solutions to poor indoor air quality.····· 4. All-air systems. These systems use only water for cooling or heating. 306 12. Load changes. 5. These systems use both water and air for cooling and heating.

thus providing humidity control in summer.1. of the system components (fans.AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 307 B. For instance. however. The reheat coil partially reheats the cooled air when the room heat gain is less than maximum. temperature but not humidity can be controlled in summer (see Chapter 7). A multiple zone system can satisfactorily air condition a number of different zones. and internal loads. 12. ductwork. If no reheat coil is used. When these situations exist. It will satisfy only one or a group of zones whose heat gains vary in unison. That is. This situation occurs in any building where the load changes behave differently among rooms. The room thermostat controls the air conditioning equipment so that it responds properly to the changing load. Not all of the components are used in all circumstances. if not all. The various ways that this can be accomplished will be part of our discussion. The cooling coil cools and dehumidifies the air in summer. This load is continually changing because of the variations in outside air temperature. Our focus in this section. creating discomfort. as shown in Figure 12. For example. The equipment shown in Figure 12. called an air handling unit (AHU). Single zone or multiple zone systems A single zone system can satisfactorily air condition only one zone in a building. and air distribution devices to the rooms. all-air single zone system. It receives chilled water or refrigerant from a remote refrigeration unit. Unitary or central systems A unitary system uses packaged equipment. Lights may be switched off in one space and not another. solar radiation. where the cooling load decreases. The central unit. The supply air fan is necessary to distribute air through the unit. coils.3 SINGLE ZONE SYSTEM A single zone air conditioning system has one thermostat automatically controlling one heating or cooling unit to maintain the proper temperature in a single room or a group of rooms constituting a zone. cools or heats air that is then distributed to one or a group of rooms that constitute a single zone. thus maintaining the desired room temperature. most. the cooling output of the unit is reduced and the room temperature remains approximately constant. Often. an air conditioning system of the multiple zone type is used. The solar heat gain may increase in rooms on one side and decrease in those on another side. One solution to this problem is to use a separate air conditioning unit for each differently behaving zone. But suppose room B still needs full cooling.2 ZONES AND SYSTEMS The amount of heating or cooling that the air conditioning equipment delivers to a space must always match the space load or requirements. the thermostat either stops the unit or reduces its cooling output. refrigeration equipment) are furnished as an assembled package from the manufacturer. Now it will get insufficient cooling and the room temperature will rise. Internal loads also are frequently not uniform in their changes. however. if the equipment is cooling too much. A central or built-up system is one where the components are furnished separately and installed and assembled by the contractor. This . People change locations.1 provides a complete year-round air conditioning system to control both temperature and humidity. if the thermostat is in room A. C. a single zone air conditioning system is unsatisfactory. This presents a serious problem if there are other rooms or spaces that do not have the same load change behavior as the rOom where the thermostat is located. An air conditioning zone is a room or group of rooms in which comfortable conditions can be maintained by a single controlling device. Consider rooms on different exposures. 12. A window air conditioner is an example of a single zone air conditioning unit. will be on a central type.

----+... t Dampers -Return air /" . '< / Maximum "outside air~ / Minimum. This would be Arrangement of ducts and dampers to vary proportion of outside and return duct air...rooms Room 1 Return air (RA) Exhaust air (EA) Room 2 }-_--+_ _ _ _ _ _'---_ _ _ _ _ _ _-'-_ _ _ _ _-'-_ _ _ _.... The ductwork is generally arranged so that the system takes in some outside ventilation air (OA).. Provisions are often made in the arrangement of dampers (Figure 12..------.-SU~)Dlv air (SA) To other f--------'-. capable of handling the winter heating needs. . Mixed air ~ tounit . The equivalent amount of outside air must then be exhausted (EA) from the building..308 CHAPTER 12 Preheat coil Cooling (optional) Mixed air (MA) Outside air (OA) Air filter . ( outside air . coil may alternately be a full capacity heating coil..1 Arrangement of single zone central system air conditioning equipment.2) so that 100% outside air can be drawn in and exhausted.-+/ /" / '-------------..2 rooms. the rest being return air (RA) recirculated from the Figure 12../ ._From other rooms Return air fan (optional) Figure 12.' Exhaust air ......

This may unacceptably increase costs and maintenance. Four basic types of mUltiple zone all-air units and systems are available: . the air quantity delivered to the rooms does not vary. but does not give as good a humidity control in the space as with a reheat coil. The filters are required to clean the air. however. In small systems with little or no return air ducts. multizone. That is. 12. separate single ducts from the air handling unit are distributed to each zone or room that is to be controlled separately (Figure 12. a room humidistat is used. 4. A room thermostat will control the cooling coil capacity to maintain the desired room temperature. both the preheat and reheat coils can be utilized. The reheat system provides good .'--~- Bypass damper "'>- -Face damper Supply . even though this increases the refrigeration load considerably.4 REHEAT SYSTEM 1. It is optional in milder climates and when OX (dry expansion) cooling coils are used. there are a number of schemes that require only one air handling unit to serve a number of zones. "Automatic Controls. The use of the basic zone reheat system as described is often restricted by local energy codes.3 Arrangement of face and bypass dampers to provide reheat for humidity control. individual single zone units can be used for each zone. Some systems use 100% outside air and no return air at all times. 2. The preheat coil is required in cold climates (below freezing) to temper air so that chilled water cooling coils cannot freeze up. If control of room humidity is required. separate control of both temperature and humidity can be achieved in each zone.4.3) provides another method of controlling humidity (see Chapter 7). Each of these types of systems will now be explained. The preheat coil may be located either in the outside air or the mixed airstream. The reheat. Examples might be operating rooms or laboratories where contaminated exhaust air often cannot be recirculated. A reheat coil is used in each of these ducts. the return air fan is not required because the supply fan can be used to draw in the return air. In this way. However. The return air fan takes the air from the rooms and distributes it through return air ducts back to the air conditioning unit or to the outdoors. Bypassing air around the cooling coil (Figure 12. it is very wasteful of energy because the air must always be completely cooled to C and then often reheated (to SJ as shown for zone J)-a double waste of energy.control of each zone.4). except perhaps the main reheat coil can be eliminated. The interaction of these controls is explained in Chapter 14. The basic air handling unit is the same as with a single zone system. Reheat system Multizone system Dual duct system Variable air volume (VAV) system In the reheat system. Room thermostats located in each zone control their respective reheat coils to maintain the space set point temperature." To achieve satisfactory temperature and humidity control in different zones. and dual duct systems are all constant air volume (CAV) type systems. . aIC Figure 12. When the system is used for winter heating. As seen in Figure 12. The variable air volume (VAV) varies the quantity of air delivered to the rooms.AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 309 done in intermediate season cool weather to obtain cooling if needed without operating refrigeration machinery. 3.

Because of the limit on the size of units available. except for special applications. (a) Equipment arrangement.310 CHAPTER 12 Reheat coils S1 To zone 21 Outside air to M Air handling unit (filter. described in the next section.5).6). but because mixed air is bypassed around the dehumidifying coil. Zone dampers are provided in the unit across the hot and cold deck at the outlet of the unit. humidity control may not be satisfactory in applications with high proportions of outside air. Separate ducts are run from each set of dampers to each zone (Figure 12. because of its inherently inefficient use of energy. 12. (b) Psychrometric processes for reheat system. coils.To zone 24 o M 21 c t S1 Reheat energy DB (b) Figure 12.4 Reheat system with individual reheat coils.To zone 22 1--_ To zone 23 Return air (a) 1-. Cold and hot air are mixed in varying proportions by the dampers according to zone requirements. It is a relatively .5 MULTIZONE SYSTEM The multiZOlle system uses an air handling unit that has a heating coil (hot deck) and cooling coil (cold deck) in parallel (Figure 12. each air handling unit is limited to about 12-14 zones. fan) c 1--. The multizone system can provide good zone temperature control. The psychrometric processes for the multi zone system are the same as that for the dual duct system.

In most applications.AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 311 Heating Heating coil Filters Fan Mixing Hot deck f+-_. Z2 is an example of a room condition with a higher sensible and lower latent load. Note that the room humidity is higher than the average. RSHR line RS is an average condition for all zones.6 DUAL DUCT SYSTEM In the dual duct system arrangement. separate hot and cold main ducts are run from heating and cooling coils in the air handling unit (Figure 12. f+---Hot deck . the humidity increase is not great enough to be uncomfortable.8) are provided in each zone./)!-"-+--+-. The psychrometric processes for summer cooling zone control are shown in Figure 12.2 1}TO each zone /)1f-'-+--+7""'. Figure 12.3 /)Ol--'--+-. Mixed air at M is heated to H from the fan heat.5 Multizone unit. Line Zl-S I is an actual room line for a zone ZI. not an actual room line. This air mixes with air from the hot duct to produce supply air at S. Dampers in the mixing box respond to a room thermostat to mix the proper proportion of hot and cold air delivered to the zone.7). inexpensive system for small. Chilled air leaves the cooling coil at C. Ccdld deck Figure 12.and medium-size applications where a few separate zones are desired and humidity conditions are not criticaL The energy use features of the multizone system are similar to those of the dual duct system.7.6 Duct arrangement for multizone system.4 Multizone unit . Warm air and cold air are supplied in the correct proportion from the zone mixing box to provide zone supply air SI. 12. with a less-than-peak sensible cooling load and high latent load. tapping air from the hot and cold ducts. Mixing boxes (Figure 12. to be discussed in the next section.

(a) Equipment arrangement. Many installations have been designed or operated witb hot duct temperatures tbat result in considerable excess energy use. the hot duct temperature control should be set at the minimum re- quired to provide comfort. (b) Psychrometric processes. . . it may be necessary for the reheat coil to operate to maintain an adequate hot duct temperature. duct and return air fan heat gains are not shown in the psychrometric processes that have been described. . In order to simplify the explanation.7 Dual duct system arrangement. e \. so tbat humidity does not rise too high.//// H S2 _lS_?_~_:::_=-_-_-:::_::-::_~.312 CHAPTER 12 Heating coil Outside air o M to To other Z3 zones Return air R (a) Mixing line 0 \ RSHR line Z1 for zone 21 . This is one of tbe instances where extra energy may be used. 51/:"'/' __ R c Z2 Average RSHR line DB (b) Figure 12. In any case. . As the outside air temperature falls.

a double waste of energy. The psychrometric processes for a VAV system are shown in Figure 12. This might be partially offset by providing some means of increasing the proportion of outside air. but even if' Figure 12. Zone 21 is shown at part load. the use of constant volume multizone and dual duct systems is restricted. during part load cooling for a zone. a solution is to limit throttling in the VAV box. Room thennostats located in each zone control the dampers in their respective zone VAV boxes to maintain the desired room set point temperature. and fan horsepower requirements are high because large volumes of air are moved at high pressure. The variable air volume or VAV system varies the air quantity rather than temperature to each zone to maintain the appropriate room temperature. The air downstream from the mixing box is run at conventional low velocities. there must be controls that reset the hot deck (duct) temperature at the lowest value needed for heating at all times. since. Both the dual duct and multizone systems are inherently energy wasteful. (Courtesy: Environmental Elements Corporation. this increase in room humidity conditions at part load is not enough to cause discomfort. Branch ducts are run from this main through VAV boxes to each zone. The basic VAV system arrangement is shown in Figure 12. Similarly. and the room DB in zone 21 is the same as R.9(a).9(b) for summer cooling. Where these systems are allowed.AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 313 12. as desired. however. Examples of installations where there. the air flow rate to zone 21 is throttled. . but its latent load has not. As with reheat systems. The mixing boxes therefore have a sound attenuating section built into them. The installed cost of the dual duct system is usually quite high. they are prohibited in new installations. Since the total supply air quantity is reduced at low loads. they must have controls that reset the cold deck (duct) temperature at the highest value needed for cooling at all times. for applications that do not have high latent loads. A single main duct is run from the air handling unit. may be a problem are conference rooms and auditoriums. and then apply reheat for further cooling load reduction. The availability of cold and warm air at all times in any proportion gives the dual duct system great flexibility in handling many zones with widely varying loads. when its sensible load has decreased. Notice. To maintain the design room DB temperature. The VAV box has an adjustable damper or valve so that the air quantity delivered to the space can be varied.) Dual duct systems are usually designed as highvelocity air systems in order to reduce duct sizes. Its RSHR line is therefore steeper.8 Mixing box for dual duct system. There are other potential problems that may occur with VAV systems. In such cases. that the humidity in zone 21 is higher (point 21) than desired. In some situations. However. The temperature of this air supply is changed to maintain the appropriate room temperature. overcooled air is reheated by mixing warm air with it. The air quantity delivered from the air handling unit to each zone remains constant. This minimizes the excess energy expended from the reheating or recooling. The average rOom conditions are point R. Baltimore.7 VARIABLE AIR VOLUME CVAV) SYSTEM The types of air conditioning systems we have already discussed are all constant air volume (CAV) systems. the quantity of outside air would also be reduced. as shown. Maryland.

. there often is still some limit of minimum air flow rate.. the air circulation in the room will not be satisfactory. Air to (a) e~ch zone o RSHR line for zone 21 Mixing line ~/.. and uncomfortable conditions will result. such an arrangement were practical.-:.-----c Average RSHR line I 1 I l I i DB (b) Figure 12. Another potential problem at low loads and resulting low air flow rates is poor air distribution in the air conditioning spaces. One is to use the reheat VAV box.. One solution to this problem is to· use a reheat VAV box.9 Variable air volume NAY) system arrangement. below which there would be inadequate outside air. When air ..1 . (b) Psychrometric processes.. If the cooling load continues to decrease.-''''---. the reheat coil is activated. If the air flow rate decreases too much. Air supply diffusers are generally selected to give good coverage at maximum design air quantity. described previously. (a) Equipment arrangement. which has a built-in reheat coil.314 CHAPTER 12 VAV units o M Air handling unit (filter.-----... A control limits the minimum air quantity. fan) c R L-~______~22~______~Z3~. coils.-L .. This type of VAV box also can be used to handle the problem with high latent loads.. There are a few ways this problem may be solved....

12. they are still very popular. this saving is considerable. In spite of these potential problems and their special solutions. all-water systems have certain disadvantages. In addition to the supply air quantity. This energy-saving characteristic is partially that cited previously-it does not mix hot and cold air and does not reheat (except as noted). Chilled or hot water is distributed to them from the central plant. the air is usually carried at high velocities. One type of air-water system uses jan-coil units as the room terminal units. On the other hand. Another possible solution is to use variable diffusers. This means that considerably less volume of water needs to be circulated for the same amount of heat transfer. The central . all result in the fact that hydronic systems are often less expensive initially than all-air systems for large jobs. All-water systems for commercial use can be considerably less expensive and take up much less space than all-air systems (this is not necessarily true for residential use). The result is that the cross-sectional area of piping is Combination air-water systems distribute both chilled and/or hot water and conditioned air from a central system to the individual rooms. Control of humidity is limited. Control of ventilation air quantities is not precise with the small fans in the units. further material will be discussed here. The multiplicity of fan-coil units means a great deal of maintenance work and costs. In addition. these were described in Chapter 5. was introduced in Chapter 5. All-water systems are popular for use as low-cost central systems in multiroom high-rise applications. resulting in better air distribution. Therefore. This is because of the significant energy savings as compared to the other (CAV) multiple zone central systems. particularly space in shafts and ceilings. Hydronic terminal units such as fan-coil units heat or cool the room air. the reheat coil takes over. An important example is installation of air conditioning systems in existing large buildings that were not originally designed to include air conditioning. This type of VAV box has a small fan. However. that is. The lack of need for ductwork and central air handling equipment.AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 315 quantity is reduced to the minimum for good air distribution. As the air flow rate decreases. No air is distributed from the central plant. It receives chilled or hot water from the central plant. much smaller than the ductwork would be for the same job. Most of the energy is carried in the water. A hydronic cooling system is therefore useful when space is extremely limited. the opening narrows. Water has a much higher specific heat and density than air. Terminal units in each room cool or heat the room.8 ALL-WATER SYSTEMS The basic concept of all-water systems. as we1I as the ventilation air from a central air handling' unit.9 AIR-WATER SYSTEMS 12. Ventilation air can be brought through the outside wall and the terminal unit. the total shaft and ceiling space required is small. There is also another significant energy saving. Another type of air-water system uses room terminal units called induction units. this fan draws in and recirculates some room air. These diffusers have a variable sized opening. hydronic systems. Hydronic systems distribute hot or chilled water from the central plant to each space. Whenever there is a part load. Air-water systems utilize the best features of all-air systems and all-water systems. and the saving on using much valuable building space. which is a feature of VAV systems. the air supply quantity is reduced. A further solution is to use jan-powered VAV boxes. Often the air quantities distributed are only enough for ventilation. particularly in high-rise buildings. Ventilation air is distributed separately from an air handling unit to each room. Since a typical air conditioning system operates at part load up to 95% of the time. and there is a saving of fan power. thus maintaining a high total air flow rate through the diffuser.

the space. Room units 2. In some cases. it is often not adequate for outside air cooling in mild or even cold weather. and each of the components mayor may not be remote from each other. three-. and controls are assembled in the unit casing. or air-water systems. motors.10 UNITARY VERSUS CENTRAL SYSTEMS As stated previously. Any of the two-. Unitary or central systems can both in theory be all-air. air conditioning systems can also be classified into either unitary or central systems. This is particularly true on southern exposures. no fans or motors are required in this type of unit. reducing maintenance greatly. unitary systems are generally all-air systems and limited largely to the more simple types such as single zone units with or without reheat or"multizone units. Their advantages are low cost and simplicity of installation and operation.11 ROOM UNITS 12. This classification is not according to how the system functions. The through-thewall unit fits in an outside wall opening. For example. such as an outside air heat exchanger (see Chapter 15). but practically. filter. of course.316 CHAPTER 12 air delivered to each unit is called primary air. and four-pipe hydronic system arrangements described in Chapter 5 can be applied to air-water systems. and controls. In existing buildings. Central equipment is usually remote from Room units (Figure 12. The window unit fits in the sash opening of an existing window. A unitary system is one where the refrigeration and air conditioning components are factory selected-and assembled in a package. this energy inefficient situation may be improved by utilizing another source of chilled water. The factors in choosing a particular arrangement are discussed in that chapter. 12. This is because they are factory assembled on a volume basis. As it flows through the unit at high velocity. all-water. Its initial costs are relatively high. dampers. Window units are particularly applicable to existing buildings. nected by the contractor. Compressor. usually under the windowsill. Because of this. Unitary systems and equipment can be divided into the following groups: 1. but how the equipment is arranged. condenser. unitary conditioners are also called self-contained units or packaged units. This includes refrigeration equipment. three tons of refrigeration capacity.10) are available in two types: window units and through-the-wall units. There are buildings with air-water induction systems requiring refrigeration at outdoor temperatures as low as 30 F. Unitary conditioners 3. Room units have no flexibility in handling high latent heat gains or changed sensible heat ra- I i j . Through-the-wall units are often used in new apartment houses where low cost is primary. Each is selected by the designer and installed and con. filters. resting on the sill. The induction unit air-water system is very popular in high-rise office buildings and similar applications. Rooftop units These names are not standardized in the industry. fan. evaporator cooling coil. Dampers can be adjusted so that only room air is used.. to be conditioned. At these times. Therefore. depending on the desirability. Room units are available up to about. A central or remote system is one where the components are all separate. electrical services may have to be increased to take the added electrical load. it induces room air (secondary air) through the unit and across the water coil. chilled water must be supplied to the room unit coils. Unitary equipment is usually located in or close to the space. coils. fan. or so that some outside ventilation air can be brought through the conditioner. The primary air quantity in the induction system may be only about 25% or less than the total of the air volume rate of a conventional all-air system.

Although they often discharge air directly into the space.AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 317 Outdoor air Condenser discharge air Condenser coil Condenser fan Compressor --1-+1 Outside Inside Motor lJ~-I-~_'~. These units are inherently energy wasteful in multiple use because they cannot modulate capacity. In larger units. This is a popular arrangement in private residential and small commercial applications. according to the space available for the equipment. the condenser is located outdoors and compressor. and fan package is located in an attic or basement. Furthermore. The compressor-condenser package is located outdoors where its noise is less objectionable and it is more accessible for maintenance. tios. Air cleaning quality is minimal because the filters remove only large particles. Units are available in sizes up to about 50 tons. Unitary conditioners are available in vertical or horizontal arrangements. 12. located outdoors. The split system arrangement has distinct advantages in many applications.10 f+---+-Evaporator blower (fan) coil J t \ Room air Room air conditioner equipment arrangement. maintenance of the large number of units can be very burdensome and expensive. there is no problem of finding a suitable and adequate space in the building. coil. Another common arrangement is called a split system. Units are available that have all components packaged except the condenser. Sound levels are higher than with remote equipment. and therefore do not give good humidity control.:~~~t=Evaporator Air filter Cooled air Figure 12. multiple compressors are used. in order that the resistance to air flow be low..11). When used in multiroom buildings. a limited amount of ductwork can be connected if air distribution with outlets is desired. and the fan and cooling coil are another package located indoors. Heating components are sometimes included. In one arrangement.12 UNITARY AIR CONDITIONERS This type of unit is designed to be installed in or near the conditioned space (Figure 12.. Unitary conditioners have the same advantages and disadvantages as room units.~. . These units are popular in small commercial applications. The components are contained in the unit. . The condenser and compressor are in one package.

