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35J
Aircraft Systems Engineering
Introduction to Aircraft
Performance and Static Stability
Prof. Earll Murman
September 18, 2003
Today’s Topics
• Specific fuel consumption and Breguet range
equation
• Transonic aerodynamic considerations
• Aircraft Performance
– Aircraft turning
– Energy analysis
– Operating envelope
– Deep dive of other performance topics for jet transport
aircraft in Lectures 6 and 7
• Aircraft longitudinal static stability
Thrust Specific Fuel Consumption (TSFC)
• Definition:
TSFC
lb of fuel burned
(lb of thrust delivered)(hour)
• Measure of jet engine effectiveness at converting fuel to
useable thrust
• Includes installation effects such as
– bleed air for cabin, electric generator, etc..
– Inlet effects can be included (organizational dependent)
• Typical numbers are in range of 0.3 to 0.9. Can be up to 1.5
• Terminology varies with time units used, and it is not all
consistent.
– TSFC uses hours
– “c” is often used for TSFC
lb of fuel burned
– Another term used is
c
t
(lb of thrust delivered)(sec)
Breguet Range Equation
• Change in aircraft weight = fuel burned
dW =÷c
t
Tdtc
t
TSPC/3600 Tthrust
• Solve for dt and multiply by V
·=
to get ds
dsV
·
dt =÷=
V
·
dW
÷=
V
·
W
dW
÷=
V
·
L
dW
c
t
T c
t
TW c
t
D W
• Set L/D, c
t
, V
·=
constant and integrate
R
3600 L
ln
W
TO
TSFC
V
·
D W
empty
Insights from Breguet Range Equation
R
3600 L
ln
W
TO
TSFC
V
·
D W
empty
3600
TSFC
represents propulsion effects. Lower TSFC is better
L
V
·
D
represents aerodynamic effect. L/D is aerodynamic efficiency
L L L
V
·
D
a
·
M
·
D
. a
·
is constant above 36,000 ft. M
·
D
important
ln
W
TO
represents aircraft weight/structures effect on range
W
empty
Optimized L/D  Transport A/C
“Sweet spot” is in transonic range.
20
waves
1 2 3
M
a
x
(
L
/
D
)
Mach No.
Concorde
Losses
due to
10
shock
Ref: Shevell
8
8
Transonic Effects on Airfoil C
d
, C
l
C
d
Region I. II. III.
M
cr
M
drag
divergence
1.0 M
M<1
8
M<1
M>1
M<1
M>1
Separated flow
M < M I.
8cr
V
8
M < M
8
< M
drag
II.
cr
divergence
III. M > M
V
drag
divergence
Strategies for Mitigating Transonic Effects
• Wing sweep
– Developed by Germans. Discovered after WWII by Boeing
– Incorporated in B52
• Area Ruling, aka “coke bottling”
– Developed by Dick Whitcomb at NASA Langley in 1954
• Kucheman in Germany and Hayes at North American contributors
– Incorporated in F102
• Supercritical airfoils
– Developed by Dick Whitcomb at NASA Langley in 1965
• Percey at RAE had some early contributions
– Incorporated in modern military and commercial aircraft
Basic Sweep Concept
• Consider Mach Number normal to leading edge
sin µ=1/ M
·
M
·=
M
n
µ=
A=
=M
·
cosA
µ== Mach angle,
the direction
disturbances
travel in
supersonic flow
• For subsonic freestreams, M
n
< M
·=
 Lower effective “freestream”
Mach number delays onset of transonic drag rise.
• For supersonic freestreams
– M
n
< 1, A=> µ= Subsonic leading edge
– M
n
> 1, A=< µ= Supersonic leading edge
• Extensive analysis available, but this is gist of the concept
Wing Sweep Considerations M
·=
> 1
• Subsonic leading edge
– Can have rounded subsonic type wing section
• Thicker section
• Upper surface suction
• More lift and less drag
• Supersonic leading edge
– Need supersonic type wing section
• Thin section
• Sharp leading edge
Competing Needs
• Subsonic Mach number
– High Aspect Ratio for low induced drag
• Supersonic Mach number
– Want high sweep for subsonic leading edge
• Possible solutions
– Variable sweep wing  B1
– Double delta  US SST
– Blended  Concorde
– Optimize for supersonic  B58
V
8
Supercritical Airfoil
Supercritical
airfoil shape
