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Willard G. Oxtoby

NEW YORK: HARPER & BROTHERS. to learn Something about our infancy . FRANKLIN^ SQUARE. % '^ . original. •tC) f 1 */ IGNATIUS DONNELLY. 18 8 2. ^r. like the sea-sustainirg rocks. ILLUSTRATED.ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN ^ORLD. Hath formed the ba^e of tfiis world'' s fluctuous lore. . Before loe die of sheer decay. ive may almost hope. • The world has made such comet-liJce advance Lately on science. " Festcs./^"^ . Whose knowledge. sunken race.^ . when lived That great. broad-eyed.

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Civilization an Inheritance 129 II. 5 The Probabilities of Plato's Story 22 31 IV. American Evidences of Intercourse with Europe or Atlantis 165 . The Deluge of the Chaldeans IV. The Deluge of the Bible III. The Deluge Legends of America VL Some Consideration op the Deluge Legends The Destruction the Deluge 65 68 75 85 98 119 PART I. I. THE DELUGE. The Identity of the THE Civilizations of the Old World and 136 New III. of Atlantis described in Legends II. I. ^ Pagk 1 The Purpose of the Book U.CONTENTS PART ^ Chap. THE HISTORY OF ATLANTIS. The Deluge Legends of other Nations V. II. 46 54 The Testimony of the Flora and Fauna PART I. The Testimony of the Sea VI. Was such a Catastrophe Possible? V. Plato's History of Atlantis III. THE CIVILIZATION OF THE OLD WORLD AND NEW COMPARED. III.

Gold and Silver the Sacred Metals of Atlantis 34. the Cross.. Traditions of Atlantis ... 214 Europe IX.. Corroborating Circumstances V..3 II. 198 . Genesis contains a History of Atlantis The Origin of our Alphabet .. . III. VI. . The Bronze Age in . . or Wotan 313 V.. . The The The The The The The The The The Central American and Mexican Colonies Egyptian Colony Colonies of the Mississippi Valley Iberian Colonies of Atlantis Peruvian Colony African Colonies Irish Colonies from Atlantis Oldest Son of Noah Antiquity of some of our Great Inventions Aryan Colonies from Atlantis Atlantis Reconstructed 348 358 370 387 390 . The Gods of the Phcenicians also Kings of Atlantis 308 IV. Pagk . PART I. 404 408 423 440 456 472 . CONTENTS. VIII. IV.VI Chap. II.. THE COLONIES OF ATLANTIS.. X. The God Odin. and the Garden of Eden . XI. V. 183 .317 VI.... The Pyramid. 276 The Kings of Atlantis become the Gods of the Greeks 283 III.. IV. IX.. VII. . Woden. THE MYTHOLOGIES OF THE OLD WORLD A RECOLLECTION OF ATLANTIS. Artificial Deformation op the Skull . The Question of Complexion .. VIII. 171 . VI. VII. 237 268 PART IV. I. . V. .

from Deepsea Soundings Ancient Carving. according Cosmos Map of Europe. before was 39 Submerged by the Earthquake of 1819 View of the Fort of Sindree from the West Eruption of Vesuvius in 1737 in March. England Cereals of the Age of Stone in Europe 60 62 63 Ancient Irish Pipes Ancient Indian Pipe. . Mexico Carving on the Buddhist Tower. from Deep- sea Soundings 47 51 Ancient Islands between Atlantis and the Mediterranean. according to the Gamelli Careri Pictured 97 104 MS Aztecs. Stratford-on-Avon. 1838 . on the Eastern Branch of the Indus. 39 41 Map of Atlantis. New to Jersey 64 95 96 The World. Sarnath. with its Islands and Connecting Ridges. India Ancient Irish Vase of the Bronze Age Ancient Vase from the Mounds of the United States 143 . according to the The Starting-point of the ured Writing Boturini Pict- 104 Calendar Stone 107 123 137 139 142 The God of the Flood Mosaics at Mitla.ILLUSTRATIONS Page The Profile of Atlantis Frontispiece Coal-measures of Pennsylvania Destruction of Pompeii 31 33 3*7 it Calabrian Peasants Ingulfed by Crevasses (I'ZSS) Fort of Sindree. after Cosmos The Mountain the Sun goes behind at Night The Starting-point of the Aztecs.

Mound in Tennessee 253 254 254 Bronze Knives from Denmark Bronze Knives from Switzerland Hut Urn.. Pagk Ancient Mexican Vase 16t) Bearded Head. Ohio Stone Implements of Europe and America 205 206 217 219 239 Landa's Alphabet The Alphabet Implements and Ornaments of the Bronze Age Ornaments of the Bronze Age Celtic Warrior. from Teotihuacan Elephant Mound. Vera Cruz Governor and other Indians of the Pueblo of San Domingo. Louisa County. Wisconsin . Palenque 174 175 Negro Head. from a 255 255 250 Roman Com 257 257 258 Ship of William the Conqueror Irish Bronze Dagger Inscribed Celt 258 259 in the Mississippi Valley Bronze Hair-pins Vases from Mounds ..viii ILLUSTRATIONS. from Assyrian Monuments A Skull of the Age of Stone. Palenque Mexican Representation of Elephant Negro Idols found in Central America Negroid Figure. Mexico Choctaw Shawnees Savonarola 1V5 New 187 190 191 193 of The Races Men according to the Egyptians 195 201 Ruins of the Pyramid of Cholula Great Serpent-mound. from Egyptian Monuments Celtic Warrior. 249 250 250 251 Danish Celt Leaf-shaped Bronze Swords Stone Celt. Iowa Elephant-trunk Head-dress. 168 169 169 1*70 Elephant Pipe. . 166 . 260 . Albano Bronze Lake Village Bronze Razor-knives Ancient Galley. . Denmark Irish Celt 242 244 245 249 .. Denmark A Skull of the Earliest Times of the Age of Iron.

Central America 353 354 Section of the Treasure-house of Atreus at Mycenae Arch of Las Monjas. Ohio 355 373 . Ohio Great Pyramid of Xcoch. Indiana Spiral 266 266 266 266 269 Copper Axe. Mound near Nashville. 274 Egyptian Head Peruvian Inca Skull. from the Ancient Cemetery of Pachacamac The Empire of Atlantis Poseidon. Ireland Fragment of Pottery. Mexico Common Form of Arch. Lake Superior Bronze Hatchets.ILLUSTRATIONS. Waterford. Tennessee Copper Axe. or Neptune Egyptian Tau Cross from Monuments Ancient Irish Cross Central American Cross 274 275 295 305 319 of Palenque 319 320 320 320 321 322 337 338 339 341 Copper Coin. near Miamisburg. Tec-tihuacan Ancient Irish Cross — Pre-Christian—Kilnaboy Cross from Egyptian Monuments Pyramids of Egypt Pyramids of Teotihuacan The great Mound. Page 261 261 Bronze Chisels 262 262 262 263 263 263 265 265 from Scotland Spiral from New Mexico Spirals Discoidal Stones. Illinois Copper Spear-head. San Jose. Switzerland from New Mexico Shell Ornament. Palenque. Mexico Stucco Bass-relief in the Palace of Palenque Ancient Swiss Skull 270 271 271 Peruvian Skull Chinook (Flat-head). Lake Neufchatel. from a Mound near Laporte. Switzerland Fragment of Pottery. Central America Graded Way near Piketon. IX Vases from Switzerland Ancient Swiss Vase and Supporter . after Catlin Heads from Palenque Outlines of Skulls of Different Races 272 273 Egyptian Heads Central American 274 Head .

. Greece Cyclopean Masonry. the Phoenician God Moqui Idol Dakota Idol Peruvian Devil Greek Siren Chinese Magnetic Car Ancient Coins of Tyre Coin from Central America Ancient Egyptian Plough 400 407 417 418 427 428 428 429 429 429 430 442 444 445 460 I . Troy Tamahu. Switzerland Baal. Paqi: Walls at Gran-Chirau. Peru Cross and Pyramid Mound. . Peru Owl-headed Vase. Emblem of the Bronze Age. Peru Owl-headed Vase. Mycenae (from Schliemann) Religious S.. 1500 b.the Mounds of the Ohio Valley Cyclopean Wall. from the Egyptian Monuments.X ILLUSTRATIONS. Peru 397 397 398 398 399 Owl-headed Vase. Colorado. U. Troy Owl-headed Vase. in the Shetlands Round-tower of the Canon of the Mancos.c The Burgh of Moussa. Ohio 375 375 381 From. Cow-headed Idol.

2. the Mississippi River. These are in the Atlantic Ocean. THE HISTOKY OF ATLANTIS. the Amazon. . That it became. in the course of ages. which was the remnant of an Atlantic continent. the Gardens of the Hesperides the Elysian Fields. That Atlantis was the region where man rose from a state of barbarism to civilization. Chapter I.and the Caspian were populated by civilized nations. as has been long supposed. THE PURPOSE OF THE BOOK. fable. . and cient world as Atlantis. 1 . the Black Sea. from whose overflowings the shores of the Gulf of Mexico. the Pacific coast of South America. This book 1. a large island. opposite That there once existed mouth of the Mediterranean Sea. 5. tlie is an attempt to demonstrate several distinct and novel propositions. the Baltic. PART I. 3. 4. known to the an- That the description of this island given by Plato first is not. That it was the true Antediluvian world the Garden of Eden. a populous and mighty nation.: : ATLANTIS THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. the Mediterranean.. but veritable history. the west coast of Europe and Africa.

parent of the Euro- pean alphabets. 12. the Mesomphalos the Olyrapos. That the mythology of Egypt and Peru represented the which was sun-worship. as well as of the Semitic peoples. the Hindoos. many problems which now perplex mankind they will confirm in . and possibly also of the Turanian races.2 ATLANTIC: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. That the gods and goddesses of the ancient Greeks. That Atlantis was the original seat of the Aryan or Indo-European family of nations. That the Phoenician alphabet. queens. 11. and and west the tidings of the apwhich has survived to our own time in palling catastrophe. That the oldest colony formed by the Atlanteans was probably in Egypt. the Phoenicians. which was also conveyed from Atlantis to the Mayas of Central America. the Asgard of the traditions of the ancient nations. and the Scandinavians were simply and the acts atthe kings. carried to the nations east That a few persons escaped in ships and on rafts. where early mankind dwelt and happiness. 13. with nearly all its inhabitants. . 10. If these propositions can be proved. and heroes of Atlantis tributed to them in mythology are a confused recollection of for ages in peace 6. real historical events. Avere first The Atlanteans were all also the manufacturers of iron. whose civilization was a reproduction of that of the Atlantic island. they will solve . was derived from an Atlantis alphabet. 8. 9. original religion of Atlantis. . the Flood and Deluge legends of the different nations of the old and new worlds. That the implements of the "Bronze Age" of Europe derived from Atlantis. the Gardens of Alcinous. representing a universal memory of a great land. in which the whole island sunk into the ocean. That Atlantis perished in a terrible convulsion of nature. v.

3 respects the statements in the opening chapters of Gen- they will widen the area of human history . now proves to us that the Egyptian navigators had really passed the equator. "His minute infor Herodotus has increased. in the language of Frederick Schlegel. The fact that the story of Atlantis years regarded as a fable proves nothing. because the exhad progressed a certain distance this circumstance. liars. For a thousand years was believed that the legends of the buried cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum were myths: they were spoken of as " the fabulous cities." There was a time when the expedition sent out by Pharaoh was doubted. the more their regard and esteem Buckle says. "the deeper and more comprehensive the researches of the moderns have been. which then the sun was north of them aroused suspicion. — of the Baltic. Plutarch sneered at him. always those The people it nearest to the past are not who are best informed concerning the past. many esis .THE PURPOSE OF THE BOOK. and anticipated by 2100 years Vasquez de Gama in his discovery of the Cape of Good Hope." For a thousand years the educated world did not credit the accounts given by He- rodotus of the wonders of the ancient civilizations of the Nile and of Chaldea." formation about Egypt and Asia Minor is admitted by all He was called "the father of geographers. or the Phoenician had settled in Syria. in the old and new worlds and they will aid us to rehabilitate the fathers of our civilization. or the Goth had reached the shores ancient civilizations found . loved." Even Now. and labored ages before the Aryans descended upon India. they will ex- plain the remarkable resemblances which exist between the upon the opposite shores of the Atlantic Ocean. was for thousands of There is an unbelief is which grows out of ignorance. and our fundamental ideas the men who lived. . as well as a scepticism which born of intelligence. our blood. Necho to circumnavigate Africa plorers stated that after they .

4 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. . thought. If T succeed in demonstrating the truth of the somewhat startling propositions with it will which I commenced this chapter. Further investigations and discoveries confirm the correctness of the conclusions at which I have arrived. I trust. only be by bringing to bear upon the question of At- lantis a thousand converging lines of light of researches made by scholars in different fields of from a multitude modern will.

" Solon attempted in verse a large description.' And again " ' : Wine. not want of leisure (as he was apprehensive the work would be and therefore did not go through with it. it is for us the history of Atlantis. but by reason of his age. or it poem ever had. all and beauty still their the shades of life. Plato lived 400 years before the birth of Christ. Chapter II. charms bestow. His anwas the great law-giver of Athens 600 years be- fore the Christian era. and he ended his is erected a grand entrance to it. or rather fabu- lous account of the Atlantic Island. " ' I grow in learning as I grow in age.FLAW a HIHTOJiY OF ATLANTIS.' "Plato. as a delightful spot in pied. These verses are a proof that business was not the hinderance Plato would have it). Solon. such as no other story. and which particularly concerned the Athenians. and cheer us as we go. Plutarch says. PLATO'S HISTORY OF ATLANTIS. If our one of the most vaUiable records which have come down to ns from antiquity. as he began late. life before the work. too much for him. But. Solon visited Egypt. fable. so that the more the reader delighted with . which he had learned from the wise men of Sais. cestor. to some fair field unoccu- which also he had some claim by reason of his being related to Solon. Light wit. laid out magnificent courts and enclosures. Plato has preserved views are correct. ambitious to cultivate and adorn the subject ot the Atlantic Island.

It is as follows Critias. who remembered. by Plutarch. my grandfather. but many thousands kingdom of of years before even the establishment of the Egypt. is the part that finished. certainly true. and. and no history of antiquity . testify. by Nile's deep mouth. and his- torian like himself. like himself. as Solon. On the Canopian shore. and he was anxious to preserve for his half-civilized countrymen this inestimable record of the past. Dropidas. not only thousands of years before the era of Greek civilization." There he conversed upon points of philosophy and history with the most learned of the Egyptian priests." written. and is which have been preserved to us." and Solon doubtless realized fully the vast importance of a record which carried human history back. He dwelt. he tells us. that there were of old great and marvellous actions of the Athenians. one of the profoundest minds of the ancient world. "You have no antiquity of history. as he himself says in several of his poems and Dropidas told Critias. Plato . thinker. Socrates. as his laws his sayings. Then listen. There no improbability in the statement that he commenced in verse a history and description of Atlantis. declared. The Egyptian priest had said to Solon. . which he left unfinished and it requires no great stretch of the imaginaat his death . a scholar. the more "regret he has to find Egypt. great-grandfather. We know of no better way to commence a book about Atlantis than by giving in full the record preserved by Plato. who was a strange tale. for a period of ten years. which is. it un- There can be no question that Solon are fully explained " visited The causes of his departure from Athens. tion to believe that this manuscript reached the hands of his successor and descendant. to however. and told us. He was a man of extraordinary force and penetration of mind. the wisest of the my He was a relative and great friend of seven sages. which have passed into oblivion throuo-h time and the destruction of the human race .6 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.

and is the city from which Amasis the king was sprung. who addressed "About the him. made poetry the business of his life." said the other. And the citizens have a deity who is their foundress she is called in the Egyptian tongue Neith." He replied " At the head of the Egyptian Delta. which is asserted by them to be the same whom the Hellenes called Athene. I well remember. where the river Nile divides. . I will tell an old-world story which I heard from an aged man for Critias was. which Solon recounted? Critias. will which was the greatest of them all. One of our tribe. or any poet. brightened up at this. to attend to other matters. the citizens of this city are great lovers of the Athenians. tion of . at that time nearly Now ninety years of age. and said. or Hesiod. or because he thought that he would please Critias. in his judgment. which were new at the time. but which. has not come down to us. our parents gave prizes for recitations. Amynander. through the lapse of time and the destruction of the actors. Very good and what is this ancient famous acwhich Critias spoke. the day was that day of the Apaturia which is called the registration of youth at which. not as a mere legend. the be a suitable testimony of our gratitude . 7 in particular. but as a veritable action of the Athenian State. The old man. Now. smiling: "Yes.PLATO'S HISTORY OF ATLANTIS and one to jou. and many of us sung the poems of Solon." "And what was that poem about. Solon was not only the wisest of men but the noblest of poets. said that. if Solon had only. there is a certain district which is called the district of Sais. and how and from whom Solon heard this veritable tradition. and : : . . recital of ." " Tell us. according to custom. and I was about ten years of age. greatest action which the Athenians ever did. by reason of the factions and troubles which he found stirring in this country when he came home. and the great city of the district is also called Sais. Critias?" said the person Socrates. and which ought to have been most famous. like other poets. in my opinion he would have been as famous as Homer. " the whole story. either because this was his real opinion. and the poems of several poets were recited by us boys. and had completed the tale which he brought with him from Egypt. which . and had not been compelled. as he said.

Now. and he traced the genealogy of their descendants. after the Deluge. burnt up all that was upon the earth. the son of Helios.' he replied. who was received by them with gTeat honor and he asked the priests. Thither came Solon. that once upon a time Phaethon. — O this. for which reason the things preserved The fact is. and was himself destroyed by a thunder-bolt. having always a tendency to come up from below. on the other hand. having yoked the steeds in his father's chariot. and Solon.8 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. of this: structions of . and a great conflagration of things upon the earth recurring at long intervals of time: when this happens. the gods purge the earth livers us. Thereupon.' . many demankind arising out of many causes. he began to tell about the most ancient things in our part of the world about Phoroneus. about antiquity.' and about Niobe. mind you are all young. saves and deWhen. those who live upon the mountains. who were most skilful in such matters. but really signifies a declination of the bodies moving around the earth and in the heavens. hearing there is never an old man who is an Hellene. said. who is our never-failing savior. to tell of the lives of Deucalion and Pyrrha. and there will be again. and. but in this country neither at that time nor at any other does the water come from above on the fields. that wherever the here are said to be the oldest. because he was not able to drive them in the path of his father. say that they are in some way related to them. nor any science which is hoary with age. Solon. And I will tell you the reason ' ^ 'that in there have been. ' Solon. What do you mean ?' I mean to say. you Hellenes are but children. There is a story which even you have preserved. said. among you herdsmen and shepherds on the mountains are the survivors. On one occasion. who is called 'the first. and to give the dates. and attempted to reckon how many years old were the events of which he was speaking. who was of very great age. with a deluge of water. and from this calamity the Nile. and made the discovery that neither he nor any other Hellene knew anvthinjy worth mentioninoj about the times of old. there is no old opinion handed down among you by ancient tradition. one of the priests. and in dry and lofty places are more liable to destruction than those who dwell by rivers or on the sea-shore. this has the form of a myth. whereas those of you who live in cities are carried by the rivers into the sea. when he was drawing them on to speak of antiquity.

whereas there were many of them and. and know nothing of what happened in ancient times. they are no betfor. As for those genealogies of yours which you have recounted to us. in the next place. and earnestly requested the priest to inform him exactly and in order about these former citizens. or in any other region of which we are informed— if any action which is noble or great. you do not know that there dwelt in your land the fairest and noblest race of men which ever lived. I will briefly inform you of their laws and of the noblest of their actions. and the exact particulars of the whole we will hereafter go through at our leisure in the sacred registers themselves. receiving from the Earth and Hephtestus the seed of your race. at the usual period.PLATO'S HISTORY OF ATLANTIS. And whatever happened either in your country or in ours. Solon. and was preeminent for the excellence of her laws. for the sake of the goddess who is the common patron and proShe founded your city tector and educator of both our cities. a thousand years before ours. and is preserved in our temples. And this was unknown to you. If you compare these very laws with your own. and at other times diminishing in numbers. . and to have had the fairest constitution of any of which tradition tells. . 1* . and thus you have to begin all over again as children. Solon.' Solon marvelled at this. . 'You are welcome to hear about them. in the first place. or in any other way remarkable has taken place. ago. you reter than the tales of children member one deluge only. For there was a time. and then she founded ours. you . before that great deluge of all. of whom you and your whole city are but a seed or remnant. because for many generations the survivors of that destruction died and made no sign. and is said to have performed the noblest deeds.' said the priest. Solon. 9 extremity of winter frost or of summer sun does not prevent. all that has been written down of old. the constitution of which is set down in our sacred registers As touching the citizens of 9000 years as 8000 years old. the stream from heaven descends like a pestilence. whereas you and other nations are just being provided with letters and the other things which States require and then. when the city which now is Athens was first in war. 'both for your own sake and for that of the city and. and leaves only those of you who are destitute of letters and education . either among us or among yourselves. above all. under the face of heaven. the human race is always increasing at times.

but that other is a real sea. in those days the Atlantic was navigable. who exercise their several crafts by themselves. and to which your city put an This power came forth out of the Atlantic Ocean. next caste of priests. and then in Asiatic countries. and without admixture of any other and also there is the class of shepherds and that of hunters. and excelled all mankind in all virtue. that the warriors in Egypt are separated from all the other classes. recorded of your State in our liistories. which is separated from all the others . and adding every sort of knowledge which was connected with them. And there you dwelt. and first of all settled that spot which was the most likely to produce men likest herself. there are the artificers. and this the goddess taught first among you. commanded by the law only to engage in war. do you observe what care the law took from the very first. the weapons with which they are equipped are shields and spears. for end. All this order and arrangement the goddess first imparted to you when establishing your city. there is the they were in the olden time. and the surrounding . and was the way to other islands. searching out and comprehending the whole order of things down to prophecy and medicine (the latand out of these divine elements ter with a view to health) drawing what was needful for human life. moreover. but one of them exceeds all the rest in greatness and valor for these histories tell of a mighty power which was aggressing wantonly against the whole of Europe and Asia. and from the islands you might pass through the whole of the opposite continent which surrounded the true ocean for this sea which is ' .10 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. having a narrow entrance. as to wisdom. and she chose the spot of earth in which you were born. who was a lover both of war and of wisdom. and you will observe. . too. and we among the Asiatics first adopted. within the Straits of Heracles is only a harbor. having such laws as these and still better ones. and there was an island situated in front of the straits wliich you call the Columns of Heracles: the island was larger than Libya and Asia put together. and are . as became the children and Many great and wonderful deeds are disciples of the gods. because she saw that the happy temperament of the seasons in that land would produce the wisest of men. as In the first place. selected. Wherefore the goddess. . as well as that of husbandmen . " Then. will find that many of ours are the counterpart of yours.