They must have weatherproofing feaIres not required with equipment located indoors. thereby offering zone controls. Rooftop systems are extremely popular in low-cost. air mixing section. mixing box.13).13). Rooftop units may be used with ductwork and ir outlets. They should be located on both sides of coils and filters. This consists of vertical Z-shaped baffles that trap the droplets. Heating quipment may also be incorporated in the unit. 12.5. In large equipment. drain pans must be included under the coil to collect condensed moisture.318 CHAPTER 12 The advantages of rooftop units are that they do not use valuable building space and they are relatively low in cost. and casings are fabricated by the contractor to suit the equipment. Units are available with multizone arrangement. The pipe should have a deep seal trap so that a water seal always exists (Figure 12. There are basically two arrangements: single zone units and multizone units. filters.5. fan. The water may then be carried as droplets into the moving airstream. which then fall into the condensate pan. In small.3 and 12. coil sections. 'ooling.1.II electrical parts must be moistureproof. and dampers. which is run to a waste drain. all in a casing (Figures 12. 12. Access doors should be provided to permit maintenance. separate coils. The dehumidification effect of the cooling coil frequently results in water collecting. Those parts that are required are selected by the user. For large systems. on the coil. filter section-in numerous sizes. Casings are usually made of galvanized sheet metal.and medium-capacity systems. one-story building applications. although the ompressor and condenser may be remote.14 AIR HANDLING UNITS The central system air handling unit (AHU) consists of the coolinglheating coils. =igure 12. and air handling equipment comes in secions that are assembled together. but humidity control is limited. The casing should be insulated to prevent energy losses. Usually. and fans are selected by the engineer. and a piping drain connection must be provided. When cooling and dehumidifying.12) is iesigned to be located outdoors and is generally nstalled on roofs.13 ROOFTOP UNITS ['his type of unitary equipment (Figure 12. lights should be provided inside each section. air handling units are factory made in sections-fan section. To prevent this water from circulating into the air conditioning ductwork. and 12.11 Jnitary air conditioner. . and the asing and any other exposed parts must be corroon protected. such as supermarkets and suburban commercial buildings. 12. . filters. elimi-· nators are provided downstream from the coil. all of the refrigeration. The distinction between these has been discussed in Sections 12.

~: 0 . Multizone units are blow-through types.15 COOLING AND HEATING COILS Cooling coils may use either chilled water or evaporating refrigerant. :~: r Ligts :. Draw-through is preferable because the air will flow more uniformly across the coil section when drawn through by the fan. When the fan is upstream of the coils.~:: 1 -z".AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 319 Figure 12.y. the unit is called a draw-through type. The latter are called dry expansion CDX) coils..0 t::_ iIi :~ t:: Access door 1ij . " .) When the fan is located downstream of the cooling coil.12 Rooftop unit. it is called a blow-through type. To aid in distributing the air more evenly across the heating and cooling coil in blow-through units. 12.13 Maintenance accessories in large air handling unit. McQuay-Perfex. plate is sometimes located between the fan and coils. Condensate pan l Waste line with trap ._ Access door « ~ -= ~ !!? 0> !!? 1ij 0 '0 () Access door = g "0 () 0 . (Courtesy: McQuay Group. Inc. a perforated Figure 12.c Q) 0: Q) Fan -- I-"- 7 .

depending on the need (Figure 12. The performance of a cooling coil depends on the following factors: I. called counterflow (Figure 12. 12. the condensed water will . and eliminator baffies must be used to catch the water droplets. However. The fins increase the effective surface area of tubing. in a number of rows. The face velocity is the air flow rate in CFM divided by the projected (face) area of the coil. 4. High air velocities also result in better heat transfer and also more CFM handled. Velocities in the midrange of about 3-4 FPS are recommended. 5. 3. the coldest water is cooling the coldest air. 2. In addition. Water velocities from 1-8 FPS are used. an air vent should be located at the outlet on top. Conditions of air entering and leaving. fewer rows may be needed to bring the air to a chosen temperature than if parallel flow were used. Using these ratings does not give much insight into how a coil performs. be carried off the coil into the airstream above 500-550 FPM face velocity. Warm air ~ Cold air out -- CHWout CHWin Figure 12. DB andWB.15). In this way. When cooling coils have a number of rows. Air face velocity. must be transferred from the air.16 COIL SELECTION Coil selections are made from manufacturers' tables or charts based on the required performance. The amount of sensible and latent heat that Figure 12. if the coil is dehumidifying. they are usually connected so that the fl ow of water and air are opposite to each other. and the chilled water temperature can be higher. The water inlet connection should be made at the bottom of the coil and the outlet at top. number of rows.14). we will not . so that any entrapped air is carried through more easily. but copper fins are sometimes used.320 CHAPTER 12 Cooling coils are usually made of copper tubing with aluminum fins. For this reason. thus increasing the heat transfer for a given length of tube. Coil construction-number and size of fins size and spacing of tubing. Water (or refrigerant) velocity. The coil may be constructed either with tubes in series or in parallel to reduce water pressure drop.14 Cooling coil (chilled water type). High water velocity increases heat transfer but also results in high pressure drop and therefore requires a larger pump and increased energy consumption. The form in which manufacturers present their coil rating data varies greatly one from another. The coils are arranged in a serpentine shape.15 Counterflow arrangement of air and water flow for cooling coil.

The dust particles are given an electric charge. and therefore the particles are attracted to the media. 2.1 A cooling coil has 3200 CFM of air flowing across it at a face velocity of 400 FPM.17 AIR CLEANING DEVICES (FILTERS) Air conditioning systems that circulate air generally have provisions for removing some of the objectionable air contaminants. 3.16 shows each of the methods. lint collecting on coils will increase the coil resistance to heat transfer. the number of rows of coil needed for given entering and leaving air conditions can be directly determined.97 12. for that type of coil. as seen in Example 12.98 0.93 0. Some manufacturing processes are particularly sensitive.AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 321 present any rating data. The incorrect type of filter may be chosen. dust or dirt. A filter may remove particles by one or more of the above methods. . The dust particles in the airstream strike the filter media and are therefore stopped. Protection of human health and comfort. Electrostatic precipitation. coil.86 0.65 0. Occasionally gases that have objectionable odors are also removed from the air.58 0. This will be discussed when specific types of filters are described.82 0.32. Dust particles are related to serious respiratory ailments (emphysema and asthma). :2. Proper air cleaning is necessary for the following reasons: I. No.57 0. For example. Protection of the air conditioning machinery. which result largely from industrial pollution. that procedure has the advantage of being suitable for any manufacturer's coils. a fourrow coil will do the job. 3.69 0.96 2 3 4 6 8 0. Air enters the coil at 85 F DB and 69 F WB and leaves at 56 F DB and 54 F WE. With this type of table. Straining. Solution The required CF is 0. The need for proper air cleaning is often treated casually when designing and operating an air conditioning system.1. Impingement. Table 12. FPM 8 fins!in. as worked out in Example 7.97 0.18 METHODS OF DUST REMOVAL Air cleaners can remove dust in three major ways: 0. The face area needed is 3200 CFM/400 FPM = 8 frl TABLE 12. This is a serious neglect.73 0.83.75 0.1.96 0. Figure 12.98 0. 4. Example 12.80 0. given the opposite charge.73 0. The dust particles are larger than the space between adjacent fibers and therefore do not continue with the airstream.60 0.81 0. Most systems have devices that remove particles commonly called I. Protection of equipment.84 0. Indeed.1 1YPICAL CONTACT FACTORS FOR HELICAL FINNED COOLING COILS Face Velocity.94 0. 14 fins!in. the procedures described in Chapter 7 give all the basic data necessary to select a coil. of Rows 400 500 600 400 500 600 12.90 0.88 0. Some equipment will not operate properly or will wear out faster without adequate clean air.82 0.92 0.1 lists typical contact factors (CF) for finned cooling coils. Determine the required number of rows and face area of an 8 fin/in. The filter media is . However. From Table 12. Maintaining cleanliness of room swfaces and furnishings.93 0.71 0. or the filters may not be maintained properly. because we are dealing with a question of air pollution and human health.

This test is useful in comparing ability to remove larger particles. The problem is complicated because filter performance depends on the concentration and sizes of dust particles in the air.. because the small particles comprise such a small proportion of the total weight of atmospheric dust. the filter's effectiveness in removing very small particles is tested.322 CHAPTER 12 Charging Particle Attracting plates ~~ Air~ (a) par~ ~ grid + -==-+ .000th of one inch). (c) Electrostatic precipitation.'.. and cigarette smoke particles from 0. (b) Straining. (b) - ~ . A cloud of DOP particles in an airstream is passed through the air cleaner. The DOP test is used only on air cleaners that are designed to have a high efficiency in removing very small particles. Only in recent years have standard test methods developed. A filter that will hold a" considerable amount of dust before resistance increases considerably is preferable to one that has a lesser capacity before buildup up to a given resistance. It does not indicate ability to remove small particles. DO? penetration. In this way.. The concentration of particles not removed is measured downstream of the cleaner by using a light-scattering technique. A standard dust of fixed concentration and particle sizes is used...19 METHODS OF TESTING FILTERS Understanding how air filter performance is evaluated is important because only in this way can a proper filter be selected. The weight of dust captured by the air filter is measured. Dust holding capacity. The following tests are generally accepted and recommended in the industry: I. What they do not measure is how much the filter air resistance will increase with dust accumulation.. air is first passed through the air cleaning device and then a white filter paper. The size of these particles is 0. In this test. The dust holding capacity test compares weight of dust collected with increase in air resistance through the filter. As an example. Dust spotdiscoloration. " 12. 4.3-30 microns in diameter.. The above three tests all measure efficiency of an air cI~aner in removing particles. ---0 - ----+ (c) Figure 12. filters cannot be compared with each other.16 Methods of removing particles from air. Without standard procedures. This varies greatly from one location to another and at different times.' . 3. A cloud of particles of a substance called DOP is chemically generated. ---.3 microns in diameter (one micron is about 1125. j j .- ~ V". 2. Weight.01-1 micron. (a) Impingement. bacteria range from about 0. This test is important because these particles cause soiling of room surfaces. This test is used to measure the ability of air cleaners to remove extremely small particles. The degree to which the filter paper is discolored is an indicator of the amount of smaller dust particles not removed by the air cleaner.

(Courtesy: American Air Filter Co. They are quite expensive. Air velocities range from 300-600 FPM. For example.0 in. as with the viscous impingement type. Kentucky. the filter should be serviced when the resistance reaches 0. Louisville.05 micron (1ISOO. Glass fibers and paper are two commonly used materials. before servicing.20 TYPES OF AIR CLEANERS Air cleaners can be classified in a number of ways.) Viscous impingement disposable filter.000th of an inch!). By varying density. Permanent types have Figure 12. The dry-type air filter uses uncoated fiber mats. and resistance rises to about 2. It is low in cost (Figure 12.18 High efficiency dry-type (HEPA) filter. This type of filter will remove larger dust particles satisfactorily but not small particles.g.17).g.5 in. it is the only type of filter that will effectively remove viruses as small as 0.AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 323 12. w. dry-type air filters are available that have good efficiency only on larger particles.g. w. The media in air filters can be arranged in the form of random fiber mats. Type of Media The viscous impingement air filter has a media of coarse fibers that are coated with a viscous adhesive. The HEPA filter (High Efficiency Particulate Air) is a very high efficiency dry-type filter for removing extremely small particles (Figure 12.. The pressure drop when clean is low. Air face velocities through HEPA filters are very low. Louisville. screens. or are also available with medium or high efficiency for removing very small particles. about 50 FPM.. Kentucky.. w. (Courtesy: AmeriFigure 12.1 in. around 0. or corrugated sinuous strips. Glass fibers and metal screens are two commonly used media materials.18).17 can Air Filter Co. The media can be constructed of either coarse fibers loosely packed or fine fibers densely packed. Permanent or Disposable Air filters may be designed so that they are discarded (disposable type) when filled with dust or are cleaned and reused.) .

A private residence or apartment house might be an example. These are also usually backed up with a coarse prefilter to remove large particles. a coarse visc?us impingement cleanable filter that removes the large particles first.) Electronic Air Cleaners In this type. The movement of the media is often controlled by a pressure switch which senses the pressure drop across the media. The media is wound on a take-up spool. the particles are attracted to the plates. such as viruses. activated carbon (charcoal) filters are I \ .21 SELECTION OF AIR CLEANERS The selection of the proper air cleaner depends on the degree of contamination of the air to be cleaned and the cleanliness requirements. but are very efficient for removing both large and very small particles. ElectroniC air cleaners are expensive. (Courtesy: American Air Filter Co.19). . so that they do not cause quick build-up of dirt on the electronic air cleaner.' l _- j 't 'l- 11 ·r f. perhaps intermediate efficiency dry-type filters would be used. but maintenance costs are greatly Figure 12. A series of parallel plates are given the opposite electric charge. The panels are removed and either replaced or cleaned when dirty. exposing clean media. For applications that require a greater degree of cleanliness. popular in large commercial buildings. or radioactive particles. driven by a motor. Renewable-type air filters consist of a roll mounted on a spool that moves across the airstream (Figure 12. Either fibrous materials or metal screens are used as media. Often electronic cleaners are used in conjunction with a prefilter.19 Automatic renewable filter. After an interval of time the air cleaner must be removed from service in order to clean the plates and remove the dirt.20).. 12. Stationary or Renewable Stationary air filters are manufactured in rectangular panels that are placed alongside each other and stacked. inexpensive viscous impingement type disposable air filters would be used. When the resistance increases to a set value because of the dirt collected. particularly where smoking is heavy. but they cost more than disposable types. As the dust-laden airstream passes between the plates. Where removal of extremely small particles is critical. This arrangement is. For applications that require only minimum cleanliness and low cost. For removing gases with objectionable odors from the air. Another choice might be electronic air cleaners. Louisville. Dust particles are given a high voltage charge by an electric grid. decreased. there is no fibrous media to entrap dust (Figure 12. The plates may be coated with a viscous material to hold the dust. . the motor moves the curtain. Renewable air filters are considerably more expensive than the stationary types. according to the size needed. HEPA filters are used. and where contamination is greater. bacteria.324 CHAPTER 12 metal media that will withstand repeated washings. Kentucky.

(Courtesy: American Air Filter Co. and pesticides. Radon This is a radioactive gas emitted by soil. air fresheners. Air contaminants from sources inside buildings are the main cause of poor IAQ.. Since many people spend up to 90% of their time indoors. It may enter a building through underground walls or floors. It has become evident that the poor quality of air inside some buildings is contributing to health problems. headaches. Kentucky. 12. cleaning materials. this subject is of major concern. .) used.22 INDOOR AIR QUALITY . Humidifier fever is a respiratory illness caused by exposure to microorganisms found in humidifiers and air conditioners. Asbestos This is a mineral substance used in a fibrous form for insulation. and fungi. molds." this is the mixture of substances emitted from burning tobac~o. plywood.AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 325 The emphasis in this discussion will be on IAQ problems in the commercial working environment. These filters are sometimes used in restaurants to remove· odorous gases resulting from cooking. paints. and acoustic material and fireproofing in buildings. viruses. Indoor Pollutants Figure 12. particle board. carpets. and throat irritation. Glassfibers Materials made of glass fibers are used as thermal and sound insulation in HVAC systems. and fatigue. The carbon absorbs the gas molecules. and cancer. It is more commonly a problem in private residences than in commercial buildings. Louisville. breathed in by occupants. although many of the problems and solutions are similar. The HVAC system is connected with Indoor Air Quality (IAQ). rather than private residences. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) These are organic substances emitted as gases from building materials. nausea. and drains. The term sick building syndrome (SBS) refers to a set of symptoms that may affect occupants only during the time they are in the building and cannot be traced to a specific pollutant.20 Electronic air cleaner. pollens. Symptoms of diseases such as asthma may be increased. sumps. sometimes in contributing to the problem and as a part of the potential solution. irritability. Fonnaldehyde is the best known and most common ofVOC pollutants. tiles. Health Effects Short-term effects from indoor air pollutants may include eye. Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Also called "passive smoking. mites. but outdoor air pollutants that enter a building can also contribute to the problem. nose. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is a respiratory illness caused by the inhalation of organic dusts. copying machines. adhesives. heart disease. Biological Contaminants These include bacteria. Long-term effects that may show up after a period of years are respiratory diseases.

This is often an area of serious neglect. Solutions There are three general approaches to improving air quality in buildings. door pollutant level as needed. the fiber lining itself can serve as a breeding place for molds and fungi. Cleaning and replacement of air filters. A serious illness called Legionnaire's disease sometimes has its origins in building HVAC systems. For instance. It may be found that more efficient filters than used previously are required. There is a difference of opinion on this question. 3. 2. I . in some cases HEPA filters. The relative humidity (RH) should be maintained below 60% to discourage growth of molds and fungi. For good indoor air quality. Table 6. Cleaning. Among the items to be considered are A. such as cooling towers. Regular and good housekeeping maintenance is an important part of ensuring a satisfactory indoor air quality. I. this gas is not toxic but is sometimes used as a measure of adequate ventilation. Carbon dioxide (C0 2 ) A natural constituent of atmospheric air. Elimination or reduction of moist areas. . The concentration of indoor air pollutants can be decreased by supplying a substantial amount of outside ventilation air from the HVAC systems. Air filters in the HVAC system should be of the proper type and efficiency to reduce the in- 12. D. B. space temperatures and humidity should also be within the range recommended in Section 1.6.326 CHAPTER 12 These fibers sometimes peel off and are carned into the occupied spaces. such as cooling towers. Source control. coils.17 lists ventilation requirements typical of present state codes. This coupled with using minimum outside ventilation rates in HVAC systems has amplified the effect of indoor air pollutants. however-further information and research is needed. and activated carbon filters may be desirable. care should be taken that drain pans in HVAC equipment drain freely. and drain pans. This will illustrate the opportunities for energy conservation by the proper choice of a system for a given application. If they are already in place. An example is the ductwork system. the CO 2 concentration will increase considerably. In indoor spaces that are not well ventilated and that are densely occupied. C. Care must be taken that the cleaning agents themselves are not pollutants that may enter the occupied spaces. Appropriate application of biocidal cleaners to areas where biological growths are expected.. removal or containment may be done. OA filters may be necessary. For a discussion of the toxic pollutant carbon monoxide. electronic cleaners. The ASHRAE Standard recommends a threshold level of 1000 ppm above which the CO 2 level indicates possibly poor indoor air quality. In addition. Ventilation. This invoh'es avoidance of the use of pollutant source materials or chemicals. Vacuum cleaning of areas. If the outside air is sufficiently contaminated. see Chapter 4.23 ENERGY REQUIREMENTS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS A comparative energy use analysis of some of the major types of air conditioning systems will be made in this section. air infiltration has been decreased by reducing or sealing crack openings in both existing buildings and in the design of new ones. humidifiers. In efforts to conserve energy use. where dirt may accumulate. Outdoor concentrations of CO 2 are about 300 ppm (parts per million). since they are kept in the building longer and in greater concentrations. The level of indoor air contaminants can be reduced by both air cleaning and good housekeeping.

A further comparison will be made with an air-water system such as the induction or fan-coil type.AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 327 A comparison will be made of energy requirements for constant volume reheat. BTU/he. every factor would be included.000 Sum = 4. 45% RH Ventilation air is 45.29. A typical office building will be specified. The air handling unit psychrometric processes are shown in Figure 12.000 1.000 N E S W Solar + trans.030.0) = 1. Interior zone is 100.000 = 870.510. The following are the design specifications: I.000 590.510.190.550.000 1.000 People 90.000 fr area.000 BTUlhr BUILDING PEAK SENSIBLE HEAT GAINS 450.000 Totals 540.200.4. CFM= 5. in an actual energy study.000 People 90.690.000 I? Outside condition is 97 F DB. w.760. Constant volume reheat system. Inside 78 F DB. Lights and pOll'er are 12 BTU fro Occupants 3300. BTUlhr = 9.000 800.000 90.000 BTUlhr 200. and variable air volume systems.000 = 752 tons The reheat system must furnish heat from the heating coil for all zones except those at peak loads.000 1.000 90.88.000 840. W zones are 25.000 90. S.l x 4 = 1.000 1.000 x l. N.000 300.000 300.000 300.000 180.000 1. 74 F WE. Some simplifications will be made to avoid unnecessary details that would detract from following the analysis. Air off cooling coils is at 54 F DE. 150.000 .000 People latent = 660.000 350.000. RSHR is 0.000 BTUlhr Office building 01200.000 90.g.510. Of course. Supply fan temperature rise is 4 F. Supply air temperature is 58 F if the air off the cooling coil is 54 F DB. N E S W Solar + trans. Fan static pressure is 6 in.000 fr each.000 350.000 300.000 .000 Totals 540.000 90. LI x (78 . Dual duct system.390.000 90. Building peak load is in Jllly at 4 PM. The air supply rate must satisfy the sum of each zone peak.000 1.510.640.58) The refrigeration capacity of the reheat system must satisfy the sum of the zone peaks: Sum of zone sensible peaks.200.4.000 CFM.000 1.000 300. 2. Duct and return fan heat gains are neglected.000 570.000 1. dual duct.000 x 45(377 .000 Sum = 5.100.390.000 Refrigeration load. BTUlhr = 5.000 1.000 = 250 000 .000 Lights 300.000. The heating required at design conditions is 5.000 Lights 300.000 300.550. E. The air handling unit psychrometric processes are shown in PEAK SENSIBLE HEAT GAINS FOR EACH ZONE.000 Outside air 45. 150.000 Fan heat 250.

Reheat system. $9.7.8 KW/1000 CFM at 6 in.I(tr..000 = 1.000 1. figures of 0. the refrigeration capacity must only satisfy the building peak: Building sensjble peak People latent Outside air Fan heat 223. I . hot and cold ducts tr = average roon1 temperature Ie Reheat Dual duct Tons of refrigeration Refrigeration KW = cold air supply temperature at mixing dampers = warm air supply temperature at mixing dampers I.) The difference in the energy requirements of the three systems at full load is summarized as follows: VAV where CFM.g.3 .000 980.5.000 xl.n x-------c~---. and 0.000 178 781 0.640.9 KW/ton. Note the huge extra expense and energy waste from using the reheat system. were used.1 (78 .1(78 .000 200 870. 670 tons. and noting that tw = 85.- . . Assume a mild day with no solar.640.000 1 In the above estimates.000 BTUlhr = = 670 tons This is still not the actual situation.te) 3. The air handling unit psychrometric processes are shown in Figure 12.000 169 772 0 Using a leakage rate of 5%.00/106 BTU.000 1.000 BTUlhr = 660.72 670 603 211. 1. = sum of zone peaks I.08/KWH. CFM. outside air.000 = 8. The outside air '.r = fraction of air leakage through closed mixing damper CFM FanKW Heating BTUlhr Total KW Extra cost $/hr 752 677 250. The energy consumption differences are: even much greater at part load for two reasons: the VAV system throttles air flow with load reduction and the reheat system must add even more heat.040. (We will neglect the slight difference in fan heat.54 J =223.05[85.- I 1-0. w.23 670 603 223. Variable air volume system.760. = total air supply rate..78 \ 78 .I x 4 Refrigeration load = 4.3 F DB (Figure 12. The maximum air supply rate must satisfy only the building peaks: CFM = 4.000 = 211. The cooling coil still cools all the air to set temperature.9.7). $O. The total air supply rate must satisfy the sum of each zone peak load. the yearly extra cost would be Reheat Dual duct $19. We will make a rough analysis of this situation. 5. If we were to assume this energy difference for a full load equivalent of 1200 hours a year.05 _ 0.510. Furthermore.000 877 16. 54 F. additional air is required because of leakage through closed dampers in the zone mixing box.58) The refrigeration capacity must satisfy only the building peak.. or transmission loads.328 CHAPTER 12 Figure 12. The equation for finding total CFM is CFM. however.480 860 Although the dual duct system must supply an air rate to satisfy each zone peak.