keeps upper
surface velocity
from getting too
large.
C
p
C
p, cr
Uses aft camber
x/c
to generate lift.
Gives nose
down pitching
moment.
Today’s Performance Topics
• Turning analysis
– Critical for high performance military a/c. Applicable to all.
– Horizontal, pullup, pulldown, pullover, vertical
– Universal Me=turn rate chart , Vn diagram
• Energy analysis
– Critical for high performance military a/c. Applicable to all.
– Specific energy, specific excess power
– Mh diagram, min time to climb
• Operating envelope
• Back up charts for fighter aircraft
– Me=diagram  “Doghouse” chart
– Maneuver limits and some example
– Extensive notes from Lockheed available. Ask me.
Horizontal Turn
W = L cos, == bank angle
Level turn, no loss of altitude
F
r
= (L
2
 W
2
)
1/2
=W(n
2
1)
1/2
Where n ÷=L/W = 1/ cos=is the load
factor measured in “g’s”.
But F
r
= (W/g)(V
2
/R)
So radius of turn is
F
lig
h
t p a t h
θ
R
z
φ
R = V
2
/g(n
2
1)
1/2
And turn rate e==V
/R is
φ
R
L
F
r
z
e=g(n
2
1)
1/2
/ V
W
Want high load factor, low velocity
Pull Up Pull Over Vertical
R
L
W
θ
R
L
W
θ
R
L
W
θ
F
r
= (LW) =W(n1) F
r
= (L +W) =W(n+1)
F
r
= L =Wn
= (W/g)(V
2
/R) = (W/g)(V
2
/R)
= (W/g)(V
2
/R)
R = V
2
/g(n1) R = V
2
/g(n+1)
R = V
2
/gn
e==g(n1)/ V
e==g(n+1)/ V
e==gn/ V
Vertical Plan Turn Rates
T
u
r
n
r
a
t
e
r
a
t
i
o
,
K
θ
2.5
Pullover from inverted attitude
Vertical maneuver
Pullup from level attitude
K
θ
=
Vertical plane
turn rate
Horizontal plane
turn rate
Let u
Ý
e=
2.0
K
Pull Over
e=
=(n+1)/(n
2
1)
1/2
1.5
Vertical Maneuver
1.0
K
e=
=n/(n
2
1)
1/2
0.5
Pull Up
0 K
e=
=(n1)/(n
2
1)
1/2
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Load factor, in 'g's
For large n, K
e=
»1 and for all maneuvers e ~ = gn/ V
Similarly for turn radius, for large n, R ~=V
2
/gn.
For large e=and small R, want large n and small V
e ~ gn/ V
= gn/a
M
so e ~ 1/ M
at const h (altitude) & n
Using R ~ V
2
/gn, e ~ V
/R = a
M
/R. So e ~ M
at const h & R
For high Mach numbers, the turn radius gets large
R
min
and e
max
1/2
Using V
= (2L/µ
SC
L
)
1/2
= (2nW/µ
SC
L
)
R ~ V
2
/gn becomes R = 2(W/S)/ gµ
C
L
W/S = wing loading, an important performance parameter
And using n = L/W = µ
V
2
SC
L
/2W
e ~ gn/ V
= g µ
V
C
L
/2(W/S)
For each airplane, W/S set by range, payload, V
max
.
Then, for a given airplane
e
R
min
= 2(W/S)/ gµ
C
L,max
max
= g µ
V
C
L,max
/2(W/S)
Higher C
L,max
gives superior turning performance.
But does n
CL,max
= µ
V
2
C
L,max
/2(W/S) exceed structural limits?
Vn diagram
V*
2n W
max
0
q
>
q
m
a
x
V*
C
L
< C
Lmax
C
L
< C
Lmax
Stall area
Stall area
Structural damage
Structural damage
L
o
a
d
f
a
c
t
o
r
n
Positive limit load factor
Negative limit load factor
C
L, max
µ
·
S
Highest
possible e=
Lowest
possible R
Each airplane has a Vn diagram.
Source: Anderson
8
V
Summary on Turning
• Want large structural load factor n
• Want large C
L,MAX
• Want small V
• Shortest turn radius, maximum turn rate is
“Corner Velocity”
• Question, does the aircraft have the power
to execute these maneuvers?
Specific Energy and Excess Power
Total aircraft energy = PE + KE
E
tot
= mgh + mV
2
/2
Specific energy = (PE + KE)/W
H
e
= h + V
2
/2g “energy height”
Excess Power = (TD)V
Specific excess power*
= (TVDV)/W
= dH
e
/dt
P
s
= dh/dt + V/g dV/dt
P
s
may be used to change altitude, or accelerate, or both
* Called specific power in Lockheed Martin notes.
Excess Power
Power Required
P
R
= DV
= q
S(C
D,0
+ C
2
/tARe)V
L
= q
SC
D,0
V
+ q
SV
C
2
/tARe
L
= µ
SC
D,0
V
3
/2 + 2n
2
W
2
/µ
SV
tARe
Excess power
depends upon
velocity, altitude
and load factor
V
8
P
R
P
A
P
o
w
e
r
Excess
power
Parasite power
Induced power
required
required
Power Available