. I would specially invoke Mnemosyne for all the important part of what I have to tell is dependent on her favor. 617. .) . for she was the first in courage and military skill. after having undergone the 7ery extremity of danger. Of the combatants on the one side the city of Athens was reported to have been the ruler. I doubt not that I shall satisfy the requirements of this theatre.' (" Plato's Dialogues. and of Europe as far as Tyrrhenia. in the island land may be most truly called a continent. once had an extent greater . being compelled to stand alone. and brought hither by Solon. "But in addition to the gods whom you have mentioned. and freely liberated all the others who dwelt within the limits of Heracles. and. The vast power thus gathered into one. and to have directed the contest the combatants on the other side were led by the kings of the islands of Atlantis. she defeated and triumphed over the invaders. . Timceus. and was the leader of the Hellenes.. and the whole of the land which was within the straits and then. that nine thousand was the sum of years which had elapsed since the war which was said to have taken place between all those who dwelt outside the Pillars of Heracles and those who dwelt within them this war I am now to describe. which. : .. of Atlantis there was a great and wonderful empire.PLATO'S HISTORY OF ATLANTIS." ii. " Let me begin by observing. which had rule over the whole island and several others. But afterward there occurred violent earthquakes and floods. they subjected the parts of Libya within the Columns of Heracles as far as Egypt. To that task. your country shone forth. I will at once address myself. . and was sunk beneath the sea. and in a single day and night of rain all your warlike men in a body sunk into the earth. Solon. . endeavored to subdue at one blow our country and yours. first of all. and preserved from slavery those who were not yet subjected. And that is the reason why the sea in those parts is impassable and impenetrable. And when the rest fell off from her. \\ Now. among all mankind. and if I can recollect and recite enough of what was said by the priests. and the island of Atlantis in like manner disappeared. as well as over parts of the continent . in the excellence of her virtue and strength. then. besides these. as I was saying. because there is such a quantity of shallow mud in the way and this was caused by the subsidence of the island.

and copied them out again in our language. Solon. . The consequence is that. but have them in common. who was inI will tell you the reason of this tending to use the tale for his poem. for that is the number of years which have elapsed since the time of which I am speaking and in all the ages and changes of things there has never been any settlement of the earth flowing down from the mountains. it has always been carried round in a circle. in comparison of what then was. Yet. for I have told you the reason of them. than that of Libya and Asia and. left " And next. in writing them down. Dropidas. which was of great length. began as follows: I have before remarked.1 A TLANTIS : THE ANTEDIL U VJAN WOULD. I will impart to you the character and origin of their adversaries . if I have not forgotten what I heard when I was a child. which is still in my possession. as they may be called. I ought to warn you that you must not be surprised if you should hear Hellenic names given to foreigners. "The tale. that they distributed the whole earth into portions dif: . became an impassable barrier of mud to voyagers sailing from hence to tlie ocean. and found that the eai'ly Egyptians. . had translated them into their own language. Let us give the precedence to Athens. for friends should not keep their stories to themselves. My great-grandfather. and was carefully studied by me when Therefore. in this country. before proceeding farther in the narrative. and the mere skeleton of the country being . had the original writing. . which is worth speaking of. the Athenians as they were in that day. first of all. . you must not be surprised. all the richer and softer parts of the soil having fallen away. if you hear names such as are used I was a child. The progress of the history will unfold the various tribes of barbarians and Hellenes which then existed. when afterward sunk by an earthquake. as in other places. as they successively appear on the scene but I must begin by describing. and disappeared in the depths below. there are remaining in small islets only the bones of the wasted body. and he recovered the meaning of the several names and retranslated them. "Many great deluges have taken place during the nine thousand years. in speaking of the allotments of the gods. and their enemies who fought with them and I shall have to tell of the power and form of government of both of them. . made an investigation into the meaning of the names.

which was the largest and best. making alternate zones of sea and land. receiving. as he was a god. And he named them all: the eldest. and had intercourse with her. and very fertile. larger and smaller. and. and from him the whole island and the ocean received the name of Atlantic. dividing the island of Atlantis into ten portions: he gave to the first-born of the eldest pair his mother's dwelling and the surrounding And him kingthem rule over many men and a large territory. he named Atlas. and they had an only daughter. who was named Cleito. and in the centre of the whole island. To his twin-brother. bringing two streams of water under the earth. and gave extremity of the island toward the Pillars of Heracles. he gave the name which in the Hellenic languao-e is Eumelus. encircling one another. whose name was Evenor. Poseidon.for his lot the island of Atlantis. and made over the rest the others he made princes. there was a plain which is said to have been the fairest of all plains. enclosed the hill in which she dwelt all round. The maiden was growing up to womanhood when her father and mother died Poseidon fell in love with her. found no diflficulty in makingspecial arrangements for the centre island. so that no man could get to the island. and settled them in a part of On the side tothe island which I will proceed to describe. and also in the centre of the island. at a distance of about fifty stadia. To the third pair of twins he gave the name Mneseus to the elder. which he caused to ascend as springs. there were two of land and three of water. which is still called the region of Gades in that part of the world. there was a mountain. Near the plain again. not very high on any side. and he had a wife named Leucippe. which he turned as with a lathe out of the centre of the island. in the lano-uao-e of the country which is named after him. equidistant every way. fering in extent. and making every He also variety of food to spring up abundantly in the earth. who was born after him. and 13 made themselves temples and sacrifices. begat and brought up five pairs of male children. Gadeirus. begat children by a mortal woman. and obtained as his . who was king. allotment. Of the second pair of twins. and Aulot the as far as the country . He himself.FLATO'S HISTORY OF ATLANTIS. for ships and voyages were not yet heard of. ward the sea. he called one Ampheres and the other Evaeraon. breaking the ground. one of warm water and the other of cold. In this mountain there dwelt one of the earth-born primeval men of that country.

and to the younger Diaprepes. with the exception of gold. And of the fifth pair he gave to the elder the name of Azaes. and was then something more than a name orichalcum was dug out of the earth in many parts of the island. Moreover. and meats. as has been already said. both for those which live in lakes and marshes and rivers. and there was provision for animals of every kind. mineral as well as metal. when we are full and tired of eating all these that sacred island lying beneath the sun brought forth fair and wondrous in infinite abundance. and the island itself provided much of what was required by them for the uses of life. There was an abundance of wood for carpenters' work. whatever fragrant things there are in the earth. twins lie called the elder Elasipy)us and the j'ounger Mestor. there were a great number of elephants in the island. because of the greatness of their empire. grew and thrived in that land. Also. they dug out of the eafth whatever was to be found there. and therefore for the animal which is the largest and most voracious of them. which we call by the general name of legumes. and ointments. and good store of chestnuts and the like. and. both the dry edible fruit and other species of food. both in city and country. — — — — . For. affording drinks. and his eldest branch always retained the kingdom. and they were furnished with everything which they could have. other direction over the country within the Pillars as far as Egypt and Tyrrhenia. which the eldest son handed on to his eldest for many generations and they had such an amount of wealth as was never before possessed by kings and potentates.TE tochtlion to the one ANTEDILUVIAN WORl Of the fourth pair of who followed him. and the fruits having a hard rind. and again. and sufficient maintenance for tame and wild animals. or woods. was esteemed the most precious of metals among the men of those days. and is not likely ever to be again. many things were brought to them from foreign countries. All these and their descendants were the inhabitants and rulers of divers islands in the open and also. and are fruits which spoil with keeping and the pleasant kinds of dessert which console us after dinner. and that which is now only a name. which may be used to play with. they held sway in the sea . All these things they received . or distilling drops of flowers or fruits. and also for those wliich live in mountains and on plains. whether roots. Now Atlas had a numerous and honorable fajnily. In the first place. or herbage. the cultivated fruit of the earth.

Now the largest of the zones into which a passage was cut from the sea was three stadia in breadth. Moreover. constructing bridges of such a width as would leave a passage for a single trireme to pass out of one into another. arid harbors. and roofed them over. and the zones and the bridge. were two stadia. as they quarried. beginning from the sea. and then they began to build the palace in the habitation of the god and of their ancestors. on the outer as well as the inner side. . which they intermingled for the sake of ornament. as well the zone of water as of land. to be a natural source of delight. and leaving an opening sufficient to entheir temples. . and. which they carried through to the outermost zone. This they continued to ornament in successive generations. 15 and they employed themselves in constrncting and palaces. on either side placing towers. until they made the building a marvel to behold for And. they at the same time hollowed out docks double Some of within. they dug size and for beauty. every king surpassing the one who came before him to the utmost of his power. from the earth. and made a passage into and out of the royal palace. This. they divided the zones of land which parted the zones of sea. a canal three hundred feet in width and one hundred feet in depth. which was the sixth part of a stadium in width. another black. and fifty stadia in length. and docks and they arranged the whole country in the following manner: First of all they bridged over the zones of sea which surrounded the ancient metropolis. making a passage from the sea up to this. and there was a way underneath for the ships. and the zone of land which came next of equal breadth but the next two. and the one which surrounded The island in the central island was a stadium only in width. for the banks of the zones were raised considerably above the water. The entire circuit of the wall which went round the outermost one they covered able the largest vessels to find ingress. and the circuit of the next wall they . kind of stone was w^hite. and a third red. but in others they put together different stones.PLATO'S HISTORY OF ATLANTIS. having roofs formed out of the native rock. quarried from underneath the centre island and from underOne neath the zones. their buildings were simple. which the palace was situated had a diameter of five stadia. and gates on the bridges where the The stone which was used in the work they sea passed in. which became a harbor. with a coating of brass. they surrounded by a stone wall.

In the interior of the temple the roof was of ivory. and performed sacrifices to each of them. too. tion of the pinnacles. others which they roofed over. with the excepbaric splendor. which encompassed the citadel. and to them they gave as much adornment as was suitable for them. and there were palaces in like manner which answered to the greatness of the kingdom and the glory of the temple. . And around the temple on the outside were placed statues of gold of all the ten kings and of their wives and there were many other great offerings. of a stadium in length and half a stadium in w idth. : — — . to be used in winter as warm baths there were the king's baths. : which remained inaccessible. was Poseidon's own temple. " In the next place. they used fountains both of cold and hot springs these were very abundant. and planted suitable trees also cisterns. Here. . Tiie. which were kept apart also separate baths for women. coming both from the city itself and the foreign cities over which they Ijcld sway. for such w^as thought to be the number of them in that day. and both kinds wonderfully adapted to use by reason of the sweetness and excellence of their waters.16 ATLAM'IS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WOULD. palaces in the interior of the citadel were constructed in this wise In the centre was a holy temple dedicated to Cleito and Poseidon. : . and the pinnacles with gold. having a sort of barAll the outside of the temple. too. flashed with the red light of orichalcum. coated with tin. and thither they annually brought the fruits of the earth in their season from all the ten portions. and others again for horses and cattle. they covered with silver. which in size and workmanship corresponded to the rest of the work. They constructed buildings about them. In the temple they placed statues of gold there was the god himself standing in a chariot the charioteer of six winged horses and of such a size that he touched the roof of the building with his head around him there were a hundred Nereids riding on dolphins. . There was an altar. The water which . and was surrounded by an enclosthis was the spot in which they originally begat ure of gold the race of the ten princes. and the baths of private persons. some open to the heaven. adorned everywhere with gold and silver and orichalcum all the other parts of the w^alls and pillars and floor they lined with orichalcum. both of kings and of private individuals. and the third. and of a proportionate height. . There were also in the interior of the temple other images which had been dedicated by private individuals.

and in length allowed to extend all round the island. ran off they carried. from their numbers. and all things were quite ready for . but of an oblong shape. I have repeated his descriptions of the city and the parts about the ancient palace nearly as he gave them. some for men. and is sheltered from the north. where were growing all manner of trees of wonderful height and beauty. and going up the country from the sea through the centre of the island two thousand stadia. while the most trusted of all had houses given them within the citadel. which were three in number. owing to the excellence of the soil the remainder was conveyed by aqueducts which passed over the bridges to the outer circles: and there were many temples built and dedicated to many gods. also gardens and places of exercise. meeting at the mouth of the channel toward the sea. for horses to race in. and : . and now I must endeavor to describe the nature and arrangement of the rest of the country. and in the centre of the larger of the two there was a race-course of a stadium in width. having in them also many wealthy inhabited villages. you would come to a wall which began at the sea and went all round this was everywhere distant fifty stadia from the largest zone and harbor. The whole country was described as being very lofty and precipitous on the side of the sea. and rivers and lakes. the whole region of the island lies toward the south. The entire area was densely crowded with habitations . use. Crossing the outer harbors. in which they exceeded all that are now to be seen anywhere. who. 17 some to the grove of Poseidon. extending in one direction three thousand stadia. kept up a multitudinous sound of human voices and din of all sorts night and day. which was nearer the Acropolis. in both of the two islands formed by the zones. and enclosed the whole.PLATO' ii HISTORY OF ATLANTIS. the more trusted of whom had their duties appointed to them in the lesser zone. and the canal and the largest of the harbors were full of vessels and merchants coming from all parts. and about the persons of the kings. The surrounding mountains he celebrated for their number and size and beauty. itself surrounded by mountains which descended toward the sea. and some set apart for horses. it was smooth and even. The docks were full of triremes and naval stores. Also there were guard-houses at intervals for the body-guard. Enough of the plan of the royal palace. but the country immediately about and surrounding the city was a level plain.

The depth and width and length of this ditch were incredible. and conveyed the fruits of the earth in ships. straight canals of a hundred feet in width were cut in the plain. and again let off into the ditch. and three javelin men. It was rectangular. in addition to so many other works. accompanied by a fighting man on foot carrying a small shield. and what it wanted of the straight line followed the line of the circular ditch. and in summer introducing the water of the canals. cutting transverse passages from one canal into anotlier. wild or tame. The leader was required to furnish for the war the sixth portion of a war-chariot. But I must say what I have heard. two archers. likewise. also. abundant for every kind of work. so as to make up a total of ten thousand chariots also two horses and riders upon them. and wood of various sorts. two slingers. and having a charioteer mounted to guide the horses. It received the streams which came down from the mountains. toward the sea. who were skirmishers. he was bound to furnish two heavy-armed men. could hardly liave been wrought by the hand of man. — . and the total number of all the lots was sixty thousand. was the order of war in the royal city that of the other nine into the sea. these canals were at intervals of a hundred stadia. it was carried round the whole of the plain. and the size of the lot was to be a square of ten stadia each way. It was excavated to the depth of a hundred feet. I will now describe the plain. to whom they were assigned according to their dwellings and villages. and touching the city at various points.18 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. Twice in the year they gathered the fruits of the eartli in winter having the benefit of the rains. — . and its breadth was a stadium everywhere. three stone-shooters. each of the lots in the plain had an appointed chief of men who were fit for military service. As to the population. was there let off From above. and winding round the plain. "And of the inhabitants of the mountains and of the rest of the country there was also a vast multitude having leaders. meadows supplying food enough for every animal. which had been cultivated during many ages by many generations of kings. and to the city. and gave the impression that such a work. and a light chariot without a seat. and was ten thousand stadia in length. and for the most part straight and oblong . and four sailSuch ors to make up a complement of twelve hundred ships. and by them they brought down the wood from the mountains to the city.

And when they were gathered together they consulted about public affairs. Then they drew from the cup in golden vessels. and would punish any one who had previously transgressed. at the same time drinking. thus giving equal honor to the odd and to the even number. if they could help. and in many cases of the laws. after spending some necessary in the temple of the god . and the bull which they caught they led up to the colum. governments was different \ 9 in each of them. . Now on the column. "Now the relations of their governments to one another were regulated by the injunctions of Poseidon as the law had handed them down. after having made a purification of the column all round. and inquired if any one had transgressed in anything. . they mingled a cup and cast in a clot of blood for each of them the rest of the victim they took to the fire. after offering sacrifice according to their customs. and passed judgment on him accol'dingly and before they passed judgment they gave their pledges to one another in this wise There were bulls who had the range of the temple of Poseidon and the ten who were left alone in the temple. punishing and slaying whomsoever he would. they swore that they would judge according to the laws on the column. transgress any of the inscriptions. pouring a libation on the fire. . and would not command or obey any ruler who commanded them to act otherwise than This was the according to the laws of their father Poseidon. therefore. at the temple of Poseidon. besides the law. whither the people were gathered together every fifth and sixth years alternately. and slain over the sacred inscription. These were inscribed by the first men on a column of orichalcum. hunted the bulls without weapons. As to offices and honors.PL A TO 'S HISTOR Y OF A TLANTIS. but with staves and nooses. prayer which each of them offered up for himself and for his family. — : .n the victim was then struck on the head by them. in his own division and in his own city. had the absolute control of the citizens. the following was the arrangement from the first: Each of the ten kings. after they had offered prayers to the gods that they might take the sacrifices which were acceptable to them. there was inscribed an oath invoking n)ighty curses on the disobedient. they had burnt the limbs of the bull. and. and that for the future they would not. and would be wearisome to narrate. which was situated in the middle of the island. and dedicating the vessel and. When.

but the most important was the following: That they were not to take up arms against one another. not caring for their present state of life. as traditions tell For many generations. sitting on the ground at night near the embers of the sacrifices on which they had sworn. and thinking lightly on the possession of gold and other property. and with too much of the mortal admixture. and became diluted too often. and. . and honor of them. and by the continuance in them of a divine nature. be. and that by excessive zeal for them. at daybreak they wrote down their sentences on a golden tablet. they were to deliberate in common about war and other matters. when they had given judgment. and extinguishing all the fire about the temple. and saw clearly that all these goods are increased by virtuous friendship with one another. "Such was the vast power which the god settled in the lost island of Atlantis. : . they being unable to bear their fortune. They despised everything but virtue. and they were all to come to the rescue if any one in any city attempted to overthrow the royal house. who were their kinsmen for they possessed true and in every way great spirits. . . and this he afterward directed against our land on the following pretext. all of them put on most beautiful azure robes. the good of them is lost. and deposited them as memorials with their robes.20 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. and the human nature got the upper-hand. . giving the supremacy to the family of Atlas and the king was not to have the power of life and death over any of his kinsmen. unless he had the assent of the majority of the ten kings. all that which we have described waxed and increased in them but w^hen this divine portion began to fade away in them. then. practising gentleness and wisdom in the various chances of life. they received and gave judgment. tune at supper. "By such reflections. they were obedient to the laws. and in their intercourse with one another. .. as long as the divine nature lasted in them. which seemed only a burden to them neither were they intoxicated by luxury nor did wealth deprive them of their self-control but they were sober. There were many special laws which the several kings had inscribed about the temples. Like their ancestors. and friendship perishes with them. . and well-affectioned toward the gods. if any of them had any accusation to bring against any one and. when darkness came on and the lire about the sacrifice was cool.

Zeus. being placed in the centre of the world.] . sees all things that partake of generation. perceiving that an honorable race was in a most wretched state. that they might be chastened and improved. which. 21 to liini wlio had an eye to see. and is able to see into such things. And when he bad :" called them together he spake as follows [Here Plato's story abruptly ends. and wanting to inflict punishment on them.PLATO'S HISTORY OF ATLANTIS. tliey began and had lost the fairest of their precious gifts but to those who had no eye to see the true happiness. they still appeared glorious and blessed at the very time when they were filled with unrighteous avarice and power. and to appear base. came unseemly. collected all the gods into his most holy habitation. who rules with law. the god of gods.

which emanated from it in every direction. ships. 95).' On the western wall was emblazoned a repa mine of gold. ceilings were everywhere incrusted with golden ornaments. Chapter III. who lived by agriculture and commerce. says: The most renowned of the Peruvian temples. or giants. it had become so enriched that it received the name of Coricancha. every part of the interior of the temple glowed with burnished the cornices were of plates and studs of the precious metal . ' . was at Cuzco. . and reasonable history of a people who built temples. under the munificence of successive sovereigns. . in . or Prescott's picture of the wealth and civilization of Peru. consisting of a human countenance looking forth from amid innumerable rays of light. cultured. There is nothing improbable in this narrative. hobgoblins. p. Prescott. . thickly powThe walls and dered with emeralds and precious stones. and canals. Almost every part of Plato's story can be paralleled by descriptions of the people of Egypt or Peru . in some respects Plato's account of Atlantis falls short of Herodotus's description of the grandeur of Egypt. where.22 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. no It is a plain of gods. For instance. resentation of the Deity. of enormous dimensions. the pride of the capital and the wonder of the empire. the same material.. THE PROBABILITIES OF PLATO'S STORY. so far as it describes a great. in his " Conquest of Peru " (vol. and educated people. " a massive plate of gold. gorgons. . in the same manner as the The figure was engraved on sun is often personified with us." There are tales in Plato's narrative no marvels. who. in fact. i. rich. or the The interior of the temple was literally Place of Gold. no myths. .

" thus testifying to the extent of its dominion. marry one of the native women.THE PROBABILITIES OF PLATO'S STORY. Central America. but it ruled " as well over />ar^5 of the continent. most nations begins with gods and de. mons. Plato says that in Atlantis there was " a great and wonderful empire. nymphs. and satyrs. fauns. and More in Bacon in the " New Atlantis. " the opposite continent " of the true ocean." solidated empire.^^ to America." that is to say. Herodotus. He would have given us a history Greek mythology. Peru. pursuit of trade. and the Valley of the Mississippi. as we will show^ hereafter. It reminds one of the information given by the Egyptian priests to Herodotus." a o . "that no divinity has appeared in human shape. solutely denied the possibility of a o-od. . Neither is there any evidence on the face of this history like the legends of that Plato sought to convey in in the guise of a fable. occupied by the " Mound Builders." the " Kingdom of Nowhere. "During the space of eleven thousand three hundred and forty years they assert. in time a great nation grows up around him. they ab- human being's descent from a If Plato had sought to draw from his imao-ination o C wonderful and pleasing story. as did it a moral or political lesson. and Europe as far as Italy. from Egypt to Peru it was one conwit. reached out to 23 The early history of all the countries around them. reasonable history of a people ruled over by their kings. and settle down ." says . We will see hereafter that the legends of . a straightforward." which "aggressed wantonly against the whole of Eu- rope and Asia. we should not have had so plain and reasonable a narrative. It not only subjugated Africa as far as Egypt." Moreover. while here we have nothing of the kind we see an im- migrant enter the country. he tells us that " this vast power was gathered into one . " which surrounded Those parts of America over which it ruled were. full of the adventures of gods and goddesses." There is no ideal It is republic delineated here. living and pro- gressing as other nations have lived and progressed since their day.

rye. as we show hereafter. and rocks red and white in color. He says they built with white. many ages by many generations of kings. will for the worship of Poseidon was universal in the earliest ages of Europe. which. The during plain of Atlantis. from the earliest pre-Christian ages. but late in the geological annals of the island " (" Voyage of the Challenger. and the discovery or development of wheat. the domestication of the horse. He also describes immense walls of black vol- canic rock in the island. and black stone. ox. 24). and the sucoats. which covered the whole of the known world. and the emblem of the cross surrounded by a circle. called " Monte Queimada " (the burnt mountain). are now found. the Hindoos as to Deva Naliuslia distinctly refer to this vast empire. p. Another corroboration of the truth of Plato's narrative is found in the fact that upon the Azores black lava rocks. was. We know that Plato did not invent the name of Poseidon. red. goat.. and hog. and barley originated in this region." as we believe. cessive generations of kings." accords with the great periods of time which were necessary to bring man from a savage to a civilized condition. Plato tells us. accepted as the emblem of the Garden of Eden. In the great ditch surrounding the whole land like a circle. and into which streams flowed down from the mountains. porous. "Poseidon-worship seems to have been a peculiarity of all the colonies previous to the time of Sidon " (" Pro- I . then this language of Plato in reference to "the many ages. we probably see the original of the four rivers of Paradise. and each with a large cavity in the centre. agriculture. Sir C. " had been cultivated If. as follows " It is formed partly of stratified tufa of a dark choc: olate color. which must have been ejected as volcanic bombs in a glorious display of fireworks at some period beyond the records of Acorean history.24 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD." vol. ii. and partly of lumps of black lava. Wyville Thom- son describes a narrow neck of land between Fayal and Monte da Guia. sheep.

The religious horse-feasts of the pagan Scandinavians were a survival of this Poseidon-worship. except with the light given by Poseidon was a sea-god because he ruled over a great land in the sea. or Neptune. also to Thrace. We find in Plato's narrative the names of some of the Phoe.) 25 This worship " was carried to Spain. because doubtfirst wheeled vehicles were the horse . p. domesticated . in speaking of " the fruits having a hard rind. and to Northern Africa. and were then supprei^sed by the Church with great difficulty. which once prevailed along they continued until the conversion all the coasts of Europe of the people to Christianity.THE PROBABILITIES OF PLATO'S STORY. but he is represented in Greek mythology as figured as standing in a war-chariot drawn Plato. is The association of the horse (a land animal) with a sea-god inexplicable." p. get these names the story is a fable Does nut? Plato. historic Nations. a sea-god. nician deities among the kings of Atlantis. Plato. and. 155.. and was the national associated with horses. and Posei- don less is represented as standing in a war-chariot. the Atlanteans had great race-courses for the development of speed in horses. horses were the favorite objects chosen for sacrifice to Posei- who tamed don by the nations of antiquity within the Historical Period they were killed.) is Poseidon. but most abundantly to Italy." refer to the cocoa- Again Plato tells us that Atlantis abounded in both cold and hot springs. affording drinks and meats and ointments." (7Z»2W. invented by the same people and they transmitted these war-chariots We know that to their descendants from Egypt to Britain. because in Atlantis the horse god of a maritime people he is was first . as Plato shows. and cast into the sea from high precipices. 148. to many of the islands. if Where ? did the Greek. How did he come to hit upon the hot springs It is a if he was drawing a picture from his imagination ? singular confirmation of his story that hot springs abound in : 2 . and to the regions around the ^gean Sea. by horses.