We have not attempted to show variations in energy use due to types of controls selected. All-air systems of course have as much air for cooling as needed in cold weather. of course.AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 329 load is the only one not required.1 x 20 = 141. For the air-water system. VAV system.000 BTUlhr Outside air design load . Other factors such as diversity or operation of reheat coils in the dual duct and YAY systems have not been included.750. because the room units handle only the load for their zones.000 Reheat system part load 7. The refrigeration capacity required is 396 tons.20 The part load condition selected does not necessarily represent the average of an actual installation. design load . However.000 = 2. At lower outdoor temperatures.000 =--1.000 BTUlhr = 396 tons The reheat system must provide external heat source for all of the difference between the building peak and sum of zone peaks at part load: 7. hourly weather and equipment performance data are needed. the general conclusions from our analysis hold true.000 200 745 2. We have not made a comparative analysis of the energy use of an air-water system. The refrigeration capacity required is the building peak part load (396 tons) since the cold air is throttled as needed in each zone. where otherwise fans would have to be operated continually.000 10. the primary air quantity is not adequate to cool zones with large heat gains.760.000 BTUlhr = 606 tons The actual building part load is Peak design load 8.1 x 20 Assuming an operating period of 2000 hours a season with this part load condition as an average. and chilled water must be used.000 Solar + trans.270.42.000 178 534 5. however. the yearly extra energy costs would be Reheat Dual duct $85.760. The additional pump energy is usually less than that of the greater air quantity. 3. The refrigeration load is therefore Full load for reheat system 9.000 . Dual duct system.1. the situation may change significantly. To carry out an accurate yearly energy use. With fan heat.030.400 3. Many buildings have a separate radiation heating system for perimeter zones.040. The peak refrigeration load is . This is particularly true during unoccupied hours. There may be a small advantage in auxiliary energy use for the air-water system because only the primary (ventilation) air is moved.530. further sharp differences in energy consumption would appear for similar reasons.270. At full load this system has about the same energy requirements as the YAY system.000 BTU/hr 2.000 The differences in energy requirements at the part load condition are summarized as follows: Reheat Dual duct VAV 396 356 141.110. however. however. If the systems analyzed were used for winter heating. The total air supply rate is CFM= room sensible heat 1. because the air supply rate is throttled as required.520.1.000 Building part load 4.750.4.270. Consider the south side of the building on a sunny November day with an outdoor temperature of 40 F.1.000 113 469 0 Tons of refrigeration Refrigeration KW CFM FanKW Total KW Heating BTUlhr Extra cost $lhr 606 545 250.50 396 356 223. which reduces the penalty of excessive use of air heating.000 BTUlhr Outside air design load . the primary air supply temperature is 44 F.000 .

Replace or clean filters on a regular schedule to limit pressure losses to those recommended.1 Select a 14 fin/in. Chilled water and condenser water pumps will also have to be operated. Blow-through unit 8. and unitary systems. 5. 12. although they can be designed to minimize the loss. This should be avoided where possible by proper design and operation. 3. thereby avoiding excessive fan power.000 BTUlhr 98 tons This is a heavy penalty to pay for using this type of system without heat recovery.24 ENERGY CONSERVATION I. II. Sketch and label all elements of a dual duct system arrangement and air handling unit.1 x 5000 x 30 = -165.000 BTUlhr People-sensible = 90. 3. Systems that mix hot and cold air (dual duct 7. Straining C. Explain the following terms: A. the primary air may be warm while at the same time chilled water is being distributed to the induction units. care should be taken that they are not producing opposite effects and therefore wasting energy. Sketch and label all elements of a multizone system arrangement and air handling unit. Sketch and label all elements of a single zone air handling unit and a typical duct arrangement. 4. Systems should be designed and operated to use all outside air for cooling when it is adequate (see Chapter 15). Review Questions I.330 CHAPTER 12 Solar gain = 1. Prepare a list of advantages and disadvantages of reheat. thereby maintaining maximum heat transfer. Impingement B. VAV.170. in an induction system. Electrostatic precipitation 10. Reheating is unavoidably wasteful and should be avoided except for special applications. 9.000 Transmission losses = -255. B.000 Primary air 1.000 Refrigeration load = 1. dual duct. For example. Clean coils regularly. because there will be many hours in the heating season when refrigeration is needed. Sketch and label all elements of a VAV duct system arrangement and air handling unit. Sketch and label all elements of a reheat system arrangement and air handling unit. 4. What is a HEPA air filter? What are its applications? What type of air cleaner is used to remove undesired gases? Problems 12. 5. Draw-through unit C. List four purposes of air cleaning devices. 2. List and explain the four methods of testing and rating air cleaners. cooling coil to cool 12. 6.200. 6. When using air-water systems. Explain the following terms related to air cleaners: A. 2. Split system 12.000 Lighting = 300. unless the reheating would come from otherwise wasted energy (see Chapter 15). or multizone) or water (three pipe) may result in energy waste.000 CFM of air from 82 F DB and 70 F I t f . multizone.

assuming the same leaving DB.AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 331 WB to 55 F DB and 54 F WB. 8 fin/in.3 A four-row. cooling coil is handling air at a face velocity of 600 FPM. 12.4 If the air velocity for the coil in Problem 12. The coil face velocity is 600 FPM. what is the leaving air WB? . What is the leaving air WB? 12. 12. Air enters at 87 F DB and 72 F WB and leaves at 59 F DB.2 Select an 8 fin/in.1.3 is reduced to 400 FPM. coil for the same requirements as described in Problem 12.

Other refrigeration methods. In climates where the humidity is extremely low. Another natural heat sink that is used occasionally for cooling water is atmospheric air. thermoelectric cooling. Many communities now restrict the use of well water for air conditioning. the types of equipment used. Our purpose here will be to relate the refrigeration equipment to the complete air conditioning system. evaporative cooling of air may reduce both the water and air temperature low enough so that either can be used for cooling (Chapter 7). In this case. Occasionally a natural low temperature fluid is available. and steam jet refrigeration are not widely used in commercial air conditioning and will not be discussed. which is too high to accomplish adequate dehumidification. The ancient Roman rulers had slaves transport snow from the high mountains to cool their food and beverages. We will not discuss the calculations related to the thermodynamic cycle or to compressor performance. and some equipment selection procedures. However. Furthermore. Well water or evaporative cooling should be considered for refrigeration when available. however. a fluid with a temperature lower than the room design temperature must be made available. Usually there is no natural heat sink at a temperature lower than the desired space temperature when cooling is required. to which the excess room heat can be transferred.c H A p T E R Refrigeration Systems and Equipment Slc£~~IIIfi _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _• A n environmental control system that includes cooling and dehumidification will require a means of removing heat from the conditioned spaces. Vapor compression and absorption refrigeration systems are both used widely for producing refrigeration required for air conditioning. such as the air cycle. we will explain how each system functions. well water temperatures are often 50-60 F. Refrigeration produces this low temperature fluid. a further understanding of refrigeration theory is necessary for the well-trained air conditioning practitioner. Cold well water has often been used in modem air conditioning systems. In this chapter. 332 . refrigeration systems that require machinery are used to provide a cold fluid for cooling or dehumidification. Textbooks on refrigeration should be consulted. because of the depleted supply. Because heat flows only from a higher to a lower temperature. such as the author's text Refrigeration Principles and Systems: An Energy Approach.

Describe and sketch the vapor compression refrigeration system. the refrigerant is in the liquid state at a relatively high pressure and high temperature. There are four processes (changes in the condition of the fluid) that occur as it flows through the system: Vapor Compression Refrigeration System 13. The fluid to be cooled is at a slightly higher temperature than the refrigerant. Describe and sketch the heat pump system.. 2.REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 333 OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter. Select packaged refrigeration equipment. This heat exchanger has two circuits...1 The vapor compression refrigeration system. At point (I). Refrigerant PROCESS 1-2. fluid circulates through the piping and equipment in the direction shown..1. Identify the types of compressors. The refrigerant loses pressure going through the restriction. PROCESS 2-3.jFc. 4. 3. you will be able to: I..2. To aid in understanding it.:. The refrigerant circulates in one. therefore heat is transferred from it to the Figure 13.. evaporators. the fluid to be cooled (usually air or water) flows..1 PRINCIPLES A schematic flow diagram showing the basic components of the vapor compression refrigeration system is shown in Figure l3. thus cooling the mixture and resulting in a low temperature at (2).. condensers. The pressure at (2) is so low that a small portion of the refrigerantjlashes (vaporizes) into a gas. Describe environmental effects of refrigerants. Describe and sketch the absorption refrigeration system. and in the other. The refrigerant flows through a heat exchanger called the evaporator. But in order to vaporize. Condenser Compressor =~. it must gain heat (which it takes from that portion of the refrigerant that did not vaporize). 130 F gas 48 F gas 90 F 50 F Cooling fluid _-h. some typical temperatures for air conditioning applications are indicated. called thejlow control device or expansion device. 6. 5.>. and flow control devices. It flows to (2) through a restriction.+-- Cooled fluid Liquid Flow control device Liquid & gas .

evaporator. Cooling coils are used for cooling air and chillers for cooling water or other liquids. however. Leaving the evaporator. a liquid pool of refrigerant is maintained. Dry expansion (DX) evaporators exist in two types-DX cooling coils or DX chillers. a cooling fluid flows (air or water) at a temperature lower than the refrigerant. The air flows across the coils. Cooling coils are discussed in more detail in Chapter 12. The refrigerant has returned to its initial state and is now ready to repeat the cycle.2 13. with the reverse arrangement (Figure 13. Figure 13. Heat therefore transfers from the refrigerant to the cooling fluid. Of course the processes are actually continuous as the refrigerant circulates through the system. The refrigerant boils because of the heat it receives in the evaporator. In the latter case. some types of which will now be described. (Reprinted with permission from the 1979 Equipment ASHRAE Handbook & Products Directory. mechanical cleaning and replacement of individual tubes is possible. The complete refrigeration plant has many other additional components (e. the refrigerant condenses to a liquid (I). PROCESS 4-1. ~I . In the shell and tube type. and as a result. The shell can be made in one piece or can be constructed with bolted removable ends. valves.2 EQUIPMENT Flooded chiller. In the dry expansion type. The refrigerant leaves the compressor as a gas at high temperature and pressure.334 CHAPTER 13 refrigerant. with water circulating through the tubes and refrigerant through the shell (Figure 13. a bundle of straight tubes is enclosed in a cylindrical shell. The first step in this process is to increase the pressure of the refrigerant gas by using a compressor. refrigerant flows through tubing. heat must be removed from it.3 EVAPORATORS PROCESS 3-4. By the time it leaves the evaporator (4).g. I .. The refrigerant flows through one circuit in the condenser.) As noted in the explanation of how the vapor compression refrigeration system functions. In order to be able to use it again to achieve the refrigerating effect continuously. producing the cooling effect desired. 13. This construction is more expensive. In order to change it to a liquid. In the other circuit. The chiller may be either the flooded type. In the flooded type of evaporator. When cooling air. piping) that will not be discussed in detail here. Compressing the gas also results in increasing its temperature. the refrigerant is a gas at a low temperature and low pressure. and flow control device. Evaporators for cooling water or other liquids are called chillers. the major equipment components are the compressor. controls. it is completely vaporized. dry expansion (DX) cooling coils are used. The tubing is arranged in a serpentine coil form and is finned to produce more heat transfer from a given length. called heads. condenser. These may be classified into two types for air conditioning service-dry expansion (DX) evaporators or flooded evaporators.2).""". it must be brought back to the conditions at (l)-a liquid at a high pressure. and there is no liquid storage of refrigerant in the evaporator. Water head Copper tubes '. or dry expansion.3). This is accomplished in a heat exchanger called the condenser. Flooded chillers are generally used on the larger systems.

REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT
Water Baffles

335

Tube sheet Shell

ment types. Centrifugal compressors function by increasing the kinetic energy (velocity) of the gas, which is then converted to an increased pressure by reducing the velocity.

Water inlet

U-tubes

13.5 RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR
This is the most widely used type, available in sizes from fractional horsepower and tonnage up to a few hundred tons. Construction is similar to the reciprocating engine of a vehicle, with pistons. cylinders, valves, connecting rods, and crankshaft (Figure 13.4). The suction and discharge valves are usually a thin plate or reed that will open and close easily and quickly. Open compressors have an exposed shaft to which the electric motor or other driver is attached externally. Hermetic compressors are manufactured with both compressor and motor sealed in a

Figure 13.3

Dry expansion chiller. (Reprinted with permission from the
1979 Equipment ASHRAE Handbook & Products Directory.)

13.4 TYPES OF COMPRESSORS
Positive displacement compressors function by reducing the volume of gas in the confined space, thereby raising its pressure. Reciprocating, rotary, scroll, and screw compressors are positive displaceFigure 13.4

Reciprocating compressor construction. (Courtesy: Dunham-Bush, Inc.) Wrist Oil cooler Suction shut-off valve

Oil pressure relief valve Oil pressure gage connection Main bearing

seal

Oil sight gI8.5s,---'
;:'UIOIIU'II

filter

I

check valve

"'-.

,
336 CHAPTER 13
"'1.'.······ ..
0.

Figure 13.5 Cutaway view of hermetic reciprocating compressor. (Courtesy: Dunham·Bush, Inc.)

casing (Figure 13.5). In this way, there is no possibility of refrigerant loss from leaking around the shaft. The motor is cooled by refrigerant in a hermetic compressor. Most modern open compressors use mechanical seals, rather than packing seals, to reduce refrigerant leakage. These seals are similar to those used in pumps, as discussed in Chapter II.

creases toward the discharge end. This type of compressor has become popular in recent years due to its reliability, efficiency, and cost. It is generally used in the larger size ranges of positive displacement compressors, in capacities up to about 1000 tons of air conditioning. A screw compressor is shown in Figure 13.7.
Figure 13.6 Sectional view of rotary compressor. (Reprinted with pennission from the 1979 Equipment ASHRAE Handbook
& Products Directory.)

13.6

ROTARY COMPRESSOR

This type has a rotor eccentric to the casing; as the rotor turns it reduces the gas volume and increases its pressure (Figure 13.6). Advantages of this compressor are that it has few parts, is of simple construction, and can be relatively quiet and vibration-free. Small rotary compressors are often used in household refrigerators and-window air conditioners.

Discharge side

13.7 SCREW (HELICAL ROTARy) COMPRESSOR
Two meshing helical shaped screws rotate and compress the gas as the volume between the screws de-

Suction side iI:i!

Iji;;

I

I

l

REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 337

Figure 13.7

Cutaway view of screw compressor. (Courtesy: Dunham-Bush, Inc.)

13.8

SCROLL COMPRESSOR

One scroll rotates and the other is stationary. The refrigerant suction gas is drawn in from the perimeter. The volume decreases as the gas moves to the center, increasing its pressure, and the gas is then discharged. The movement of the gas through the compressor is illustrated in Figure 13.8. The scroll compressor has a number of beneficial features. It has few moving parts. It has no suction or discharge valves. Its motion is rotary, reducing vibration. It has a high efficiency and low noise level. It is available as a hermetic compressor, in small and medium sizes.

This type of compressor has two spiral-shaped scrolls, one set inside the other. (These are each shaped somewhat like a pinwheel toy or a spinning spiral firework.)

13.9 CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR
This type of compressor has vaned impellers rotating inside a casing, similar to a centrifugal pump.

Scroll Gas Flow

Compression in the scroll is created by the interaction of an orbiting spiral and a stationary spiral. Gas enters an outer opening as one of the spirals orbits. The open passage is sealed off as gas is drawn into the spiral.

As the spiral continues to orbit, the gas is. compressed into an increasingly smaller pocket.
Figure 13.8

By the time the gas arrives at the center port, discharge pressure has been reached.

Actually, during operation, all six gas passages are in various stages of compression at all times, resulting in nearly continuous suction and discharge.

Refrigerant gas flow through the scroll compressor.

338

CHAPTER 13

Figure 13.9 Hermetic centrifugal refrigeration water chiller.
(Courtesy: Machinery & Systems Division, Carrier Corp_,

Syracuse, NY.)

The impellers increase the velocity of the gas, which is then converted into a pressure increase by decreasing the velocity. The nature of the centrifugal compressor makes it suitable for very large capacities, up to 10,000 tons. The impellers can be rotated at speeds up to 20,000 RPM, enabling the compressor to handle large quantities of refrigerant. Hermetic centrifugal compressors as well as open compressors are available. Figure 13.9 shows a complete hermetic centrifugal refrigeration water chiller, with compressor, condenser, and evaporator.

13.10 CAPACITY CONTROL OF COMPRESSORS
The capacity of a compressor must be regulated to meet the load demand. Control is usually from a signal received from a thermostat or pressurestat' (see Chapter 14). In a small reciprocating compressor, capacity is often changed simply by starting and stopping the compressor. In larger multicylinder compressors, a number of steps of capacity can

be achieved. In one method, the refrigerant gas is bypassed around the compressor when less capacity is called for. This method requires a relatively high power input for low capacity. A more efficient load reduction method is accomplished by holding the suction valve open when a reduction in capacity is called for. The cylinder is then simply idling, and a significant reduction in power input results. Mechanical devices called un loaders, automatically controlled from a load signal, are used to open the suction valves. A reliable method of reducing centrifugal compressor capacity is to use inlet guide vanes. This is a set of adjustable vanes in the compressor suction that are gradually closed to reduce the volume of refrigerant gas compressed, thus reducing the capacity. The use of inlet guide vanes lessens a problem of centrifugal compressor operation called surging. Ifthe gas flow rate is reduced by throttling with a butterfly-type discharge damper, a point will be reached where instability occurs in which the gas is constantly surging back and forth through the compressor. This is a very serious event that could damage the machine. Inlet guide vanes avoid this by curving the flow direction of the gas in an efficient manner that permits capacity reduction down to about 15% of full load without surging. For centrifugal compressors that are driven by variable speed prime movers, speed reduction is a convenient method of capacity reduction. Both inlet guide vane and speed control are relatively efficient methods of capacity control, the power input decreasing considerably with capacity. Below about 50% capacity, however, the efficiency falls off rapidly. This is one reason why it is desirable to use mUltiple centrifugal machines in an installation, if practicaL

13.11

PRIME MOVERS

Compressors can be driven by electric motors, reciprocating engines, or by steam or gas turbines. Electric motors are most commonly used because of the convenience and simplicity. However, on very large installations, particularly with centrifugal compressors, steam or gas turbines are often used. The high
..

t.
~

REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT

339

rotating speed of the turbine often matches that of the compressor, whereas expensive speed-increasing gears may be needed when motors are used. The relative energy costs of electricity, steam, or gas often determine which prime mover will be used. In the Middle East, natural gas from the well (which might otherwise be wasted) is often used in gas turbines that drive large centrifugal machines.
Figure 13.10
Air-cooled condenser. (Courtesy: Dunham-Bush, Inc.)

13.12

CONDENSERS

The condenser rejects from the system the energy gained in the evaporator and the compressor. Atmospheric air or water are the two most convenient heat sinks to which the heat can be rejected. In the air-cooled condenser (Figure 13.10), the refrigerant circulates through a coil and air flows across the outside of the tubing. The air motion may be caused by natural convection effects when the air is heated, or the condenser can include a fan to increase the air flow rate, resulting ·in greater capacity. Air-cooled condensers are normally installed outdoors. They are available in.sizes up to about 50 tons. Water-cooled condensers are usually of shell and tube construction, similar to shell and tube evaporators. Water from lakes, rivers, or wells is sometimes used when available. Usually, however, natural sources of water are not sufficient, and the water must be recirculated through a cooling tower to recool it. Evaporative condensers (Figure 13.ll) reject heat to the atmosphere as do air cooled condensers,

t
Hot gas ___ in

Moist air Eliminator baffles

r----+-i-r-7:-;r-7l\--::;::l-- Spray nozzles
+-------------..
Condenser coil Liquid ___!-_________J out

o
Pump

Figure 13.11
Evaporative condenser.

340

CHAPTER 13

but by sprayiug water on the coils some heat is transferred to the water as well as the air, increasing the capacity of the condenser. A pump, piping, spray nozzles, and collection sump are required for the water circulating system. Fans are used to force the air through the unit. Evaporative condensers can be installed indoors as well as outdoors by using ductwork to discharge the exhaust air outside. The capacity of condensers must be controlled to maintain the condensing pressure within certain limits. Higher condensing pressures result in more power use, and extremely high pressures can damage the equipment. On the other hand, if the pressure is too low, the flow control device will not operate satisfactorily. An automatic valve regulating water flow rate is a convenient way of controlling capacity of water-cooled condensers. Air-cooled condensers are often controlled by reducing air flow across the coils, through use of dampers or cycling the fan. The control is usually in response to a change in condensing pressure. Proper water treatment is important for maintaining the capacity of water-cooled condensers. Manufacturers rate water-cooled condenser and chiller capacity on the basis of a water fouling factor-a number that represents the thermal resistance of the water film on the tubes. A value of 0.0005 is considered clean water, and ratings are often based on this value. The water treatment should prevent formation of scale that will increase the thermal resistance, resulting in a decrease in refrigeration capacity and an increase in energy required.