P
A
= TV
and Thrust is approximately
constant with velocity, but varies
linearly with density.
Altitude Effects on Excess Power
P
R
= DV
= (nW/L) DV
= nWV
C
D
/C
L
From L= µ
SV
2
C
L
/2 = nW, get
1/2
V
= (2nW/ µ
SC
L
)
Substitute in P
R
to get
1/2
P
R
= (2n
3
W
3
C
2
D
/ µ
SC
3
L
)
So can scale between sea level “0” and
altitude “alt” assuming C
D
,C
L
const.
1/2
V
alt
= V
0
(µ
0
/µ
alt
)
1/2
, P
R,alt
= P
R,0
(µ
0
/µ
alt
)
Thrust scales with density, so
P
A,alt
= P
A,0
(µ
alt
/µ
0
)
Summary of Power Characteristics
• H
e
= specific energy represents “state” of aircraft. Units are in
feet.
– Curves are universal
• P
s
= (T/WD/W)V= specific excess power
– Represents ability of aircraft to change energy state.
– Curves depend upon aircraft (thrust and drag)
– Maybe used to climb and/or accelerate
– Function of altitude
– Function of load factor
• “Military pilots fly with P
s
diagrams in the cockpit”,
Anderson
A/C Performance Summary
h h h h
V V V
app
V
N/A
Factor Commercial
Transport
Military
Transport
Fighter General Aviation
Liebeck Takeoff
obs
= 35’
obs
= 50’
obs
= 50’
obs
= 50’
Liebeck Landing
app
= 1.3 V
stall app
= 1.2 V
stall
= 1.2 V
stall app
= 1.3 V
stall
Climb Liebeck
Level Flight Liebeck
Range Breguet Range Radius of action*.
Uses refueling
Breguet for prop
Endurance,
Loiter
E (hrs) = R (miles)/V(mph), where R = Breguet Range
Turning,
Maneuver
Emergency handling Major
performance
factor
Emergency
handling
Supersonic
Dash
N/A Important N/A
Service
Ceiling
100 fpm climb
Lectures 6 and 7 for commercial and military transport
* Radius of action comprised of outbound leg, on target leg, and return.
Stability and Control
• Performance topics
deal with forces and
translational motion
needed to fulfill the
aircraft mission
• Stability and control
topics deal with
moments and
rotational motion
needed for the aircraft
to remain controllable.
S&C Definitions
L' • L’  rolling moment
• Lateral motion/stability
•
• Longitudinal
motion/control
M
M  pitching moment
Elevator deflection
N
Rudder deflection
• N  rolling moment
• Directional motion/control
M
Moment coefficient:
C
M
q
·
Sc
Aircraft Moments
• Aerodynamic center (ac): forces and moments can be completely
specified by the lift and drag acting through the ac plus a moment about
the ac
– C
M,ac
is the aircraft pitching moment at L = 0 around any point
• Contributions to pitching moment about cg, C
M,cg
come from
– Lift and C
M,ac
– Thrust and drag  will neglect due to small vertical separation from cg
– Lift on tail
• Airplane is “trimmed” when C
M,cg
= 0
Absolute Angle of Attack
L
i
f
t
s
l
o
p
e
=
C
α
L=0
d
C
L
d
α
L
i
f
t
s
l
o
p
e
=
C
d
C
L
d
α
α
C
L
α
a
C
L
L, max L, max
Lift coefficient vs geometric angle of attack, α Lift coefficient vs absolute angle of attack, α
a
• Stability and control analysis simplified by using
the absolute angle of attack which is 0 at C
L
= 0.
• o
a
= o=+ o
L=0
Criteria for Longitudinal Static Stability
C
M,0
α
a
C
M,cg
α
e
S
l
o
p
e
=
d
C
M
,c
g
d
α
a
( Trimmed)
C
M,0
must be positive
cC
M,cg
must be negative
co
a
Implied that o
e
is within flight range of angle of attack
for the airplane, i.e. aircraft can be trimmed
Moment Around cg
M
cg
M
ac
wb
+=L
wb
(hc÷=h c)÷=l
t
L
t ac
L
Divide by q
·
Sc and note that C
L,t
t
q
·
S
t
l S
(h ÷=h ) ÷=
t t
C
L,t
, or C
M,cg
C
M,ac
wb
+C
L
wb
ac
cS
l S
(h ÷=h ) ÷=V
H
C
L,t
, where V
H
t t
C
M,cg
C
M,ac
wb
+C
L
wb
ac
cS
(h ÷=h )÷=V
H
C
L,t
C
M,cg
C
M,ac
wb
+C
L
wb
ac
do=
a, wb
C
L
wb
dC
L
wb
o
a, wb
a
wb
o
L
i
f
t
s
l
o
p
e
=
d
C
l
d
α
C
l
C
l, max
C
l, t
a
t
o a
t
(o
wb
÷=i
t
÷c )
t
where c is the downwash at the
tail due to the lift on the wing