" p. itself sur- rounded by mountains which descended toward the revealed sea. but the country immediately about and surrounding the city was a level plain. neckties. etc. p.^^ ("Cosmos.) The three-pronged Hindoo gods. the Azores. or any encircling fixture. or to its earthly representative For this reason triple a king. . Mexico." In the same manner the ten kingdoms of Atlantis are per- petuated in all the ancient traditions." One has but to look at the profile of the " Dolphin's Ridge. Plato tells us that the destruction of Atlantis filled the sea with mud. "Smith.) We are reminded of the " tiara. 151. Arthur the object has reference to divine supremacy." 1869. and interfered with navigation. For thousands of years the ancients believed the Atlantic Ocean to be shallow. ii... sceptre or trident of Poseidon reappears constantly in ancient history. whenever (Dr. Rep. to see that this description of that precipitous elevation." as by the deep-sea soundings of the Challenger. and was therefore exclusively ascribed to the Supreme Deity. vol. "a muddy.26 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD." Schott. We find it in the hands of at the base of all the religious beliefs of — "Among the numerals the sacred three has ever been considered the mark of perfection. Plato tells us. "The whole country was very lofty and pre- cipitous on the side of the sea. emblems of various shapes are found on the belts. Jl/are tenebrosum. Guatemala. and misty sea." and the " triple round of sovereignty. are represented in the present towering peaks of the Azores.. given as is the frontispiece to this volume. as can be seen on the works of ancient art in Yucatan. which are the surviving fragments of Atlantis. and an experience wider than that possessed by Plato has taught scientific men that hot springs are a common feature of regions subject to volcanic convulsions. a faithful "The surrounding mountains. dark. and antiquity. 391. Chiapas. or any sovereign." which sheltered the plain from the north. emperor.

The Germans believed in the ten ancestors of Odin. and Libya together.. "larger than Asia. in the exterior sea.' In India we meet with the nine Brahmadikas." ^lian. taken is which quoted by Boeckh in mentions islands cules.. and who are called the Ten PeThe Chinese count ten emperors. Berosus enumerates ten Antediluvian kings whose fabulous The legends of the reign extended to thousands of years. make ten. Out of curiosity some their country alone was a continent. beyond the Pillars of Herone of these islands " the and says it was known that in inhabitants preserved from their ancestors a remembrance of Atlantis. partakers tris. philosophers on the mystical value of numbers. . an extremely large island. i." (Lenormant and Chevallier." there. who lived on pure lioma (water of life)' (nectar?). from a work now his commentary on Plato. of the East. all Theopompus (400 B.THE PROBABILITIES OF PLATO'S STORY. in his " Varia Historia " (book iii. Iranian race commence with the reign of ten Peisdadien (Poseidon?) kings. whether the mythical or historical character prevail. whether before or after the Deluge. p. which for a long time held tells dominion over us that the islands of the Atlantic Ocean. of the divine nature. they are constant to this sacred number ten. and Silenus. xviii. from other sources. 'and who preserved their sanctity. which some have vainly attempted to connect with the speculations of later religious In Chaldea. Europe. 'men of the ancient law. Other nations. their founder.) related the particulars of an interview between Midas. He stated that a race of men called Meropes dwelt They were persuaded that and had extensive cities. carry back their ancestors. or Fathers. " Anc. before the dawn of historical times. 13. who.C. chap. of them crossed the ocean and visited the Hyperboreans." vol.) The story of Plato finds confirmation An lost. King of Phr3^gia. to whatever epoch they the Book of Genesis. in which Silenus reported the existence of a great continent beyond the Atlantic. " In the patriarchs 27 number given by the Bible for the Antediluvian we liave the first instance of a striking agreement Ten are mentioned in with the traditions of various nations.). with Brahma. and the Arabs in the ten mythical kings of the Adites. extract preserved in Prochis. Hist.

The Africa. be Mongoloids. in liis Epistle to the Corinthians. great abundance . and other ancient writers mention islands situated in the Atlantic. He represents that three distinct people dwelt in Gaul: which I suppose to The indigenous population. do with seas and . The Gauls possessed traditions upon the subject of Atlanwhich were collected by the Roman historian Timagenes." vol. " which had for a long ler. and It forests." stand to be Atlantis. game were found in the climate was delicious.) Diodorus Siculus relates that the Phoenicians discovered "a large island in the Atlantic Ocean. and Africa "a country where gold and silver are so plentiful that they are esteemed no more than we esteem — iron." " Fragmenta Historicoruin GraBCorum. who had long dwelt in Eu- rope. 2. to and Ezekiel. 3. in a ands lying in the Atlantic work on the Ethiopians. he says. in all from the coast of manner of riches. 380.) Marcellus. (Didot Miiltime exercised dominion over the smaller ones. p.. " several tells thousand stadia from the Pillars of Hercules. Atlantis. 443. iv." p. The invaders from a distant island. says that there were other worlds beyond the ocean. which stood in the midst of beautiful gardens. like the Jews. preserve the memory of a much greater island. 1. several days' sail beyond the soil Pillars of Her- abounded fertile . and the trees bore fruit at all seasons of the year.28 " tis ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. which I under(" Preadamites. Clement. mountains. speaks of seven islOcean probably the Canaries and — — the inhabitants of these islands." Homer. Asia. who first lived in the century before Christ. cules." Silenus Midas that there was another continent besides Europe. Plutarch. This island was exceedingly retire the scenery was diversified by rivers. Attention may here be called to the extraordinary is number of instances in which allusion made m the Old Testament to the "islands of the sea. The Aryan Gauls." especially lu Isaiah "What had an inland people. was the custom of the inhabitants to Fish and during the summer to magnificent country-houses." St.

12 12 — X 1460 X 1805 = 17. and the fossil Calaveras skull was found deep under the base of Table Mountain. from the astronomical observations of the Egyptians and Assyrians. struck Lyktonia with the golden trident. but ffeoloffists must be remem- claim that the remains of man found in the caves of Europe date back 500.000 years. and to calculate with considerable accuracy the length of the year. in anger with Father Kronion. The Orphic Argonaut Lyktonia into separate He says. California. On the other hand. cal- culated by cycles of 1460 years zodiacal cycles. islands? 29 Did these references linking.«^ = 21. Their year consisted of 365 days. to wit. and.C. what means this number? It stands for 12 Egyptian zodiacal cydas plus 12 Assyrian lunar cycles. Chaldeans state that between the Deluge and their first historic dynasty there was a period of 39.c.their race grow out of vague traditions with " islands in the sea ?" sings of the division of the ancient islands. the whole mountain having been formed since belonged lived and died. " When the dark- haired Poseidon.520) _oQ. they would attain their original starting-point again only after 1460 years (365 X 4). Oppert read an essay at the Brussels Congress to show.542 years before our era man existed on the earth at such a stage of civilization as to be able to take note of astronomical phenomena.660 f " '^^'^»"calculating time are in agreement "These two modes of with each other. the man to whom it " M. The Egyptians.325 lunations. and were known simultaneously to one peo- . Therefore.180 years.THE riWBABlLLTIEU OF PLATO'S STORY. the zodiacal cycle ending in the year 139 of our era commenced in the year 1322 B. or An Assyrian cycle began 712 b. consequently. about 9600 years before the Christian bered that This looks like an extraordinarily long period of time." Plato states that the Egyptians told Solon that the destruction of Atlantis occurred 9000 years before that era. which caused them to lose one day in every four solar years. The 22. as they were called. that 11. says he. it date. Now. the Assyrian cycle was 1805 years.

51T 4.C. . now build up the series of cycles.542 B.805 1. told as his- from the Egyptians.242 5.127 7. derived fail to see why this story of Plato. and consequently they had on that year their common origin in one and the same astronomical observation.082 11. 1.737 1 1. it is known. Romans.622 10.162 8.30 pie. Let us then first address ourselves to that question." That observation was probably made in Atlantis. and that he was one of the twelve produced from the eight gods. a people who. In short. would seem to remove that event into a remote past.460 1.542 "At the year 11. preserved most ancient records. the ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. the two cycles came together. should have been contemptuously set aside as a fable by Greeks. Lunar Cycle. The fact that the nations Old World remembered so little of Atlantis.932 9. and who were able to trace their existence back to a vast antiquity. Chaldeans. did not believe it possible that any large part of the earth's surface could have been thus suddenly swallowed up by the sea. starting from our and the result will both be as follows Zodiacal Cycle.782 4. The wide divergence of languages which is found to exist among of the the Atlanteans at the beginning of the Historical Pe- riod implies a vast lapse of time. except the colossal fact of its sudden and overwhelming destruction. tells us that he learned from the Egyptians that Hercules was one of their most ancient deities.702 7.000 also Herodotus years before the reign of Amasis. I tory. Let us era. with their limited knowledge of the geological history of the world. It can only be because our predecessors. 17.542 712 2. and the modern world.322 6.322 2.

All the were. many of them hundreds of - in thickness. The accompanying picture represents a section of the anthracite coal- measures of Pennsylvania. once under water. WAS SUCH A CATASTROPHE POSSIBLE? All question that is is needed to answer this to briefly refer to some of the is facts revealed by the study of geology.WAS SUCH A C. embracing thousands of square miles. three different level Here we have twenty changes of the coal of the land during the formation of 2000 feet of rock and . indicated by the black lines. so deposited were the detritus or wash- ings of other continents. above the sea to each of the strata feet maintain vegetation of rock. a record of successive risings and fallings of the land. was created liad when the land risen sufficiently .\TASTHOPHE POSSIBLE? 31 Chapter TV. most of the rocks . the earth's surface In the first place. it is continents well which now exist understood. and the rocks of which they are water composed were deposited beneath the more than this. . which then stood COAL-MEASURES OF PENNSYLVANIA. coal Each of the deposits here shown. was deposited under water. and these changes took place over vast areas.

000 feet " They represent the detritus of pre-existthe north and east. and mud are deposited. stralian There can be no question that the Auis Archipelago simply the mountain-tops of a drowned continent. recounted by Professor Geikie. thickness in Illinois and Missouri from 3000 finer the to 4000 the rougher and grosser-textured rocks predom- inate in the east. gives an instructive illustration . Coal. which once reached from India to South America. gravel.32 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. The proof of this fact the nearer is that the great strata of rocks are thicker their source in the east : we approach the maximum thickness of the pala30zoic rocks of the Appalachian formation is 25. Science has gone so far as to even give it is called "Lemuria. coast-currents. the washings of rain.) (" New Amer. it is claimed. so that we is have changed the conditions of land and water that which now continent was once sea." art." The history of the growth of the European Continent. the originated. An examination of the geological formation of our Atlantic States proves beyond a doubt. and onward at least thi'ough the palaeozoic ages of American history. and that which is now sea was formerly continent. the sand. to form the rocks upon which the nations now dwell : . and since the areas supplying the waste less could scarcely have been of extent than the new strata it formed. rivers." and here. wind. it a name human race . as Cyclop. while the farther west deposits were of which the rocks are terials we go the composed the . tal it is reasonably inferred that land masses of continen- magnitude must have occupied the region now covered by the North Atlantic before America began to be. while is their minimum feet . and frost. from the manner in which the a sedimentary rocks. and other agencies of erosion . ice.. and washed into the sea. finer ma- were carried farther west by the water. — —aggregating ing lands. that they came from thickness of 45.000 to 35.000 feet in Pennsylvania and Virginia. where the oceans now roll. and rain. and whose mountains and plains were ground down by the action of volcanoes and earthquakes.

worn from the land. comprising Scandinavia. In the Silurian formations of the British is Isl- ands alone there mass of rock. As the great continent which stood where the Atlantic Ocean now is wore away. The earliest Euronorth- pean land. he says. appears to have existed in the north and north-west. the continents of America and Eu2* . Finland. with a mean breadth of over thirtythree miles. of the relations of geology to geography.WAS SUCH A CATASTROPHE POSSIBLE? 33 DESTEXJOTION OF POMPEII. and to have extended thence through North America. and the west of the British area. which would form a mountain-chain extending from Marseilles to the a North Cape (1800 miles).000 feet. and an average height of 1 6. Of the height some idea may be formed by considering the enormous bulk of the material derived from its boreal and arctic latitudes into and mass of this primeval land disintegration.

Within five thousand years. the submergence of Atlantis. as the ancient Lectonia and the granary of Europe. 437) are in the midst of great changes. and was known it is now the prairie region of Russia. Den- mark.34 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. What is now Sicily once lay deep beneath the sea it : subsequently rose 3000 feet above the of Sahara was once under water." We We We We . . Professor AVinchell says (" " The Preadamites. have seen the whole coast of a comet strike the earth. and clay. : ample geological evidence that at one time the was submerged to the depth of at least seventeen hundred feet. and are a deposit of the sea. and times a continuous rising. bearing these water-deposits on their bosom. . and its There was a time when site is on the peninsula of Corea. . and Norway have risen from 200 to 600 feet. while the new lands were rising on both sides of it. . was simply the last of a changes. rope were formed and tliere seems to have been from remote going on. and are scarcely have seen worlds in flames. Over the face of the submerged land was strewn thick beds of sand. in all the coast-line of China. . probability. its The Desert sands now burning Geologically speaking. . sea-level. Vast transpositions have taken place in in seventy years." The British Islands rose again from the sea. gravel. or since the age of the " polished stone. of the new lands.of the old ones. within number of vast by which the continent which once occupied the greater part of the Atlantic had gradually sunk under the ocean. Now this area became drained. in an accessible position near the centre of the empire. South America lifted up bodily ten or fifteen feet and let down have seen the Andes sink 220 feet again in an hour. located. still a sinkino. termed There is entire area of Great Britain by geologists " the Northern Drift. and have felt conscious of it. . the rocky barriers of the Thracian Bosphorus gave way and It had covered a vast area in the the Black Sea subsided." p. the historical period. north and east. The ancient capital. has now become nearly surrounded by water." the shores of Sweden.

and named " Nyoe. "A loud explosion was heard." On the 8th of October. from the mountain which is with such prodigious river Tandoi. sea to the eruption on the main-land a in the sea. violence that large quantities forty miles distant. and columns of hot water and boiling mud. beyond the The first eruption lasted . and immense brimstone. knowledge which world." or the it New Island . 1822. . consisting of high before a year had elapsed reef of rocks thirty fathoms which was claimed by his Danish Majesty. near the mountain of Galung Gung. scientific research The ancients With the wider has afforded the modern ? we can affirm that such an event is not only possible. of the size of nuts. A new was but a thrown up.WAS SUCH A CATASTROPHE POSSIBLE? 35 We vulsion corae now to the second question. In 1783 Iceland was visited by convulsions more trementhat country. dous than any recorded in the modern annals of About a month previous miles from the shore. but that the history of even the two centuries has fur- nished us with striking parallels for We now possess the record of numerous islands lifted above the waters. last it. ashes. Is it possible that Atlantis could have been suddenly destroyed by such a conof nature as is described by Plato regarded this part of his story as a fable.000 twenty villages were consumed fire or inundated by water. fell . a great earthquake occurred on the island of Java. sunk beneath the sea. accompanied by storms and earthquakes similar to those which marked the destruction of Atlantis. the earth shook. cliffs. in Iceland destroyed .spout. at a distance of thirty submarine volcano burst forth It ejected so much pumice 150 miles. were projected like a water. mixed with burning lapilli. The earthquake by of 1783 9000 people out of a population of 50. leaving under water. and others sunk beneath the waves. that the was covered with it for a distance of and ships island were considerably impeded in their course. . and a mass of lava thrown out " greater than the bulk of Mont Blanc.

The lavas thrown out covered one-third of Lancerota. and one trees. There was at the same time a violent earthits quake. deluged the country far and wide. tlie following days the rain fell in torrents. It came It w'as called Graham's Island. however. known before. up with an earthquake. or thrown dying on the shore. and precipitating fish floated itself with a horrible roar into the sea. the earth in the island of Lancerota. like honey." p. covering up a On the village. the cattle throughout the country dropped lifeless to the ground. which had been covered with became an enormous gulf in the form of a semicircle." In about a month the island was two hundred feet high and three miles in circumference. near In 1831 a new island was born the coast of Sicily. The Canary split Islands were probably a part of the original empire of Atlantis. These manifestations were accompanied by a storm such as the people of the country had never lasted iov five of. At the end of four days (October 12th). it soon. In one night . nearlj^ five and on rivers. Dead were on the waters in indescribable multitudes.) in the Mediterranean. in more violent than the first. and great blocks of basalt were thrown to the distance of seven miles from the volcano. suffocated by putrid vapors. It flowed at first rapidly. sum- mits broken down. like water. side. a considerable of ejected matter was thrown up in a few days another vent opened and gave out a lava stream which overran several villages. Over 4000 persons were killed and 114 villages destroyed. the face of the mountain was utterly changed. which hot water and mud were again vomited." (Lyell's " Principles of Geology. but became afterward heavy and slow. and the densely charged with mud. 430.36 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. a second eruption occurred. sunk beneath the sea. hill On the 1st of September. 11th of September more lava flowed out. and " a water-spout sixty feet high and eight hundred yards in circumference rising from the sea. hours . which condensed and fell down in drops. These dreadful commotions years. the whole island . open near Yaira. 1730.

1200 feet.WAS SUCH A CATASTROPHE POSSIBLE? 37 for The Gulf of Santorin. Kaimeni.D. an earthquake CALABEIAN PEASANTS INGULFED BT CREVASSES (1783). 1573 another island was created. and "Thia" (the Divine) made its appear- ance. destroyed issuing many houses in Thera. called "the In 1848 a volcanic small sunburnt island. Pliny informs us that in the year 186 B. the island of "Old Isle.D. over whole mass of Santorin has sunk. 19 the island of was lifted up from the sea. has been two thousand years a scene of active volcanic operations. in the Grecian Archipelago.C. and the sulpliur and hydrogen from the sea killed 50 persons and 1000 domestic since its 2>^ojection ani- mals. In A. A recent examination of these islands shows that the sea." or the Sacred in A. from the ." convulsion of three months' duration created a great shoal.

through which ships tvith difThe darkness in daytime was more ficulty forced their way. winds carried up men. above Luckput." (Raffles's " Violent whirl- cattle into the air. in the island Sumbawa. p. Lyell's great work the following curious pict- ures of the appearance of the Fort of Sindree before and after In April. except in one direction. on the eastern arm of the Inin dus. and floating timber. "In 1828 Sir A. on the 12th of April. The tops of the ruined walls still rose two or three feet above the level of the water. a mass two feet thick and several miles in extent. horses." says Lyell ("Principles of Geology. so that the ivater remained .38 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WOBLD. 1815. 28. on the west side of Sumbawa. and the only land visible consisting of ground uplifted by a recent earthquake. one of the most frightful eruptions recorded Tomboro. 462). and covered the whole sea with "History of Java. together with a tract of country 2000 square miles in extent. i." p. "the floating cinders to the westward of Sumatra formed.. was overflowed by the sea. in the province of in history occurred in the province of of Tomhora. and. "presents to the im- agination a lively picture of the revolutions now in progress on the earth a waste of waiters where a few years before all was land.) The ashes darkened the air . he could behold nothing in the horizon but water. was submerged 1819 by an earthquake.''^ profound than the blackest night." — We give from the inundation. about two hundred miles from the eastern extremity of Java. Oat of a population of 12. only twenty-six individuals escaped. The fort and village of Sindree. This scene. Burnes went in a boat to the ruins of Sindree. "The town called Tomboro. ^Yhich encroached upon the shore. tore up the largest trees by the roots. The sound of the explosions was heard for nearly one thousand miles. but was most violent on the 11th and 12th of July." vol. where a blue streak of land to the north indicated the Ullah Bund.000. standing on one of these. It lasted from April 5th to July of that year. where a single remaining tower w\as seen in the midst of a wide expanse of sea.

in circumference. WAS » VIEW OF TUE FOET OF 8INDEEK FROM TUE WEST IN MAEOU. . BEFORE IT SUBMERGED BY THE EARTHQUAKE OF 1S19. ground opened. 1S38.NtIH OF TUE INDUS. permanently eighteen feet deep in places where there before. threiv out water. ON THE EASTERN BBA. lish ivas land The area covered miles in by the convulsion was 1000 Eng''In the island of Amhoyna. the the same month and year.WAS SUCH A CATASTROPHE POSSIBLES 39 FOET OF SINDREE.

000 inhabitants. at the Ox Mountains. full of people. It is very probable that the centre of the convulsion was in the bed of the Atlantic. closed and then p. preceded by volcanic action.000 persons perished. and closed again over them. The ancient annals contain numerous accounts of eruptions. and that it was a successor of the great earth throe which. 1788. and from Canada to Algiers. and has been many times in the past the seat of disturbance. and. at or near the buried island of Atlantis. It extended from the Baltic to the West Indies. In six minutes 60. had brought destruction upon that land. were destroyhill ed. A great concourse of people had collected for safety upon a new quay. ber. down is now 600 The area covered by this earthquake was very Humboldt says that a portion of the earth's surface^ four times as great as the size of Europe. a On the 1st of Novem- sound of thunder was heard underground.. A great number of small boats and vessels anchored near it. i. Sligo.40 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WOULD. great. In 1490. thousands of years before. Ireland also lies near the axis of this great volcanic area. But site it is at that point of the European coast nearest to the of Atlantis at Lisbon that the most tremendous earth- quake of modern times has occurred. on the of Knockthir- Antrim. were swallowed up as in the people on it. No fragments of these wrecks ever rose again to the surface. and immediately afterward a violent shock threw down the greater part of the city. but suddenly all it sunk down with and not one of the dead bodies ever floated to the surface. one occurred by cattle which one hundred persons and numbers of lade. was simultaneously shaken. the water where the quay went feet deep. 25. 1775." vol. a whirlpool. and a volcanic eruption in May. poured a stream of lava sixty yards wide for . At eight leagues from Morocco the ground opened and swallowed a village of 10.) againr (Raffles's "History of Java. built entirely of marble. it reaching from the Canaries to Iceland.



sea immediately rolled The Azore canic activity. about a thousand sunk down in less than one minute.. A tract of land near the acres in extent. stretching north and south through the Atlantic. and the in. 436 : . near San Miguel. v. Cyclop. another in Pico. In 1808 a volcano rose suddenly in San Jorge to the height of and burnt for six days. the earth caught some of them by the middle and squeezed them to death the heads of others only appeared above-ground. west of the same centre. while of extinct volcanoes in we have several and two Madeira.) While we find Lisbon and Ireland. while Fernando de Noronha.) The following singular passage we quote entire from LyelTs " Principles of Geology. In 1811 a volcano rose from the sea. St. we find a continuous series of active or extinct volcanoes. the West India Islands. in the Azores the peak of Teneriffe : Fogo. earthquakes. Hecla. east of Atlantis. desolating the entire island. subjected to these great earthquake shocks. earth opened. the island of Ascension. creating an island 300 feet high. volcanic eruptions occurred in the Azores in 1691 and 1720. The out . in one of the Cape de Yerde Islands in Iceland. a mighty fracture in the surface of the globe. (" Ainer. town of Port Royal. p. Islands are undoubtedly the peaks of the tains of Atlantis. Helena. but which soon sunk beneath ilar the sea. In Iceland we have Oerafa. Along a great line. ("Cosmos. mounThey are even yet the centre of great volThey have suffered severely from eruptions and 3500 feet. which was Sim- named Sambrina.' 43 all and destroyed the village of Ballyowen and the inhabitants. and . In 1692 Jamaica suffered from a violent earthquake." p.WAS SUCH A CATASTROPHE ty-iiine hours. Ireland. . and great quantities of water were cast many . POSSIBLE. Rauda Kamba . have been repeatedly visited in a similar manner. and Tristan d'Acunha are all of volcanic origin. 331. people were swallowed up in these rents . save a man and his wife and two children." art." vol..

in the next two or three thousand years. . highly the commercial and political importance which a group of islands might acquire if. troubled water. of the Azores. April. in St. Darwin. if prolonged. 642. "In the Nautical Magazine for 1835. some great ? either impossible or improbable As will be shown hereafter. St. with all its buried and that even the wild imagination of Jules Verne. is the facts in here enumerated. p. Should land be eventually formed here. which have been observed at intervals since the middle of the last century. accounts are given of a series of volcanic phenomena. in the presence of world-shaking cataclysm. about half a degree south of the equator. lit when he described Captain Nemo. that the submergence of Atlantis. says Mr. Jago. and for 1838. it will not be the first that has been produced by igneous action in this ocean since it was inhabited by the At Porto Praya. containing shells of recent marine species. it. Helena and Ascension. earthquakes. But who will say. looking island. a horizontal. calcareous stratum occurs. and columns of smoke. had some groundall work of possibility to build upon. Helena and Ascension would. A These ocean facts would seem to show that the great still fires which destroyed Atlantis are ." p. when we come to discuss the Flood legends. These facts. in his divingdown upon the temples and towers of the lost by the fires of submarine volcanoes. to the light may . in a space of open sea between longitudes 20° and 22° W. floating scoria. and in the Comptes Rendus. armor. covered by a great sheet of It would be difficult to estimate too basalt eighty feet tliick. smouldering again bring in the depths of the that the vast oscillations wdiich carried Plato's conti- nent beneath the sea treasures. every particular which has destruction of Atlantis has been duplicated in come down to us of the some of the ac- counts just given. seem to show that an island or archipelago is in process line joining of formation in the middle of the Atlantic. 361. 1838. intersect this slowly nascent focus of volcanic action.44 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILVVIAX WORLD. one existing species of testacea. they should rise in mid-ocean between St..