The capillary tube is a very small diameter tube of considerable length, which thus causes the required pressure drop. It is used often in small units (e.g., domestic refrigerators and window air conditioners) because of its low cost and simplicity. The thennostatic expansion valve (TEV), shown in Figure 13.12, is widely used in dry expansion systems. The small opening between the valve seat and disc results in the required pressure drop. It also does an excellent job of regulating flow according to the need. The operation of a TEV is shown in Figure 13.13.A bulb filled with a fluid is strapped to the suction line and thus senses the suction gas temperature. This bulb is connected to the valve by a tube in a manner so that the pressure ofthe fluid in the bulb tends to open the valve more, against a closing spring pressure. If the load in the system inFigure 13.12
Cutaway view of thermostatic expansion valve, internally equalized type. (Courtesy: Sporlan Valve Co.)
Dia,oh,'aolCf1 case

Pin carrier

13.13 FLOW CONTROL DEVICES
The restrictingdevice that causes the pressure drop of the refrigerant also regulates the refrigerant flow according to the load. Some of the devices available are the capillary tube, thermostatic expansion valve, and the low side float valve. The first two are used with dry expansion evaporators; the low side float valve is used in flooded chiller evaporators.
Inlet strainer

Spring guide

l~'I-_AdjUsting '::l stem
packing Adjusting ""---- stem

REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT

341

Tube Spring--ioH Equalizer port

Liquid line

------s
'-.

Eva orator
Coil

~===:2=====-~
Remote bulb

Suction

J line to compressor

Figure 13.13
Operation of internally equalized thermostatic expansion valve.

creases, the refrigerant in the evaporator picks up more heat and the suction gas temperature rises. The pressure of the fluid in the bulb increases as its temperature rises, and it opens the valve more. This increases the refrigerant flow needed to handle the increased load. The reverse of all these events occurs when the refrigeration load decreases. It is important that the refrigerant vapor leaving the evaporator be a few degrees above the saturation temperature (called superheat) to ensure that no liquid enters the compressor, which might result in its damage. This is achieved by adjusting the spring pressure to a value that prevents the bulb pressure from opening the valve more unless the gas leaving the evaporator is superheated. The internally equalized TEV has a port connecting the underside of the diaphragm chamber to the valve outlet (Figures 13.12 and 13.13). This neutralizes the effect of any change in evaporator pressure on the balance between spring and bulb pressure. If there. is a larger pressure drop in the evaporator, however, this would result in a reduction in superheat. This problem is solved by using an externally equalized valve which has a connection to the evaporator outlet rather than the inlet. A low side float valve is a flow control device that is used with flooded chillers. If too much liquid refrigerant accumulates because flow is not ad-

equate, the float rises and a connecting linkage opens the valve, allowing more flow.

13.14

SAFETY CONTROLS

All refrigeration systems include a number of safety control devises to protect the equipment. The devices required for each system must be determined in each case according to the need. A brief listing of some of the available safety control devices follows. A high pressure cut-out stops the compressor when the refrigerant discharge pressure exceeds a safe limit. A low pressure cut-out stops the compressor when the refrigerant suction pressure is below a safe limit. Usually this is intended as a temperature safety device. The pressure setting on the device corresponds to a temperature at which water freeze-up might occur. A low temperature cut-out senses refrigerant temperature on the low side directly and serves to protect against freeze-up. A low oil pressure cut-out stops the compressor when lubricating oil pressure is inadequate. A flow switch will stop the compressor when chilled water (or condenser water) flow is inadequate.

342

CHAPTER 13

When the compressor stops in response to a thermostat, refrigerant may continue to flow to the evaporator due to a vapor pressure difference between the condenser and evaporator. It is not desirable to have the evaporator filled with liquid refrigerant during shutdown because this increases the likelihood of liquid entering the compressor. It also increases the amount of refrigerant absorbed in the crank case oil, thus reducing the lubricating effectiveness of the oil. The problem is solved by using pump down control. Instead of having a thermostat control the compressor operation, it controls a solenoid valve in the Iiquid line. This cuts off flow to the compressor. The compressor continues to operate for a time, pumping out the refrigerant from the evaporator. The compressor stops when its low pressure cut-out setting is reached.

13.15 PACKAGED REFRIGERATION EQUIPMENT
Compressors, condensers, evaporators, and accessories are each available separately from manufacturers for selection, purchase, and installation. However, these components may also be available already assembled (packaged) in the factory. There are a number of advantages of using packaged equipment. The components are selected and matched in capacity by the manufacturer, so that they will perform properly together. Installation costs are reduced, as each component does not have to be installed and aligned separately. Controls and interconnecting piping are factory installed, further reducing field costs. The assembled equipment is usually factory tested, reducing the likelihood of operating problems that would have to be corrected on the job. Packaged equipment is available in various combinations, some of which are mentioned below.

Figure 13.14 Water-cooled condensing unit.
(Courtesy: Dunham-Bush, Inc.)

condensing unit is located outdoors and the air handling unit and evaporator coil are located indoors. the air conditioning system is called a split system. This arrangement is popular for residential" air conditioning systems.

Compressor-Chiller Unit
This unit consists of compressor, water chiller, interconnecting piping, and controls. It is often used with a remote air-cooled condenser.

Packaged Chiller
This unit, shown in Figure 13.15, contains the complete refrigeration package: compressor, condenser, water chiller, piping, and controls, ready to operate when put in place and when external connections are made.

Condensing Units
The package of compressor and condenser with interconnecting piping and controls is called a condensing unit (Figure 13.14). Both water- and aircooled condensing units are available. Air-cooled units are installed outdoors. When the air-cooled

13.16

SELECTION

Refrigeration equipment is selected from manufacturers' ratings after performance requirements are determined. Although the compressor, condenser, and evaporator can be chosen separately, one of the

REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Figure 13.15

343

Packaged chiller. (Courtesy: Dunham-Bush, Inc.)

Solution A unit will be selected from Table 13. L Required capacity = 12 tons. Ambient temperature = 98 F (Table A.6). Allow a friction loss in the suction line equivalent to 2 F. Therefore, the saturated suction temperature = 42 - 2 = 40 F. From Table 13.1, the unit selected is a Model RCU-O 155SS air-cooled condensing unit. Capacity = 12.4 tons at saturated suction temperature = 40 F. ambient temperature = 100 F. Power input = 14.6 KW. (The capacity at 98 F will be slightly higher than at 100 F ambient, as noted from the table.)

Packaged Water Chiller
packaged combinations is often used, so we will limit our explanation to these. In any case, selection of individual components is a similar process. The following data are needed for selection of a packaged water chiller: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Refrigeration load Condenser water temperature leaving unit Condenser water temperature rise Chilled water temperature leaving unit Chilled water temperature drop Fouling factor

Air-Cooled Condensing Unit
The following data are needed for selection of an air-cooled condensing unit: L Refrigeration capacity required (load) 2. Condenser ambient temperature 3. Saturated suction gas temperature The load is a result of the cooling load calculations. The condenser ambient temperature is usually the outdoor design temperature in summer. Sometimes the condenser is located where the ambient temperature may be even greater than design temperature, and this should be considered. The compressor saturated suction temperature will be equal to the evaporator temperature minus an allowance. This allowance accounts for the pressure drop in the suction line, expressed as an "equivalent temperature drop," usually 2 F. Table 13.1 is an example of aircooled condensing unit ratings.

Example 13.1 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
The refrigeration load for the air conditioning system of a branch of the Big Bank in San Antonio, Texas, is 12 tons. The system uses refrigerant R-22, evaporating at 42 F. Select an air-cooled condensing unit.

The load is determined from cooling load calculations. Condenser water leaving temperature is usually about 5-15 F above ambient wet bulb temperature if a cooling tower is used. The water temperature rise is usually selected between 8-15 F. The leaving chilled water temperature will depend on the cooling coil selection for the air handling equipment. Chilled water temperature ranges of 8-12 F are common. No exact figures on temperature changes are given because many choices are possihle. The designer must frequently try different combinations of values, selecting the equipment each time, to find which will result in the best choice. Computer programs for equipment selection provided by the manufacturer are very useful for this task. Table 13.2 is an example of packaged water chiller ratings.

Example 13.2 A package water chiller is required for the air conditioning system of the Royal Arms Apartments.

344

CHAPTER 13
AIR-COOLED CONDENSING UNIT RATINGS Capacity Data' (60 Hz.)" Condensing Units-R22 Ambient Temperature of
Suction Temp of

TABLE 13.1

90°F Tons K.W.

95°F Tons K.W.

100°F Tons K.W.

105°F Tons K.W.

Model

EER @ARI Base 110°F 115°F Rating Tons K.W. Tons K.W. Condo

30 RCU-008S 35 40 45 30 RCU-008SSt 35 40 45 30 RCU-OIOSSt 35 40 45 30 RCU-OIOT 35 40 45

5.8 6.6 7.4 8.0 6.4 7.0 7.7 8.4 7.7 8.5 9.2 10.0 8.5 9.4 10.3 11.3

7.4 7.8 8.2
8.6

5.6 6.5 7.0 7.9 6.2 6.8 7.5 8.0 7.5 8.3 9.0 9.8

7.5 8.0 8.4 8.9 7.1 7.6 7.9 8.4 8.6 9.1 9.5 10.1

5.3 6.1 6.8 7.6 5.8 6.6 7.0 7.8 7.3 8.0 8.8 9.6

7.6 8.1 8.6 9.1 7.2 7.8 8.1 8.6 8.7 9.2 9.8 10.3

5.1 5.7 6.6 7.4 5.6 6.4 6.9 7.6 6.9 7.8 8.6 9.4

7.7 8.2 8.7 9.3 7.4 7.9 8.3 8.8 8.9 9.4 10.0 10.5

4.7 5.5 6.3 7.0 5.5 6.2 6.7 7.4 6.7 7.5 8.3 9.0

7.8 8.3 8.9 9.6 7.6 8.0 8.5 8.9 9.1 9.6 10.2 10.8

4.6 5.3 5.9 6.7 5.2 5.8 6.5 7.0 6.4 7.3 8.0 8.8

7.9 8.5 9.2 9.8 7.7 8.2 8.7 9.1
9.3

11.2

7.0 7.4 7.7

12.4

LI
8.4 8.9 9.3
9.8

9.S
lOA

12.2

11.0 12.2 13.2 14.1 15.1 9.7

Il.5 12.4 13.2 14.0

8.211.7 9.1 10.0 10.9 12.6 13.4 14.2

7.911.9 8.7 9.6 10.5 12.8 13.6 14.6

7.512.07.212.17.0 8.4 9.3 10.2 13.0 13.8 14.7 8.0 8.9 9.9 13.1 13.9 14.8 7.8 8.6 9.5

The load is 27 tons. Chilled water is cooled from 55 F to 45 F. Condenser water enters at 85 F and leaves at 95 F. The condenser and chilled water fouling factors" are 0.0005. Select a suitable unit.
Solution A unit will be selected from Table 13.2. The fouling factor is a number that describes the c1eanli-' ness of the water. The size of the condenser required will depend on this. Table 13.2 is based on a water fouling factor of 0.0005, as noted, so .

no correction for this will be necessary. If the fouling factor is different, tables from the manufacturer show corrections to the selection. The required conditions are: Capacity = 27 tons Leaving chiIled water temperature = 45 F Chilled water temperature drop = 10 F Entering condenser water temperature = 85 F Condenser water temperature rise = 10 F

0 14.2 24.001.3 14.5 20.8 18.9 19.3 14.1 14.2 14.S 11.3 12.1 16.1 20.0 19.2 20.7 11.7 14.9 14.4 19.1 EER @ARI Base 110°F 115'F Rating Tons K.) The unit chosen for these requirements is a Model pew 030T water chiller.)-Condensing Units-R22 Ambient Temperature of Suction Temp OF 90°F Tons 95'F 100°F 105°F 345 Model K.1 KW.8 14.6 15.8 18.9 9.0 13.9 16.3 15.1 18.4 10. Tons K. 45° suction temperature.4 15.1 13.9 14.7 17.5 19.5 21.2 19.2 21.0 16.0 K.2 17.2 15.7 16.5 9.4 14.7 18.S 17.6 13.9 22.4 22.03 x Tons and .5 15.3 13.4 17.4 20.8 15.8 17.2 11.8 14.9 12.8 17.3 17.0 15.97 x KW. These are indicated by boldface type.7 11.9 12.0 1 1.6 10.1 15.W. There is a loss of 2 % in refrigeration and an increase of 3% in power.0 15.REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT TABLE 13.1 17. if the fouling factor of the condenser increases to 0.3 22.7 17.2 15.0 IS. Inc.8 14. ** For 50 hertz capacity ratings.4 10.3 17.0 20.9 16.5 20.5 13.(50 Hz.7 25.2 indicates both a reduction in refrigeration capacity and an increase in power required.9 20.1 11.9 21.8 18.9 18.4 19.8 13. t All models with the suffix 'SS' denote single DIB-metric accessible Hermetic compressors.2 12.4 14.8 10.5 10.5 16.6 20.8 17.2 15.5 14.9 18.W.4 15.6 13. Condo 30 RCU-015SSt 35 40 45 30 RCU-0l5T 35 40 45 30 RCU-020T 35 40 45 30 RCU-020SSt 35 40 45 10.3 21.4 19.9 16.4 17.2 14.W. Tons 12.0 21.1 17.4 21.7 22. resulting in a .7 19.1 K.0 15.1 13.5 10.8 24.6 18. 13.1 (Continued) Capacity Data.8 13.7 14.0 20.8 10.9 19.7 17.W.5 15. Note that Table 13.2 16.4 23.8 15.8 14.S 13.5 18.6 19.9 19.4 12.6 16.W.5 9.8 12.1 18.4 13.5 19.4 13.2 18.5 14.5 20.5 17.4 14. Tons 13.9 13.5 11.6 14. derate above table by .9 13.0 21.2 11.6 K.6 11. which has a capacity of 28.5 21.6 16.8 Notes: ARI base rating conditions 90° ambient.1 19.9 23.4 16.6 15.3 9.0 13. multiply the ratings of 90°F ambient by 1.8 12.1 tons at required conditions.2 10.0 20.3 19.5 8.4 13.0 21.0 16.9 17.5 15. (Courtesy of Dunham-Bush.5 11.7 9.1 15.4 23.1 11.W.3 11.6 19. Tons 12.7 19.85 multiplier. Power input is 25.4 12.8 14.6 16.4 16.5 16.0 14.0 22.1 12.2 18.3 12.7 11.0 15.4 17.8 11.1 12.4 14. * For capacity ratings at 85°P ambient temperature.S 10.4 16.

8 32.4 15.4 30.3 16.S 14.3 22.7 21.9 55.5 44. Condenser Entering Water Temp.3 15.5 31.5 57.4 9.5 13.7 8.6 46.6 54.4 17.7 17.3 17.0 31.6 13.8 34.2 14.8 32.9 13. 13.0 8.0 17.7 9.3 53.7 19.3 9. GPM Tons Condo Cap.0 16. GPM Tons KW KW 42 44 PCWOIOT 45 46 48 50 42 44 PCWOl5T 45 46 48 50 42 44 PCW020T 45 46 4S 50 10.0 13.5 14.5 8.3 lO.3 14.1 17.3 19.3 4S.8 52.5 15.3 8.8 9. Chilled Water Temp.0 15.5 4Ll 42.9 54.0 18.4 44.7 53.7 30.4 13.7 8.9 9.6 10. Additional information about the equipment is .1 34.7 45. The fouling factor number reflects the effect of dirt on the heattransfer surface.0 41.1 10.7 14.6 9.3 16.9 10.6 15.3 15.6 15.S 16.7 30.4 44.9 16.0 9.4 20.6 54. In this case.7 16. This can be measured by a performance .4 17.2 51.8 46.8 17.5 18.7 10.3 9.1 17.7 15.0 14.6 8.S 16.S 57.9 15.9 40.3 47.1 44.1 IS.6 19.2 lO.0 45. usually required. GPM Tons 95° Condo KW GPM Model of KW Condo Cap.8 11.6 51.3 9.6 16. it is useful to know which will give the "best" performance.7 20.346 CHAPTER 13 PACKAGED WATER CHILLER RATINGS TABLE 13.0 9.3 11.7 14.4 16.8 14.2 13. The most desirable choice is the unit that would produce the most refrigeration with the lowest power input.2 58.5 lO.4 29.3 18.4 13.6 39.8 9.3 9.9 16.0 16.2 Lvg.9 29.0 20.2 14.9 52.6 28.7 19.2 18.S 16.4 29.2 14.6 14.7 49.1 9.3 20.2 net increase of 5% in energy use for a given capacity. Tons 80" 850 80" Condo Cap.1 56. of 75° Cap.5 14.6 41.1 14.6 13.2 8.S 17.1 13.3 20.7 10.7 15.7 10.0 44.7 43.0 10.9 31.2 19.6 32.3 17.0 9.4 30.2 lO.6 52.9 15.6 17.2 14.9 56.I 52.9 29.1 15.5 17.9 11.1 16.2 15.6 47.5 16.0 33.8 45.5 43.8 16.6 19.6 14.6 8.2 9.3 8. This can be found in the manufacturer's catalog.0 30.7 31.3 14.5 10.5 45.9 ILl 11.9 8.8 31.4 IS.7 14.1 56.4 58.6 43.1 14.7 17.4 30.S 5S.0 19.6 19.2 47.3 42. GPM Tons KW Condo Cap.9 lO.0 14.7 9.0 13.9 10.7 17.5 8. such as dimensions and weight and water pressure drop through the chiller and condenser.0 32.7 13.5 17.7 51.5 14.7 18.6 29.9 17.0 20. it will often be found that more than one unit will have the capacity needed.9 10.I 10.0 18.4 9.6 18. This points up the importance of maintaining a clean condenser to conserve energy.5 9.3 13.6 53.9 20.7 17.0 30.4 13.5 11.3 10.8 50.4 15.0 9.0 15.7 ILl 11.5 50.17 ENERGY EFFICIENCY When selecting refrigeration equipment.1 16.9 56.2 17.8 46.6 33.8 15.9 29.0 IS.0 42.3 31.0 49.4 10.3 30.3 18.3 56.8 4S.4 44.2 16.7 54.3 16.1 16.7 40.5 15.6 9.6 21.3 8.7 16.4 18.9 18.5 32.8 9.0 14.0 43.

1 41.3 20.7 30.0 37.2 88.5 31.2 116.8 25.3 29.2 25.9 26.1 23.3 23.2 21.6 43.1 37.3 88.4 23.3 27.7 27.8 117.REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT TABLE 13.8 75.1 119.9 81.4 40.4 45.2 69.2 32.0 122.8 25.9 24.0 EO 61.2 35.1 85.9 26.0 85.03. Chilled Water Temp. For other fouling factor ratings.1 78.4 43. 3.8 63.0 39.0 2604 PCW025T 45 46 48 50 42 44 PCW030T 45 46 48 50 42 44 26.2 22.0 83.3 25.4 22. 2.7 40.5 25. Condenser water flow rate data are based on tower water with a 10° rise. Tons Condo Cap.7 116.6 22.8 25.2 113.0 24.9 39.2 87.6 42.7 21.9 22.8 37.8 21.4 23.3 12.7 37.5 28.2 23.1 25. Ratings are based on .6 28.8 79.4 35. 4.4 85. GPM Tons Condo Cap. Condenser Entering Water Temp.1 68.6 39.4 21.7 71.0 39.0005 fouling factor in the chiller and condenser.9 24.0 43.3 86.6 73.0 25.4 22.5 84.4 118.0 38.1 26. Ratings are based on 10°F chilled water temperature range.7 25. units are fuJI capacity except PCW040T which is 5/6 capacity.4 38.0 79.2 (Continued) Lvg. Ratings are applicable for 6° to 14° range.9 90.1 70. Notes: I.0 131.6 115.6 37.8 24.1 44.4 24.7 24.6 20.0 25.8 30.8 81.0 4004 114.0 26.2 85.001 condenser fouling factor.6 26.7 36.5 24.1 67.4 41.1 77.2 40.7 64.7 36.7 20.9 69. GPM Tons 95° Condo KW GPM Model OF 42 44 KW KW KW KW 24.8 21.5 26.0 20.8 19.4 29.0 24.5 126.8 72.2 26.0 36.5 75. Do not extrapolate.5 25. For .8 77.7 42.1 36.5 78.8 27.1 71.2 68.0 21.2 24.1 66.9 27.6 88.6 75.6 108.3 19.9 21.9 123.8 115.9 20.7 73.9 23.0 39.7 44.9 43.5 39.5 21.3 27.2 26.4 66.6 25.8 42.4 72.0 67.7 29.6 26. 5.8 23.8 43.5 28.8 128. GPM Tons Condo Cap.4 41.1 123.5 25.3 39.98 and kW by 1.5 25.8 122.7 19.2 '112.1 124.7 25.0 26. Direct interpolation for conditions between ratings is permissible.9 38.5 70.1 24.6 46.5 87.1 109.6 65.1 40.5 20.3 lIS.3 70.2 82.1 26.9 47.8 II I.) .4 40.6 84.6 27. of 347 75° Cap.6 83.0 23.2 39.8 38.5 4U 118.2 40.4 38.0 36.5 22.1 127.6 30.9 70.9 23.3 31.6 82.3 26.8 120.6 38.6 85.0 35.6 22.9 21. consult factory.2 79. Inc.1 41.0 41.5 26.6 120.6 PCW040T 45 46 48 50 Note: *Boldface type indicates ARI rating condition.5 29.9 27.4 21.9 38.9 66.8 28.6 23.3 29. 50 hz.2 121.1 23.1 24.8 28.0 20.1 118.5 71. GPM Tons Condo Cap.3 24.6 80.4 117.5 83.9 40.9 22.7 21.7 27.9 65.5 36.8 20.3 112.1 79.4 23.3 44. (Courtesy of Dunham-Bush.9 26.7 23.9 24.0 29.1 26.6 37.3 40.1 25.5 69.2 20.3 12.1 28.2 86.2 37. multiply capaciry shown in ratings by .

These instructions are often very lengthy._efi::. Solution BTU/hr Capacity = 28. Make water. The COP is defined as: COP = ____r. a structural engineer must be consulted. natural sources of water are usually limited.r_i"-ge_r_a_t_io_n_c_a-'-p_a_c_ity"-_ __ equivalent power input to compressor The higher the COP of a refrigeration unit. It transfers heat from the condenser 13.94 The COP found could be compared with values obtained for other possible selections.fits. and springs are some types available.ton = 337. and then return it to the condenser. Allow clearance on all sides of equipment for comfortable maintenance (3 or 4 ft minimum). we will discuss here some general points of installation practice that apply to most situations. not the intent here to either repeat or supersede such instructions. 6.18 INSTALLATION OF REFRIGERATION CHILLERS The procedures for installing specific refrigeration equipment are furnished by the manufacturer. Rubber. If they were repeated here. This will be discussed in more detail in Chapter 15. Therefore. Locate chillers and condensers with removable tubes to provide adequate clearance on one end to allow removal of the tube bundle and on the other for removal of water box heads.348 CHAPTER 13 factor called the coefficient of perfonnance (COP). cork.1tons x 12. It is .200 BTU/hr 85. Each manufacturer and each piece of equipment has individual features that require detailed installation instructions.000 . Allow adequate clearance in front of control panels for operation and good visibility. the less power is required for a given refrigeration requirement. 3.19 COOLING TOWERS Operation When water cooled condensers are used in the refrigerationplant. to see if an improved performance is possible without sacrificing other bem. a steady supply of cooling water must be made available. If there is any doubt about whether the floor is adequately strong for the machine or whether a special base is needed. Install anchor bolts in floor or base and anchor machine. Provide vibration isolation supports under compressors and prime movers.200 BTU/hr .. COP = refrigeration capacity equivalent power input 337. 1.590 BTU/hr =3.3 Determine the coefficient of performance for the package chiller of Example 13. 7.590 BTU/hr Using the equation for the COP.1 KW x 3410 --::-:-KW = 85. Consult the manufacturer for the proper choice. Check machine for damage or refrigerant leaks (leak detecting devices and their use are described in refrigeration service manuals). In this case.2. electrical. and control connections so as not to block access to the machine. they would soon be forgotten by the student who does not regularly carry out these procedures. 13. The COP is thus a useful figure in comparing equipment to minimize energy consumption. Example 13. For reasons already explained.. we must arrange to cool the heated water after it passes through the condenser. 2. The cooling tower is the equipment that accom c pIishes this. 5. together with another efficiency measure called the energy efficiency ratio (EER).. BTU/hr Power Input = 25. 4.

whereas the forced draft fan type blows the air through (Figure 13. Blowdown loss results from draining off and discarding a small portion of the water from the basin. the tower is called a crossflow type. The heat required for evaporation is taken from the bulk of condenser water.17 Forced and induced draft fan arrangements for cooling tower.REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 349 Figure 13. the tower is called a counterflow type. controlled by a float valve level.) water to the atmospheric air (Figure 13. This is done by providing a makeup water supply to the basin. The amount of air that will circulate from this effect is quite limited. There is not necessarily an operating advantage in practice of one type over another. When the air and water move at right angles to each other. The tower has internal baffles called fill. Figure 13. The induced draft fan type has the fan located at the tower outlet. Airflow (a) Forced draft fan Airflow Induced draft fan .17). Mechanical draft towers use fans to create a high air flow rate.16). (Courtesy: The Marley Cooling Tower Co. sometimes a crossflow tower will be lower in height (although bigger in length or width) than a counterflow tower for the same capacity. This improves the heat transfer. This must be done at regular intervals in order to prevent a continual accumulation of minerals that would otherwise occur from the evaporation and drift losses. Drift loss results from wind carrying water away with the air. tower and thereby rising from natural convection. In addition to the water lost due to the evaporative cooling. v (b) ~ g Air Types and Construction The atmospheric tower is a type of tower where the air circulation results from air being warmed in the Figure 13. Lower height may be preferable when installed on a roof. . However. there are two other causes of water loss. When the air and water move in opposite directions. and atmospheric towers are not often used today. which break up the water into finer droplets when the water splashes onto the fill. Water from the condenser is pumped to the top of the cooling tower and sprayed down into the tower. thus cooling it. The losses require provision for makeup water. Air-'*--' . Most of the heat transfer is accomplished by the evaporation of a small percentage of the condensing water into the atmosphere.16 Induced draft cooling tower. The cooled water collects in a basin and is then recirculated to the condenser.18 shows this difference.

galvanized steel. The space above the liquid is evacuated of any gas. This rate decreases with higher water vapor content (humidity) in the ambient air. Redwood is ideal because water will not cause its deterioration. Absorption Refrigeration System Absorption refrigeration machines are often used for large air conditioning systems. The tower siding may be wood. Example 13.1 13.4 The pressure maintained in the evaporator of a LiBr-water absorption refrigeration machine is 0. The temperature at which the spray water evaporates will depend on the pressure in the tank. according to the saturation pressure-temperature relations of water.20 PRINCIPLES [he absorption system uses the principle that some . The absence of a compressor usually has the advantages of less vibration.. and is thereby chilled. A coil circulating water is located under the evaporating sprays. requiring heat to do so. metal. [here are many pairs of substances that have this . thus making it difficult to pour. We are all aware of how table salt absorbs water vapor from the air. the less the capacity of the tower. Because of the low pressure.¥i.350 CHAPTER 13 Air 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Water /1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Air 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Water 1 A' 1 Y 1 1 1 . t t 1 1 1 1 Y . Water is then sprayed into the tank. This water furnishes the heat needed for the evaporating spray. A row of baffles called eliminators are provided near the tower outlet to catch and prevent excessive loss of water droplets. lithium bromide will absorb large quantities of water .'apor. The capacity of a cooling tower depends on the rate of water evaporation. affinity for one another. Therefore. or plastic.wa~? Counterflow Crossflow Figure 13. we will refer to them in our explanation. leaving a very low pressure.ases will be absorbed by certain other substances.19.flcnd weight than with a vapor compression machine. some of the water will evaporate. or plastic.147 psia. Another combination is lithium bromide (LiBr) and water. noise. Because this pair is used in many absorption systems. if} j . The fill may be wood. the higher the ambient wet bulb temperature.18 Counterflow versus crossflow of air and water in cooling tower. as much as possible. The structural framework may be wood or steel. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 t ~ t t I 1 1 1 1 Ir t I 1 1 1 1 ~ ~illl. What is the refrigerant evaporating temperature? . Consider a tank partially filled with a concentrated liquid solution of lithium bromide (concentrated means that it contains very little water) as shown in Figure 13.

The lithium bromide absorbs and draws water vapor from the evaporator space. thus extracting heat from water circulating in a coiL The water that is chilled in thecoil is distributed to air conditioning equipment as required. '" The second refinement to the cycle is the inclusion of a heat exchanger between the absorber and concentrator. the solution gradually becomes too diluted to absorb enough water. Here it is heated to a temperature that will evaporate some of the water. which is circuc lated through a coil in the absorber. raising its pressure.20. The condensed water is then returned to the evaporator. The spray water does not all evaporate. We will now explain how the actual system functions. Steam.12 psia water in 351 Refrigerant_-+<==!====.Water chilled to 44 F Figure 13. thereby saving some of the heat needed in the concentrator. so the liquid water is recirculated by the refrigerani pump. however. Another pair of fluids often used in absorption systems is ammonia and water. However..19 Diagram illustrating refrigeration by absorption. 0... The same coolina water is then used in the condenser. diluted solution is pumped to the concentrator (also called generator) by a concellfrator pump. which has a lower boiling point than the lithium bromide. The heat is removed by cooling water. . Solution Water is the refrigerant. and a low pressure is maintained there. the water vapor must be absorbed by lithium bromide. as shown in Figure 13. The water vapor from the concentrator flows to the condenser. and therefore increasing its evaporating temperature above useful refrigeration temperatures. and no longer is effective.. The water vapor quantity will build up in the tank. hot water. making it less effective. The lithium bromide eventually absorbs all of the water it can hold. To prevent the pressure from building up in the evaporator. the diluted solution of lithium bromide must be reconcentrated and used again. Lithium bromide L. The evaporator operation is as described previously.20.. A concentrated solution is stored in a tank called the absorber.==. the evaporating (saturation) temperature of water at 0. Typical operating temperatures and pressures are indicated on the diagram. as shown. or a aas flame is used as a source of heat in the '" concentrator.-:-----f---. The reconcentrated solution is then returned to the absorber.147 psi a is 45 F. where it is condensed to a liquid by giving up heat to water from a cooling tower or natural body of water. water . . The absorption process generates heat that would raise the temperature of the absorbing solution..REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Evaporating water at 40 F.. To solve this problem.. In this case. which improve the system's efficiency and are shown in Figure 13.::= water Water ___ chilling coil ---t+{======::-t-. completing the cycle. Spray water (the refrigerant) evaporates in a tank where the pressure is very low. The solution from the absorber is preheated by hot solution returning from the concentrator..3. This solution is sprayed into the absorber and recirculated by the absorber pump.. Two refinements to this cycle. The lithium bromide absorbs the water as both solutions make contact. require explanation. From Table A.. In order to have a practical absorption refrigeration system that will operate continuously.=::::.

Refrigerant 115 F Absorber Evaporator 55 F } Chilled water ~:. The machine is completely factory assembled. (The sketch was made that 'lay for clarity).:. is the absorbent and ammonia is the refrigerant. Concentrator temperatures'around 240 F result in peak efficiency.:::. Because of its volatility. and electric controls. and condensing water temperatures are the factors required to select the proper machine from manufacturers' tables.onstructed with four separate vessels as was ..352 CHAPTER 13 Refrigerant vapor ~------'r--~Cooling water 103 F Steam or hot water -:=f===:::::~ Ctig (]) ro I-£ 1ij Q.2 I. The machine is carefully evacuated in the factory of air down to an extremely low pressure. or a gas flame.hown in Figure 13. absorbel.20.:/-_ out 45 F Dilute solution Cooling water 85 F Refrigerant 40 F Absorber pump Refrigerant pump Concentrator pump Figure 13. some water boils off with the ammonia in the generator of the aqua-ammonia absorption system.::::. To economize on construction costs.I 9 Ib of steam per ton of refrigeration is typical at this temperature. hot water. 13. chiIIed water. concentrator. Another disadvantage of this system is that it operates at much higher pressures in the generator (about 300 psia). including evaporator. This requires additional equipment (a rectifier) to separate the ammonia from the water.20 Flow diagram of lithium bromide-water absorption refrigeration system. They are popular in areas where natural gas is plentiful and inexpensive. '1 f I L c j . The pumps are hermetic to prevent any leaks into the system. the four parts are built into two or even one shell.. A steam use rate of 18. interconnecting piping. SmalI capacity lithium bromide-water absorption units (3-25 tons) with direct-fired generators are also available. load. condensel.:.::::. and solution pumps. The heat required in the concentrator is furnished either by low pressure steam..21 CONSTRUCTION AND PERFORMANCE '\bsorption refrigeration machines are not actually .::::. Selection procedures for an absorption chiIIer are similar to those for reciprocating or centrifugal chillers and therefore wiII not be discussed in further detail. compared with about 30 psia for the LiEr system. as shown in Figure 13. Heat source temperatures.

.0.) Thus. Heat from the vapor coming from the first generator is used to provide further vaporization of liquid from the absorber. A COP of 0.. The energy used to drive the compressor is usually electricity generated by a thermal electric utility..t. A large compressor-driven water chiller may have a COP of 3. but the COP does not show the whole situation. Further factors make the absorption machine desirable under certain circumstances. (Courtesy: Machinery & Systems Division. this is not important.. ~- . hot water is heated by solar collection panels and then used in the concentrator as the heat source. U-tube design Insulated suJiaces "-----Solution pump Figure 13. Syracuse. That is. The total energy balance between the absorption or compression machine may then be equal or may even be in favor of the former. A two-stage machine available from Japan raises the COP to about 1. the energy use advantage of the compression refrigeration system is greatly reduced... NY. Only about onethird of the heat from the fuel in the power plant is converted to electric energy (this is a limitation imposed by the second law of thermodynamics.000 BTUlhr per ton of refrigeration..) The coefficient of performance (COP) of absorption machines is much lower than systems using mechanical compression refrigeration. Carrier Corp. The low pressure steam used for the energy source is frequently otherwise wasted heat from a process or from a utility company.65 is typical for large absorption equipment.. but because solar energy is cost-free and not depletable... explained in Chapter 15.5 or higher. The COP of the absorption system may be improved considerably if a two-stage generator (concentrator) is used.. This would seem to be an unacceptable waste of energy.21 Absorption refrigeration machine. a 50% improvement in energy efficiency. The energy input rate required is high at the water temperatures solar heaters usually can produce (170-200 F). as a heat source.22 SPECIAL APPLICATIONS The absorption machine has considerable promise for refrigeration in conjunction with solar energy .REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 353 r.. 13. This corresponds to a heat input rate of about 18. it uses only one-fifth of the energy of an absorption machine. In this arrangement.

In this arrangement. about 13 lb/ton. With heat source control. It should be noted that the cooling tower required for an absorption machine will be considerably larger than that needed for a vapor compression cycle machine. Detailed instructions for installation of absorption refrigeration machines are provided by each manufacturer.354 CHAPTER 13 A popular and efficient combination of refrigeration sources for air conditioning is the centrifugalabsorption combination. this is an additional attractive feature. I. The maximum concentration possible decreases as the solution temperature decreases. Both of them use a controller that senses and maintains a constant leaving chilled water temperature. which is a function of relative fuel costs. it changes from a liquid to a solid (crystal) form. as compared with 16 lb/ton for the turbine-driven machine alone. If the boiler is also located in the same space..24 CRYSTALLIZATION This is an important phenomenon that needs to be Jnderstood. Some general procedures will be discussed here. The light weight and lack of serious noise and vibration make this a feasible alternative to a basement. both are major cost items in high-rise buildings. as opposed to vapor compression machines. Information can be found in manufacturers' manuals. Provide rubber isolation pads under the machine. If floor or penthouse. If crystallization occurs. 2. Power failure 1 . 1 . There are three factors that can result in a drop in temperature of the solution: I. 13. 4. . thereby changing the machine capacity.25 INSTALLATION 13. 3. due to the larger quantity of heat that must be rejected from the absorber and condenser combined. Install external piping (to boiler. Solution modulation control uses a controller that mixes the absorber solution to vary its concentration. Therefore. Since the absorption machine does not use ozone-depleting refrigerants. and the low pressure exhaust steam from the turbine is then used as a heat source in an absorption machine. Automatic methods of doing this can be provided by the manufacturer. This is a serious problem in absorption systems. the crystallized LiEr blocks the piping and the machine stops working. condenser) and electrical and control connections so as not to block access to the machine. if a solution is already near its maximum concentration and if its temperature is then lowered. Investigate possible installation on an upper 13. The choice of whether to use an absorption or vapor compression machine (or combination) for an installation is largely a matter of economics. especially by the operating engineer. this eliminates the need for a boiler stack and much of the piping. Condensing water temperature too low 3. The overall steam rate per ton by using the steam twice can be very attractive. a high pressure steam turbine is used to drive a centrifugal refrigeration machine. because if it occurs. Safety controls are provided with" the machine and will not be discussed. the controller will operate a valve that controls the steam or hot water flow to the concentrator. Air leakage into the system We will not explain here how each can cause this effect. it will crystallize (solidify).. it is necessary to heat the piping where the blockage has occurred. which affects the machine capacity.23 CAPACITY CONTROL Two modern methods of modulating refrigeration capacity to meet load demands are used with absorption machines. the lithium bromide solution becomes too concentrated. 2. Allow ample clearance for tube removal and for service access as needed on all sides.

There is no reason why this heat could not be used to satisfy a heating load. The heat that is rejected in the condenser is thrown away to the atmosphere or a body of water. The heat absorbed in the outdoor coil is the refrigeration effect. The opposite is done for outside air.) Normally the purpose of a refrigeration machine is to absorb heat (in the evaporator) from a cooling load. in winter the room air. which is basically no different in operation or components from that described previously." The refrigeration effect. In winter. In summer. The reversal Of refrigerant flow to switch between heating and cooling is accomplished with a reversing valve. without reversing refrigerant flow. the direction of refrigerant flow is reversed after leaving the compressor. the machine is a heat ·'pump. especially when electric resistance heating would be otherwise used. with all the components assembled as a package by the manufacturer.26 PRINCIPLES The heat pump is a refrigeration system that can be used for both cooling and heating. so that the room coil serves as the condenser and the outdoor coil as the evaporator. depending on need. mayor may not be utilized. Heat pumps are often supplied as unitary equipment. The room air passing over the room coil therefore receives the heat rejected in the condenser. the room coil serves as the evaporator and the room air is cooled to produce summer cooling. In many cases. (An absorption machine can also be used as a heat pump. without any great modifications. but of course it serves no useful purpose in this case. This is a misleading name. is heated. However. this means that it would have a lower first cost than using separate heating and cooling equipment. Figure 13. The heat pump now acts as a heating unit. Therefore. In the explanation given. including the air handling unit. passing over the condenser coil. only the refrigerant flow direction and function of the coils are reversed. The cycle is the vapor compression re- frigeration cycle. Another arrangement. 13. but this is unusual. One clear advantage of a heat pump is that it can provide heating or cooling from one machine. Another advantage that is not apparent without further investigation is that it may have a lower operating cost than separate conventional heating and cooling systems. Referring to Figure 13. Although this has always caused considerable interest in the heat pump. high energy costs and shortages have created even more intense interest. the heat pump appears to be a mysterious device that operates on some unusual principle. The evaporator and condenser coils function the same in winter and summer. it is not. The heat pump is sometimes called a "reverse cycle" air conditioner.22 shows how a heat pump performs in both summer and winter.REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 355 The Heat Pump 13.27 ENERGY EFFICIENCY Consideration of how the energy balance principle (Chapter 3) applies to the heat pump will show how it may provide heating with a relatively small expenditure of energy. the total energy into the system equals the total energy out: where Qc = heat rejected from condenser Qe = heat absorbed in evaporator Qp = heat equivalent of compressor power input . is to reverse air flow. When this is done.23. This has four ports. used more on larger equipment. the duct arrangement is made so that room air is circulated to the evaporator coil in summer and to the condenser in winter. which is still occurring. To those not familiar with refrigeration cycles. two of which are open at anyone time to allow flow in the direction chosen. The heat pump is usually a vapor compression refrigeration machine. with the refrigerant flowing in the direction shown.

22 fhe heat pump cycle. (a) Summer cycle (cooling).N~"'..95 F 105 F Outdoor coil (condenser) Compressor t 80 F --'I---"". .356 CHAPTER 13 Reversing valve Air ~. (b) Winter cycle (heating).~ Air 60 F Room coil --"" (evaporator) Flow control device (a) Air 35 F 45 F 70 F Outdoor coil (evaporator) Compressor t Air 100 F Room coil --"" (condenser) Flow control device (b) Figure 13.

since both the load is increasing and the heat pump capacity is decreasing. This is called the balance poim. of course. a drop in outdoor temperature causes a decrease in the heating capacity. if the heat pump is sized to handle the maximum cooling load. the amount of supplementary heat required increases. For typical heating -cooling load requirements. the COP is often defined to include these auxiliary power inputs. of course. . because less heat is absorbed in the evaporator. either electrical or by burning a fuel to generate steam or hot water. Contrast this with any direct heating system. This is often accomplished by using one or more electric resistance heaters.REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 357 Condenser Compressor Evaporator Q. At temperatures below the balance point. For packaged heat pumps that include evaporator and condenser fans.28 SELECTION OF HEAT PUMPSTHE BALANCE POINT As the evaporating temperature decreases. This lowers the value of the COP slightly. Since the evaporator is the outdoor coil. defined as COP = Qc 13. As the outdoor temperature decreases. its heating capacity will be inadequate below outdoor temperatures often encountered in many climates. A relative measure of the performance of the heat pump is the heating coefficient of performance.23 Energy use in the heat pump. The heat pump COP" is useful in illustrating the advantage of heating by using electrical energy to drive a heat pump compressor rather than using the electricity directly in resisiimce heaters. " Qp =------~--~------------- heat rejected from condenser heat equivalent of compressor power Note that the coefficient of performance of a heat pump does not have the same meaning as when the unit is used for refrigeration. The significance of this equation is that the useful heating Qc is greater than the energy needed to drive the compressor Qp by the amount Qe> which does not require any energy expenditure. supplementary heating must be furnished. In these cases. Controls are arranged to activate the resistance heaters in steps as the outdoor temperature drops. For residential applications. the energy expended is at least equal to the useful heating. the heating capacity (the heat rejected from condenser) of a heat pump also decreases. Figure 13. an outside temperature of about 30 F is a typical temperature at which the heating capacity of the unit will just match the load.

