ALKALINITAS

CHAPTER VIII PENGELOLAAN TANAH BERLANJUT

Entisols, Mollisols, Orders TanahAridisols, : Alfisols, and Vertisols, dll Suborders: Ustic, Xeric, and Natric (SAR>15)

proses terbentuknya dan Penyebabnya • Karakteristik dan permasalahan alkalinitas tanah • Tanah Salin dan Sodik • Pengelolaan Alkalinitas Tanah .OUTLINE • Batasan Alkalinitas Tanah : Definisi.

0 Neutral pH = 7.0 .0 Alkaline pH = 8.log [ + H + H OH- OH OH H+ Acid pH = 6.H2O 2 H+ + O-2 + H ] pH = .

Neutrality Acidity Alkalinity .

+ OHHCO3.+ H2O ↔ H2CO3 + OH•pH rises more for most soluble minerals (eg.+ H2O ↔ HCO3. but in soils with pH>8. K+ and Na+ do not produce acid upon reacting with water •They do not produce OH.ions either.5. there are higher concentrations of carbonate and bicarbonate anions (due to dissolution of certain minerals) CaCO3 ↔ Ca2+ + CO32or NaCO3 ↔ 2Na2+ + CO32CO32. Mg2+.5 •Ca2+.Alkaline and Saline Soils •Saline soils occur in soils with pH>8. NaCO3) H2CO H2O +by CO 3↔ 2(gas) •pH rise is limited the common ion effect .

K+.6 dan juga 8. Na+ • Adanya karbonat dan bikarbonat pada tanah alkalin terkait dengan disolusi CO2: • Kisaran pH reaksi tsb adalah antara 4.Sumber Alkalinitas • Di daerah arid dan semiarid komplek pertukaran didominasi: Ca2+. Mg2+.6 (Ca-carbonates) atau 10 (Na-carbonates) .

Calcium carbonate accumulation in the lower B horizon .

4 .N P K Mg and Ca S B Cu and Zn Mo Fe Mn Al Fungi Bacteria & Actinomycetes 4 5 6 7 Soil pH 8 9 10 Soil pH & nutrient availability 10.

Defisiensi Unsur Hara 2.PERMASALAHAN PADA TANAH ALKALIN 1. Dispersi liat .

dan Mn tidak terlarut pada pH tinggi . Fe. Cu.Defisiensi Unsur Hara 1. Zn.

Defisiensi Fe pada pohon .

2. Ketersediaan Cu menurun . 3. Ketersediaan Mo meningkat pada taraf meracuni tanaman.

4. Peningkatan kelarutan Ca dan Mg menghambat pelarutan ion P 5. P berikatan dengan Ca membentuk ikatan Ca-P yang tidak terlarut 6. bakteri dan tanaman Brassica mengeluarkan asam organik untuk memecah ikatan Ca-P PERMASALAHAN PADA TANAH ALKALIN . Fungi.

smectite) • High pH will stimulate high levels of pHdependent charge .g.CEC of alkaline soils • Higher CEC than acid soils (assuming similar texture and SOM) • 2:1 type clays common in alkaline soils have high permanent charge (e..

GIF .agric.wa.Soil clay dispersion • Penghancuran agregat • Penurunan makroporositas • Penurunan aerasi • Penurunan perkolasi • Retakan http://www.au/ikmp/images/F05790a.gov.

The white. rounded "caps" of the columns are comprised of soil dispersed because of the high sodium saturation .

• Stabilitas Agregat (dispersi dan flokulasi) tergantung keseimbangan SAR (antara Ca2+ dan Mg2+ ) dan Na+ sama dengan jumlah garam terlarut (EC) dalam tanah Ca2+ and Mg ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ ++++ 2+ + + Na+ + + + + + S EC Lower EC Higher EC Flocculated soil Dispersed soil .

Partikel tanah akan terflokulasi jika konsentrasi Ca2+ dan Mg 2+ lebih besar daripada konsentrasi Na+ (Nilai SAR rendah) Na+ + + + Ca + and Mg2+ ++ + + ++ + + + + + SAR EC Flocculated soil Dispersed soil .

Partikel tanah akan terdispersi jika konsentrasi Ca2+ dan Mg 2+ lebih rendah daripada konsentrasi Na+ (Nilai SAR tinggi) Ca2+ a nd Mg2+ ++ + ++ + Na+ SAR ++ + + + + EC Flocculated soil Dispersed soil .

5[Mg2+])1/2 SAR of 13 = ESP of 15 K could be included with Na .5[Ca 2+] + 0.Sodium adsorption ratio • Compares Na relative to Ca and Mg SAR = [Na+]/ (0.

Types of Alkaline soils TYPE Soil SALINE SODIC SALINESODIC No saline no sodic EC (mmhos/cm) ESP (%) 0-15 >15 >15 0-15 SAR 0-12 >12 >12 0-12 <4 0-4 >4 0-4 .

How to manage alkaline soils • Difficult to manage • Before identify the type of management we have to identify the type of alkaline soil • Every type (saline. OM) Leaching salts with clean water Irrigation techniques Utilizing salt tolerant crops . • In general any practice that reduces salt content will be needed . saline-sodic) has a different management. sodic. – – – – Adding amendment (gypsum.

Add water Gypsum none >>Sodium Ca.Types of Alkaline soils TYPE Soil SALINE SODIC SALINESODIC No saline no sodic pH Typical ions Ca. K . K (chlorides and sulfates) Management <8.5 >>8. Mg. Mg.5 Irrigation Gypsum Very diff. K and >>> Na Ca. Mg.5 can reach 10 >8.5 >7<8.

So.Alkaline soils can be black. and when the water evaporates leaves a very intense black color on the soil surface. not always black soils are good soils for food production. The disperse humus moves upward in the capillary water flow. . why? Because the high pH levels and high salt levels the organic matter becomes very disperse.