cc
 =
α
L=0 o c= c
0
+
= 
a, wb
\ co.
α
stall
α
 =
cc
 =
\

÷=a
t
(i
t
+c
0
) C
L, t
a
t
o
a, wb
1 ÷
co.
At this point, the
convention is drop
the wbon a
wb
+=ao (h ÷=h )÷=V
H
1÷=

( +V
H
a
t
(
i
t
+c
0
)
C
M,cg
C
M,ac
wb
=
ac
a
t
 =
cc

( =
a
=
a\ co
(
¸ =
.
¸ =
Eqs for Longitudinal Static Stability
+=ao (h ÷=h )÷=V
H
1÷=

( +V
H
a i C
M,cg
C
M,ac
wb
=
ac
a
t
 =
cc

( =
t
(
t
+c
0
)
C
M,cg
a
=
a\ co.
(
¸ ¸ =
C
M,0
÷=C
M,cg
C
M,0
α
e
S
l
o
p
e
=
d
C
M
,c
g
d
α
a
( Trimmed)
 =  =
=  i
\ .
l 0
C
M,ac
wb
+V
H
a
t
(
t
+c
0
)=
cC
M,cg
=
)÷=V
H
a
t
 =
cc

( =
a (h ÷=h
1÷=

( =
=
ac
co=
a
¸
a\ co
(
.
¸
α
a
• C
M,acwb
< 0, V
H
> 0, o
t
> 0 ¬=i
t
> 0 for C
M,0
> 0
– Tail must be angled down to generate negative lift
to trim airplane
• Major effect of cg location (h) and tail parameter V
H
=
(lS)
t
/(cs)in determining longitudinal static stability
Neutral Point and Static Margin
cC
M,cg
=
)÷=V
H
a
t
 =
cc

( =
a (h ÷=h
1÷=

( =
=
ac
co=
a
¸
a\ co
(
.
¸ =
• The slope of the moment curve will vary with h, the
location of cg.
• If the slope is zero, the aircraft has neutral longitudinal
static stability.
a
t
 =
cc
 =
• Let this location be denote by
h
n
h
ac
+V
H
1÷=
 =
a\ co.
c
( )
=÷a h ÷=h
C
M,cg
a h ÷=h
( )
=÷a× static margin
n n
• or
co=
a
• For a given airplane, the neutral point is at a fixed location.
• For longitudinal static stability, the position of the center of
gravity must always be forward of the neutral point.
• The larger the static margin, the more stable the airplane
Longitudinal Static Stability
Aerodynamic center
location moves aft for
supersonic flight
cg shifts with fuel burn,
stores separation,
configuration changes
• “Balancing” is a significant design requirement
• Amount of static stability affects handling qualities
• Flybywire controls required for statically unstable aircraft
Today’s References
• Lockheed Martin Notes on “Fighter Performance”
• John Anderson Jr. , Introduction to Flight, McGraw
Hill, 3rd ed, 1989, Particularly Chapter 6 and 7
• Shevell, Richard S., “Fundamentals of Flight”, Prentice
Hall, 2nd Edition, 1989
• Bertin, John J. and Smith, Michael L., Aerodynamics
for Engineers, Prentice Hall, 3rd edition, 1998
• Daniel Raymer, Aircraft Design: A Conceptual
Approach, AIAA Education Series, 3rd edition, 1999,
Particularly Chapter 17
– Note: There are extensive cost and weight estimation
relationships in Raymer for military aircraft.
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