2. That it is proven beyond question. That there is nothing improbable or impossible in the statement that it was destroyed suddenly by an earthquake " in one dreadful night and day> . that vast masses of land once existed in the region where Atlantis is located by Plato. by geological evidence.WAS SUCH A CATASTROPHE roSSlBLE? 45 We conclude. therefore : 1. and that therefore such an island must have existed.

reaching from a point on the coast of the British Islands southwardly to the coast of South America. sunk beneath the sea miles in width. the ate Gazelle. there was an island larger than Asia (Minor) and Libya combined. Chapter Y.46 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WOULD. the remains immense island. and two or three thousand miles long- — one thousand — would it not go far to confirm the statement of Plato that. at Cape Orange. in front of the Mediterranean." And sively. and then that sea became inaccessible on account of the quantity of mud which the ingulfed island left in its place. and the whole face of the sunken land was covered for thousands of miles with volcanic debris. and Challenger have mapped out the bottom of the Atlantic. Porcupine. were found great strata of lava ." called Atlantis? And suppose we found that the Azores were the mountain peaks of this drowned island. to find in mid-Atlantic. and the result is the revelation of a great elevation. that " in one day and one fatal night there came mighty earthquakes and inundations which ingulfed that mighty people? Atlantis disappeared beneath the sea. and were torn and rent by tremendous volcanic convulsions while around them. would we not be obliged to confess that these facts furnished strong corroborative proofs of the truth of Plato's statement. in the neighborhood of the Azores. " beyond the strait where you place the Pillars of Hercules. scending into the sea. the United States ship Dolphin. thence south-east- . all these things recent investigation has proved concludiffer- Deep-sea soundings have been made by ships of ent nations. THE TESTIMONY OF THE Suppose we were of an SEA. de. German frig- and the British ships Hydra.



level . to wit. I give one the profile of this eleva- and another map. Ascension. could never have been produced in accordance with ele- any laws for the deposition of sediment. and from whose washings Europe and America were constructed the deepest parts of the ocean. on page 47. Ascension. St. but. 1878. some of the peaks of this range d'Acunha — —the Azores. we have the backbone of the ancient continent which once occupied the whole of the Atlantic Ocean. the and Channel Islands. J. 3500 fathoms deep. Referring to the loca"Dolphin " and " Challenger" ridges. and that Cornwall. above the great Atlantic depths around it.) Mr. 1877. nor by submarine vation . 49 wardly to the coast of Africa. and Tristan d'Acunha it reaches the surface of the ocean. the eminent English geologist. represent those portions which sunk first. In these " connecting ridges " we see the pathway which once extended between the New World and the Old. are the remains of highest summits.) Here. and in the Azores. Evidence that this elevation was once dry land is found in the fact that " the inequalities.THE TESTIMONY OF THE map showing SEA. tion in the frontispiece. on the contrary. St. showing the outlines It rises about 9000 feet of the submerged land." {Popular Science Review^ July. Ireland and its Brittany. then. July of 28th. Starke Gardner. Tristan are still above the ocean while the great body hundred fathoms beneath the sea. must have been carved by agen{Scientific cies acting above the water levels American. Paul's Rocks. the mountains and valleys of its surface. he asserts that a great tract of land formerly existed where the sea Scilly now is. Paul's. the plains to the east loftiest and west of the central mountain range. and by the same avenues black men found their . is the opinion that in the Eocene Period a great extension of tion of the '' land existed to the west of Cornwall. and thence southwardly to Tristan d'Acunha. and by means of Atlantis lies a few of which the plants and animals of one continent travelled to the other.

as I have shown. these the sea. as we will show hereafter. mud It rendered the sea impassable after the destruction of the isk. and raised and west of it. 504. of Antiq." p. to it by the presence of that officers of island. have been traced. When these connecting ridges extended from America to wa- Europe and Africa. sinking "so rapidly that ancient buildings on low rock-islands are now submerged. The lantis the Challenger found the entire ridge of At- covered with volcanic deposits. and the Greenlander has learned by experience never to build near the water's edge. and red men from America to Africa. does not follow that. the same gi*eat law which gradually the lands east depressed the Atlantic continent. from Africa to America. and it still retains the circular motion first imparted . they shut ters of the off the flow of the tropical .) The same subsidence is going on along the shore of South Carolina and Georgia. at the time Atlantis was it finally in- gulfed.50 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.. while the north of Europe and the Atlantic coast of South America are rising rapidly. 1180 miles long and from 100 to 1300 feet high. these are the subsided which. When the barriers of Atlantis sunk ciently to permit the natural expansion of the heated water of the tropics to the north. the ridges connecting with America and Africa rose gradually subsided into above the water-level. ern Europe was then intensely cold and the result was the suffi- Period. may . way. is still at work : the coast of Greenland." the land-locked ocean that laved the shores of North.nd. The Atlantis of Plato have been confined to the " Dolphin Ridge " of our map. which may be regarded as the northern extremity of the Atlantic is still continent." (" North Amer. ocean to the north there was then no " Gulf Stream Glacial . or have gone in the Central may have down in cataclysms such as are described American books. the ice and snow which covered Europe gradually disappeared the Gulf Stream flowed around Atlantis. And. as Plato tells us. Along the latter raised beaches.

2 0" 45° 1 0° 45 1320 ^100 '''\^ .••••• c::..--l^^i525--- /-l / i / / r^ / / .••• / / / / / / >f^ / 1S90 ~...--„ ..--. FKOM DEEP-SEA SOUNDINGS.•••••• 30° a^:-: 2350 30° ]'•--:-•• ' /. 1090 651 1 J ....'' Jr 35 / / / 2( .. / V^^...••"' \\\ \ 40 40' / 2550.... 35° // / / / / l550\ 1 14S-'..%S3ll70-^2225 252! / / ( "^<rr^^^ 2100 / - / O ' . 165 ^ / 2T90 ....-• y f .. ... L .•" . 1530 V- m o \ Gettysburg Bk.6? / ^5?^ 1 1 _2 /P f U f I jf 1 ANOiENT ISLANDS BETWEEN ATLANTIS ANT) TUB MEDITEUBANEAN.•••" " ../ .? •-- 1800 / i 82: / 254.. //.....


of a bank of soundings bearing N. taken in connection with previous soundings ob- Cape tained in the same region of the North Atlantic. . gave as his opinion that the great submarine platetiu is the remains of " the lost Atlantis. Vincent. extending in a northeasterly direction from its entrance between Madeira and the Canary Islands toward Cape St. The bottom was found to consist of live pink coral. long. . Vincent.. I quote p. and the probable subaerial connection in prehistoric times of that island "These with the south-western extremity of Europe. 11° 33' W." . They must have been originally islands.. as it — were. of the recently announced discovery by Commander GorUnited States sloop Gettysburg. 36° 29' N. 53 Gettysburg lias also made some from 377) remarkable discoveries in a neighboring field. . and the position of the bank in lat. and 100 fathoms and eventually a depth of 32 fathoms was obtained. stepping-stones. The map on page 51 shows the position of these elevations. are similar to those of the western coast of Southern Europe. 400. in which the vessel anchored. The subsequent soundings (five miles apart) gave 900. John James Wild (in Nature. Commander . and distant 130 miles from St. suggests the probable existence of a submarine ridge or plateau connecting the island of Madeira with the coast of Portugal. during the last voyage of the vessel across the Atlantic. 1877. brought up in his dredging-machine. A member of the Challenger staff. This is accounted for by the connecting ridges reacha lecture delivered in it ing from Europe to South America. in London. between Atlantis and the coast of Europe." . .THE TESTIMONY OF THE The United States sloop i>EA. . Sir C." soundings reveal the existence of a channel of an average depth of from 2000 to 3000 fathoms. Gorringe. 85° W. "The ringe. found that the soundings decreased from 2700 fathoms to 1600 fathoms in the distance of a few miles. when about 150 miles from the Strait of Gibraltar. Wyville Thomson found that the specimens of the fauna of the coast of Brazil. 500. March 1st. soon after the termination of the expedition.

" (Westminster Meview. and were spread out over both continents alike. the glutton. 1872. even This is most of the species. . of Yale College. while many. important in its bearing on our theory.. from a creature not larger than a fox until. as indicating that they radiated from a common centre after the Glacial Period. . the reindeer. . it developed into the true horse. the testimony of the flora and fauna. more or less accompanied this flora. woolly -haired rhinoceros. etc. .54 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. by successive steps. The hairy mammoth. and their remains are always found in the post-glacial deposits of Europe as low down as the South of France. indicating that they came from a common centre. 19. January. has identified the several preced- ing forms from which it was developed. are common to both continents. in the course of ages. In the New World beds of the same age contain similar remains. the Irish elk.) Recent discoveries in the fossil beds of the Bad Lands of Nebraska prove that the horse originated in America. Chapter YI. the lemming. p. "When all the animals and plants of the Old and New World are compared. How if did the wild horse pass from America to Europe and Asia there was not continuous land communication between the two continents? He seems to have existed in Europe in a wild state prior to his domestication by man. one cannot but be struck with their identity or nearly all belong to the same genera. Professor Marsh. the musk-ox. Proofs ca. are abundant that tliere must have been at one time uninterrupted land communication between Europe and Ameri- In the words of a writer upon this subject. rising.

and in Kansas. be- Age and the Age of Iron. M. The remains of domestic sheep are found in the debris of the Swiss lake-dwellings during the Stone Age. The lagomys. identical with the American moose. p. have been found at Natchez. been de- veloped out of wild forms akin to the American buffalo. The cave bones of the bear." vol. in the Stone Age. identical with the wolverine of the United States. 191) concludes that the wild race from which our domestic sheep was derived is now extinct. or tailless hare. and goat also date back to a like great antiquity. Nat. . (Felix spelcea)^ a larger beast than the largest of the existing species. is The glutton of Northern Europe. Mississippi.. Even at that remote period they had already. The existing alpacas and South America. hog. the ancient bison {Bos priscus) of Europe was identical "Every stage between the is ancient cave bison and the European aurochs can be traced." fore the Bronze p.. now nearly extinct. Gervais ("Hist. that is to say. xi. mammoth and whose remains are found associated with the the bones and works of man in the caves of Europe. with the existing American buffalo.THE TESTIMONY OF THE FLORA AND FAUNA. The fossil 55 remains of the camel are found in India." The Norway elk. whose now roams the wilds relics are found in of Arctic America. was the same as Remains of the cave lion of Europe the reindeer of America. by long-continued selection. We have historical records 7000 years old. Africa. des Mammifores. is now found in the colder regions of North America. of the European caves. the same deposits. which once occupied Europe as far down as France. The musk-ox. ass. the people of Switzerland during the earliest part of the Stone Period (Darwin's "Ani- mals Under Domestication. The Cervus Americanus found in Kentucky was as large as the Irish elk. Cattle were domesticated among vol. According to Ruti- meyer. 103). which it greatly resembled. llamas of South America are but varieties of the camel family. The reindeer. was identical with the grizzly bear of our Rocky Mountains. i. The Euro- pean cave wolf was identical with the American wolf. The domestic horse.

whose roots yield a fine flour. is upward of to three thousand. And when we turn from the fauna to the flora. announces his conclusion that In America and in Asia the principal domesticated tropical plants are represented hy the same species^ He instances the Manihot utilissima. largest proportion. etc.56 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. Africa. and during that time no similar domestication of a wild animal This fact speaks volumes as to the vast periods of time during which man must have lived in a civilized state to effect the domestication of so many and such useful animals. sequoias. would seem to be impossible that these trees could have migrated from Switzerland to America unless there was unbroken land communication between the two continents. tulip -trees. ferns. we find the has been made. over which the plants of plane-trees. Otto Kuntze. one continent could extend to another. and Florida. the tarro (Colocasia esculentd). The total number of fossil plants catalogued from those beds. besides mosses. who has spent *' many years in the tropics. North magnolias. and even to Australia. and have helped this transmigration. It is a still more remarkable fact that a comparison of the flora of the Old World and New goes to show that not only was there communication by land. evergreen It and South Carolina. . the Spanish or red pepper. in the case of certain plants that were incapable of making the journey un- aided. etc. a distinguished German botanist. in the The analogues of the flora of the Miocene Europe now grow in the forests of Virginia. the tomato. but that man must have existed. they include such familiar examples as oaks. same state of things. maples. however. The majority of these species have migrated America. Age of The American types are. robinas. cryptogamous as well as phsenogamous. An examination of the fossil beds of Switzerland of the Miocene Age reveals the remains of more than eight hundred different species of flower-bearing plants. There were others that passed into Asia.

which.THE TESTIMONY OF THE FLORA AND FAUNA." ceeds to discuss ica. the 57 mango -fruit. is " It must be remembered that the plantain a tree-like. It is found throughout Professor Kuntze asts. it but very highly prized by the natives of the tropics. always seedless in a cultivated state. like the potato or the dahlia. needs hardly any care. supplies to natives of these regions so far apart their ropes It is and cord- age. a malvaceous He refers to the Paritium culti- plant. possessing no easily transportable bulbs. because the Pacific is nearly thrice or four times as wide as for the plantain the Atlantic. The only way he can account is reaching America to suppose that it was carried there when ! the North Pole had a tropical climate that civilized Is there it any proof possessed man existed at the North Pole when the climate of Africa? Is it not more reasonable to suppose that the plantain. He argues that it could not have crossed the Pacific from Asia to America. origin of tobacco. It existed in America before the arrival of Columbus. and vated everywhere in the East and tlie West Indies. was cultivated by the people of Atlantis. maize. or banana. herba- ceous plant. But Professor Kuntze pays especial attention to the banana. carried to America ly cultivated in And yet it was general- America before 1492. way was this plant. The banana is seedless. and the cocoa-nut tiliaceum. once planted. nor propagable by cuttings. It has only a perennial root. and especially the banana. or plantain. the giiava. Says Professor Kuntze. He then pro- how it could have passed from Asia to Amer- He admits that the roots must have been transported from one country to the other bi/ civilized man. "In what tropical Asia and Africa. the bamboo. which cannot stand a voyage through the ?" temperate zone. like the wil- low or the poplar. and yet produces the most abundant crop of any known tropical plant. hardly noticed by Europeans. He denies that is the American proved. and carried by their civilized agricultural colonies to the east and the west? Do we not find a confirmation of this view in the fact alluded 3* .

But to suppose that two nations could have cultivated the same plant. who had in turn derived their civilization It from the Phoenicians. cultivated plant — and hence it is per- haps fair to infer that these plants were cultivated as early as the beginning Is it possible that a plant of this of the middle of the Diluvial Period. is supposing an impossi- We where find just such a civilization as was necessary. fifty by its contiguous islands. But it may be said these animals and plants may have passed from Asia to America across the Pacific by the continent of Lemuria or there may have been continuous land communi. agricultural civilization during that time. conall tinuous. by its connecting ridges. . on those continents by whom it was so cultivated? What has become of them? Where are the traces of their All the civilizations of Europe. while. on one conhad cultivated the banana for such a vast period of time it became seedless. for the same unparalleled lapse of time. and who lived along-side of the Egyptians. bility. the nation retaining a peaceful. and no- We have found it reaching. it bound together Brazil and Africa. agricultural and highly civilized. and Africa civilization? radiated from the Mediterranean the Hindoo. within one hundred and side. were next-door neighbors to the Arabians (cousins of the Phoenicians). by Professor Kiintze in these words: "A cultivated plant which does not possess seeds must have been under culture /or a very long period we have not in Europe a single exclusively — seedless. berry-bearing. according to Plato. miles of the coast of Europe on the one and almost touching the West India Islands on the other.58 to ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. Asia. on two different continents. until would be a marvel of marvels if one nation. in Atlantis else. who tivated for this .Aryans advanced from the north-west they were kindred to the Persians. under the same circumstances.'''' kind could have been cul- immense period of time in both Asia and America ? Where are the two nations. and under just such a climate. . tinent.

tree Herodotus describes bears a fleece (450 b. The Pacific coast possesses locust-trees. of that region seem to have been far inferior to the sources of supply of the Atlantic States. 59 True . are alThe sources of supply together lacking on the Pacific coast. not a mulberry.o. or a beech. but an exami- nation of the flora of the Pacific States shows that very of the trees and phints many The etc. not a hickory. common to Europe and the Atlantic States are not to be seen west of the Rocky Mountains. the plane-trees. den or basswood. and are found at the present day in the United States. not a holly. no no persimmon-trees. Professor Asa Gray tells us out of sixty -six genera and one hundred and fifty -five species found in the forests east of the Rocky Mountains. no cherry-tree large enough sorrel-tree. not a single elm or hackberry. only one ash that may be called a timber tree. or a true chestnut. which were found existing in the Miocene Age in Switzerland. that. the tulip -trees. no for a timber tree. but to the fact that in an earlier age it shores of one continent to those of the other. These facts would seem to indicate that the forest it flora of North America entered cific from the east. no nor kalmia lin- thirty-one genera and seventy-eight species are found west of the mountains. The its cultivation of the cotton-plant product was known it to both the and the manufacture of Old and New World.THE TESTIMONY OF THE FLORA AND FAUNA. no gum-trees. . no catalpa or sassafras. We thus see that the flora and fauna of America and Eu- rope testify not only to the existence of Atlantis. Columcloth. bus found the natives of the West Indies using cotton It was also found Mexico and Peru. and must have extended from the by this bridge of land the plants and animals of one region passed to the other. It is a sio-nificant fact . and that the Pait States possess only those fragments of that were able to struggle over or around the great dividing mountain-chain. magnificent magnolias.. only no papaw.) as the of India that more in beautiful than that of the sheep. cation at one time at Beliring's Strait.

the white fa- miliar tobacco and potato. strange and Livonian languages. corn.orial. without ANCIENT OAItVlNG— STRATFOEU-ON-AVON. to say. that the cotton-plant has been found growing wild in parts of America. maz meat. Plants. number. have been cultivated there from time immem.60 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WOULD. is a land full of wonders. This would seem to indicate that the plant was a native of America and by the superiority of American cotton.^^ utes a Paris. and yellow to and other plants believed to be indigenous America. ENGLAND. the cotton-gin in- cluded. but never in the many . eller says. 1826) attribEuropean or Asiatic origin to maize. claimed by Euro- peans and Americans. (Indian corn) is derived from mahiz or mahis. A " recent trav- The interior of China. in the Lettish And is yet. May not likewise the Span- . maize. maise food. and tobacco in were not cultivated China ages before Columbus discovered America. the name of the Bonafous ("Histoire Naturelle du Mais. yield- ing drugs of great value. and in the Old High German. bread is . There is a question whether the potato. maize. Old World." plant in the language of the Island of Hayti. are to be found there forty centuries old. ventions. and the further fact that the plants taken from America to India this is confirmed constantly degenerate. in the north of Europe. while those taken from India to America as constantly improve. In one place piscicultural nurseries line the banks for nearly All sorts of in- fifty miles. along the course of the Yang-tse-Kiang. mayse signifies in Irish. The word maize.

of 157 valuable . we must look for the origin of nearly all our Darwin says ("Animals and Plants under i. the domesticated plants are only found within the limits of what I shall show hereafter was the Empire of Atlantis and its colonies for only here was to be found an ancient. ish 61 timony maiz have antedated the time of Columbus. according to some authors. not to America north of Mexico. Domestication." that vol. and maize — must have been first domesticated in a vast antiquity. including all the cereals on which to-day civilized man depends for subsistence. barley." In other words. or to Ameri. and borne testo early intercommunication between the people of the Old and New Worlds ? It is to Atlantis valuable plants. 810-991. while 32 are utterly un- known in their aboriginal condition. long-continuing civilization. Bentham (" Hist.) these facts are the And more remarkable because. carrying the original wild plants with it. dolle tells us that Chili. Darwin quotes approvingly the opinion of Mr. M. Peru. " It has often been remarked we do not owe a single useful plant to Australia." 1855. p. and as According to the same high authority." vol. p. 370. Plants"). as De Candolle has shown. The inference strong that the great cereals — wheat. i. "Animals and Plants. "as the result of all the most .. or in some continent which has since disappeared. are said to have been cultivated their from such a vast antiquity that they are not known in wild state..) oats. (Darwin. capable of developing from a wild state those plants which were valuable to man.THE TESTIMOXY OF THE FLORA AND FAUNA. (" Geograph. Notes Cult. all the plants historically still known to have been first cultivated in Europe is exist there in the wild state. or the Cape of Good Hope degree with endemic — countries abounding to an unparalleled species— or to New Zealand. cultivated plants 85 can be traced back to their wild state to 40. pp.) the tuberose and the lilac Certain roses — —the imperial lily. and. 374). Alphonse de Can- ca south of the Plata . (Ibid. Botan. we owe 33 useful plants to Mexico. there is doubt as to their origin . rye. Rai- sonnee.

the lake habitations of Switzerland of a variety of wheat as the known Egyptian wheat.) He says that it may be inferred. (Darwin.. " that the lake inhabitants either still kept up commercial intercourse with some southern people. from the presence in CEREALS OF TUE AGE OF STONE IN EUEOPE.62 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. of barley were cultivated. or had originally proceeded as colonists from the south. and from the nature of the weeds that grew among their crops. rye." I should argue that they were colonists from the land where wheat and . none of the Cemlia reliable evidence tbat and oats — — wheat. i. 382. " Animals and Plants. exist or have existed truly wild of in their present state. barley." p." In the Stone Age Europe five varieties of wheat and three vol.

" man must have cultivated the cereals at an from four or eight species enormously remote 'period^'' and at that time practised " some 578) expresses degree of selection. " most of which are now unknown or extinct. 385) that wheat. Atlantis. ley.. The representation on the monuments is so exact that I can scarcely doubt the pineapple being intended." Rawlinson ("Ancient Monarchies.. ." in which latter case. bar- tinct and oats were either descended from ten or fifteen disspecies.. 338. their appear- ance with the weapons of bronze. to wit. there has been some (" Amer. 528.) dispute upon this point. xiii." vol. revelations of the Assyrian monuments. Cyclop. we find oats and rye making of pea.) . And when Bronze Age came. he says.THE TESTIMONY OF THE FLORA AND FAUNA." p. or so " widely different as to escape identification . i." *' (See Layard's The pineapple {Bromelia ananassa) is supposed to be of American origin. barley were first 63 the domesticated. together with a peculiar kind Darwin concludes {Ihid. p. and unknown to Europe before the time of Columbus and yet. It is not even certain that the use of tobacco was not known ANCIENT IRISH PIPES. the opinion that the ancient Assyrians possessed the pineapple... rye. apart from the Nineveh and Babylon." or closely resembling our present forms. p. p." " vol.vo\. i.

it.VN PIPE. It is probable. . at that Ire- however. from Atlantis settled in Ireland in an age long to the colonists Great numbers of pipes have been found in the raths and tumuli of Ireland. 63 represents some of the so-called " Danes' pipes " Royal Irish Academy." 1875. and have subsequently disap- peared with the failure of retrograding colonists to raise the tobacco-plant. using strangely shaped pipes. that the tumuli of land antedate the Danes thousands of years. The illustration on p. holding no commercial in- with Europeans. in Investigations in first which they smoked a plant of the country. NEW JEKSKY.64 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. every reason to believe. were placed there by men of the Prehistoric Period.) ANCIENT INDl. or some substitute for early period. It may have crossed the Atlantic in a remote age. America lead to the conclusion that tobacco was burnt . there is prior to Sir Walter Raleigh. they must have used tobacco. now in the collection of the The Danes entered Ireland many cenColumbus. the priest alone using the pipe and from this beginning the extraordinary practice spread to the all people. p. Recent Portuguese tercourse travellers have found the most remote tribes of savage negroes in Africa. (" Smithsonian Rep.. as an incense to the gods. and if turies before the time of the pipes are theirs. Compare these pipes from the ancient mounds of Ireland with the accompanying picture of an Indian pipe of the Stone Age of New Jersey. which. 342. and thence over the world.

as we think successfully. or the inhabi- tants of America. we come now to the next question. THE DESTRUCTION' OF ATLANTIS DESCRIBED IN THE DELUGE LEGENDS. that there in the statement of Plato no improbability that a large island. Having is demonstrated. THE DELUGE Chapter I. the Greeks. that exist. is a geological certainty that it did and having further shown that it is not improbable but very possible that it may have sunk beneath the sea in the manner described by Plato. an entire country. Is the memory of this gigantic catastrophe preserved among the traditions of mankind? We think there can be no doubt that an question. ans. 65 PART II. the Cushites. the Phoenicians. amid horrible con- vulsions. the Arytory.THE DEISTRUCTIOX OF ATLANTIS. affirmative answer must be given to this An event. and to project its gloomy shadow over all human hisAnd hence. existed in the past in the Atlantic it Ocean. which in a few hours destroyed. and they themselves the custodians of the age civilization of their —could not fail to impress with terrible force the minds of men. almost a continent. nay. whether we turn to the Hebrews. we find everywhere traditions of the Del- . more. with all its vast population —that population the ancestors of the great races of both continents.