.750 82 79 76 71.:!00 4500 3.900 5.t ..000 32.000 27.000 41.000 20 .800 5 •.500 3.000 24.000 45.000 16.lXlO 35. (Reprinted with the permission of Fedder.5lX) 3.3 RESIDENTIAL-TYPE PACKAGED HEAT PUMP RATINGS performance data Fedders Flexhermetic Heat Pump Condensing Units are matched to Fedders Evaporator Blower Package Units for complete split system applications.750 3.tXlO 3.500 3.5 16.200 7.950 2.800 6.800 5.3lXl 5.000 37.100 4.000 S7.750 6.200 3.100 3.J.000 18. 100 5.000' 23.000 21.000 34.000 3550 80 77 74 69. Blower Model No.800 38.lXlO 2.850 5.800 3.000 27 .000 21.000 61.950 7.900 34.500 25 .800 4.300 4.700 8.100 7.:!.000 66.500 7.000 42.' In!'.000 +1-.6tXl 3.000 66. Temp dboF Heat 60 50 '45 40 30 '20 10 0 60 50 '45 40 30 '20 10 0 Capacity Total Watts Heat 4.000 23.000 42. CFH024A3 Evap.000 31.300 7.000 12.lXlO 45.R.300 3.200 41.500 5.100 39..220 81 78 75 71 66 370 335 330 265 225 302 260 250 238 116 2(){1 182 170 318 29(} 280 262 140 220 210 204 318 290 280 262 140 220 210 204 358 320 300 282 250 225 204 188 358 320 300 CFH048DJA CFB048A2 115 105 *95 85 75 39.150 4.200 4. 70~ F db (heating).000 13.200 79 76 73 68 64 400 360 322 284 240 45 42 34 25 18 F db: 67 0 F wb (coohng).900 35.500 37.500 37.500 32.000 61. 10 0 41. 000 20.300 7.lX)() 24 . Total PSIG Outside Watts Pressures Suction Dischg.000 3..000 22 .500 5.100 6.500 S.800 4..tKlO 29.500 79 76 73 68 64 390 348 310 270 230 60 .H!D8A CFB048A2 [ 15 105 '95 85 75 39.5 65 388 351 313 276 235 68 59 52 50 40 31.100 8. Corp.000 10.9lXl 4.000 4.620 6.150 2. dboF 115 105 '95 85 75 Capacities BTUlhr.000 36..000 28.100 3.[50 79 76 73 68 64 4" 375 335 295 250 62 52 47 42 33 25 18 12 ./.450 7.800 4.1-.) 0 .lXlO 52.100 4.000 27.000 30..700 4300 3.100 79 76 73 68 64 380 350 310 270 230 5..400 4. Select performance requirements and matched components below..900 6.000 34.900 7.000 31.400 30.()(Xl 38.000 19.(){)() 42.250 5.000 44.000 27.500 6..000 18500 1·1.000 48.200 21.000 47.000 57.900 42. Matching Flex.000 56. CFB024A2 Outside Temp.300 5. 14500 BTUthr.300 3.5 67 387 350 312 274 234 74 60 53 46 37 30 24 20 380 320 287 260 220 189 170 159 UPFlOW CFH036D7A CFB036A2 115 lOS *95 85 75 30.100 6.320 6'{)00 5.000 3.6tXJ 7.600 3.900 3 .600 9.950 2..000 18.000 12500 9.000 46/){){) 25.:!00 6.3()() 29.000 225 200 165 135 CFH030A3 " II CFB036A2 115 105 '95 85 75 24.500 17.000 35.000 48.400 31..100 41.- 51 -45 42 34 25 18 10 60 51 CFH060D8A CFB060A2 liS lOS *95 85 75 48. Heat Pump Model No.450 4.500 ·'-300 7.300 42.500 5.000 45.200 6.l){){) 47.650 8.200 27...300 5.700 8..000 56.600 3.600 8.000 26.000 25. 80 3500 10 282 250 225 204 188 358 .000 25.000 1.000 6.000 52. 000 20.000 59.IXlO 27300 29.750 7. conditIOn!'.lde temp..00(l 49.000 26.500 10.fXXl 4.000 48.700 76 73 70 66 62 400 360 320 285 240 60 50 '45 40 30 '20 10 0 60 50 '45 40 30 '20 10 0 60 50 '45 40 30 '20 10 0 60 50 '45 40 30 '20 10 0 60 50 '45 40 30 '20 10 0 60 50 '45 40 30 '20 .600 5.500 23.000 39.000 32.000 51.000 45.000 27 . 000 -'1.650 5.000 42.800 Cool 20.000 Sens.400 5.000 34.100 5. uoo CFH{)...000 51.800 32.150 2.000 24..650 4..000 5. 310 280 263 250 15.TABLE 13.7(Xl 4.400 31.000 31.000 ·000 4 .000 19500 Suction Dischg. • A.1.100 62 52 47 42 33 25 18 12 CFH060DJA CFH060A2 lIS 105 *95 85 75 48.000 53.000 32.300 29.000 62. Ie!'.900 . 900 3.100 39. PSIG Pressures Cool 4. 000 21.000 49.5(Xl 63 54 50 45 37 28 20 10 65 55 50 45 37 30 22 17 409 367 350 330 295 260 225 185 CFHO·f2D7A CFB048A2 115 105 *95 85 75 36.000 20.600 5.000 34.000 42.800 Heat 31.000 59.000 41.000 21.900 7.300 42.000 18. 750 26.700 6.000 31..2(){} 6.700 9.900 5.650 6.000 53.000 26.000 27.500 32.000 15.

67 F WB for cooling.000 . The intersection of these two lines is the balance point.000 BTUlhr. if any is required.24. the summer and winter outdoor design temperatures are 94 F and 18 F.000 30. to 0 BTU/hr (no load) and 70 F.5 illustrates the selection of a heat pump and the determination of the balance point.000 .000 BTUlhr.heating capacity = 41. Using Table 13.3.BTUlhr 14.24 Determination of heat pump balance point for Example 13.000 = 14. Supplementary heaters are required below 28 F.supplementary heating by oversizing the heat pump in the cooling cycle. The heat pump heating capacity at the balance point is 33. and a line is drawn showing these heating capacities. a curve is drawn through these points. The heating capacity of the unit is then plotted at different outdoor temperatures. oj ~ Design heating load Model CFH048 Heating capacity Balance point Building heating load - ~ I " c <D OJ This is the balance point.000 BTUlhr x IKW 3410 BTUlhr = 4. The larger unit will also provide . What is the balance point? What is the size of the required supplementary resistance heaters? Solution Using Table A. Ratings of some small split system packaged heat pumps suitable for residential or similar applications are shown in Table 13. standard practice is to select a unit that will satisfy the design cooling load.27. This line represents the building heating load at different outdoor temperatures.000 20.000 BTUlhr and 18 F. F 80 Suppl.9.000 BTU/hr and the design heating load is 41.000 BTU/hr.000 00 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Outdoor temperature. as can be seen in Table 13. heating '0 oj .1 KW It is possible to reduce or eliminate. 1:: (IJ ::J f- ~ 80.0 '0 oj '0 "" oj Q. The design cooling load is 44. Figure 13.000 50. Another line is drawn showing the building heating load at different outdoor temperatures (this is a straight line).000 40. Refer to Figure 13. The oversized unit will cycle too often in the cooling cycle.5. Example 13.3. At the design temperature of 18 F. The intersection of these two lines is about 28 F. a Model CFH048 unit is selected based on the design cooling load. The supplementary heating is then sized to provide the extra heating capacity below the balance point. more heating. the supplementary heat required is Supplementary heat = hearing load . The design heating load is 44. The ratings in the table are based on a space temperature of 70 F for heating and 80 F DB. Using the columns of heating capacity versus outside heating temperatures. This is usually undesirable. . rather than the heating load. a standard ARI test condition. The capacity at 94 F is just over 45.000 60. at 41. however. For these reasons. resulting in uncomfortable conditions and a shortened life for the compressor and controls.000 10.2 OJ :g c c '" . The heat pump heating capacity just matches the required building load at an outdoor temperature of 28 F.5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Select a heat pump for a residence in Birmingham.3. Alabama. When selecting a heat pump.000 70.REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 359 The supplementary heater should always be located downstream of the indoor coil in the ductwork so that the heat does not affect the condensing temperature.000 BTUlhr. A straight line is drawn from the design heating load point. Example 13. heat pumps should always be sized for the cooling load. The inside design temperatures are 70 F in winter and 80 F in summer.

100 E This moderate temperature can be achieved with a relatively inexpensive collector and will result in a low heat pump energy use.6 illustrates the savings in energy and operating cost by using a heat pump instead of electric resistance heating. However. (This applies to unitary air-to-air heat pumps when operating at an outside air temperature of 47 E) This means that the heat pump is producing 1. This arrangement is called the solar assisted heat pump. the amount of heat output is the same as the amount of electric energy input (see Equation 15.29 SOLAR ENERGY-HEAT PUMP APPLICATION An effective use of the heat pump is in combination with solar energy. at 30 F the heat pump requires about one-half the power input that electrical resistance heating does to produce the same' heat output. pressure. Ii! I I ~ . That is.41 BTUlhr =9970W The savings is 9970 . The coefficient of performance of the heat pump decreases with a decrease in evaporator temperature (see Chapter 15).000 BTU/hr IW x----3. the heating capacity of the Model CFH048 heat pump at 30 F is 34. however. requiring 5000 W of power for the compressor. and inexpensive. resist.6 For the heat pump used in Example 13. However. oil mixing feature. These refrigerants have been used since the 1930s because of their excellent characteristics. a solar energy collector can be used to supply water at a much higher temperature than normally available in winter for the evaporator.3.5. \"". at lower outdoor temperatures. The COP" for the heat pump at 30 F is (see Section 13.99 5000 W x 3. specific heat.41 BTUlhr lW The COP of electric resistance heating = 1. it will not perfonn as well. The relationship of the two COP"s is 13. the equivalent to 34.99 1. If electrical resistance heating is used. etc. That is more properly left to refrigeration texts and manuals. Typical actual heat pump COP h values. 34.5-3. Example 13. heat transfer. compare the amount of power saved at an outdoor temperature of 30 F by using a heat pump instead of electrical resistance heating. It is not our intention here to investigate those matters in great detail.000 BTU/hr is Resistance heating = 34.0.000 BTUlhr 13.000 BTUlhr. The refrigerants that are most widely used in compressors are in a chemical group called either fluorinated hydrocarbons or halocarbolls.11). We do wish to discuss.360 CHAPTER 13 Example 13. when used for heating. range from 1. They have good physical properties for performance-temperatures.5000 = 4970 W. important . With the conventional application of the heat pump. the heat pump will perfonn even better (be more energy efficient). They are nontoxic.26) = 1. described in Chapter 18.0 To express this in words.30 REFRIGERANTS Heat pump COP" Elect.0. say 75. At higher outdoor temperatures. this temperature is lower than ambient air temperature.5-3. compared to resistance heaters? Solution From Table 13. What is the heating COP of the heat pump at this temperature. stable. COP" --~2:1 1. which results in a low COP in winter.0 times more heat output for the same energy input than by using electrical resistance heating.

The production and importation of all CFCs in the United States has ceased as of December 3 I. As a response to this problem. This can complicate their use. all parts of the mixture evaporate and condense at the same conditions.REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 361 issues about them that affect the practice of work in the HVAC industry. Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). TABLE 13. Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs). Some other countries have scheduled an earlier elimination.0.4 lists some of the refrigerants and their ODP values.05 0. an extremely serious environmental problem exists with those halocarbons that contain chlorine. R-12. fluorine. timber. One chlorine atom can destroy 100. and CFC-114. (The more familiar identification is R-II.000 ozone molecules. These are com- from the sun. 1995. they may not evaporate or condense at a constant temperature (called temperature glide). is one of the most deadly forms of cancer 2. It has been found that they cause depletion of the ozone layer in the stratosphere. ODP = 1. Reduction in immunity against disease.4 OZONE DEPLETION POTENTIAL (ODP) OF REFRIGERANTS 13. and carbon atoms. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Some in this group are HCFC-22 (R-22) and HCFC-123 (R-123).) 2. A gradual reduction of production and use of HCFCs is scheduled to result in their phase-out by the year 2030 in the United States. These fall into two classes: azeotropes and blends (zeotropes). and the United States may revise its schedule. The ozone layer . All CFC use after this date must come from recovery operations. fluorine. There are also mixtures of the above substances that are used as refrigerants. the major industrialized nations have agreed to control the use and manufacture of CFCs and HCFCs.0 0.0 0. The ozone layer has been progressively depleting. especially in operating and servicing procedures. Azeotropes are mixtures that behave as a single substance. and carbon atoms.0 1. CFC-12. and R-502. and R-II4. Table 13. These are composed of hydrogen. This posed of chlorine.74 . Zeotropes or blends are mixtures that do not always behave as a single substance.blocks out much of the harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation CFC-ll CFC-12 HCFC-22 CFC-1l3 CFC-1l4 HCFC-123 HFC-134A R-500 1. 4. fl uorine. Ozone (0 3 ) is an oxygen (0 2 ) molecule with an added oxygen atom. 3. For instance. Harmful effects on crops. An increase in cataracts 3.31 OZONE DEPLETION Refrigerants ODP Despite their excellent properties for use as refrigerants. an HCFCICFC mixture. a CFC/HFC mixture. according to their constituents. An increase in skin cancer (melanoma). These are composed of hydrogen. All of the halocarbon refrigerants can be divided into three subgroups. For instance. CFC-II and CFC-12 have the highest (worst) value.8 1. Some in this group are CFC-II. Effects of a decreased ozone layer over Earth include I. Some in this group are HFC-134a (R-134a) and HFC-125 (R-125). chlorine.D2 0. I.0 0. Two frequently used refrigerants in this group are R-500. especially the CFCs. Note that HCFCs have a relatively low ODP. and HFCs do not cause any ozone depletion (ODP = 0). and marine life The relative ability of a substance to deplete the ozone layer is called its ozone depletion potential (ODP). and carbon atoms.

especially in medium to large air conditioning systems that would otherwise use centrifugal refrigeration compressors with CFC-ll or HCFC-22. These do not cause ozone depletion. Requirements for recovery. However. 3. An interim substitute is HCFC-123. some of which are summarized here: A. This refrigerant is presently used largely in automotive air conditioners and household refrigerators. polyol ester and alkylbenzene oils may be satisfactory substitutes. power requirements. R-12. Other than the vapor compression system. A brief description of some major features of the regulations follows. HFC-134a is an alternative. R-22. decreasing gradually. That is. and propane. and other CFCs. 13. 2. Mineral-oil-based lubricants (presently used with CFCs) cannot be used with some new refrigerants. Expansion valves and desiccants may not function properly. CFC-lJ (R-lJ). They apply to R-II. Clean Air Act. Apparently it is not yet being seriously considered in the United States. Alternate Halocarbon Refrigerants The search for and selection of alternate nonozone-depleting halocarbon refrigerants (HFCs) involve some difficult choices. This refrigerant is widely used in window units. and reclaiming refrigerants during service opera- .S. Conservation of existing refrigerants in use. These restraints have led to various solutions. different elastic materials must be used. Propane is already being used in some new household refrigerators in Europe. Other Existing Refrigerants New consideration is being given to previously used refrigerants. Toxicity can be a concern with HCFC-123. Refrigeration compressor capacity. Possible substitutes are the HFC mixtures R-407c and R-4 lOa.32 REFRIGERANT VENTING AND REUSE The same concern about ozone depletion has led to regulations in the use of both CFCs and HCFCs. because of possible safety problems. C. 2. 5. such as ammonia. Of course initial and operating costs would also playa factor in making a decision. B. The problems may include: 1. Research is underway for a permanent HFC replacement. Some new refrigerants may be less safemore toxic and more flammable. until this group is phased out. This refrigerant is used in centrifugal compressors. 3. 4. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).362 CHAPTER 13 These mandated changes have led to a search for viable temporary and permanent solutions. however. Refrigerants may not knowingly be vented (released) to the atmosphere. HFC-134a is a permanent substitute (ODI = 0). Use of refrigeration systems other than vapor compression.S. Its use will continue for some time. 2. Manufacturers are now offering compressors that use this refrigerant. There are generally no "drop-in" substitutes. recycling. for instance. covered under amendments to the U. and commercial air conditioning and refrigeration. The specific regulations have been developed by and are enforced by the U. Ammonia can be toxic and flammable. the lithium bromide absorption system is a realistic substitute in some cases. In large centrifugal and screw compressors. which include I. HCFC-22 (R-22). In such cases. but each has well known undesirable characteristics. carbon dioxide. Al tern ate refrigerants. 1. the alternate refrigerant cannot simply be placed in existing compressors. Research is undergoing on numerous other new refrigerants. Some new refrigerants may cause deterioration of rubber seals and hoses. and pressures may be unsatisfactory. and HCFCs in use now. CFC-12 (R-12). residential air conditioning.

All refrigerant must be recovered before opening the system. the GWP = 1. Select and operate equipment with highest evaporating (or chilled water) temperature and lowest condensing temperature consistent with . 13. The regulations also specify the equipment and procedures involved.35 ENERGY CONSERVATION IN REFRIGERATION Some methods to consider for conserving energy with refrigeration systems are: I. there is concern about these refrigerants. This entails taking an EPA approved certification test. For HCFC-22. Venting of refrigerants and other violations is punishable by fines up to $25. For centrifugal compressors. Biological growths can occur that may cause deterioration of wood or coat surfaces and reduce heat transfer. noncondensable gases. The most bizarre example of contamination is "Legionnaires' disease. and boilers requires proper chemical treatment. where the water is exposed to the atmosphere. A firm that specializes in water treatment should be called in to set up a treatment plan when planning a large air conditioning system. The greatest global warming effect is from carbon dioxide (C0 2 ). this would involve use of speed control or inlet guide vanes. because those systems are closed. Some halocarbon refrigerants have a very high GWP. This is a common problem in cooling towers. At the time of this writing.34 WATER TREATMENT Water used in condensers. and passing the refrigerant through filter dryers to reduce moisture. For CO 2 . water chillers. but it should not be neglected. Use refrigeration compressors that reduce power requirements as load decreases. There are a number of publications available with this information for the interested student. These gases trap solar heat. Large land areas near sea level may flood.0. the GWP = 100. halocarbon refrigerants have a global warming effect. Recycling. Recovery is the removal of refrigerant from a system and storage in a container. Recovery. 2. 4.33 GLOBAL WARMING POTENTIAL In addition to the ozone depletion effect on the environment. and Reclaiming (RRR) There are regulations concerning the procedures and equipment involved in these practices. Global warming may cause serious changes in the environment. The ability of a substance to contribute to global warm- 13. Reclaiming is a complex cleaning process that restores the refrigerant to its original factory purity. CO2 is a product of all fuel combustion. 13. and particulates. For this reason.REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 363 tions or when disposing of equipment are established. Recycling is the cleaning of the refrigerant by removing oil. Minerals that exist naturally in water can precipitate as solids and form scale that deposits on surfaces. The water can have an acidic character that will cause corrosion of metals. Refrigeration technicians that service or dispose of equipment must be certified. acidity. Which of the three "Rs" is acceptable in each situation depends on a number of factors that are explained in the EPA regulations. 3.000 per violation day. For reciprocating compressors. and agriculture will be affected. Water treatment in chilled water systems is usually a minor problem. ing is measured by the Global Warming Potential (GWP). Earth's atmosphere is apparently being warmed due to the increase of certain gases that are products' of industrial activities. because of the amount produced. this would involve use of cylinder unloaders or speed control. The refrigerant must be tested to meet this standard." a bacteria that apparently has been traced in some cases to stagnant water in cooling tower basins. reducing heat transfer. restrictions on emissions are still being considered by the industrialized nations.

Describe a heat pump defrost cycle. Problems 13. 13.4. 7. South Carolina. 3. Use condenser heat for heating needs by recovering heat (Chapter 15).001.6 A heat pump is to be selected for summer and winter air conditioning of a home in Charleston.4 Select a heat pump for a home in Los Angeles. What are the causes of water loss in a cooling tower? 5. Determine the heating COP.364 CHAPTER 13 maintaining satisfactory space conditions and satisfactory equipment performance. 4. Condenser water enters at 90 F and leaves at 100 F. 2.3 Find the capacity. .000 BTUlhr. 11.000 BTUlhr and the design cooling load is 40.dunham-bush.5 Determine the design cooling capacity and COP of the heat pump selected in Problem 13. if any.rheem.2 Select a package water chiller for a load of 21 tons.com www. is required in winter? Useful Websites Information on selection and specification of refrigeration chillers and heat pumps can be found at the following Websites: www. Describe two methods of controlling capacity of reciprocating compressors and of centrifugal compressors. Use multiple equipment on larger projects so that each operates close to full load more often. What are the four types of positive displacement compressors? Explain the difference between an open and hermetic compressor. Chilled water is cooled from 5S to 44 F. What size electric booster heater.mcquay. Describe with a sketch the air-to-air heat pump.2 if the condenser fouling factor is 0. for a design cooling load of 46. and COP of the unit selected in Problem 13. Explain what is meant by the term balance point of a heat pump. 13.com Review Questions I. 13. 8. 9. 3.1 Select an air-cooled condensing unit to handle a load of 15 tons of refrigeration for a bowling alley in Richmond. Chiller and condenser fouling factors are 0. Describe with a sketch the lithium bromide -water absorption refrigeration system. Find the COP of the unit. 13. Use some form of total energy system (such as combined steam turbine centrifugal-absorption machines). The design heating load is 32.0005. What are the three types of condensers and their features? Describe three types of refrigerant flow devices. Describe with a sketch the vapor compression refrigeration system. Virginia. California. Determine the COP of the unit. 13. KW required.com www. 5. 6.000 BTUlhr.000 BTUlhr and design heating load of 42. Evaporating temperature is 45 F. 10. 4. Select a heat pump adequate to handle the summer load.

