THE SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT LIFE

CYCLE

Secondary IT Year 2

WHAT IS THE SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE?

WHAT IS THE SYSTEM CYCLE?

DEVELOPMENT LIFE

Phased approach to analysis and design of the system. Blue Print for developing the information system. Divided into seven phases

THE SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE PHASES
7. Implementing and evaluating the system
1. Identifying

Problems, opportunities and objectives

6. Testing and maintaining the system

2. Determining human information requirements

5. Developing and documenting software 4. Design the recommend system

3. Analysing

system needs

PHASE 1
Identifying Problems, Opportunities , and Objectives

Phase 1
Time should not be wasted by addressing the wrong problem. The analyst should know what is occurring in a business, and together with other organisational members, he should pinpoint the problems. Opportunities are situations that, according to the analyst, can be improved by using computerised information systems. The analyst must be aware of what the business is trying to do (the objective of the business) and then find the suitable aspects of information systems applications which can help the business to reach its objective.

Phase 1 Cont¶d
The people involved in this phase are users, analysts and the systems managers coordinating the project. Activities in this stage involve interviewing user management, summarising the knowledge obtained, estimating the scope of the project and documenting the results. The output of this phase is a feasibility report containing a problem definition and summarising the objectives. The management then must make a decision on whether to proceed with the proposed project.

PHASE 2
Determining Information Requirements

PHASE 2
In this phase, the analyst tries to understand what information the users need to perform their jobs. Sampling and investigating hard data, interviewing, questionnaires etc can serve as tools to define the information requirements. The people involved in this phase are the analysts and users, typically operations managers. At the end of this phase, the analyst should understand how the business functions and have complete information about the people, goals, data and procedures involved.

PHASE 3

Analysing System Needs

PHASE 3

In this phase, the analyst analyses the system needs and also the structured decisions. (For these decisions, the conditions, condition alternatives, actions and action rules can be determined). A Data Flow Diagrams (DFD) can be used in this stage as the tool to chart the input, processes and output of the business' functions in a structured graphical form. The systems analyst prepares a system proposal that summarises what has been found, provides cost/benefit analysis of the alternatives and makes recommendations on what should be done. If one of the recommendations is acceptable to the management, then the analyst proceeds along that course.

PHASE 4
Designing the Recommended System

PHASE 4

In this phase, the analyst develops the logical design of the information system. He designs accurate data entry procedures to ensure that the data going into the information system are correct. He has to decide about the design (logical) of the user interface. This phase also includes designing files or databases that will contain the data required by the decision makers of the organisation. The analyst works with users to design output (on-screen or printed) that meets their information needs. Finally the analyst designs the controls and backup procedures to protect the system and the data. He produces program specification packets (for programmers) which contain input and output layouts, file specifications, processing details.

PHASE 5

Developing and Documenting Software

PHASE 5
In this phase, the analyst works with the programmers to develop the required software. He also works with users to develop effective documentation for software (eg manuals, online help etc).

PHASE 6

Testing and Maintaining the System

PHASE 6
This phase involves analysts and programmers. The information system (which is developed) is tested (before using) in this phase. It is much less costly to identify and rectify the problems before the system is signed over to users. The maintenance of the system begins in this phase and is carried out on a routine basis throughout the life of the information system. (Maintenance may include updates etc.)

PHASE 7

Implementing and Evaluating the System

PHASE 7

In this phase, the analyst helps to implement the information system. This involves training the users to handle the system. The analyst needs to plan for a smooth conversion from the old system to the new one. This includes converting files from old formats to new ones or building new databases etc. The total evaluation of the system is done in this final phase. After the system is installed, it must be maintained for the following two reasons: y To correct the software errors. To enhance the software's capabilities.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful