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Global Slavery Index 2013

Global Slavery Index 2013

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Published by Beatriz Tur
The Global Slavery Index 2013 measures the size of the modern slavery problem, country by country. The Index provides a quantitative ranking of 162 countries around the world according to the estimated prevalence of slavery, that is, the estimated percentage of enslaved people in the national population at a point in time. The Global Slavery Index also examines the risk factors and outlines the strength of the government responses in the fight against modern slavery.
The Global Slavery Index 2013 measures the size of the modern slavery problem, country by country. The Index provides a quantitative ranking of 162 countries around the world according to the estimated prevalence of slavery, that is, the estimated percentage of enslaved people in the national population at a point in time. The Global Slavery Index also examines the risk factors and outlines the strength of the government responses in the fight against modern slavery.

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Published by: Beatriz Tur on Jan 13, 2014
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ESTIMATED NUMBER ENSLAVED <100
POPULATION

320,137 (2012)442

GDP

$13.66 BILLION (2012)443

GDP/CAPITA

$42,658 (2012)444

US TIP REPORT RANKING

TIER 1 (2013)
REMITTANCES AS A SHARE OF GDP 0% (2011)445

Iceland

Ratified

Slavery Convention

No

Supplementary Slavery Convention

Yes

UN Trafficking Protocol

Yes

Forced Labour Convention

Yes

Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention

Yes

CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children

Yes

Domestic Work Convention

No

102.

ICELAND CONTINUED

Investigations and especially prosecutions are rare under these provisions, which are unsurprising given
the small number of victims identified; however Iceland should conduct an evaluation of law enforcement
activities to ensure that they are vigorous and broad enough to capture all types of modern slavery.

The 2012 US TIP Report described Iceland’s victim services as “robust” but suggested that Iceland needs
to strengthen its efforts to detect victims, especially outside the sex industry.

Notable aspects of the response

Iceland is a member of the Council of the Baltic Sea States Taskforce against Trafficking in Human Beings,
the objective of which is “to counteract trafficking in human beings in the Baltic Sea Region through
preventive and protective activities.” Iceland has also funded anti-
trafficking activities abroad, with an emphasis on activities in Russia,
Belarus and the Baltic States.

Once identified, female victims have access to housing and specialised
social services. Specialised services are not available to male victims,
however according to the US TIP report they have access to general
social services. Identified, suspected victims of trafficking have access
to a 6 month reflection period as well as extended visas if they cooperate with law enforcement or can
demonstrate “compelling circumstances” – such as the fear of retribution or danger upon returning to
their country of origin.449

Shelter Kristínarhús (House of Kristine) opened in September 2011 and offers housing and counselling to sex
workers and victims of trafficking for sexual exploitation. Kristínarhús is a part of Stigamot, which is the main
counselling center in Iceland (based in Reykjavik) for victims of sexual abuse. In total, 20 women stayed in
Kristínarhús in 2012. The majority of the women were Icelandic but 9 of the women were foreign, coming
from Africa and Eastern Europe. Of the 20 cases, 15 were thought to involve exploitation in the sex industry
(the other 5 were living in Kristínarhús due to other forms of sexual violence). In 2012, three children
were born while their mothers stayed in Kristínarhús450

and staff have commented on the challenges and

complexities of protecting the interests of children in such situations.451

Under Iceland’s workplace laws, workers in certain industries are required to be issued with ID cards. These
industries include building and construction industries, hospitality, some retail stores, manufacturing, meat
processing, and farming. Workplaces in these industries are also subject to inspections, the goal of which
to “ensure that employers and their employees comply with relevant legislation, regulations and wage
agreements.” Information as to the effectiveness of the scheme of workplace ID cards and inspections in
detecting modern slavery is unavailable.

Iceland criminalised the purchase, but not the sale, of sexual services in 2009, which was justified at the time
as an anti-trafficking measure. An evaluation of the effectiveness of this ban in reducing modern slavery has
not been conducted, however, this legislation receives wide public support in Iceland.452

Strip clubs are also

banned in Iceland since 2010. Recent media reports have raised concerns about practices at “champagne
clubs,” where clients pay for private access to women.453

It has been alleged that, during visits by reporters,

women showed signs of human trafficking.454

3. WHAT NEEDS TO HAPPEN?

Iceland should:

■Review its legislation prohibiting modern slavery to ensure that is adequately captures all types and
modalities of modern slavery.

449

“US Trafficking in Persons Report 2013”, US Department of State: http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/210737.pdf

450

Stigamot Annual Report 2012 http://www.stigamot.is/files/pdf/arsskyrsla2012.pdf (Icelandic)

451

Mbl.is: http://www.mbl.is/frettir/innlent/2013/04/03/kljast_vid_mjog_groft_ofbeldi/ (Icelandic)

452

Information from field based source.

453

“Calls for Investigation of Champagne Club”, (19 July 2013), The Reykjavík Grapevine: http://grapevine.is/News/ReadArticle/Calls-For-Investigation-Of-Champagne-Clubs

454

“Anything you want for Twenty Thousand Kronur”, (18 July 2013), The Reykjavík Grapevine: http://grapevine.is/News/ReadArticle/Anything-You-Want-For-Twenty-

Thousand-Kronur

ICELAND HAS … FUNDED
ANTI-TRAFFICKING ACTIVITIES
ABROAD, WITH AN EMPHASIS
ON ACTIVITIES IN RUSSIA,
BELARUS AND THE BALTIC
STATES

103.

■Conduct an independent evaluation of the effectiveness of its ban on the purchase of sexual services
in preventing modern slavery.

■Strengthen investigation and prosecution capability in relation to all types of modern slavery.

■Publish information on the extent and nature of modern slavery, including the results of any research
and information about investigations and prosecutions of modern slavery offences.

■Conduct an evaluation of the effectiveness of its victim support programmes.

■Ensure that the rights of migrant workers are protected, and conduct an evaluation of its system
of workplace identity cards and inspections in preventing modern slavery.

■Ensure that male victims of modern slavery receive support and services.

■Ensure that the interests of children are protected in all of its responses to modern slavery.

104.

455

Correlation is a measure of the relationship between two variables (such as the amount of slavery and the level of corruption). A correlation indicates whether the relationship
exists and, if it does, how strong it is. It can also show whether the two variables move together (slavery and corruption go up and down together), or if they have an “inverse”
relationship (when corruption goes up, slavery goes down). A correlation cannot determine whether one variable causes another variable to change (corruption causes slavery), only
if there is a relationship between the two variables.

456

Correlation measures the “statistical significance” of a relationship. This means it determines if there really is a relationship between the two variables, or if what seems to be
a relationship simply happened by chance. For the correlations in this section all of the relationships we present have only a 1 in 1,000 likelihood of having occurred by chance.

457

See for example, Human Rights Watch (2010), From the Tiger to the Crocodile: Abuse of migrant workers in Thailand, New York, Human Rights Watch.

458

Data used is from 2012, available from http://www.transparency.org/whatwedo/pub/corruption_perceptions_index_2012”

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