Explain the types of control action. Sketch control diagrams and describe the oPeration of some basic control systems. 2.1 UNDERSTANDING AUTOMATIC CONTROLS If asked to name the part of the HVAC system that they found most difficult to understand and work with. 14. is that they do not understand the basic principles and how to apply them. DDC. would be a lifeless mass. and service people would list the automatic control system. 7. 3. It is true that modem controls are often somewhat involved and that some of the devices used are complex. The HVAC controls must be designed and installed to fit the system and must function properly. electronic. probably most designers. the body. the air conditioning system will not produce satisfactory conditions. OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter. contractors. This by itself often will not enable the service technician to 365 . Identify and describe the elements of control systems with the aid of a diagram. Explain the types of valve flow characteristics and damper arrangements. The major reason few people know how to deal with controls. you will be able to: I. Without these.c H A p T E R Automatic Controls T he automatic controls for an HVAC system can be compared in importance and function with the brain and nervous system of a human. 5. Explain the purposes of automatic controls. Describe how-electric. 4.and open-loop controls. regardless of how physically healthy it is. 6. however. If not. and pneumatic controls function. This is because most information focuses on hardware and how it is connected. Explain c1osed.

they serve other functions. For example. electronic." 14. Acontroller. These principles can be applied to electric. A controlled variable. to limit the values of temperature. Although hardware will be discussed. a better approach is to recognize that every control system has similar elements. 2. Keep Equipment Operation at Safe Levels Controls keep operation 'of equipment at safe levels. the controls may be designed to open an outside air damper to provide fresh air. reducing labor. or whether it is pneumatic. as follows. The load varies mainly from changes in outdoor temperature. such as temperature. rather than have operating personnel do this manually. Some controls serve a different purpose. humidity) in the space. 14. The heating and cooling capacity of the HVAC system is selected at the design load conditions. or electronic. One way to study a control system is to see it as a collection of many control devices. For example. electric. It usually functions as a limiting device. Every control system has 'the following elements: I. Safety controls have been discussed to some extent as part of the coverage of equipment in other chapters. This is a condition that is to be controlled. The controls must regulate the heating or cooling output of the system to match that of the load. Whenever the load (heat gain or loss) is less than the design value. occupancy. and are part of the overall automatic control system. Maintain Design Conditions Controls maintain design conditions (temperature. we will emphasize the principles of control systems. Nor will it enable the designer to plan the controls to suit the type of HVAC system.2 PURPOSES OF CONTROLS The controls can serve four different functions: amount of outside air introduced to the building so that free cooling is obtained from this air when suitable. One of the most important considerations in planning and operating a control system is based on its ability to minimize the use of energy at all times. thus preventing damage to property or injury to people. or conserving energy-are called operating controls. or similar variables in the equipment. Controls that serve the purposes already described -maintaining space conditions. This' leads to little understanding.366 CHAPTER 14 determine the cause of a malfunctioning system. the controls may automatically change the . the spaces will be overheated or overcooled. Many of the energy conserving control applications are discussed in Chapter IS. thus reducing labor costs and the chances of errors. Safety controls are of the utmost importance. the system capacity is too large. If it produces its full output. Although controlling and maintaining conditions in the space are the primary function of the automatic controls. This is a device that senses a signal from a change in the controlled variable and then transmits an action to a controlled device to correct the changed condition. Although some further references to them will be made here. This type of control is called a safety control. or pressure. Often the same controls are providing all of these functions. we will not "lose sight of the woods for the trees. humidity. but some of these features will be discussed here. and from lights being switched on and off. or pneumatic controls with equal ease. solar radiation. This is true regardless of how large and complex the system is. Minimize Energy Use and Costs Controls minimize energy use and costs.3 THE CONTROL SYSTEM Reduce Human Labor Needed Controls reduce the amount of human labor needed to operate and maintain the system. pressure. In this chapter. DOC. our emphasis will be on the operating controls. however.

and explain the sequence of control action. A source of power. Examples are a cooling or heating coil. This is the medium regulated by the controlled device. oil burner. or refrigeration compressor. The outdoor temperature drops very suddenly. and pressure-stats are examples of controllers. The energy source for transmitting the action is the human muscle power. The sequence of action for any control can be shown by afunctional block control diagram (Figures 14. pump. Thermostats. regulates the flow or other effect of a control agent. thus completing the desired action. Power source I I Controller Input Signal I ~I ~ JJ I 0 <%) I&. Example 14. 6. Figure 14. 6. pump.AUTOMATIC CONTROLS 367 3.1 Functional block diagram for a closed-loop (feedback) control system. Sketch a functional block control system diagram. I.I :/# '- ___ L_ . This is a device which.. or the electric current of a motor.1 A student is studying in a room that has a hot water heating convector with a manual valve. The process plant is the convector. 5. causing a correction in the controlled variable conditionthe room air temperature rises.. 5. I~ !-. Solution The block control diagram is shown in Figure 14. Examples of controlled devices are a valve.2). 4. or compressor. fan.. The controlled device is the manual valve. air through a damper. A change (drop) in this temperature results from the sudden increase in heat loss to the outdoors. This provides the power to transmit the action from the controller to the controlled device. humidistats. damper. A control agent. or the motor driving an oil burner. His body senses the change in the controlled variable.3. An example of a simple control system will help identify these terms and how the control sequence functions.1 and 14. The temperature controller (thermostat) is the student. when receiving the action from the controller. identify the elements. Two examples are compressed air (pneumatic) and electrical power sources. Control agent Process plant Change in controlled variable Feedback signal . Examples are water flowing through a valve. 4. A controlled device. Opening the valve increases water flow rate through it. 3. fan. Action I I I Controlled device . Increased water flow rate results in more heat output from the convector to the room. 2. The controlled variable'is the room air temperature. The change in performance of the process plant changes the condition of the controlled variable. The control agent (medium) is the hot water. He then transmits an action-turns the valve handle. Note that a controller has two functions-to sense a signal and to transmit an action based on the signal.. The regulation of the control agent changes the output or operation of equipment called the process plant. A process plant.

for instance. Muscle (Power) I ! i I I Air temperature (Input signal) Student (Controller) Adjust valve I ____ L __ J (Control Valve agent) . a thermostat senses the changed room air temperature and transmits an action.368 CHAPTER 14 Power source I Controller Input signal <%5 J I I I '- a. It might happen quickly if the valve is opened too much. the controller (student) sensed the results of the corrective action (the rise in room temperature) and when this went beyond a satisfactory condition. For example. However. The functional control diagram for a real closed-loop system would be as shown in Figure 14. closing an electric circuit. This is the essence of most automatic controls.1 was of a manual control system. The room temperature might rise to an uncomfortably high level. the student took an opposite corrective action. always correcting the value of the controlled variable. or gradually. : 'J? I!!:! I I~ ~ t f---. In the manual control system described.1.-- t I Transmitte action d Controlled device .2 Functional block diagram for an open-loop (feed forward) control system. The sensor in the thermostat reacts to any change in the room temperature 14. Note that the system will respond continuously to the feedback signal. An electric power source then opens an automatic.1. This is an example of feedback. (Controlled Hot water device) Convector (Process plant) (Controlled variabl e) Air temperature Feedback (student sensing) t:l ~I I . if the outdoor temperature increases. This is an example of a closed-loop control system. We will now discuss how Figure 14. Feedback is the transmission of information about the results of an action back to the sensor. which is usually not very reliable or accurate. no mention was made of what might occur after the valve was opened. Example 14. this problem is resolved. which leads to an important concept in controls. they might have little time left for studying.1 for the example of a room thermostat controlling the convector.4 CLOSED-LOOP (FEEDBACK) AND OPENLOOP CONTROL SYSTEMS In Example 14. electrically operated valve on the convector. The same events occur in an automatic control system. Students could resolve this by closing the valve. The result of the information being fed back is that the room air temperature changes were continually being corrected by the student. Control agent Process plant Change in controlled variable Figure 14.3 Functional block control diagram for Example 14.

Low voltage control systems transform the power supply to low voltages (usually 24 volts) for control use. and they are simple. or electronic for convenience. and copper or plastic tubing is used to transmit the air. however. convenience. Power to actuate the controlled devices comes from the medium being controlled. The component control diagram is drawn the same regardless of type of energy source. not because he felt cold. Electric/Electronic Electric energy is used to actuate the controlled devices. Fluid in a bulb changes pressure in response to the temperature it senses. The power is always transmitted electrically. Self-powered controls are practical in certain applications. Pneumatic control systems are often used in large installations. Fig" ure 14. Electric control systems are often used on small installations because they are inexpensive. A control system without feedback and its effect is called an open-loop (or feed forward) control system (Figure 14. An actual diagram showing all the wiring for an electric system would look much more complicated. but are generally not used for the whole control system. where a valve to a convector is controlled by a room thermostat. The controller regulates the amount of energy transmitted to the controlled device.5 ENERGY SOURCES Automatic control systems can be classified according to the source of energy they use. this would be a case of an open loop. This is the only basic difference between electric and electronic control systems. Self-Powered No external source of energy is used. This is usually accomplished by an enclosed fluid that will change pressure in response to a temperature change. A common example is the thermal expansion valve (TEV) refrigerant flow control. Pneumatic systems are popular because the controlled devices easily lend themselves to modulating action (Section 14. The choice depends on cost. lates the air pressure transmitted to the controlled device. Otherwise the system is called electric. as will be explained later. because there is no feedback causing the action. as follows. A dashed line is used to represent the control action. however. usually 110 volts. simple. electronic. Line voltage control systems use electricity at the voltage from the power supply.2). Combinations of electric. the system is called electric/electronic. 14. The weakness of this type of control is apparent. If the controller has sensing and transmitting elements that are electronic. and easy to install. The student does not know whether he is opening the valve a proper amount and does not provide any corrective action unless he returns to using his sensory feeling (feedback). if he had decided to open the valve because he expected colder weather. this simplifies reading and understanding the diagram. In the example of the student who acted as a controller. The pressure actuates the valve (Chapter 13). and self-powered controls may be used in one control system when desirable.7). it is also useful to prepare a component control diagram showing the connections between components of the control system and HVAC system.4 is an example of the simple control system described earlier.AUTOMATIC CONTROLS 369 (increase or decrease) and sets in motion the corrective action.6 COMPONENT CONTROL DIAGRAM Although the functional block control diagram is helpful in understanding the operation of the control loop. pneumatic. The controller regu- . 14. and safety. Air compressors are required. Open-loop controls are used in automatic control systems in certain instances. which may come from one of a number of energy sources. Although it is necessary Pneumatic Compressed air is used as the source of energy to actuate the controlled devices.

As a resulr. Operating differential is the range that actually occurs in the value of the controlled vari- Floating Action In floating action. they do not aid in understanding. we will use component control diagrams instead of detailed wiring or compressed air piping diagrams in our explanations. For example. the room temperature will rise to 72 + I = 73 F. i I. The thermostat has a 2 F differential setting. to have detailed diagrams for each installation. Differential is a term of importance in twoposition control action.. Controlliif'differential is the range set on the control device of the variable values at which it transmits action to the controlled device. the controlled device is still operated by a two-position type controller. however. The operating differential is therefore 73 . In the system.370 CHAPTER 14 I---------~ I I I Room thermostat ---+----DG~~---[~c~o~nv~e~ct~o~r]---~ Control'. it may cause uncomfortable conditions. Two-Position Action This is also commonly called "on-off' action.1 = 69 F.5 illustrates the solution. make it more difficult. If the controller differential is set too small. a situation called cycling or hunting. when a thermostat causes a hot water heating valve to close. it is said to have a differential of 2 F. The response lag is I F in either direction. As soon as there is'a signal calling for heating. A control valve that moves only to a fully open or closed position is another example of two-position action.69 = 4 F. if a thermostat is set to move to one position at 70 F and the other position at 72 F. This differential will often be greater than the controller differential setting because there is a lag in response of the controlled device and medium. Between what values does the room temperature vary? What is the operating differential? Solution Figure 14. shutting off the controlled device sooner and reducing overheating.:the thermostat reaches its high setting earlier than it would otherwise. For example. Example 14. a small heater may be contained in the thermostat. there are two differentials: Timed Two-Position Control If the operating differential is too great. In effect. the convector keeps heating the room for a short time due to the hot water still in the unit.2 A heating thermostat is set to start an oil burner on a furnace at a room temperature of 70 F. The thermostat high position (oft) setting is 70 + 2 = 72 F. This can be reduced by building anticipation into the controller. For instance. Component control diagram. if the controlled device is a motor. It refers to the range of controlled variable values at which action takes place. For example.4 able.alve Figure 14. the operating differential has been reduced. but on the contrary. For that reason. classified as follows. 14. the room temperature will fall to 70 . Similarly. 2. it may be started or stopped (on-oft) by the two-position controller. Room thermostat controls position of valve. With a lag of 1 F. The controlled device is constructed so that it moves i Jl I .7 TYPES OF CONTROL ACTION There are different types of action that the controller can impart to the controlled device. the heating or cooling equipment may cycle on and off too rapidly. the heater warms the tnermostat faster than the room air would.

The control point is the actual value of the controlled variable which the controller is maintaining at any given time.!=Q) --~-~~~~:~~!~~---I-~~::::gF ____________________l~a~ ___________ Time ___________________ d~~~e. It is also called drift or deviation. as in Example 14. a modulating hot water valve would partially open or close at a position corresponding to the strength of a signal calling for increased or decreased heating. a pneumatic Figure 14. The sensitivity of a controller is the relationship between changes in value of the control energy and the controlled variable. because the response is proportional to the needs. The term proportional band of a controller also means its throttling range. leaving the controlled device "floating" in an intermediate position until a new signal is received. For example.2. Proportional-type controllers and control devices are both required. gradually between full open and closed. not an all-or-nothing response. ~~--------~~--------------------. The signal from the power source moves the operating part of the controlled device in one direction.-. There is a neutral zone (also called dead zone) in which no signal is transmitted. The set point is the desired value of the controlled variable at which the controller is set to maintain. This type of action can provide much finer response to load changes than the two position types described previously. taking a fixed intermediate position at a point relative to the change in the variable. Proportional Action In proportional action.6 Proportional action control. the strength of the signal from the controller varies in proportion to the amount of change in the controlled variable. The controlled device in tum moves proportionally to the signal strength.~i~ (2 F) differential (4 F) o c O- -----69F Figure 14. There are some important terms used in proportional control that need to be defined. Offset is the difference between the set point and the control point.AUTOMATIC CONTROLS 371 Q) :15_ -~ ~ <1l -o~ " >1ii Q) Q) - "o E .~ Q) Control point t ~ e C Time Throttling range 8~------------------------------L-- . The relationships among these terms are shown graphically in Figure 14.5 Two-position control action. Throttling range is the amount of change in the controlled variable required to move the controlled device from one extreme limit of travel to the other (full open to full closed).6. For example.

Under certain conditions. Proportional plus reset action is also called proportional-integral (PI) action. Unfortunately. The rate at which the Figure 14. Figure 14. the proper type of control action depends on the job to be accomplished. Shortening the amount of time of offset can reduce the amount of overheating or overcooling. Furthermore. This is called stability. perhaps due to sudden and frequent load changes (e. The controller will be signaling rapidly for control action. Consider what happens when the controlled variable is changing very rapidly. the sensitivity should be set to the maximum possible that does not cause hunting-large and continuous changes in the controlled variable. if PI control action is used. the control point is changed automatically back toward the set point. it should be compared with the previous diagrams.7 Proportional plus reset action (PI) control. The effect of this is that the time during which there is offset is shortened. a twoposition control is the only suitable one. but a small offset could cause hunting. That is. " :g . the desirability of control action proportional to the load changes is achieved without the disadvantage of large offset. The speed of response of a reset-type device is usually not very fast. the amount of offset is reduced. These wide and rapid swings are called hunting. because this results in good control of space temperature and humidity.372 CHAPTER 14 controller might have a sensitivity of 1 psi per degree F. it may not be able to respond quickly enough. continual opening and closing of outside doors with a thermostat located in the room). However. for starting or stopping equipment.. Close control of chilled water temperature (small offset) is desirable.7 shows how the controlled variable behaves with proportional plus reset. This is definitely not so. PI control is not desirable in HVAC systems where the controlled variable changes rapidly. due to its type of construction. The controlled variable will swing widely in value and the control system will become unstable. Therefore. Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PI D) Action This type of control has the same features as PI action plus one more feature.~ Control paint -------- -----------s~~~~----f-Throttling range ~ 8 --___________________________t__ Time e _______ '-_-" _--l . The sensitivity of most controllers can be adjusted in the field to provide best control. the air conditioning load usually changes slowly in a large building. the large mass of chilled water also reduces the rate of Proportional Plus Reset (PI) Action This type of control combines proportional action with a reset feature. reset may cause instability.g. With proportional plus reset control. reset action is desirable. Generally speaking. An important feature of a control system is its ability to maintain the control variable at a reasonably steady value. First. Stability and Hunting It may seem from the discussions that PI or PID control action is always the most desirable. The reset is accomplished by using floating action with proportional action. thus savmg energy. PID control is sometimes used in room thermostats. control point is moved back to the set point is part of the control action. _ An example of a good application of PI control action is the chilled water temperature controller on a large water chiller. This means that a change of I F in the controlled variable will change the transmitted supply pressure to the controlled device by 1 psi. For instance. When an offset occurs. as will be explained now.

proportional plus reset action can be used without causing instability. Another type of temperature sensor is called a resistance element.) sor to the control element. Inc.9 Remote thermostat with fluid-filled bulb-type sensor. (Courtesy: Honeywell.AUTOMATIC CONTROLS 373 change of water temperature. it is called an immersion thermostat. much like a bimetal temperature sensor. The metals change lengths at different rates when their temperature changes. Numerous types of sensing elements for thermostats are available. thus bending or moving.11). Temperature controllers are also called thermostats. humidity. The sensing element is often an open tube connected directly to the fluid where pressure is to . This allows location of the control in a more convenient.8).8 Bimetal temperature sensor-bends with temperature change. One type of humidity sensing element uses two different materials attached together that absorb water vapor at different rates.9). Another type of sensor uses a bulb filled with a fluid (Figure 14. When the sensing bulb is attached directly to the control element. Pressure controllers are also called pressurestats. This is a thin wire whose electrical resistance changes with temperature. The bimetallic sensing element is used often in room thermostats. 14. A bimetal element sensor is made of two attached strips of different metals. The bimetal strip may be straight or arranged in other shapes (see Figure 14. Figure 14. Changes in temperature cause the fluid pressure to change. and this pressure acts to move a diaphragm or bellows.8 CONTROLLERS As mentioned previously. pressure. Humidity controllers are also called hl/midistats. it is called a remote ther· mostat. Therefore. When a long capillary tube connects the senFigure 14. accessible place than might otherwise be possible. This sensor is usually inserted in a duct or pipe. It is applicable to both room type and remote thermostats. the controller serves two functions: to sense the controlled variable signal and to transmit an action to the controlled device as a result of the signal. and flow. forcing a bending of the element (Figure 14. The variables most often requiring control in HVAC systems are temperature.

The transmitting element may be electric. After the signal is sensed by the controller sensing element. A coil in the low voltage circuit acts as a magnet when electrically energized. Flow controllers often use pressure as a sensing signaL The velocity of the fluid where flow is to be controlled is converted to a static pressure by a sensing element such as pitot tube..11). Figure 14. or a mechanical-type linkage. 1 \ t \ Close I and open 1 1 1 Figure 14. The transmitting element is called a bridge.12). This type of device is suitable for proportional controL ..10. resulting in a slow closing and opening of the electrical contacts. A mercury switch also acts relatively fast and is therefore considered snap action. electronic. ~_ Contacts + . where the contacts open and close quickly. There are various means of achieving this. or pneumatic.. One way is to use a magnet that pulls the contacts quickly. The fluid pressure may act on a diaphragm or bellows. An electric transmitter may consist simply of two electric contacts that are connected to the controlled device. One type of electric/electronic controller uses a resistance sensing element. or moisture. A glass tube filled with liquid mercury has two electrodes inserted in it (Figure 14. which could increase the resistance of the electrical contacts. This may cause pitting of the contacts. as shown in the thermostat in Figure 14. One type of relay uses a solenoid (Figure 14. . and this signal is used to control flow.. dust. it closes or opens an electrical circuit that operates the controlled device. which is an electric circuit arranged to deliver a voltage proportional to the signaL This voltage is very small and is therefore amplified afterward.11 Thermostat with closed electric contacts in mercuryfilled tube-sensor is spiral-shaped bimetal element. and therefore is not subject to dirt. It may also result IU bounce or chatter of the contacts. it must be transmitted by another part of the controller.Bimetal element Bimetal elements usually move slowly. I . which may result in damage to electrical equipment in the circuit. An enclosed mercury switch is often used instead of open electric contacts. since the circuit opens and closes many more times than normaL This problem is resolved by causing snap actiol! of the contacts. It may be used with controllers when the signal circuit is at a low voltage and the controlled device is to be operated with a high voltage. Often the signal is also amplified in order to be strong enough to operate the controlled device. r-- Wire leads . An electrical relay is a device that closes or opens one electrical circuit when a signal is received from another electric circuit. When the bimetal element bends from temperature change. incr electrical resistance so that the signal is creasin b . The mercury switch has the advantage over open contacts of being enclosed. A relay is an auxiliary device that is often used with controllers and in other parts of a control circuit..10 Thermostat with open electric contacts to transmit signal. The sensing mechanism tips the tube so that the mercury either completes or breaks the electrical circuit through the electrodes. not transmitted properly.374 CHAPTER 14 Bimetal spiral be controlled.

It has the advantage of not using as much compressed air. This arrangement is called a bleed-type controller. The amount of air pressure. A summer-winter thermostat is a dualtemperature thermostat like a day-night type. which varies with the flapper position. varies the position of the controlled device. Solenoid-type electrical relay. This might be used to have an outdoor thermostat reset the control point of a thermostat controlling the hot water temperature in a heating system. a pneumatic transmitting element adjusts the air pressure that is supplied to the controlled device. With pneumatic controls."~~ ~ ~ Air to . A master-submaster thermostat arrangement is where one (master) thermostat controls and changes the set point of another (sub master) thermostat. The obvious use of this is to conserve energy. Solid state relays use semiconductors to transmit the signal from the control circuit to the operating circuit. closing contacts in the high voltage circuit. some of the control air is bled off from the control circuit. This control function is called reset control (see Section 14. A nonbleed-type arrangement is also often used. The opposite happens when the signal moves the flap toward the opening.12 Special Purpose Thermostats A limiting thermostat has a built-in maximum or minimum setting of the set point. Solid state devices have become very popular for many applications in control systems. A day-night thermostat is actually two thermostats in one. it will still control at 74 F. That Figure 14. Figure 14. some air bleeds out and the pressure in the main line decreases.12).controlled device . the signal from the sensor moves a flapper that covers the opening to a branch of the tube carrying the control air (Figure 14. Pneumatic controllers have the desirable feature of being inherently proportional-type devices. For example. It is usually controlled by a time clock. Bleed nozzle Bimetal flapper / Control air supply ~ =-=::=====A=d=ju='(J=m]:. with two different set points. and rapid action. causing a changed action. The magnetized iron core pulls a contact armature.13). As the flapper moves away from the opening. the control temperature is set back to conserve energy. increased reliability. In one type. At night or on weekends. This reduces the pressure transmitted to the controlled device. compactness.13 Operation of pneumatic thermostat (bleed-type). it may be constructed so that the maximum heating set point is 74 F.AUTOMATIC CONTROLS 375 Spring High voltage ~ CIrcUIt ~ #( Motion of contactor Ill! Low voltage circuit is. It may be controlled manually or by the outdoor temperature. If the occupant sets the control temperature at 80 F. They have the advantages of no moving parts..