^ — as recorded attaches a singularly historic and exact value to the tradition by the Sacred Book. however. to say the least. the Biblical Deluge is a real and historical fact. Genesis. and goes back to the most ancient times^ and these three races are precisely the only ones of which the Bible speaks as being descended from Noah those of which it gives the ethnic filiation in the tenth chapter of This observation. even if. and we shall see that all these traditions point unmis- takably to the destruction of Atlantis. and before the dispersion of the families from which the principal races were to spring. having. for it would be at once improbable and uncritical to admit that. local phenomena so exactly alike should have occurred.66 iige . Nov. at as many different points of the globe as we should have to assume in order to explain the wide spread of these traditions. on the other hand.. left its impress on the . "Let us observe. . as the case now stands. There will still remain three great races to which it is undoubtedly peculiar. who have not borroived it from each other but among whom the tradition is primitive. their memory having assumed an identical form. Francois Lenormant says (Coniemp. of the black. 1879) : "The race. that it is doubtful among the Polynesians of Oceania. which I hold to be undeniable. that it undoubtedly wears the aspect of an importation among the rare populations of the yellow race where it is found and lastly. This cataclysm must have occurred near the first cradle of mankind. . a recollection thus precise and concordant cannot be a myth voluntarily invented. so powerfully impressing the imagination of the first ancestors of our race as never to have been forgotten by their descendants. . and presenting circumstances that need not necessarily have occurred to the mind in such cases. but imported in America. that. " But. No religious or cosmogonic myth presents It must arise from the reministhis character of universality. however. Now.. ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. result authorizes us to affirm the story of the Deluge to be a universal tradition among all branches of the human with the one exception. Eev. it may lead to giving it a more limited geographical and ethnological significance. cence of a real and terrible event. far we do not hesitate to declare from being a myth. that probably the diluvian tradition is not primitive. .

44. Hist." p. do . or Indo-European. the Rev." — bel (Paris. Plato identifies "the great deluge of* all" with the destruction of Atlantis. regarded this as " the great dehige of all. or ancestors of three races Syro. after this memory of many partial deluges. 67 Aryan. to those who in remained near tered tribes its primitive cradle. as well as by Cuvier (Lenormant This theory is supported by that eminent authority on anthropology. S. Omalius d'Halloy (Bruxelles. confining itself subsequently to the annals of the race peculiarly chosen by the designs of Providence. and in the part of Asia they together inhabited. on the three great civilized races of the ancient ivorld. those which constitute — — the higher humanity before the ancestors of those races had as yet separated. of the East. who possessed the resisting the attempts of Atlantis to subjugate . So that the Egyptians. and the same great convulsion which overwhelmed that island destroyed a number of the Greeks. deny the universality of the Deluge. that the Bible narrative to the commences by relating facts common whole human species. admits that it has nothing expressly opposed to orthodoxy.. 1858).THE DESTRUCTION OF ATLANTIS." and Chevallier." .Arabian. Chamitic.) Quatrefages. Semitic. The priest of Sais told Solon that before "the great deluge of all" Athens possessed a noble race. R. who performed many noble deeds."Anc. P. M. without reaching the scat- who had already spread themselves far It is certain away almost desert regions. 1866). the last and greatest of which was them and came the destruction of Atlantis. or Ciishite that is to say. Such profound scholars and sincere Christians as M. Schoeand M. and claim that "it ex- tended only to the principal centre of humanity.J. Bellynck.

And God looked upon the earth. We " give first vi. for that he also is flesh yet his days shall be a hundred and twenty years. But Noah found grace in the eyes it And came face of the earth. And God said unto Noah. : . and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually. and they bare children to them. to pass.68 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. : behold.] " The earth also was corrupt before God . and. and the fowls of the air. that the sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair and they took them wives of all which they chose. viii. for the earth is filled with violence .) Genesis (chap. and beast. of the Lord. THE DELUGE OF THE BIBLE. and the earth was filled with violence. and the creeping thing. " There were giants in the earth in those days and also after that. Shem. And the Lord said. the same became mighty men which were of old. My Spirit shall not always strive with man. . it was corrupt for all flesh had corrupted his way upon the earth. I will destroy man whom I have created from tlie face of the earth both man. Chapter II. . and Japheth. Ham. " And the Lord said. And it repented the Lord that he had made man on the earth. when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men. for it repenteth me that I have made them. "And God saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth. ["These are the generations of Noah Noah was a just man and perfect in his generations. The end of all flesh is come before me. and Noah walked with God. men of renown. as found in to chap. And Noah begat three sons. . when men began to multiply on the and daughters were born unto them. and it grieved him at his heart. the Bible history of the Dehige.

sons' wives with him. " And Noah went in. and shalt pitch it within and without with pitch. into the ark. For yet seven days. and everything that is in the earth shall die. and the height of it thirty cubits. to keep them alive. " And Noah did according unto all that the Lord commanded him. and thy sons' : . and thou shalt come into the ark. Of every clean beast thou shalt take to thee by sevens. two of every sort shalt thou bring into the ark. and in a cubit shalt thou finish it above and the door of the ark shalt thou set in the side thereof. the male and his female and of beasts that are not clean by two. do bring a flood of waters upon the earth. rooms shalt thou make in the ark. and of fowls. and his wife. But with thee will I establish ray covenant. . A window shalt thou make to the ark. to keep them alive with thee they shall be male and female. the male and the female to keep seed alive upon the face of all the earth. I will destroy them with the earth. and his sons. Come thou and all thy house into the ark for thee have I seen righteous before me in this generation. from under heaven. thou. BTBLE. and his . of every creeping thing of the earth after his kind two of every sort shall come unto thee. even I. and thou shalt gather it to thee for food for thee. behold. : . . the male and his female. to destroy all flesh. And this is the fashion which thou shalt make it of The length of the ark shall be three hundred cubits. the breadth of it fifty cubits. because of the waters of the flood. I. and thy sons. there . " And the Lord said unto Noah. wives with thee. with And.THE DELUGE OF THE . " Thus did Noah according to all that God commanded him. And take thou unto thee of all food and it shall be that is eaten. Of fowls also of the air by sevens. Make thee an ark of gopher wood. and of beasts that are not clean. and for them. and I will cause it to rain upon the earth forty days and forty nights. 69 through them and. and third stories shalt thou make it. . Of clean beasts. And Noah was six hundred years old when the flood of waters was upon the earth. second. wherein is the breath of life. . and every living substance that I have made will I destroy from off the face of the earth. so did he. and of cattle after their kind. Of fowls after their kind. belower. hold. and thy wife. And of every living thing of all flesh. and of everything that creepeth upon the earth.

and Noah's wife. • And the : And God remembered Noah. and every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind. both man. And the rain was upon the earth forty days and forty nights. " And the flood was forty days upon the earth and the waters increased. the sons of Noah. and bare up the ark. of all that was in the dry land. And the waters prevailed upon the earth a hundred kind. and the creeping things. And they that went in. the seventeenth day of the month. and were increased greatly upon the earth and the ark went upon the face of And the waters prevailed exceedingly upon the the waters. and of beast. every bird of every sort. And they went in unto Noah into the ark. every living thing. went in male and female of all flesh. and the windows of heaven were opened. and the cattle that was with him in the ark and God made a wind to pass over the earth. and every fowl after his kind. as God had commanded him and the Lord shut him in. the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up. they. and Shem. : and " all fifty days. that the waters of the flood were upon the earth. and every man: all in whose nostrils was the breath of life. and . Fifteen cubits upward did the waters prevail and the mountains were covered. the male and the God had commanded Noah. And all flesh died that moved upon the earth. and cattle. . and the three wives of his went female. both of fowl. and the waters assuaged. In the selfsame day entered Noah. And every living substance was destroyed which was upon the face of the ground. and the fowl of the heaven and they were destroyed from the earth and Noah only remained alive. and of every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth. And the waters prevailed. . and of cattle. and : . The fountains also of the deep and the windows of heaven were stopped. "And it came to pass after seven days.70 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. In the six hundredth year of Noah's life. were covered. . and every beast after his all the cattle after their kind. into the ark. that were under the whole heaven. two and two of all flesh. in two and two unto Noali into the ark. died. wherein is the breath of life. and it was lifted up above the earth. and Ham. and Japheth. in the second month. as sons with them. earth and all the high hills. and they that were with him in the ark. and the rain from heaven was restrained.

the face of the ground was dry. on the seventeenth day of the month. forth the dove. that they may breed abundantly in the earth. : and his sons. a dove from him. "And God spake unto Noah. to see if the waters were abated from off the But the dove found no rest for the sole face of the ground. and she returned unto him into the ark Then he put waters were on the face of the whole earth. forth his hand. "And it came to pass in the six hundredth and first year. and whatsoever creepeth upon the earth. in the first month. Bring forth with thee every living thing that is with thee. : 71 waters returned from off the earth continually and after the end of the hundred and fifty days the waters were abated. in her mouth was an olive leaf plucked off so Noah knew that the waters were abated from And he stayed yet other seven days. went forth out of the ark. and took of every clean beast. and of every clean fowl. and thy wife. was the earth dried. And the dove came in sent forth the dove out of the ark. : : "And Noah went sons' wives with forth. every creeping thing. and thy sons. and be fruitful. and. Go forth of the ark. and offered burnt And the Lord smelled a sweet savour offerings on the altar. . And the waters decreased continually until the tenth month: in the tenth month. lo. after their kinds. on the first day of the month. that Noah opened the window of the ark which he had made: and he sent forth a raven. of all flesh. until the waAlso he sent forth ters were dried up from off the earth. behold. and multiply upon the earth. on the seven and twentieth day of the month. him . And the ark rested in the seventh month. to him in the evening. saying. and every fowl. and pulled her in unto him into And he stayed yet other seven days. and took her. the first day of the month. and looked.THE DELUOE OF THE BIBLE. "And Noah builded an altar unto the Lord. for the of her foot. the waters were dried up from off the earth and Noah removed the covering of the ark. upon the mountains of Ararat. and of every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth. and sent off the earth. were the tops of the mountains seen. and his every beast. and. And in the second month. thou. which went forth to and fro. and his wife. " And it came to pass at the end of forty days. and again he the ark. both of fowl and of cattle. and thy sons' wives with thee. which returned not again unto him any more.

22). in leaves. sinless conGarden of Eden.. 7) . and the Lord said in his heart. Adam : was the at first naked (Gen. taken in connection with the opening chapters of Genesis 1. of those that kept flocks of sheep (chap. seedtime and harvest. for the imagination of man's heart neither will I again smite any more is evil from his youth every thing living.. having emerged from more primitive condition in which he lived forest (chap. Plato tells dition in a us the same thing of the earlier asfes of the Atlanteans.. and that 3. then in the skins of animals (chap. then he clothed himself iii. We have here the to civiliza- successive steps tion. Jabal was the iv. I will not again curse the ground any more for man's sake. The Bible tells us that in an earlier age. was on account of their wickedness God resolved to destroy them. While the earth remaineth. Tubal-cain. In both cases the inhabitants of the doomed land were . It shows. IV). 2. 2) . er of the first city (chap. . The Bible it agrees with Plato in the statement that these Antediluvians had reached great populousness and wickedness. his son Abel was the iv. 4. peaceful. destroyed in a great catastrophe by the agency of water they were drowned.. was the the first first metallurgist (chap. as I have done. and day and night shall not cease. by which a savage race advances We will see hereafter that the Atlanteans passed through precisely similar stages of development.. upon the first fruits of the 16). Jubal was made musical instruments. race originated. that 20) .72 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.. first 21) he was a that tilled the earth.. chap. struction. his descendant. ii. and summer and winter." : Let us briefly consider this record. iv.. before their demankind had dwelt in a happy. and cold and heat. That the land destroyed by water was the country civilization of the in which the human iii. first that erected tents and kept cattle (chap. his son Cain was the build- iv.

known nothing ? We or it are thus driven to either the one of two alternative conclusions: Deluge record of the Bible is altogether fabulous." whereby they were desee hereafter that the graded and rendered wicked. It refers al- together to the Mediterranean races." with an infetion of the people ferior stock. the Aryans.. of Ham" were not true negroes.) If these races (the Chinese. and drowned all the people thereof except Noah and his family. V3 In both the Bible history and Plato's story the destruc- was largely caused by the intermarriage of the superior or divine race. 4 . the Finns or Lapps. now conceded by scholars that the genealogical table x. and the land refers to is not Europe.) is giv^en in the Bible (Gen. whose connection with Atlantis It is is established in many ways. America. the Australians. how can we account for the existence to-day of people on all of those continents whose descent Genesis does not trace back to Noah. it not fabulous.THE DELUGE OF THE 5. or the American red men. If neither China. Australians. Americans. Africa. or It is relates to Australia. nor Australia were depopulated by the Deluge. but the dark -brown races. vii. the country so destroyed could not have been Europe. America. etc. But as it is alleged did destroy a country. "the children of men. Africa. or Aus- no universal destruction of the peoif there had been.) are not descended from in Noah they could not have been included the Deluge. and. Africa. (See Winchell's " Preadamites. " The sons the Phoenicians. Japan. the Deluge could not have been that it universal. Asia. Asia. and the Egyptians. chap. the Japanese. some land other than Europe. or. about whom the writer of Genesis seems to have tralia. We will Hebrews and their Flood legend are closely connected with the Phoenicians. for there has been ple of those regions. in fact." chap. Northern Europe. " the sons of God. Asia. not intended to include the true negro races. BIBLE. some land that was destroyed by water. or the Chinese. the Hebrews. the Cushites.

so admirably catalogued by Moses. . divisions include one only of the races of humanity. the Deluge of the Bible destroyed only it the land and people of Noah. says ("Ancient Hist. whose three chief anthropologists. which " mankind dwelt before the Deluge. could not have been universal. 64). now recognized by black. civilized. its precise situation cannot be ascertained. that the Ante- diluvian World was none other than Atlantis. that was given over to wickedness. of the East. Francois Lenormant. powerful.74 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. as the locality in It beyond the ocean which bounds Europe in that direction. or Australia —but Atlantis." As. i. populous. p." will be more and more evident. extent The Rev. " The how great might be we do not know ." and we will see hereafter that the unwritten traditions of the Church pointed to a region in the west. " The descendants Shem. the white race. and That high and orthodox authority. The religious world does not pretend to fix the location of the Garden of Eden. and no place of nations sprung from Noah. No other land is known to history or tradition that was overthrown in a great catastrophe by the agency of water.. therefore." of vol. Ham. George Leo Haydock says. he gives us Bible list as The other in the three races red —have — yellow. and Japhet. as we proceed in the con- sideration of the Flood legends of other nations.

and to cause animals. 75 Chapter III.' and enjoined to pray that good might come of it for sisatra) : " Obartes Elbaratutu being dead. He therefore commanded him to take the beginning.THE DELUGE OF THE CHALDEANS. indeed. men. the history of which Cronos (Ea) apis told in the sacred documents as follows peared to him in his sleep. and anciently introduced into the history that he wrote for the use of the Greeks. to prepare everything And when Xisuthros inquired in what direcfor navigation. his children. and announced that on the fifteenth a little of the month of Daisios (the Assyrian month Sivan before the summer solstice) all men should perish by a flood. is that which Berosus took from the sacred books of Babylon. It was under him that the Great Deluge took place. We have two versions of the Chaldean story exhibiting — unequally agreement. developed. Xisuthros . to place in this vessel provisions to eat and drink. and to enter it with his family and dearest friends. lastly.800 years). and soon going down. tion he should steer his bark. 'toward the gods. birds. friends. at Sippara then to build a vessel. and to bury it in the City of the Sun. and quadrupeds to enter it. THE DELUGE OF THE CHALDEANS. and his intimate . his — . and constructed a vessel five stadia long and five broad he collected all that had been prescribed to him. the middle. After speaking of the last : nine antediluvian kings. " Xisuthros obeyed. and also the shorter. but a remarkable The one most known. "The Deluge having come. he was answered. and the end of whatever was consigned to writing. and embarked his wife. the Chaldean priest continues thus son Xisuthros (Khareigned eighteen saies (64.

bat a voice from heaven was heard commanding them piety toward the gods. As to the companions of Xisuthros. disinter the writings buried at Sippara in order to transmit them to men.Babylonian edition. then. loosed the third time. and that his wife. conformably to the decrees of fate. and his pilot. founded numerous cities. after all." says Lenormant. It added that the country in which they found themselves was Armenia. we are now able to place an original Chaldeo. his daughter. It is used to keep off the influence of witchcraft. "Meanwhile those who had remained in the vessel. in- teresting though it be. finding no food nor place to few days later Xisuthros again let them free. not seeing Xisuthros return. and restored alight on. having heard the voice. and began to seek him. indeed. Here the narrative of the Deluge appears sode in the eleventh tablet. a portion is still to be found in the Gordyan Mountains in Armenia. returned to the ship. and. and saw that it had grounded on the top of a mountain. that he. Of the vessel of Xisuthros. which the lamented George Smith was the first to decipher on the cuneiform tablets exhumed at Nineveh. calling him by his name. and now in the British as an epi- Museum. second-hand. and the pilot of the ship shared the same honor. A Babylon. He then descended with his wife." "By the side of this version. These. The voice further said that they were to return to Babylon. and pilgrims bring thence asphalte that they have scraped from its fragments. the birds came no more back. disinterred the writings left at Sippara. and there sacrificed to the gods. at the same moment he vanished with those who accompanied him. Finally. They saw Xisuthros no more. Then Xisuthros understood that the earth was bare. some of the birds. sacrificed to the gods and returned on foot to Babylon. raised an altar. they came to Babylon.76 loosed ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. built temples. is. was receiving the reward of his piety in being carried away to dwell thenceforth in the midst of the gods. who worshipped the earth. but they returned again to the vessel. He made an opening in the roof of the ship. descended too. his daughter. which had finally landed in Armenia. "which. These. their feet full of mud. or eleventh chant of the great J .

to Khasisatra With these preliminary ob- servations. Finally. These three copies were. He asks Khasisatra to reveal the secret of the events which led to his obtaining the privilege of immortality. it was and nearly contemporaneous with Abraham. a character which must have al- ready become difficult to decipher in the eighth century B. to fix the date of the original. to consult the patriarch saved from the Del- uge. it has been possible to restore the narrative with hardly any breaks. with a view to its cure. a kind of Hercules. being attacked by disease (a kind of leprosy).. others have omitted them. The hero rrot as of this poem. and even probably beyond anterior to Moses. must self it- have been a copy of some in which the original text more ancient manuscript. and in other cases have simply repro- duced exactly the forms of such as they did not understand.C. I proceed to give integrally the narrative ascribed in the poem . Khasisatra.. Some of the copyists have introduced these into their text. and thus the patriarch is induced to relate the cataclysm. it results from a comparison of these valuations. by order of the King of Assyria. in the distant land to which the gods have transported him. whose name has yet been made out with cer- tainty. there to enjoy eternal felicity. founded by the It is difficult precisely monarchs of the certainly goes first Chaldean empire. Asshurbanabal. seventeen centu. that the original. goes. The variations presented by the three existing copies prove that the original was in the primitive mode ries at least before our era. transcribed by order of Asshurbanabal. epic of the T7 town of Uruk.THE DELUGE OF THE CHALDEANS. as the copyists have differed as to the interpretation to be given to certain signs. copied it by Assyrian scribes. made in the eighth century B. had already received interlinear comstill ments. in the sacerdotal library of the from a very ancient specimen town of Uruk. but back to the ancient empire.C. " By a comparison of the three copies of the poem that the library of the palace of Nineveh contained. therefore much of writing called the hieratic.

]" He said to me. . thy men-servants. The town of Shurippak. the history of my pres- tell to thee the decision of the gods..78 " ' ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. [By a delCause thou to go up uge] I will destroy substance and life. and he said to me " Man of Shurippak. I placed its roof. embarked in it on the sixth day . " 'And the god [Ea]. to the great gods [The gods took counsel on the appeal of] Anu [and approved by Nabon. thou shall build 600 cubits shall be the measure of its length and 60 cubits the amount of its breadth and of its height. On the prow I will fix the vessel thou commandest me to build [thus] vessel ratutu vessel —thou. and cover it with a roof. is was ancient. I divided its floors on the seventh . Within it. [Launch it] thus on the ocean. At a given moment that I shall cause thee to sel . and I said to Ea. . and in it [men did not honor] the gods. The vessel into the vessel the substance of all that has life." Khasisatra opened his mouth and spoke " No one has made [such he said to Ea. . . — — : — . . which " in . — . . . — . . I will reveal to thee. ervation " ' —and — O Izdhubar.. . son of Uba- — : — — and finish it [quickly]. [a deluge was proposed by] Bel — Nergal and] Adar. shall the plain that I will assemble be kept behind thy door. thy riches. and thy young people the cattle of the field. — — . his servant " [If they laugh at thee] thou [shall be punished] he who has insulted me. I divided the interior compartments on the eighth. ' On — — — — . and I covered it. ." understood.. . thy furniture. . . old [shall laugh at me.. enter into it. the immutable lord. erns . his lord I shall see and the a] ship. my lord " [The vessel] that thou commandest me to build thus [when] I shall do it. — — ." — the fifth day [the two sides of the bark] were raised. thy grains. . I will exercise my judgment on that which Close the vesis on high and that which is below . . repeated this command in a dream. [I alone. I was] their servant. and the wild beasts of and that I will send thee. . young and [Ea opened his mouth and] spoke. . shalt say to them like to cav[for the protection of the gods] is over me. In its covering fourteen in all were its rafters fourteen in all did it count above. know. . — .. I listened to the decree of fate that he announced. and thy maid-servants. a situated on the Euphrates — it town which thou knowest. and draw the door of the ship toward thee. build a — — — — — : — — — — — : — : — — . thy provisions.

and Nabon and Sharru marched before they marchNergal the powed. and of wine [I collected in quantity] like to the waters of a river.THE DELUGE OF THE CHALDEANS. which he announced in these terms: "In the evening I will cause it to rain abundantly from heaven. " They broke .. . and added what was wanting. all I possessed of silver I gathered together. I kept 3600 chests for the nourishment of my famiand the mariners divided among themselves twice 3600 ly. with all that it contained. and the sons of the people.] All that I possessed I gathered together . " Mu-sheri-ina-namari rose from the foundations of heaven in a black cloud. of the surface of the earth like — . — — . In [anticipation of the need of] drinks. — I my all male and female. I poured on the exterior three times 3600 measures of asphalte. 1 entered into the vessel and shut In shutting the vessel. [To arrange them in] the chests I set my hand to. I made them servants. porters. brought on their heads the chests of provisions. — : made all ascend into the vessel ascend. was changed into a desert. — — — — — . devastating the mountain and the plain erful dragged chastisements after him Adar advanced. — ' — — . — — — — — — [This lading " ' . . to Buzur-shadi-rabi. . all that I possessed of gold I gathered all that I possessed of the substance of life of every — kind I gathered together. . and [the earth] became without lustre. of the sun the vessel was completed. — . For [provisioning] I had oxen slain I instituted [rations] for each day. filled the two-thirds." The fixed moment had arrived. chests. 3600 men. I — — — — — — — . . — . of barrels. I was afraid.. "79 — stopped up the chinks through which the water entered in I visited the chinks. 1 confided this dwelling. and Three times three times 3600 measures of asplialte within. undation of Ramman swelled up to the sky.. [of provisions] in quantity like to the dust of the earth. the my door.. pilot. the cattle of the fields. overthrowing before him the archangels of the abyss brought The indestruction. . . Ramman thundered in the midst of the cloud. strong ." When the evening of that day arrived. ' . . and I had carried above and below the furniture of the ship. ' " Shamash (the sun) made the moment determined. the wild beasts of the plains. in their terrors they agitated the earth. and he announced it in these terms " In the evening I will cause it to rain abundantly from heaven enter into the vessel and close the door.

like unto sea-weeds the corpses floated. and did not permit it to pass over. — — —A — . by reaof fishes. the terrible water-spout which had assailed after the fashion of an earthquake grew calm. and they held their lips closed. and did not permit it to pass over. Ishtar wailed like a child. and did not permit it to pass over the fifth and sixth day the mountain of Nizir arrested the vessel. day and a second day the mountain of Nizir arrested the vessel. I sent out and loosed a dove. weep with me. terrible [Deluge] on men swelled up to [heaven]. and found no place to light on. and it came : . am the mother who gave birth to men. and the light smote on my face. men no longer knew In heaven the gods became afraid of the watereach other. they mounted up to the heaven of x\nu. and did not permit it. The dove went. turned. [they destroyed] the living beings of tlie surface of tlie earth. the swallow I sent out and loosed a swallow went. Dounced the terrible [chastisement] of men who are mine." The gods on their seats were seated in tears. — — — . and this is the misfortune that I have announced in the presence of the gods. At the approach of the seventh day. there they are filling the sea. —The — — — — — : — — — — — — — — — . " ' Six days and as many nights passed the wind. So I announced for the evil I anthe misfortune in the presence of the gods. and my tears came over my face. The gods were stretched out motionless. [revolving] future things. spout. pressing one against another like dogs. the third and fourth day the mountain of Nizir arrested the vessel. son of that which the archangels of the abyss are doing. and sought a refuge . and it came back. At the approach of the seventh day the diluvian rain grew weaker. The vessel was borne above the land of Nizir. I opened the window. turned. the great goddess pronounced her discourse " Here is humanity returned into mud. and the diluvian rain were in all their strength. — " * I looked at the regions bounding the sea toward the twelve points of the horizon not any continent. and like to the race and the gods. The brother no longer saw his brother . the waterspout. I was seized with sadness I sat down and I wept . to pass over.80 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WOULD. attentively observing and the whole of humanity had returned to mud . and found no place to light on. and the wind and the water-spout came to an end. — — — . the mountain of Nizir arrested the vessel. the sea inclined to dry up. I looked at the sea. .