Two-way valves are used to vary flow rate to the heating or cooling equipment by throttling. A quick opening valve is used when almost full flow must occur even with a small change in the controlled variable. the output does not change as much with flow rate variation as it does with water temperature. Modulating electric valves use a motor as a valve operator that moves the valve stem gradually in response to the signal. Valves have three different characteristics concerning how the flow varies with valve stroke: this depends on the shape of the valve opening. For this reason. The equal percentage valve is usually best for automatic control of water flow rate in coils because more variation in flow rate can be achieved for a g1\'en movement of valve stroke than can be achie\'ed with the other types. L v a l v e .. The difference in performance is shown in Figure 14. flow rate control with a two-way valve is usually less expensive. On the other hand. . supply water from the boiler and return water are mixed to provide water at the desired temperature.18). or -~ j (~'-::-::-COil-J Mixing valve Cf--- ~ _ C O i l = D + i : e J ~ ) j . since considerable throttling of the water flow rate is required to reduce capacity. This results in better modulation of heating or cooling capacity. the valve should open wide to prevent freezing of the steam in the coil. Control valves may be either two.376 CHAPTER 14 • Mixing valve • Diverting valve Figure 14. The capacity of a heating or cooling coil can be changed either by varying the water flow rate or the Figure 14. for example. A mixing valve has two inlets and one outlet. A dead band thermostat has a wide differential band (e. Mixing and diverting valves can also be used to control capacity by varying water temperature instead of quantity (Figure 14. In this application.15. When a smaller range of throtding capacity is required. A diverting valve has one inlet and two outlets. and equal percentage. while still maintaining the same total flow rate. Two-position electrically operated valves U5e a solenoid to move the valve stem to an open or closed position in response to the signal (Figure 14.g. Three-way valves are either of the mixing or diverting type (Figure 14. water temperature control is often preferred. with an outside air preheat coil. and motors are examples of controlled devices in HVAC systems.14 Three-way valves.or three-way devices. dampers.9 CONTROLLED DEVICES Valves. a linear flow valve is adequate. relays.15 Use of three-way valves to control flow rate. Mixing and diverting valves can also be used to vary flow rates through the unit. linear. It is used. However. bellow5. temperature. 14. as shown in Figure 14. Val\'es are classified into three groups: quick opening. 8-10 F) within which the thermostat does not call for heating or cooling.14). l c . and thus is often used on room lerminal units. When heat is called for.16). This may result in significant energy savings in some applications. The operator for pneumatic valves is either a diaphragm.17.

19). mixing air. "'" u " '" moo 0"0 75 50 Figure 14. We will now look at some examples of how controls are used. 14.. or terminal units. they are of multiblade construction. Two arrangements are available. the pump or fan. Parallel blade dampers should be used only for two-position (open-closed) control.------.18 0.20). and pistons or diaphragms are used as damper operators in pneumatic systems. Automatic dampers are used as controlled devices for varying air flow. / solenoid Wire leads ~valve ~ . The opposed blade arrangement will give better modulation of air flow rate. 25 _.10 CHOICE OF CONTROL SYSTEMS There are countless choices and arrangements of controls for HVAC systems.LLc_ Percent of full valve stroke ~ ~ J . piston that responds to pressure and moves the valve stem (Figure 14.----~----~~~~ - a: "e '>='" =:s :> '" '" '0 ~ -a. 100. Although they are of practical importance. " o ~ Two-position solenoid electric valve.AUTOMATIC CONTROLS 377 Mixing valve I HW I HW boiler Diverting valve boiler Figure 14. This is why our approach in this chapter up until now has not been merely to describe control systems. the purpose is usually to vary heating or cooling capacity of the equipment. but instead has focused on principles. parallel or opposed blade (Figure 14. Electric motors are used for modulating dampers in electric control systems. or for bypassing (diverting) air.16 Use of three-way valves to control supply water temperature. As with valves. Except for very small sizes. There is a choice of from where to control the HVAC system. Control can be provided at the heating/cooling source. For example. There are other auxiliary devices used in control systems that will not be discussed here. the burner or compressor Figure 14. a description of them will not add to our understanding of control principles.17 Flow characteristics of control valves.

a safety control that shuts off the burner when the water rises above a set temperature. and it would therefore seem obvious that control should be here.22.21 Space control of refrigeration compressor motor.21.11 CONTROL FROM SPACE TEMPERATURE Control of Burner or Compressor A simple control arrangement is to have a room thermostat control an oil or gas burner or a refrigeration compressor. CD I Compressor I L----r{] t l ~ t cl .19 Modulating pneumatic valve. In a gas-fired boiler. A similar arrangement for a hot water boiler is shown in Figure 14. The student should note that 5ystems have safety controls that are not fully dis~ussed here. the medium. Larger systems usually have more complex controls to provide better control and to conserve energy. a combination of these is used. Examples will be described later. but always required. In addition to selecting which part of the HVAC system is to be controlled.20 '" '" / Multiblade damper arrangements. however. ) I t • ~ f . The room thermostat T starts and stops the oil burner motor in response to room air temperature. Safety controls are also required and are part of· the control system. In Figure 14. there are choices as to what controlled variable to use for control-the space. Figure 14. . Inc. 14. using a room thermostat. This is the type of control used on a window unit.) can be started-stopped or modulated. On many systems. On many systems. (Courtesy: Honeywell.378 CHAPTER 14 ~ ~ xt 0 Parallel ''"" '" Opposed Figure 14. with the room thermostat mounted on the unit. additional control is provided from thermostats sensing outdoor air or the cooling! heating fluid medium. Control can also be provided by varying air or water flow rates using dampers or val ves. It is the desire to provide better control and to conserve energy that often determines the choices made. the space air is the final temperature being controlled. Not shown. or outdoor air. Figure 14. Of course. the thermostat opens or closes a valve in the gas supply line. is a high-limit thermostat. a room thermostat T starts and stops a refrigeration compressor motor M of an air conditioning unit.

Control of Outside and Return Air Proportions Controls on larger systems are often used to vary amounts of outside air. as seen in Figure 14. as explained previously. it is used in combination for certain purposes that will be explained. However.26). 0----. Two sets of dampers move together so that one closes as the other opens on call from the thermostat. 14. This control is used in variable air volume (VAV) systems. or refrigerant to a terminal unit or coil in a duct (Figure 14. This is done so that the outside air can be used for cooling when suitable. Space control of HW boiler burner motor or gas valve. This arrangement is used in both dual duct and multizone systems (Chapter 12).24. from a minimum fresh air requirement to all outside air. 2·way valve -r : ~-----0 Terminal unit I Coil • • ~ -- . because it does not provide feedback.22 Control of Face and Bypass Dampers The quantity of air flowing over the cooling coil or bypassed around the coil is varied by the opposing motion of the two dampers (Figure 14. Control of Flow Rate Through Valves A room thermostat may be used to vary the flow of hot water. A warm air furnace would use a similar control.23 Space control of water flow rate through terminal unit or coil in duct.AUTOMATIC CONTROLS 379 Control of Mixing Dampers A room thermostat varies the proportions of hot and cold air from two ducts (Figure 14.23) using automatic valves. Control may be provided from a mixed air Control of Volume Dampers The room thermostat varies the supply air quantity by controlling a modulating damper D. Figure 14. chilled water. thus varying the heating or cooling output.25).12 CONTROL FROM OUTDOOR AIR Although the outdoor air temperature rather than space temperature could be used to control space temperature. this is seldom done. HW boiler Oil burner motor orgas valve Figure 14.

When the outdoor air temperature rises to a level at which it has no cooling effect (near room temperature). Thermostat Tl operates through a highlimit thermostat T2 . both conserving energy. :b) Dual duct and mixing box.380 CHAPTER 14 . There are days when the humidity.•.. even though its temperature does not indicate this. Whether using temperature or enthalpy sensing. mixed air thermostat Tl gradually opens maximum outside air dampers and closes return air dampers to provide outside air in the range of 50-60 F.29). this system is called ecol!omi~er control. Outdoor Temperature Reset A control arrangement that is sometimes included as part of the control system is to have an outdoor thermostat reset (change) the temperature at which a variable is controlled. D /Damper / " / Figure 14. it may reset the water temperature in a boiler (Figure 14.25 Space control of mixing dampers for multizone and dual duct systems. For example. (a) Multizone unit. Heating coil <.1 (i)-_m~:m'" moO. is lower than that of the return air. The controller senses wet bulb tem- perature and therefore enthalpy of the outside and· return airstreams and sets the air proportion so that outside air is used for cooling whenever its enthalpy. not its temperature. Figure 14. When outdoor air temperature rises. and therefore enthalpy. of the outside air may be low enough so that it is useful for cooling. as seen in Figure 14. thermostat that adjusts the outside and return air dampers to provide cool outside air when required.. The minimum outside air damper is open during the coldest weather. An immersion thermostat T2 controls the boiler water temperature at its set point through the burner motor.!j----l ~ o C C o / To zone " Mixing dampers To zone Cooling coil (a) (b) I I I " I~. Controlling these dampers saves operating the refrigeration equipment and also prevents the introduction of excess outside air at high temperatures. As the outdoor temperature rises.28). the outside air (OA) and return air (RA) dampers are modulated to provide cooling from the outside air whenever it is suitable. thermostat T2 takes over and closes the maximum outside air damper. ~ . For these reasons.24 -- Space control of air flow rate through damper..27. An arrangement that will offer even better energy conservation uses an enthalpy controller (Figure 14.

is the master thermostat and T2 is the submaster thermostat. T.27 Outdoor temperature control of outside and return air dampers for energy conservation. resets the control point of T2 lower. A water chiller has a refrigeration compressor whose capacity is controlled by an immersion thermostat in the chilled water supply line. resets the control point of T2 to reduce overheat- Figure 14. Duct thermostat T. Another example is shown in Figure 14. with separate space control of water flow rate. medium control is useful because it is desirable to keep the chilled water temperature at a constant value in order to ensure proper dehumidification. In these examples. and overheating in mild weather is reduced. The thermostat modulates the compressor capacity to maintain a constant chilled water temperature.30 operates in a similar manner. In this application. In the examples described previously.31. such as water flow rate. controls the air supply temperature to the space through the automatic valve. _____ j£J" /" / .26 Space control of face and bypass dampers. Return air . - . Outdoor thermostat T. outdoor thermostat T. The duct heating system in Figure 14. The system usually also includes additional control from space temperature.. "/' "/' ""/' L---==r"------Mixed air T.AUTOMATIC CONTROLS 381 ®/ V /' 1------0 1 Bypass damper ing. This is often done on large chilled water HVAC systems./ ------- T2 0 /' ----I 1 Outside air - Max. the immersion and duct thermostats are controlled from water and sllPply air temperatures. Another reason for medium control is that faster response may be achieved by controlling the supply air or water temperature. Face damper Figure 14. the hot water supply temperature is inversely proportional to the outside temperature. In this way. Further space control might be furnished through variable volume or other means. This of course also results in energy conservation.13 CONTROL FROM HEATING/COOLING MEDIUM It is often advantageous to control equipment from controllers sensing the conditions in the heating or cooling medium. ""- /' 0 C "/' - 14. The methods by which compressor capacity is modulated are discussed in Chapter 13. Min.-------- ! .

If the room temperature becomes too low. and medium control are used. a space humidistat controls a humidifier. The controls operate as follows: I.29 Outdoor reset of water temperature. The cooling coil is controlled by the room thermostat as long as room humidity is below the humidistat setting. humidity.32. "and ventilation are all required. It operates as follows: .15 COMPLETE CONTROL SYSTEMS One of the individual temperature control arrangements described previously may serve as the complete control system in a simple heating or cooling· system. The cooling coils are often used for both cooling and dehumidifying in a cooling system. the humidistat takes control of the cooling coil. winter days. some form of reheating after cooling is used. The psychrometrics of this process are explained in Chapter 7. 3. combinations of space. -- "L "/' -- Figure 14. overheating of rooms is avoided. The outdoor thermostat shuts off the pump when the outdoor temperature rises to a value that requires no building heating. calling for cooling.14 HUMIDITY CONTROL For humidification in heating systems. One arrangement is shown in Figure 14. By stopping the pump automatically when no heating is needed. The outdoor thermostat T2 resets the control point of thennostat T J as the outdoor temperature varies. however.28 Enthalpy control of outside and return air dampers for energy conservation.34. the thermostat operates the reheat coil. 14. This control system provides good temperature control and also conserves energy. Steam or water spray humidifiers located in the ductwork are used. Room thermostats T3 control the terminal unit valves to maintain desired space temperatures.33. The HVAC system provides summer and winter space temperature control and ventilation. or to provide closer control. HW boiler Mixed air Figure 14. further energy is conserved. 4. 2. providing greater comfort and less energy use.: By reducing water supply temperature on mild. In this case. It may also be done to conserYe energy. When the humidity rises above the control point. .382 CHAPTER 14 Return air Enthalpy controller l -.J 14. Often. outdoor. The immersion (medium) thermostat T J controls the hot water supply temperature through the burner operation. An example of a control system for a single zone year-round air conditioning system is shown in Figure 14. Two examples of possible control system arrangements will be described. Min.--1 :0 \ / \ / \ / 0 ""/' /' Outside air -Max. A hot water heating control system with individually controlled rooms or zones is shown in Figure 14. but no humidity control.This may be done because controls of temperature.

} water I.'j'. H C . 1-------------------.. I I I Compressor : I I Chiller Chilled f----<Figure 14. minimum outside air is used.30 Outdoor reset of supply air temperature.32 Space temperature and humidity control of cooling and heating coils. During the heating season. 2. - J . The enthalpy controller (or a temperature controller) positions the return air and maximum outside air dampers so that maximum free cooling is achieved during the cooling season. Figure 14.AUTOMATIC CONTROLS 383 1-----------------Heating coil I I I I ~~ _____ J I I I Fan T2 H C I Figure 14. The air discharge thermostat T J controls the cooling coil (summer) or heating coil (winter) to regulate discharge air temperature.'j'. l-------------r-----------r---I : ~ V g v : @ 0 - V C C ..31 Control of chilled water temperature.

There are hundreds of other rrangements. In response to a change in room temperature. In DOC.384 CHAPTER 14 ~ I r--~ Ter~inal '(. with a little patience. The use of :nthalpy control to conserve energy has been exllained previously. A summer-winter room thernostat might be used to control at two different oom temperatures. We will outline the basic operation and a few advantages of DOC. avoiding the complex tenninology and structure of DOC systems.---@ I I I ---T-----------~ I I I I I I I boiler Figure 14.---@ I I . however. . Using the room thermostat to control the discharge thermostat provides faster response of the . The scheme using computers is called direct digital control (DOC).---------I .Y umts . These examples are given to illustrate how concols can be combined. I I - - ----T---. . the room thermostat resets the control point of the discharge thermostat. they are com- posed of the basic elements and. The room thennostat T2 acts as a master controller to the submaster T]. A sensor igure 14. In each case. the conventional control arrangement is to have each controller sense a signal and then send an action directly to a controlled device. The use of digital microcomputers in HVAC control systems has changed this control sequence. [!]~ \ / \ / "/ lEJr_r4/ ""- ~ ~ Fin t- v C C ~--~ ~ I I t I Q H C 2- S- f U . 3.ystem to changes in room temperature.33 Hot water heating control system example.34 ear-round air conditioning control system example. Direct Digital Control (DOC) As we have learned. conventional controllers are not used. the student can analyze their operations.

With the aid of a sketch. describe twoposition control action. 6. Explain the terms set point. Problems 14. Explain controller differential and operating differential and why they are different. With the aid of a sketch. (The signal from the sensor is usually conditioned by intermediate devices so that it is in a form that the computer can understand. a valve) as needed. describe space temperature and humidity control of a cooling and heating coiL With the aid of a sketch. Review Questions I. 9. Energy conservation strategies are easily handled in the computer program. 14. temperature) to the computer. 12. What are the applications of each type? With the aid of a' sketch. and throttling range. With the aid of a sketch. its purpose. 10. describe the three types of flow characteristics of control valves.) The computer then sends out a signal to operate the controlled device (e. describe a hot water heating system control with individual room temperature control and outdoor reset of supply water temperature. Explain the purposes of automatic controL Sketch a functional block control diagram for an open-loop and for a closed-loop system.g. What are the two most common energy sources for control systems? With the aid of a sketch.. With the aid of a sketch.. describe a mixing valve and a diverting valve. rather than relying on many pieces of hardware and their connections that can get out of calibration and break down. 4. 7. 5. Describe tnree types of thermostat sensors. describe a yearround single zone air conditioning system that controls space temperature with economizer control for energy conservation. What are the proper applications of each type? With the aid of a sketch. 3. Label and describe basic elements. 15. and two ways of accomplishing it. This results in improved conditions and reduced operation and maintenance work. Sketch the piping connections of a mixing valve and a diverting valve to control flow rate through a coiL 17.2 A three-way mixing valve on a water chiller is controlled by an immersion thermostat to . describe outdoor rest control of HW boiler supply temperature. offset. describe the control of a boiler burner from space temperature. This sequence is complex even in our simplified explanation. describe the two types of multiblade damper arrangements.1 A warm air heating system has a room thermostat that controls the furnace oil burner motor. Control changes (e. describe the control of a multizone unit mixing dampers from space temperature. With the aid of a sketch. With the aid of a sketch. With the aid of a sketch. 20. but achieves some important advantages.. describe temperature economizer control of outside and return air dampers. 16. Explain the term snap action. set points) can be made at one central point (the computer) instead of having to be done at each controller. With the aid of a sketch. Draw a functional block control diagram and identify the elements. 18. 19.g. With the aid of a sketch. control point. 14. 8.AUTOMATIC CONTROLS 385 transmits the sensed signal (e. describe proportional plus reset control action. This signal is also usually conditioned so that it is suitable for the controlled device. Explain what a dead band thermostat is. describe proportional control action. 13. What is its purpose? II.g. 2.

The thermostat has a 2 F differential setting.386 CHAPTER 14 I. :~ maintain constant chilled water temperature. 14.. 14. A duct thermostat in the supply airstream maintains a minimum discharge air temperature.5 A cooling thermostat is set to control flow through a fan coil unit at a room temperature of 78 F.~ . The response lag is 2 F. Between what values does the room temperature vary? What is the operating differential? . Draw a component control diagram. Draw a functional block control diagram and identify the elements. 14. Draw a component control diagram. ~ .4 An air conditioning system has a DX cooling coil with face and bypass dampers.3 A room thermostat controls a two-way modulating valve to a hot water heating coil in a central air conditioning unit. A room thermostat opens a two-position solenoid val ve at minimum load and then modulates the face and bypass dampers.

OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter. our presentation can cover only a small part of this subject. In this chapter.c H A p T E R Energy Utilization and Conservation n the past. Costs for energy used in building operations have become such a significant expense that it is necessary that they be kept to a minimum level. Sharply rising fuel prices and concerns of shortages have changed this situation. you will be able to: 1. It should also be noted that energy use and conservation in HVAC systems are closely related to energy use in lighting and other building systems. installation. and new ideas are constantly developing. 387 2. little attention was usually given to conserving the energy used by HVAC systems because of the relatively low cost of fuel. energy conservation in design. I Some of the energy material covered in other chapters may be repeated here. Determine the efficiency. Some of the energy recovery equipment that has become popular will be described. Calculate thermal energy conservation values as specified in energy codes. l I . Determine the seasonal heating requirements and fuel costs for a building using the degree day method. and efficiency in operation. On the other hand. or energy efficiency ratio (EER) of energy conversion equipment: 3. COP. and how to find this information. The use of computers as a tool in analyzing these problems will be discussed. This requires a thorough analysis of energy use and conservation in HVAC design. and operation. This is done intentionally so that all of the information is presented together. The intention of this chapter is to give the student an idea of how to approach the problem of energy conservation in an organized manner to indicate what factors should be considered. Our discussion of these subjects will also be limited. The scope of techniques for energy conservation is vast. we will explain procedures for analyzing energy use.

The actual values are calculated by formulas to confirm compliance with the prescribed criteria. Also. a computerized approach is recommended. ft 2 Uw = U-value of opaque portion or exterior wall. or operating personnel. We will describe the type of calculation procedures involved in the prescriptive method. bear in mind that each locality regularly revises its codes according to new developments. For real applications. The data and procedures used here will be selected and adapted from energy codes of actual states. C. roof/ceiling. or floor Ug = U-value of glass = area of glass Ud = U-value of door Ag Ad = area of door The Uo-values are calculated for a proposed construction and then compared to the allowable values. is defined as (15. the proposed building energy use and cost is determined and compared to the prescribed values for compliance. Software is available from some of the sources listed in the Bibliography. Describe energy recovery equipment used in air conditioning. design. as well as a basis for many state building energy codes. or floor. they will intentionally not be identical to any particular code.1 is a simplified version of such values. The purpose of our presentation is to show the student the approaches used in sound HVAC energy efficient design.388 CHAPTER 15 4. No one can successfully practice in the HVAC industry without a reasonable knowledge of this subject. Actual codes and standards specify different . 6. However. BTUlhr-ff-F Ao = total area of exterior wall. In this procedure. Energy cost budget method (ECB). or floor. roof/ceiling. A. ASHRAE Standard 90. System peiformance method. the maximum permissible overall thermal performance values U" of the building components are prescribed. roof/ceiling. Standards have been developed that have already been adopted as part of almost all state building codes. roof/ceiling.1) where U0 = overall thermal performance of exterior wall. The prescriptive method is the simplest but offers the least flexibility in varying proposed construction features to meet the standard. and maintenance. Energy Efficient Design of New Bui/dings is widely used by HVAC designers as a basis for building energy use standards. installation. the whole building envelope is consid- Heating Design Requirements The overall thermal performance Uo for a component such as a wall. It lends itself to manual or computerized solutions. The data we present is only a small selection from a typical code and is modified for learning value. the student must follow the actual energy code for hislher state. roof/ceiling. Table 15. Describe uses of computers in the HVAC field. or floor Aw = area of opaque wall. 5. Suggest energy conservation procedures in construction. B. Because of the voluminous database involved in the other two methods. Component peiformance or prescriptive method.1 ENERGY STANDARDS AND CODES It must be recognized that use of energy studies and conservation techniques is no longer optional on the part of the HVAC designer. There are three methods that are permitted in order to meet specified HVAC energy standards/ codes. contractor.1. or floor. III this procedure. In this procedure. ered a system whose thermal performance must meet the prescribed standards. 15.

BTUlhrft2 V"' Vg = V-values for exposed opaque wall. and compare it to the suggested standard. Conceptually they are similar.1 MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE OVERALL THERMAL PERFORMANCE Va-VALUES FOR BUILDING ENVELOPE COMPONENTS.69 Ad = 100 ft2.1 does not meet the standard specified.ENERGY UTILIZATION AND CONSERVATION TABLE 15. and other building operations.000 BTUlhr per square foot per year has been suggested for residences in some climates.: and construction presu