I have not revealed the decision of the great gods it is Khasisatra who interpreted a dream and comprehended what the gods had decided. Instead of thy making a new deluge. I will never leave them in " Let the that day I prayed that I might never leave them. warrior. Bel entered into the 4* ' " " No —— : — — — : . let hyenas appear and reinstead of thy making a new delduce the number of men uge." Ea opened his mouth and spake. . Let the sinner carry the weight of his sins. . stopped celestial — he was far. and [he foresees] all. and let men be [mown down]. . he said to the warrior Bel " O thou.THE DELUGE OF THE CHALDEANS. cedar. — . when his resolve was arrested. turned. " I tlien sent out (what was in the vessel) toward the four I raised the pile of my burntwinds. and it shall never be infringed faith in it never [shall be violated]. Bel filled : saw the vessel. — ' . let Dibbara appear. — . From afar. . ! — ! men " ' for the pit." " Then. but never may Bel come to gods come to my sacrificial pile my sacrificial pile for he did not master himself. and he has made the water-spout for the Dehige. and Bel with anger against the gods and the ! — archangels one shall come out alive No man shall be preAdar opened his mouth and said he served from the abyss !" said to the warrior Bel " What other than Ea should have formed this resolution ? for Ea possesses knowledge. Please thyself the blasphemer tlie weight of his blasphemy. I sent out and loosed a raven the corpses on the waters it ate. and juniper-wood. ' — . the great goddess raised the great zones that Anu has made for their glory (the gods). rested. — — — — . in drawing near. . The gods were seized with the desire of it the gods were seized with a benevolent desire of it and the gods assembled like flies above the master of the sacrifice. herald of the gods. These gods. — . and he has numbered my — . in approaching." From . 81 the raven went and saw back. seven by seven I disoffering on the peak of the mountain posed the measured vases. and beneath I spread rushes. and I offered a sacrifice. let there be famine. and came not back. and let the earth be [devastated] instead of thy making a new deluge. with this good pleasure. thou hast made the water-spout of the Deluge. as thou didst not master thyself. let lions appear and reduce the number of men instead of thy making a new deluge. luminous crystal before me.

" we consider these two forms of the same legend. In the place. was the same as Saturn. it is known. far anterior to the founding of Rome. now Khasisatra and his wife are going to be carty and Khasisatra will reside ried away to live like the gods. in the mythological legends. Hercules were also called by the ancients " the The pil- Chronos. The Romans pillars of lars of called the Atlantic Ocean " Chronium Mare. the dominion of or Ea. in this re- dominions of Atlantis. — He made — my — — — "This narrative. then. the Hea god of the Nineveh was a fish-god. embraced Northern Africa and the European coast of the Mediterranean as of Italy. thus identifying Chronos with that ocean. Saturn was an ancient king of Italy. we points wherein the story points directly to Atlantis. He turned around us and stopped short he approached our group. on both sides. rather. — the ocean world. He established industry and social order. who. or Saturn 2. and a great kingdom which. tablets." the Sea of Chronos. filled the land with plenty. and established me in a remote place at the mouth of the streams. as those of Genesis are. —He took ray hand and made ." says Lenormant. with " a great Saturnian continent" in the Atlantic Ocean.' wife rise. first many 1. and made her place herself at my side. and " certain islands in the sea spect. ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. He was suddenly removed to the abodes of the gods. me rise. afar at the mouth of the rivers. striking." Here. introduced civilization from some other country to the Italians. Berosus tells us that the god who gave Chronos. Atlantis. with the story of Plato as to the . warning of the coming of the Deluge was Chronos. His name is well connected. in the remote ages." far as the peninsula agreeing. ." They carried me away. . "follows with great ex- actness the and the analogies When see same course as that. we have convincing testimony that the country referred to in the Chaldean legends was the land of Chronos.82 vessel. now Khasisatra has made part of perishable humani*' Until but lo. or. and created the golden age of Italy.

on the contrary. not of the rivers abyss" — to wit. but of "the who was said to have the Chaldean 83 as half monuments man was described as the god. tis. an allusion to Although there is up of the fountains of the great deep " (about which I shall speak moi^ fully hei'eafter). . or Baal. Baleshaugen. civilization He it brought and letters to the ancestors of the Assyrians. civilized nation associated with . Belan and the Baal Yorkshire. He clearly represented an ancient. to give time enough for the the land. In the Chaldean legend. the Great and Little Belt. In those respects wherein the Chaldean legend. for we will see hereafter that almost every nation had its especial moun- by rain tain on which. etc. hence the greater period allowed for the Deluge. just as every pos. for instance. the rain lasted but . and gave his name to the Baltic. we see that in each The account given *' instance in we approach is nearer to Atlan- Genesis the form of the tradition that would be natural to an inland people. as. was worshipped on the western and northern coasts of Europe. and subsequently drain off from A people dwelling in the midst of a continent could not conceive the possibility of a whole world sinking beneath the sea . differs from the Biblical record. maritime. the principal destruction seems to have been accomplished by rain the breaking rain to fall. he was and seas. he came from the ocean. Balestranden. cians. the ark rested . as we shall show. evidently the older form of the tradition. and was some land and people that had been destroyed and inundations. and to many localities in hills in the British Islands. The fact that the scene of the Deluge is located on the Euphrates proves nothing. the ocean. were of Atlantean origin. he was represented in and half fish. they therefore supposed the destruction to have been caused by a continuous down-pour of rain for forty days and forty nights. Bel.THE DELUGE OF THE CHALDEANH. Greek tribe had its own particular mountain of OlymThe god Bel of the legend was the Baal of the Phoeniwho. according to its traditions. 3.

seems like a reminiscence of the real site of Atlantis. and navigated The Chaldean legend represents not a mere rain-storm. entering a ship. and " the corpses floated like sea. There was rain. The sea which a sailing-vessel required fifteen days to cross must have been a very large body of water in fact. it is true. . a The ark of Genesis (tebdh) was simply a chest. wind. . such as might be imagined by an inland people. when he started to find the deified Khasisatra. Does not all this accord with " that dreadful day and night " described by Plato ? — ''"' 5." longer knew each other." " the water rose to the sky.weed. All together over the the dreadful forces of nature were fighting doomed land " the archangel of the abyss : brought destruction. a water-spout. country." 4. sailed for fifteen days before finding the Chal- dean Noah. and a devastation of mountain and land by the war of the elements. The ark it had a prow. earthquakes. and." the men " filled the sea like fishes the sea ivas filled loith mud. a cof- big box. This would show that Khasisatra dwelt in a far . to the sea . lightning. men no . fer." " the brother no longer saw his brother . then secured the services of a boatman. of the Chaldeans was a veritable ship pilot. seven days and we see that the writer had a glimpse of the fact that the destruction occurred in the midst of or near the sea.84 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WOULD. was also thunder. and a " the sea." When the storm abated the land had totally disappeared there was no longer " any continent. . and this. travelled for nine days' jour- ney. an ocean. and men to manage it . In the original it appears that Izdhubar. it a helm. one only attainable by crossing the water too. but but there a tremendous cataclysm. first. .

The author rectly derived of the treatise "On the Syrian Goddess" ac- quaints us with the diluvian tradition of the Arameans. Deucalion alone. serpents. di- from that of Chaldea. unsparing to suppliants. umes of water issued from the earth. as celebrated Sanctuary of Hierapolis. in which pigs. As to the former men. This is how he was saved: He placed himself. descended from Deucalion. I have also heard the account given by the Greeks themselves of Deucalion the er of the temple . for there was a previous one. 85 Chapter TV. of which perished. accordingly. his children. — myth runs thus : The actual race of all men is not the first. was preserved alive to give birth to a new race. and multiplied in the course of time. lions. He received them all. and rains of extraordinary abundance began to fall the rivers left their beds. A COLLECTION of tliG Dcluge legends of other nations will throw light upon the Biblical and Chaldean records of that great event. "tells us that the found- was Deucalion Sisythes that Deucalion in whose time the great inundation occurred. in the "The generality of people. committing many crimes. ." he says. horses. and while they . or it was narrated Bambyce. they are said to have been full of insolence and pride. belong to a second race. and all other terrestrial animals came to seek refuge with him. and the sea overflowed its shores. and his wives in a great coffer that he had. the whole earth was covered with water. because of his virtue and piety. neglecting the rights of the members We hospitality.THE DELUGE LEGENJJS OF OTHER NATIONS. disregarding their oath. THE DELUGE LEGENDS OF OTHER NATIONS. they were punAll on a sudden enormous volished by an imjiiense disaster. and all men perished.

the Koran formally states that the waters of the Deluge were absorbed in the bosom of the earth." says Lenormant. and situated under the temple. . 1 do not know but I have seen it. This is said to be in virtue of a religious law instituted by Deucalion to preserve the.water is brought to the temple. as in the of the story to which case of of their Noah and Khasisatra. I have seen it it is very narrow. Such is the ancient tradition of the temple. ings of We know that tannur has been the occasion of most grotesque imagin- Mussulman commentators. shut up within one single coffer. In this manner." . who had lost the tradition Mohammed made allusion. and of the benefits that he received from the gods. This is not only done by the priests. the people of Hierapolis add a marvellous narrative: That in their country a great chasm opened. driven by the terror with which the vessel the storm . The animals are not collected together by Deucalion. And. Then Deucalion raised an altar. In memory of the event the following is the rite accomplished Twice a year sea. the Greeks of Deucalion. which. and the part played in the Del- uge. they floated as long as Such is the account given by the waters remained in force. memory of the catastrophe. " But to this. swallows up a considerable quantity. narrow as it is. moreover. : " It appears to me difficult. were in the coffer Zeus inspired them with reciprocal amity. and even from beyond the Euphrates. and dedicated a temple to Hera (Atargatis) close to this very chasm. but they crowded into own accord. " not to recogSemitic countries about it nize an echo of fables popular in this all chasm of Hierapolis. in the enigmatic expressions of the oven {tannur) which began to this Koran respecting the bubble and disgorge water all around at the commencement of the Deluge. and it is quite small. Whether it was once large. It is poured out in the temple and goes into the cleft. which prevented their devouring one another. but numerous pilgrims come from the whole of Syria and Arabia." Here the Xisuthros of Berosus becomes Deucalion-^^sy^Aes. into which all the waters of the Deluge poured. and has now shrunk. which they equally tell.86 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. bringing water.

' "After keeping him thus. In the year indicated Manu built a vessel and worshipped the fish. It found in the Qa- tapatha for the " Brdhmana first has been translated time by Max Miiller. and Manu fastened the cable of the ship to the horn of the fish. 'The very year I shall have reached my full growth the Deluge will happen. The Deluge had carried away all creatures. and I will save thee. and when he had washed himself a fish remained in his hands. then I shall be preserved from destruction." into the ocean .. and Manu remained alone. Manu carried the fish to the sea. and this is what is called the descent of Manu on the Mountain of the North. And when the Deluge came he entered the vessel. for fish swallow fish. When I shall have grown still more. While we are small we run great dangers. Then build a vessel and worship me. The fish said. fishers " We Manu . and it addressed these words to him Protect me. dig a basin to put me into. the King of the Dastas i. 87 as in great calamities the creatures of the known to seek refuge in the houses of men. that the water may not sweep it away while thou art on the mountain and in proportion as the waters decrease thou shalt descend.' How shall I protect thee V The fish replied.THE DELUOE LEGENDS OF OTHER NATIONS Lad inspired them forest have been . It said to Manu. I have saved thee fasten the vessel to a tree. Lenormant says: must also remark that in the Puranas it is no longer Vaivasata that the divine fish saves from the Deluge. by pov- erty. Keep me at first in a vase when I become too large for it. enter the vessel. Then tbe fish came swimming up to him. Its most simple and ancient form of the Rig-Yeda. When the waters rise.' grew a large fish. ' ' .' From what wilt thou save me V sweep all creatures away it is from that I will save thee. by which means the latter made it pass over the Mountain of the North. Soon it ' . and I will A deluge will save thee. its India afiFords us an account of the Dehige which.' Manu descended with the waters. e. One morning water for washing was brought to Manu. strikingly contrasts with that of the Bible and the Chalis deans. but a different personage. There is another form of the Hindoo legend in the Puranas. throw me : ' ' ' .

' — Satyravata. is seen. bearing a trident. described by Plato. and he tive of his country. and. Poseidon. considered as one." . a circumstance preserved. the identical with Neptune. under an Indian garb. or fish-god.Purdna : 'In seven days.' Nor must we pay less attention to the directions given by the fish-god to Satyravata for the placing of the sacred Scriptures in a safe place. by the popular. We The references to " the three worlds " these legends point to Atlantis. 'After seven days the waters of the flood were upon the earth. to America. but in Genesis the Lord says to Noah. .' and a little fartlier we read. or three-pronged symbol.' strikingly corresponding to the Chaldean Khasisatra. in order to preserve them from Hayagriva. the eastern continent. and the island of Atlantis. the three ivorlds shall be submerged.. Yet seven days and I will ' ' cause it to rain upon the earth . He is thus a sea-god. it gives some circumstances omitted in these earlier versions. As we have Atlantis. who lays due stress on the following passage of the Bhdgavata. Nor is the Puranic version of the Legend of the Deluge to be despised. the western continent. and full of fantastic and often puerile details. no doubt. such as we have seen it in the fragment of Berosus.' said Vishnu to — — Satyravata. . Lenormant says . recognize in it. refers to the great The and the " fish-god " in " three worlds " probably wit. who always represented riding a dolphin. emblematical probably of the triple kingdom. since they appear in the Babylonian legend. a marine horse dwelling in the abyss.88 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. In certain aspects it is less Aryanized than that of Brdhmana or than the Mahdhhdrata . empire of Atlantis. which must yet have belonged to the original foundation. the very tradition of the interment of the sacred wn'itings at Sippara by Khasisatra. tlie man -who loves justice and truth. . . in liis hand. Eufounder of the civilization of is rope and Africa. though it be of recent date. above all.'' There is nothing like this in the Brdhmana nor the Mahdbhdrata. and not Brahmanic oral tradition with which the Purdnas are so deeply imbued. This has already been observed by Pictet. comes to save the representain And we have also a new and singular form of the legend the following:. .

" vol. or coffer.. in the Ave have been examining. It is said that in his time the whole land was covered by a flood. Deucalion and Pyrrha leave it. in the sacred books containing the fundamental Zoroastrian doctrines. whose waters reached the sky. vara. Zeus having worked to destroy the men of the age of bronze. was warned by Ahuramazda. and to cause the germs of men. by the advice of Prometheus. of the earth being about to be devastated by a flood. original and primitive conception. and dating very far back. ii. a messenger brought the terrible tidings to them in a ship. his father. and. plants to enter it. Deucalion. and was finally stranded on Mount Parnassus. and from which he. according — . the envoy of x\hu(" Vendudid. "The Greeks had two principal legends as to the cataclysm by which primitive humanity was destroyed. it These emigrants built a walled town. The Deluge came. in which he took refuge with his wife. the chest. This clearly tis. with whose crimes he was wroth. prior to the destruction of Atlan- a colony had been sent out to some neighboring country. in Sanscrit Angha. we meet with a tradition which must assuredly be looked upon as a variety of that of the Deluge. the good deity. though possessing a special character. with all that it contained. offer sacrifice. by an enclosure. lost in the night of ages. his very name seemingly derived from one signifying deluge in Aryan idioms. was the father of the human race. 46." in order to escape annihilation. constructed a coffer. and brought to grains and domestic animals of the mother country . the most ancient of the kings of Boeotia or Attica a quite mythical personage. and diverging in some essential particulars from those It relates how Yima. and Accordingly. and the message of safety was brought thither by the bird Karshipta. floated at the mercy of the waves for nine days and nine nights. " The second tradition is the Thessalian legend of Deucalion. was alone spared. The god ordered Yima to construct a refuge. The first was connected with the name of Ogyges. signifies that. the garden of Yima. a square garden.) ramazda. protected beasts. when the inundation occurred. escaped in a vessel. Pyrrha. together with some companions. p.THE DELUGE LEGENDS OF OTHER NATIONS. 89 "Among the Iranians. the and when the island of Atlantis sunk in the ocean. who.

Mega- son of Zeus and one of the nymphs. Sithnides. there are passages which point to Atlan- Greek god Zeus was one of the age of bronze" indicates the civilization of the doomed people. Here. ros. we Noah was one year and ten days in the ark. while Deucalion was afloat only nine days. also. stones. that we can hardupon it as a Syro-Phoenician importation. in Greece. on the thirteenth of the month of Anthesterion. repeople the world by throwing benamely. Again. in Grecian tradition. it was the eponym of the city. find that the ark floated but nine days and nights. toward the beginning of March it was customary. there . a day of mourning consecrated to the dead that is. who. having so close a resem- — blance to that in use at Hierapolis. while tis. and that the whole human race perished. poured also into the trench dug to the west of the tomb. in Syria. to pour water into the fissure. Khasisatra was not half that time. We will see hereafter that the of the kings of Atlantis. also. This Deluge of Deucalion is. and to appease the manes of its victims. on the third day of the festival of the Anthesteria. as we will see. At Megara. which hind them 'the bones of the earth' change into men. "The men no length of time is assigned to the duration of the storm. command of Zeus. Thus. in memory of the event. At Athens. through which it was said the waters of the Deluge had been swallowed up. took refuge on Mount Geranien. what most resembles a universal deluge. warn- ed by the cry of cranes of the imminence of the danger of the coming flood.90 to the ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WOULD. in length but one cubit. were probably the source of the great number of implements and weapons of bronze found all over Europe." ly fail to look ' — — In this legend. as at Bambyce. and the result of an assimilation established in remote antiquity between the Deluge of Deucalion and that of Khasisatra. a ceremony called Hydrophoria was observed. as described by the author of the treatise On the Syrian Goddess. Many authors affirm that it extended to the whole earth.' Close to the temple of the Olympian Zeus a fissure in the soil was shown. in the funeral sacrifices of the Athenians. they were the great metallurgists of their day. who. every year. together with flour mixed with honey.

It will be observed that in all these legends the It name of Zeus. supported by Minerva. landed at the different points named in the traditions that colonies or else those places. " The invasion of the East. " to which the story of Atlantis refers. in his ' Commen- tary on Plato " :' In the greater Panathen?ea there was carried in procespeplum of Minerva. and had . said to be the son of Zeus or of Hermes. had already been established by the Atlanteans at It would appear impossible that a maritime peo- ple could be totally destroyed. that Zeus Naios had preserved at Dodona. had the advantage in the war with the Atlantes. The traditions of Rhodes only supposed the flood by rising into the air on wings given nymphs . which showed how the Athenians.' p.THE DELUOE LEGENDS OF OTHER NATIONS. representing the war with the giants and the victory of the gods of Olympus. to have escaped the cataclysm. who there assembled under his rule the remnant of humanity preserved with him. and it the Telchines. doubtless board in the harbors. reappears. In the lesser Panathenaea they carried another peplum (covered with symbolic devices). was the Thessalian Cerambos. For the inhabitants of the Isle of Cos the hero of the Deluge was Merops. son of Hyas. many were on shipand others going and coming on distant voyages. the oldest. greatest. In Samothracia the same character was attributed to Saon." says Baldwin (' Prehistoric Nations. 396). parties that many would appear probable had escaped from the catastrophe. seems to have given rise to the Panathenaea. son of Eohis. who was 91 said to have escaped I him by the was Perirrhoos.' scholia quoted from Proclus by Humboldt and Boeckh says ' The historians who speak of the islands of the exterior sea ' sion a A . Boeckh says of them. those of Crete Sasion. festivals in honor of Athena celebrated in Atti- These festivals are said to have been established by Erichhistorical thonus in the most ancient times remembered by the traditions of Athens. and most splendid ca. King of Atlantis.

Iranian. us that in their time there were seven islands consecrated and three others of immense extent. the second to Amraon. and based upon a myth. of which the first was consecrated to Pluto. by pouring offerings into fissures of the earth said to have been at the time Atlantis made was destroyed. and the third to Neptune. and that even religious pilgrimages and national festivities were would call attention to the further fact that in the Deluge Isle of Cos the hero of the affair was Merops." vol. ' refers to the Deluge as coming from an oven. which was extremely large. We have seen that at Athens and at Hierapolis. I Greek legends signify nothing. Theopompus.' " (See Humboldt's *' Histoire de la Geographic du Nouveau Continent. age in memory of an event which never occurred. religious ceremonies should have been established and perpetuated from age to historical reality. according to this story. The inhabitants of the latter had preserved a recollection (transmitted to them by their ancestors) of the island of Atlantis. one of the names of the people of Atlantis was " Meropes. Chaldean. Atlantis was also consecrated to Neptune. in Syria. swallow up thy waters . we know from nians long preserved in their books the memory of a victory it won over the Atlanteans in the early ages. pilgrims came from a distance to appease the god of the earthquake. legend of the Now we have seen that. Plato's history that the Athe- More than this.) to Proserpine. " All men were drowned save Noah and his and then God O earth.92 tell ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. i. and celebrated by national festivals. remote from each other. The Persian Magi possessed a tradition in which the waters Mohammed borrowed issued from the oven of an old woman. with processions It is too and religious ceremonies. and for a long time held sway over all the islands of the Atlantic Ocean. family ." But we have not reached the end of our Flood legends. much to ask us to believe that Biblical history. and in the Koran he said. No an in the one can read these legends and doubt that the Flood was It is impossible that in two different places Old World.

"But it is not so. and it was by them that the island of Prydian was repeopled. or Britain. We myth. obscure as to its meaning. with another triad.' and the inundation (bawdd) of the whole country. speaking of the vessel Nefyddnaf-Neijion^ which at the time of the overflow of Llyon-llion. and thon. and the Deluge counts among three fire terrible catastrophes of the island of Prydian. the other two consisting of devastation by " and by drought. who saVed themselves in a vessel without rigging. but evidently formed on the principle of Cymric In the same triad we have the enigmatic story of the horned oxen {ijchain hanog) of Hu the mighty. who drew out of Llyon-llion the avanc (beaver or crocodile?). The very name of the patriarch may have suggested this triple epithet. under the concise forms of the deserving of attention. although triads. perhaps. and nothing here points to a borrowing from Genesis. the father of the Hrim- — — . withhold thy rain . As usual. or it is said. by which all mankind was drowned with the exception of Dwyfan and Dwyfach. Wili. and rather too much resembles the ark of Noah. The meaning of these enigmas could only be hoped from deciphering the chaos of barbaric monuments of the Welsh middle age." ' Llyn-llion. heaven. in order that the lake should not overflow. and We grandBuri. some of them are undoubtedly connected with very ancient traditions. but meanwhile we cannot doubt that the Cymri possessed an indigenous tradition of the Deluge." In the bardic poems of Wales we have Deluge which. The first of these events. the first man. is still recent. " was the eruption of the lake of waves. also find a vestige of the navian Ealda.bore a pair of all living creatures." Pictet here observes "Although the triads in their actual form hardly date farther than the thirteenth or fourteenth century. the legend is localized in the country.THE DELUGE LEGENDS OF OTHER NATIONS. sons of same tradition in the ScandiHere the story is combined with a cosmogonic The three sons of Borr Othin." alliteration.' 93 and immediately the a tradition of the waters abated. slav Ymir.

the giantesses totter men tread the path of Hel.94 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. or ice giants. in hieroglyphical and sacred langnage. earth in ocean sinks. 48-56. (the ship) Naglfar is loosed. Surt from the south comes with flickering flame. " Then trembles Yggdrasil's ash yet standing. with their many cosmogonic speculations. even dis- tant. shines from his sword the Valgod's sun. before the cataclysm. until the fire of Hyrm steers from the east. The sun darkens. much suspected. their reply was that they had been preserved from it as well as from the conflagration produced by Phaethon they even added that the Hellenes were childish in attaching so much importance to that event. as there had been several other local catastrophes resembling it. Thoth. abundance that Bergelmir. 9)." . the principles of all knowledge. allusion to this When the Greeks told the cataclysm. Egypt does not contain a normant says single allusion to the Flood. "The Yala's Prophecy" (stz. had himself. have not afforded one. in a boat. waters rise. all the race of giants drowned in it except who saves himself. we seem to catch traditional glimpses of a terrible catas- trophe. inscribed on stela?. the mundane snake is coiled in jotun-rage. the monuments and original texts of Egypt. The worm beats the water and the eagle screams the pale of beak tears carcasses. The stony hills are dashed together. According to a passage in Manetho. Egyptian priests of the Deluge of Deucalion. towering fire plays against heaven itself. fire's breath assails the all-nourishing. groans that anand the Jotun Loki is loosed. of being an interpolation. and heaven is cloven. and his body serves them for the conBlood flows from his wounds in such is thursar. struction of the world. fall from heaven the bright stars. The shadows groan on the ways of Hel (the goddess of death). the Surt has consumed the tree. . and reproduces the race. which reminds us of the Chaldean legend cient tree. with his wife. however. In the p. or Hermes Trismegistus. Le- " While the tradition of the Deluge holds so considerable a place in the legendary memories of all branches of the Aryan race. Edda of Scemund. . After it the second Thoth translated into the .

a Cos- mos. Atlantis. lished about one thousand years ago. but the igneous parts tend upward." and between the conflicting forces the earth hangs suspended. out of which the Flood legends grew and. pubbook. very pre- cise history of the destruction of Atlantis. a It was UE WORLD. like illus- Mohammed's coflSn in the old story. but only local catastrophes. body surrounded by "The earth. The silence of all other myths of the Pharaonic religion on this head render it very likely that the above is merely a foreign tradition. and no doubt of Asiatic and Chaldean origin. There old was a quaint monk named who. This would be the only Egyptian mention of the Deluge. The accompanying . To my mind the explanation of this singular omission is The Egyptians had preserved in their annals the . they did not indulge in sal ing the real history of the local catastrophe which destroyed any myths about a univerall deluge covering the mountain-tops of in their neighborhood." says Cosmos. water. recently introduced.' his only complete authentic work. 95 vulgar tongue the contents of these stelae.THE DELUGE LEGENDS OF OTHER NATIONS. there had Possess- been no universal flood. AOUOUUINU TO OOSMOii. and resting on nothing. as they told the Greeks. " presses downward." plain. the same Manetho not speaking of it in what remains to us of his 'Dynasties. the world. "Topographia Christiana." ac- companied by a map. They had no Ararat The traditions of the early Christian ages touching the Del- uge pointed to the quarter of the world in which Atlantis was situated. in which he gives his view of the world as it was then understood.

96 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. the Tigris. the Caspian Sea. the Deluge. the river Pison " and . P. not to show how much more we know all around this habitable world there was yet another world. but because he taught that the eastern side of this transmarine land he judges created . by tlie tration (page 95) represents the earth surrounded ocean. adhering closely " Upon on all sides to the circumscribing walls of heaven." He I then gives us a more accurate map. M. this than poor Cosmos. man was located. upon the coming of Noah and his sons were borne by the ark to the earth we now inhabit. AFTER COSMOS. is such as here on the ceived our first eastern edge described. the Arabian Gulf. the known world copy map. and that there the paradise of gladness was MAP OF KUliOPK. Hence. driven out of Paradise to that extreme point of land on the sea-shore./. and beyond this ocean was " the land where men dwelt before detail. where it re- parents. The four rivers he supposes to be gushing up the spouts of Paradise." They are depicted on the above map : O is the Mediterranean Sea . of the Deluge. in of his day. Q. L. the land where men dwelt before the Flood''' .

while he locates Paradise in the in the he places the scene of the Deluge west . THE MOUNTAIN TUE SUN GOES lir.TEE DELUGE It will east. too. LEGE. represents the high The following rude mountain in the cut.Ui:NU AT ^il(iUT. and that after the Del- uge Noah came to the shores of the Mediterranean. The mountain as crooked as Culhuacan. thus producing the alternations of day solar majesty is just getting and night. is His behind the mountain. and he supposes that Noah came from the scene of the Deluge to Europe. This shows that the traditions in the time of Cosmos looked to the west as the place of the Deluge. beyond the ocean is recogprobably a dim echo from Atlantean from Cosmos. that there The fact. 5 .VJJS OF OTHER NATIOXS. and times. was land is in the west nized by Cosmos. while Luna looks calmly on at the operation. north behind which the sun hid himself at night. 97 be observed that. the crooked mountain of Atzlan described by the Aztecs.

which we doubt. The cause of these similarities between the diluvian traditions of the nations of the New World and that of the Bible remains thereto fore unexplained. Besides. . the colonies of Atlantis . " that America traditions of the Deluge comino. had Buddhism. language. .98 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. Atlantis and the western continent had from an rial immemoits age held intercourse with each other. or through the Buddhists of Asia." says Alfred Manry." The cause of these similarities can be easily explained : the legends of the Flood did not pass into America by way of the Aleutian Islands. made its way into America. It is difficult to suppose that the emigration that certainly took place from Asia into North America by the Kourile and Aleutian Islands. and blood. it could not have introduced a myth not found in its own scriptures. should have brought in these memories. Chapter Y. From Mexico to the peninsula of Yucatan. any sufficiently conclusive facts. religion. but were derived from an actual knowledge of Atlantis possessed by the people of America.infinitely nearer to that of the Bible and the Chaldean religion than among any people of the Old World. sharing in civilization. THE DELUGE LEGENDS OF AMERICA. the great nations of America were simply colonies from Atlantis. from the shores of Brazil to the heights of Bolivia and Peru. a very remarkable fact. from the Gulf of Mexico to the head-waters of the Mississippi River. since no trace is found of them among those Mongol or Siberian populations which were fused with the natives of the New World. The attempts that have been made to trace the origin of Mexican civilization to Asia have not as yet led is " It we find in . and still does so in our day.

devoted himself to the research of indigenous traditions as being necessary to his missionary work. When the great god Tezcatlipoca decreed that the waters should retire.' from the library where it is preserved. his children. and accompanied by the explanatory commentary of Pedro de los Rios. feeding on the carcasses with which the earth was Tezpi sent out other birds. It consists of four symbolic pictures. Mexican cataclysm was Coxcox. Tlascaltecs. and Mechoa. "The most important among the American traditions are the Mexican. Miztecs. in a bark. four ages of the The first was an age of giants (the great mammalia ?) . and in Chaldean sources. It tells how Tezpi embarked in a spacious vessel with his wife. that gives the most valuable information.THE DELUOE LEGENDS OF AMERICA. 99 and therefore it is not strano-e to find. however.caneses. of which laden. together with his wife Xochiquetzal. this document. Paintino's retracino. or." says Lenormant. the Noah of the Europeans. whose preservation was essential to the subsistence of the human race. Then Tezpi. Zapotecs. representing the four ages of the world preceding the actual one. according to world. did not return. who. and several animals. left his bark on the mountain of Colhuacan. on a raft made of cypress-wood (Cupressus disticha). Maury says. according to other traditions. a Dominican monk. the humming-bird only came back with a leafy branch in its beak. for they appear to have been definitively fixed by symbolic and mnemonic paintings before any contact with According to these documents. the dehisce of Goxcox have been discovered among the x\ztecs. They were copied at Chobula from a manuscript anterior to the conquest." ' There were. Tezpi sent a vulture from the bark. in 1566. " The document. extended . The bird. as Alfred American traditions of the Deluge coming nearer to that of the Bible and the Chaldean record than those of any people of the Old World. "as to the cosmogony of the Mexicans is one known as Codex Vaticanus. and grain. called by certain peoples Teocipactli or Tezpi. seeing that the country began to vegetate. He had saved himself. less than fifty years after the arrival of Cortez. The tradition of the latter is still more strikingly in conformity with the story as we have it in Genesis.

a veritable deluge. The picture represents Matlalcueye.' destroyed lost." The learned the Aztec language of the Abbe Brasseur de Bourbourg translates from "Codex Chimalpopoca" the follow- ing Flood legend " This ter is the sun called Nahui-atl. plus twelve. who were the second age ended in a conflagration the third age was an age of monkeys. and you will enter into it when in the month Tozontli the water approaches the sky. xockitl.' "But as soon as they had finished they went out. with the exception of one man and his wife. all our flesh. This flood is represented as the last cataclysm that devastates the earth.' whose number is 10x4004-8. ' 4 water. and consort of Tlaloc. Then all mankind was lost and drowned. god of rain. but begin to hollow out a great cypress. destroyed by famine . who sjwe themselves in a bark made of the trunk of a cypress-tree. goddess of waters. he said. there had passed away four hundred years. " Now at the end of the year the god Titlacahuan had warned Nata and his spouse Nena. fish. plus two ages. and thy wife one also. 'Sun of Water. the two human beings preserved.' Now the wa- was tranquil for forty years. The sky came nearIn a single day all was lost. and. saying. and the day Nahaier the water. and when the god had closed the door. Thou shalt eat but one ear of maize. ' ' . '4 flower.100 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. "Then comes the fourth age. and men lived for When the sun Nahui-atl came the third and fourth times. or 4008. plus seventy-six years.' and the day Even the mountains sunk into the water.' "Then they entered in. as darting down toward earth. on opening it^ they began to see fish. Make no more wine of Agave. . ' " And that year was that of ce-calli. Coxcox and Xochiquetzal. are seen seated on a tree-trunk and floating in the midst of the waters. for the wood no longer moved. and found themselves changed into fish. and the water remained calm. and the water remained tranquil for fifty-two springs. all Nahui-atl was 1 house. Atonatiuh. It ends by a great All mankind are changed into inundation.

. and they roasted fish. what is that fire that is making Why do they thus smoke the sky f At once Titlathere? cahuan-Tezcatlipoca descended. he shaped their loins and heads." says Plato. Who has made this fire here V And. and. even the mountains sunk into fall . were turned into into the water. for will be observed the Aztec legends differ from the Bible in points . seizing hold of the fish. saying. there came mighty earthquakes and inun" In a single day dations that ingulfed that warlike people. Noah " builded an altar. they are filling the sea. unto the Lord. instantly looking' down said: 'Divine Lord.THE DELUGE LEGENDS OF AMERICA.^^ not only the land on which the people dwelt who fish. instead of a rain- of forty days and forty nights. by rubbing together pieces of wood. just as the Aztec god did." altar In the account in Genesis. and they were transformed into dogs {chichime)y ' Here we note a remarkable approximation to Plato's account " In one day and one fatal of the destruction of Atlantis." all was lost. " night. but the very mountains of that land sunk Does not this describe the fate of Atlantis ? In the Chaldean legend "the great goddess Ishtar wailed like a child. " and the gods assembled like sacrifice. it These resemblances cannot be accidental." say^ the Aztec legend. and offered burnt offerings on the And the Lord smell- ed a sweet savor. like to the race of fishes." flies But Bel came in a high state of indignation. and of every clean fowl." saying. here we see " in a single day .' " In the Chaldean legend we are told that Khasisatra also offered a sacrifice. and was about to finish the work of the Deluge. 101 "Then they lit a fire. neither can they be the interpolations of Christian missionaries. as represented in the Bible. 'I will not again curse the ground any more for man's sake. And. and took of every clean beast. when the great god Ea took above the master of the pity in his heart and interfered to save the remnant of mankind. He began to chide. a burnt offering. " I am the mother who gave birth to men. the water . "The gods Citlallinicue and Citlalatonac. and the Lord said in his heart.

ning. tumbling down. p. "Anc. they wished to climb upon the trees. . overthrowing the houses. . of the East. The name of the hero of the Aztec story.102 ATLANTA: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. but is derived from Aryan sources its fundamental root is Na. and the houses. Nympha. . is with the broad sound of the not far from the name of is Noah or Noe. — Hist.. and crushing even the mountain cav- . and fire contributed to the universal ruin at the time of the last great cataclysm which preceded the fourth creation. . Nata^ pronounced a. and on the other the Chaldean legend." . (Lenormant and Chevallier. the earthquake rocking the trees. they wished to enter into the grottoes (caves). the rising water. . to which in all the Aryan language is attached the meaning of water mttv. " black cloud " is referred to in both instances . pushing each other. But still legend and (the Sacred striking analogies exist between the Chaldean " the story of the Deluge as told in the "Popul Vuh more Book) of the Central Americans " Then the waters were agitated by the will of the Heart of Heaven (Hurakan). they wished to climb upon their houses. — . of Genesis a Phoenician. 15. and a heavy darkening rain commenced There was heard a great noise above and rain by night. Then were men seen runif produced by fire. and yet. or Hebraic legend. strange to say. Observe the similarities here to the Chaldean legend.. filled with despair. . water deities. Neptunus. Semitic. their heads. as Water and the grottoes closed themselves before them. . the which occurs bears . is There The the same graphic description of a terrible event. . and probably in the word "iVa-hui-atl " —the age of water. name of Noah. the face of the earth was obness descended from heaven rain by day scured. where they resemble on the one hand Plato's record. Na-ta. and a resinous thickof these creatures. ." vol. m/za. and the trees shook them off. to flow. also the dreadful noises. no appropriate meaning in those tongues.) We find the root Na re- peated in the name of this Central American Noah. and a great inundation came upon the heads They Avere ingulfed. . i. water. fell to the ground . . The Deluge in it.

the designations of four Scandinavian gods and one It seems to Roman deity." " the brother no longer saw his brother. that men were destroyed by tremendous rains and lightning from the sky. our And are. while in I Latin /z^ro. lasted 1716 years. the hurricane — — the spirit of is very suggestive. that while ships from Atlantis carried 'terrified passengers to the story of the dreadful catastrophe to the people of the Mediterranean shores. in Portuguese. obtained his name? The last thing a people forgets is the name of their god we retain to this day. 103 " the men despair. to be rattled over frozen ground. And and here I may note that this word hurakan •the abyss. in order to take refuge in it should the . in the names of landic . gave this as the " It is found in the histories of the Toltecs that this age and Jirst world. in YvQUch. the Iceword hurra. the days of the week. The native Mexican historian. they erected a very high " zacuali. and the highest mountains. /z^racaw. . me certain the tell above are simply two versions of the same event. oi'furio^ means to rage. ish hurra.THE DELUGE LEGEMJS OF AMEBICA. bore similar awful tidings to the civilized races around the Gulf of Mexico.and pushing each other. and Swedish." that this word and how. other ships. to be driven along. tower of great height. all derived from the same root from which the god of the abyss. in German. without the exception of anything. oaragan . Hurakan. Danish. and even all the land. orcan — all of them signifying ." says the Assyrian legend. the god of storm. flying from the tempest. not the old Swed- own word hurried . We find in Spanish the word huracan a storm ." which is to-day a . were covered up and submerged in water fifteen cubits (caxtolmolatli) and here they added other fables of how men came to multiply from the few who escaped from this destruction in a " toptlipetlocali . erns . as they call it. Toltec legend of the Flood : Ixtlilxochitl. after men had multinearly signifies a close chest plied. testifies to an early intercourse between the opposite shores of the Atlantic. filled with Popul Vuh ." says the " runnino.

It will of course lars be said that this account.. ACCORDING TO THE BOTURINI PIOTUEED - WRITING. they went to different parts of the earth. 321. and that his "Relaciones" were drawn from the archives of his family and the ancient writings of his nation he had no motive to falsify documents that were probably in the hands of hundreds at that time. ACOOEDINa TO THE GAMELLI CAREKI PIOTUREl) MS. was derived from the teach- lxtlilxochitl it must be remembered that was an Indian. . came to these parts. with their wives. 20.) . not being able to understand each other. 520 years after the Flood. a son of the queen. " The Toltecs. in " fifteen cubits." given as that the Toltec legend. THE STARTING POINT OF THE AZTECS. in those particu- where it agrees with the Bible. consisting of seven friends.. upward did the waters prevail. . which was in Ce Tecpatl. chap.) In the two curious picture-histories of the Aztecs preserved in the Boturini collection." ("Lxtlilxochitl Relaciones. havpassed great land and seas. and having endured great hardships in order to reach this land they wandered 104 years through different parts of the world before they reached Hue Hue TIapalan." (Gen. and. a native of Tezcuco. Presently their languages were confused. and published by Gamelli Careri and THE STAKTING-POINT OF THE AZTECS." in Kings'borough's " Mex.. is precisely the named in the Bible: "fifteen cubits vii. who understood ing first the same language. ings of the Spanish priests. having lived in caves." vol. Ant. .104 ATLAXTfS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. pp. ix. but : Here we same see that the depth of the water over the earth. second world (age) be destroyed. 322..

p. and ing-point is an island. . others. during in the scale of civilization. and in the other a high temple in the midst thereof. These things seem to be reminiscences of their origin in Atlantis." is Atlantis. (Bancroft's "Native Races. in Greece..ota we seem to have distinct reminiscences of Atlantis.) "The 5* . In both cases their starta boat. punished him for this Atlas. to bear the sionally and obliged him ever after. act. He lived in the sun. In the leo-ends of the Chibchas of Boo." vol. When Bochica appeared in answer to prayer to quell the deluge he seated on a rainbow. through which the waters of the flood escaped. associated an We find even the rainbow appearing in connection with this legend. In an angry mood he Bochica brought a deluge on the people of the table-land. Occa- he shifts the earth from one shoulder to another. 221." or "Atlan. there is a record of their migrations 105 nal location through various parts of the from their origiNorth American conin tinent until their arrival in Mexico. in their This would appear to be an sion to the worship of the sun and moon. He opened a breach in the earth at Tequendama. the Calhuacan. Cosmos. In each case we see the crooked mountain of the Aztec le- gends. and an ancient people who. while his wife allu- Chia occupied the moon. Beneath Bochica mythology was Chibchacum. Bochica was their leading During two thousand years he employed himself in elevating his subjects. is this causes earthquakes Here we have allusions to thousands of years. looking not unlike the bent mountain of the monk. like burden of the earth on his back. v. The Toltecs traced their migrations back to a starting-point This could be no other than called "Aztlan. divinity. were elevated and were destroyed by a deluge and with this Atlantean god bearing the world on his back. from which they pass the island contains in one case a mountain.THE DELUGE LEGENDS OF AMERICA. precisely as we have seen them disappearing through the crevice in the earth near Bambyce.

bidding adieu to their brothers and friends. whose power was without limit. upon the death of their father.. 294. v.. Their very name. tells They were Atlanteans.. this Atlantis. . .) The Aztecs also claimed to (Ibid.) This legend not only points to the East as the place of origin of these races. The causes that led to their exodus from that country can only be conjectured . and the in- all the things. " determined to go as their fathers had ordered to the East. "Popul Vuh. vol." (Bancroft's " Native Races. v. a system of histories. the location of original home of the Nahuatlacas which has been the subject of much discussion. for Aztlan is described as a land too fair and beautiful to be left willingly in the mere hope of finding a better. behold he granted them over the sea the sign of royalty and signia of royalty . p." vol. to receive the royalty. and which they went to receive from the other side of the sea —the art of painting from Tulan.. of the monarch of the peoAnd when they arrived ple of the East where they went. Aztecs. for the things recorded in their (Bancroft's "Native Races. dominion over the and furnished them with the escompletely does this agree with !" How the statement of Plato that the kings of Atlantis held dominion over parts of " the great opposite continent . Now this is the name of the lord.. but they may be supposed to have been driven out by their enemies.^'' writing. the only judge. p.10(5 ATLANTIIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WOULD. they said." vol. on the shores of the sea ' whence their fathers had come. the name of the great lord." p. 553. sentials of civilization. p.' Doubtless they passed when they went to the East to receive the royalty. 125). all that represents it . but also proves that this land of the East.) have come originally from Aztlan. was derived from ii. in fact. exercised colonies in Central America. The " Popul Vuh " us that after the migration from Aztlan three sons of the King of the Quiches. which they brought on their return. Aztlan. this Aztlan. [Ibid. . before the lord Nacxit. p. 321. . 306. and promising to return. was Aztlan.

There can be no doubt these are the ^Mexican Noah.) of in the work of Gemelli giro del : mondo. a flower. Now turn to the sculpture in the Flood tablet (on the great Calendar stone). shining in green gold). and quetzal. The other head bears that of a hand wdth a bouquet (xochitl. vi.THE DELUGE LEGENDS OF AMERICA. have not been invented by the Catholic clergy. and his wife. In the foreground is a boat. was made in a. 23) describes an (" II Aztec picture vol. the picture for moisture. with one exception. we know. out of which a naked man stretches out his hand imploringly to heaven. in such garbled and uncouth forms that we can only see glimpses of the truth shining through a mass of fable. while find legends referring to the Deluge. Coxcox. and the pictures representing the story." the migration of the Aztecs from Aztlan " Out of a sheet of water there projects the peak of a mounon it stands a tree.. a crocodile. by the accumulation of all those symbols with which the ancient Mexicans conveyed the idea of water a tub of standing water." p. and with great emphasis." tain . the king of the rivers. 1478) that the story of OAL. and on the tree a bird spreads its wings. In the midst of these symbols you notice the profile of a man with a fillet. There you will tind represented the Flood. — — : . When we we still turn to the uncivilized Indians of America. but really existed among these nations long before the Conquest. and a smaller one of a woman.. on his head the symbol of his name. The following the Great Lakes tradition was current among the Indians of .d. them. The above figure represents the Flood tablet on the great Calendar stone. a snail above. Xochiquetzal and at the same time it is evident (the Calendar stone.ENUAK STOJSE. Coxcox. a pheasant. drops springing out not two. Professor Valcntini lo: ("Maya Archaeol. water but four drops. they are. as heretofore in the symbol for All. At the foot of the mountain-peak there comes out of The one wears the water the heads of a man and a woman.

toward the rising of the sun. At last a new earth appeared. 111. to J. the diver." ward According to Father Charlevoix. that all the white people's heads were under his feet. Here we note that they looked " toward the rising sun" ward Atlantis for the original home of their race. stole the special gift of the Great Spirit from them. a party of Indians from the west of the Mississippi. Having been warned in a dream that a dekige was coming upon the earth. loudly complained and murmured against him. — — To know if the earth be drying. mankind was destroyed by a to repeople the earth. then becomes the restorer of the human race and the founder of existing society. and governed the whole world. as a punishment for their murmurs against their deliverer. flood. He floated thus for several months. the tribes of Canada and SpirIt is the valley of the Mississippi relate in their rude legends that all it. and that the Good had changed animals into men. on which he saved himself. that — — to- this . on which he landed with all the animals. by whom he administered the government. and by this means usurped power over them and ever since the Indians' heads were under the white people's feet. and tyrannized over the people. A clergyman who in visited the Indians north-west of the Ohio 1764 met. who at that time spoke. at a treaty. that the twelve sons behaved very bad. they who lived . that he had twelve sons. S. suffered the white people to introduce spirituous liquors among them. who from that time lost the power of speech. out of his bark. The animals. " In former times the father of the Indian tribes dwelt tothe rising sun.108 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. abusing their power that the Great Spirit. he sends a bird.) was that. being thus angry with them. a great while ago. made them drunk. "They informed him tions that one of their most ancient tradi- had a common father." p. . Kohl we owe our acquaintance with the version of the in Chippeways full of grotesque and perplexing touches which the man saved from the Deluge is called Menaboshu.'' (Boudinot's " Star in the West. he built a raft. with his family and all the animals.

the much go at penetrate. Poivako. beyond of the Then follows the Song Flood " There was. at the great ocean Kitahikaiiy the first land. who were at first a subject race. Makovnni. and that the rebellion of the Titans in Greek mythology was the rising up of a subject population. earth. much Tula (this is the . least man Mattapewi with dead-keeper Nihauloivit. region governed " the whole world people. the legend depicts the Golden Age and the Fall in these words " All were willingly pleased. but who rebelled. with death was coming. both ing each other. And they were fighting. And the strong snake readily resolved to destroy or fight the beings or the men. stars. Being born creepThe beings and ing. and acquired dominion over the darker We will see reason hereafter to conclude that Atlantis had a com- posite population. snake-rushing water he brought (it). : happened very long ago. a work called "The American Nations.but sea-water on top of the land. hatBoth were fighting. and unhappiness." and the creation of sun. and all were well-happified. S. But after a while a snakepriest. And there came wickedness." in which he gives the historical songs or chants of the Lenni-Lenapi. and they became troubled. both were spoiling. Maskanako.. Meanwhile same Tula referred to in the Central American legends). were never peaceful. men all go forth from the flood creeping in shallow water or to hills. Nana-Bush (the great hare Xana) becomes the ancestor of beings and men. he is ready to move and dwell at Tula. a time " when there was nothino. much destroying." 109 that it contained white subsequently races. And bad w-eather was comAll this ing. brings on earth secretly the snake-worship (Initako) of the god of the snakes. moon. or Delaware Indians. when men had become bad beings. Mitch ivater is rushing. Wakon. at that island. and man. the monster [Amanyam) he brought. The dark snake he brought. distemper was coming.THE DELUGE LEGENDS OF AMERICA. the tribe that originally dwelt along the Delaware River. all were easy-thinking. a powerful snake. After describino. Netamaki. . long ago. crime. Rafinesque published in Philadelphia. In 1836 C. Pa. This strong snake had become the foe of the Jins.

" that find that the land that it was destroyed was the " first was an island "beyond the great ocean. and a ceremony per- . they moved into a cold country " It freezes was there it snows was there it is cold was there. "Meantime all the snakes were afraid in their huts. Among but. and west.?iX\(\ they went away earnestly grieving. "The good and the holy were the hunters. saying. . " the ." Here we land. Like the Aryans. old turtle land. ing and were helped. describing the ful action or motion.' helped them in a boat. afloat." they spread themselves north. Water running off. happy and peaceful they became and was associated. it is drying in the plains and the mountains. with the " fall of man . east." They move to a milder region to hunt cattle they divided their forces into tillers and hunters. ." condition of mankind after the Flood. at the path of the cave.110 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.boat or raft is Mokol. while the rest return to where they started from. and some But the daughter of a spirit Come. the soil." Afterward the fathers of the Delawares." Nana-Bush became the ancestor of the new race his name reminds us of the Toltec Nata and the Hebrew Noah. " snake worship " was introduced. south. They can go no farther but some tarry at Firland. and attempt " to pass over the waters of the frozen sea to possess that land. come they were com- . the Mandan Indians we not only find flood legends. we find an image of the ark preserved religious from generation to generation. men were devoured by them. as in Genesis. Let us go. and west." They seem to travel in the dark of an Arctic winter until they come to a gap of open sea. elsewhere went the powerThen follows Song 3." find that the Snake-people have taken possession of a fine country and they collect together the people from north. . and the Snake-priest Nakopowa said to all. . the way. asking whicii are But there is the way many monsters in to the turtle-back. . * . and a separation into hunters and tillers of early age the people were wicked ." In an .' Eastwardly they go forth at Snakeland {Akhokiiik). After the flood came a dispersion of the people. : . swimming Tula-inn. ' . who "were always boating and navigating. south. east. . The name of the . more remarkable still.

earthen-ware pots in which they could boil water —an art un- known to the ordinary Indians. p. and in the middle of this stands an object of great religious veneration. the ancient Jews vener- ated a similar image. It must be remembered. some eight or ten feet high.. even to On page 158 by a race of Indians in the heart of America. visited the who Mandans '' nearly fifty years ago. 88) " In the centre of the village square. that many of these Mandan Indians were white men. which is is used for The lodges around festivals. or public diameter and circular in form. it. " During the deafening din and confusion within the pickets . i. and manufactured bringing the dreadful tidings of the disaster.THE DELUGE LEGEXDti OF AMERICA. on account of the importance it has in connection with the annual religious ceremonies.' This is a representation of the ark . it is But indeed surprising to find this practice perpetuated. They call it the Big all public games and this ' Canoe. shows and exhibitions. first volume of the same work Catlin describes the great annual mysteries and religious ceremonials of which this image of the ark was the centre. HI and to the arrival of one of those who escaped fi*om the Flood. He says: our times. made of planks and hoops. with their doors toward the centre. with hazel. lately republished in London in the North American Indians. as we will show hereafter. and all shades of color of the hair from black to pure white. that they dwelt in houses in fortified towns." a very curious and valuable work. open space front in. who boiled water by putting heated stones into I quote the very interesting account of George Catlin. formed which refers plainly to the destruction of Atlantis. and some of the ancient Greek States followed in processions a model of the ark of Deucalion. own of the " On the day set apart for the commencement of the ceremonies a solitary figure is seen approaching the village. This object is in the form of a large hogshead. and blue eyes. 150 feet in an open space. gray. He says (vol. containing within it some of their choicest mysteries or medicines.

where he now resides that he has come to open the medicine lodge. which was chiefly naked. so as to resemble at a distance a He enters the medicine lodge. The body of this strange personage. " These four tortoises.112 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAX WOELD. of the village the figure discovered on the prairie continued to approach with a dignified step. where all the chiefs and braves stood ready which they did in a cordial manner by shaking hands. * if this is not done there will be another flood. with a bunch of eagle feathers attached to its tail. as it was with such tools that the big canoe was made. they are thrown into a deep . and pronouncing his name. saying that 'he was the only person saved from the universal calamity. each them in the form of a tortoise lying on its back. to receive him. . stopping in front of each man's lodge. for. was painted with white clay. called Eeh-teeh-ka. all eyes were upon him. a knife. and having received such a present from each as a hatchet. " During the whole of this first day Nu-mohk-muck-a-nah (the or only man) travelled through the village. which must needs receive a present of an edged tool from the owner of every wigwam. and proceeded toward the centre of the village. he places them in the medicine lodge and. that he landed his big canoe on a high mountain in the west. and crying until the owner of the lodge came out and asked who he was.' Among of the sacred articles kept in the great medicine lodge are four sacks of water. place in the river — ' sacrificed to the Spirit of the Waters. "contained the waters from the four quarters of the world that those waters had been contained " I did therein ever since the settling down of the waters. Nu-mohk-muck-a-nah {the first or only man).' " Having visited every lodge in the village during the day. and what was the matTo which he replied by narrating the sad catastrophe ter? ivhich had happened on the earth's surface hy the overflowing of the waters. and in a right line toward the village . certain mysterious ceremonies. on the last day of the ceremony. and he at length made his appearance within the pickets. and goes through white man. recognizing him as an old acquaintance.' he says. (which is undoubtedly always prepared ready for the occasion). that it may be sacrificed to the water. sewed together.''' — ." they told me. and no one will be saved. etc.

'''' He then describes a dance by twelve men around the ark "They arrange themselves according two are painted perfectly lohck-na-pie. represented in a dance. we find the Flood terminating. The Mandans were evidently of the race ." and . divided by four rivers. not. while "the only and man" is represents the white race. the four cardinal points of the compass the dancers are paintfirst ed to represent the black and red races. 113 who knew nothing of an Atlantis theor}^ "think belief. here sacrifice to we have the just as appease the spirit that caused the Flood. where the dancers arrange themselves according to ." says Catlin. or Baal. to the four cardinal points color. that all the people were destroyed except himself. and which is have the image of the tortoise. in the Hebrew. Could anything be more evident than the connection of these ceremonies with the destruction of Atlantis? Here we have the image of the ark here we have a white man coming with the news that " the waters had overflowed the land. But this is not all. the ancient god of the races derived from Atlantis. As one " of our own poets has expressed Very fair and full of promise Lay the island of St. and the name of the dance a reminiscence of Baal. an island. as we shall see a little farther on.' " with horns black. its too. used in Europe as symbolical of Bel. we legends of the Indians. Here." Here we have. society property. Chaldean. with a sacrifice. which we find in other flood a very natural symbol for it." it best to advance anything against such a ridiculous could not obtain Catlin tried to purchase one of these water-sacks. They dance a dance called like those Bel- on their heads.THE DF.LUGE LEGENDS OF AMERICA. but he was told they were " a it for any price . too. Thomas Like a great green turtle slumbered On the sea which it encumbered. the four quarters of Atlantis. two are vermilion some *" were painted partially white. and Central American legends.

according to Major Lynd. but. when about half the nation had reached the surface of the earth. their countrymen were so pleased with the taste of them that the whole nation resolved to leave their dull residence for the charms of the upper region. who was clambering up the vine. " the tribes Indians were formerly dwelt together on an island^ or at least across a large wa- ter toward the east or sunrise. possessed legends of "huge skiffs. legend. beyond the land. in which the Dakotas of old floated for weeks. who were all a branch of the Dakotas. near a subtei'ranean lake. or by swimming know not salt how long or fresh. who lived among them for nine years. They but they crossed this water in skin canoes. which they found covered with buffalo." : This curious tradition means that the present nation dwelt in a large settlement underground." they were in crossing. is. and children ascended by means of the vine. underground. This explanation is confirmed by the fact that in the legends of the Iowa Indians. women. and closed upon herself and the rest of the nation the light of the sun. A grape-vine extended its roots down to their habitation. or Sioux Indians. W.114 ATLANTIC: THE ANTEDILUVIAN They have another singular Lewis and Clarke WOliLI). which we find in the account of " Their belief in a future state is connected with this theory of their origin The whole nation resided in one large village. Men. broke it with her weight. of Atlantis. and gave them a view of the light. or whether the water was While the Dakotas. and rich with every kind of fruit. a corpulent woman. ed extensive colonies on this continent whereupon some mishap cut them off from the mother country. . and were delighted with the sight of the earth. Returning with the grapes they had gathered. and they found." At one time the people had free intercourse between this " large village " and the American continent. dry land" finally gaining — a reminiscence of ships and long sea-voyages. and all relatives of the Mandans (according of to Major James one. and Lynd). that the sea . in the sea being represented by " the subterranean lake. Some of the most adventurous climbed up the vine. .

sent out a dove.THE DELUOE LEGENDS OF AMEHIVA. No. who had made holes in the described in the season when the willow earth to a great depth digging for badgers. a tribe of white men. E. You. A. It." and the presence of white blood of the people. Me. He. is not. and they further relate a legend that "the world was once a great tortoise. Nagosh. and •& mixed up in the ceremonies. fern. Na. Chwe. Hwynt. or there Megosh." The dug to find badgers were a savage's recollection and the island sunk doubtless " white mining operations. and the Welsh Pronounced. its who of returned with a branch of willow in holes beak. Mavvr Peniethir. Maudan. in the sea amid volcanic convulsions. E. Pen. it sank. Nagoes. opened the way to the central But the recurrence of men " as the miners. Mandan tono-ue Welsh. at length pierced the shell of the tortoise. which had fires. I. Head. Ni. They. and covered with earth. and when the great disaster came. Hoovnt. The Great Spirit. Ne. Noo. Ea. Maho Pen eta. and when the earth re-emerged. Pan. and of a white man as " the last in and only man. who saved himself in a boat. \ Hona. The Mandans dove is 115 celebrated tlieir great religious festival above is first in leaf. Mosoor Panaether. A. Eon ah. Me. Ne. A. Chwi. ^ \ \ Major Lynd found the following resemblances between the Dakota tongue and the languages of the Old World .' Ount. And lar here I might add that Catlin found the following singu- resemblances between the English. She. men said it was due to the deep mines. and that when one day. all the veins point to the same conclusion — that the Man- dans were colonists from Atlantis. Pan. Mi. We. borne on the waters. No . in digging the soil. Hona. and the water covering it drowned all men with the exception of one.

Wi- t3 c tic j . 1 "t. 1 3 J3 & 1 1 ^-^ 1 1 1 1 f 5 fc^ a.-: • 1 . =5 & 03 = K w &H ^4 H 3 "^ •_• i s 3 • 0. -Si 1 1 tg Ji 1 <«1 3 u "S 3 . C &i 3 U r^H &I .•5 1 ^ C c ill J ^ 55? Ik2 "— ^ —Y— ^^" "5 3 j2 U > 1 1 fee r« J2 (5 h c» . ^ 1 =i-s a.2 > fcZ in. ? aT ^ s . 1 D 4J . a 1 1 —v_^ = c . & cu « . a % -« 1 5 1 > a.§ i Ji .5 05.3 H >^^ 3 fLi t Q « s »|l ci « CB s • bi) i 3 . 5 1si rS* 5^ r 1^1 § s 1 : — 5 -r^ -:-^ r'T^'V 03 r en 1 i . i.116 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.fl. t> 3 & HO feco c •_. t. = f « p: ^ . -.: P- ^a : c a. 7 : r^ « 3 ^- 0.= H S S 5 ^ 1 S tn <3 a5 \A < b 3 3 = 1 X 5.M Mil • 1 1 1 •i s 5'5 • c p. t a.

" (See Lynd's " MS. and all men had disappeared from existence. 149.) The wild Apaches." {Ibid. in which the most part of mankind per- Afterward the their teotes. and the noise of battle was heard. and attempted would reach to heaven. the Dakotas. or Sioux. and broke off the piece of land on which they were huddled and pushed it out to sea." first from natal hour. and from these the Okanao-aus are descended. "Among the Iroquois there is a tradition that the sea and waters infringed upon the land. so that all human life was destroyed. and also one called Chacha. A p. from which escaped. " wild "the . restored the earth as at the beginning. and arrived on the main-land. to drift whither it would. whereupon she rose up in her might and drove her rebellious subjects to one end of the island. and two animals of every kind. belonged same race as the Mandans hence the interest which ." (Bancroft's " Native Races. but that one family was saved. Skyappe.. Long ago.) " The Okanagaus have a god. The Sioux say there was a time when there was no dry land. who appear to be endowed with omniscience but their principal divinity is their great mythical ruler and heroine. The Chickasaws assert that the world was once destroyed by water. but the Great to build a house that . when the sun was no bigger than a star. this strong medicine-woman ruled over what appears to have now become a lost island. p. with which Scomalt was exceeding wroth. History of the Dakotas. At last the peace of the island was destroyed by war." vol. 75. or gods. Montezuma and the coyote alone Montezuma became then very wicked.) Here we have the Flood legend island. 117 to the According to Major Lynd. This floating island was tossed to and fro and buffeted by the man and woman escaped in a winds till all but two died..THE DELUGE LEGENDS OF AMERICA. clearly connected with a lost The Nicaraguans ished. Scomalt. attaches to these verbal similarities. canoe. ." Library of Historical Society of Minnesota. iii." have a legend that days of the world were happy and peaceful days then came a great flood. believed " that ages ago the world was de- stroyed by a flood.

as Deucalion repeopled the earth with the stones. but his warning was despised. Szeu-kha killed the eagle. and a green came a peal of water mound seemed to stand upright for a second. the son of the Crehad saved himself by floating on a ball of gum or resin. . have a of the Creator was called Szeu- kha An eagle prophesied the deluge to the proph- et of the people three times in succession.118 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. it flung itself upon the prophet's hut. allied to the Papagos. — ator. restored its victims to life." This instantaneous catastrophe reminds one forcibly of the de. struction of Atlantis. (Bancroft's "Native Races. it Spirit destroyed with thunderbolts." vol. cut incessantly by the lightning. then. goaded on like a great beast. an Indian tribe The son (Ze-us?). It man if indeed he were a man Szeu-kha. 76. The Pimas..) peculiar flood legend. When the morning broke there was nothing to be seen alive but one reared itself over the plain. iii. "then in the twinkling of an eye there of thunder and an awful crash. p. and repeopled the earth with them.

the Canaries. etc. the Azores. the mountains of Atlantis contained volcanoes. as ances. 1880. — of land of which from Iceland to it was a part. like Atlantis." In the island of Dominica." it created near Sicily in 1831. that the very sea -bed along the line of day. When a volcanic island was was accompanied by "a water- spout sixty feet high. its — and is. 119 Chapter YI. occurred a series of convulsions which reminds us forcibly of the destruction of Plato's island lar : . when four thousand people of hot water and boiling perished. on the 4th of January. the scene of great volcanic disturb- If. numerous . in the island of We have seen that such discharges occurred Java. then. and the similarity extends to another particu- Dominica contains. we are told. it is it not improbable that the convulsion which drowned in the sea was accompanied by great discharges of water. the water was projected from the mountain " like a water-spout. " Immense col- umns mud were thrown out " of the volcano of Galung Gung . Helena. original axis to this we have shown. and nearest to the site of Atlantis. contains even now great volca- noes — as in Iceland. one of the islands constituting the Leeward group of the West Indies. As Atlantis perished in a This is it must have possessed volcanoes. stretching from north to south. St.SOME CONSIDERATION OF THE DELUGE LEGENDS. of which the peaks of the Azores are the surviving representa- tives. SOME CONSIDERATION OF THE DELUGE LBGENDS The Fountains of the Great Deep. rendered the more probable when we remember that the ridge volcanic convulsion.

backs. looking In the mean time like nothing ever seen in them before. the door-steps and back-yards were found covered with a deposit of volcanic debris. from which the water was rushing like so many cataracts of molten lead. and the rain. holdingtogether like clay. abridge the account given by the : New York Herald of January 28th. in fact. and silver showing itself This is. while the gutters below ran swollen streams of thick gray mud. with small. more frequent and vivid .m. and The cause of this was shoulders like showers of hailstones. and while divine service was still going on in the Anglican and Wesleyan chapels. as if night of heaven were open. the composition of in even smaller quantity. ed till twelve. and people who happened to be out in the streets felt the rain -drops falling on their heads. . and it is found in soluin — tion as well in the lake water. carrying down rocks and large trees. to be noted by looking at the spouts. it required only a slight examisandstone and magnation to determine its main constituents nesia.table. and in some places lying more than an inch thick. which just previously had been slight showers falling since early morning cool and pleasant became at once nearly stilling hot the rumbling of distant thunder was heard. The Devil's Billiard . I hot and sulphur springs. which could be easily identified as iron pyrites. first^w ith a few heavy drops. . dark-gray in color. and the light-blue and fleecy white of the Soon the thunsky turned into a heavy and lowering black. shining metallic particles on the surface. the volcanic mud thrown up by the soufrieres at Watton Waven and in the Boiling Lake country. commenced to pour as if the floodgates In a moment it darkened. 1880 after 11 o'clock a. mid-day the roofs and walls of the buildings little "A Roman — — . overflowing its banks. of a blue and red color. all the indications of an approaching thunder-storm suddenly showed themselves.. the street "pavement. nearly overpowering smell of sulphur announced itself. had come a strong. soon after high-mass in the Catholic cathedral. der-peals came near and loud.120 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. the Roseau River had worked itself into a state of mad fury. the lightning flashes. the pyrites being slightly mixed. Scraping up some of the stuff. the atmosphere. and threatening destruction to the bridges over it and the When the storm ceased it lastliouses in its neighborhood. — — town.

section of the Boiling Lake district are curious. are all running a thick The face of the entire country. like cream milk. the loche. but the water overleaps its basin like a kettle boiling over. meye. may observe. . tiie mud shower had not On the north-west. and the dormer died. white flood. May there not be a boiling lake on the unapproachable summit of Roairama? The phenomena noted at Pointe Mulatre on Sunday were similar to what we witnessed in Roseau. in the direction of Fond Colo and Morne Daniel. brochet. and threatens to throw it back over the low-lying lands The reports from the Laudat of the Pointe Mulatre estate. this substance. is composed wholly of which there assumes the character of stone in formation. in the interior of British Guiana. and almost buried the stream under its weight. mullet. The only outlet of the lake is a cascade which falls into one of the branches of the Pointe Mulatre River. crocro. the tetar. The fall of mud was heavier. 121 within half a mile of the Boiling Lake. the atmospheric disturbance was greater. and the change in the appearance of the running water about the place more surprisThe Pointe Mulatre River suddenly began to run volcaning. there is no continuous stream. that the fall of the water from the lake is similar in appearance to the falls on the sides of Roairama. . ic mud and water. except on the south-east. We — — . the ter crawfish. Pointe Mulatre lies at the foot of the range of mountains on the top of which the Boiling Lake frets and seethes. covering all the fields. Inquiries instituted on Monday morning revealed the fact that. extended beyond the limits of the town. shows the existence or otherwise of volcanic activity in the lake-country. and the numerous mineral springs wdiich arise in that part of the island. camoo. en passant. The mud carried down by the river has formed a bank at the mouth which nearly dams up the stream. and neither Loubiere nor Pointe Michel had seen any signs of volcanic disturbance. down to the eel. nothing but pure rain-water had fallen. 6 .SOME CONSIDERATION OF THE DELUGE LEGENDS. and comes down in detached cascades from the top. at one time and another. and were thrown on the banks. "But what happened at Pointe Mulatre enables us to spot the locale of the eruption. the color and temperature of which. and the odor of sulphur in Soon the fish in the wathe air became positively oppressive. The Bachelor and Admiral rivers. then the mud predominated. but with every feature more strongly marked.

together with the earthquake." in showers over the face of the country. probably derived at an earlier age from the Chaldean tradition. " the floodgates of heaven were opened." and " the river overflowed its banks. " like a water-spout. In it we are told. a lake occupies the mountain -top. again. has undergone some portentous change.^'' which even " the gods grew afraid of. we can understand the description in the Chaldean legend of " the terrible water-spout. which the frightened peasants who bring the news to Roseau seem unable clearly and connectedly to describe. in we suppose manner. it fre- quently overflows." From this account it appears that the rain of water and it must have and then fallen mud came from a boiling lake on the mountains. and the volcanic activity still continues. the destruction of Atlantis to have been. and rains of extraordinary abundance began to fall the rivers left their beds. " All on a sudden enormous volumes of water issued from the earth. L'cland.]22 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD." The disturbance in Dominica ." : mud And here. and deluging the land. in the territory of Mourne. thrown to a great height. down the mountain in frightful On Slieve-donart. duplicates this description exactly and " In a moment " the water burst from the mountains. Ireland. of the Welsh legend of the eruption of the Llyn-llion." On the top of a mountain in the county of Kerry. of the destruction of the country." which " inundated the whole country. in this And view we are confirmed by the Aramaean legend of the Deluge. in this Boiling We are reminded. " the Lake of Waves. accompanied by a tremendous outpour of water its from one or more of volcanoes. we are reminded of the expression in Gen- . and the ocean overflowed its banks. rolls which signifies Hell-hole ." and which " rose to the sky. called Mangerton." and which seems to have been one of the chief causes. in the county of Down. and torrents. risen to a great height. and If like its overflowings help to form rivers. from the Admiral River to the Solfatera Plain. there is a deep lake known as Poulle-i-feron. Lake of Dominica.

V"T-. helping Manu over " the Mounof the North. . and of " the enormous volumes of water issuing from the earth" of the Aramaean tradition. That in this does not refer to the clear from the manner which it is stated: "The same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up. father of Atlantis.. Hindoo legend we find the god. and . ." who tain In the Chaldean . of "the terrible water-spout" which " rose to the sky. and the windows of heaven were opened. ."l. be seen The surrounding mountains now anywhere.. The Hindoo legend of the Flood speaks of "the marine god Hayagriva. . . living where such tremendous volcanic disturbances were nearly unknown." who This is doubtless " the archangel of the abyss " spoken of in the Chaldean tradition.Tw'n'". produced the cataclysm. the island lies toward the south. And when the work of destruction is finished. . And the rain was upon the earth. rain is 11). is . all the fountains of the great deep broken up" (chap. ') is legend Khasisatra's vessel stopped by "the Mountain of Nizir" until the sea goes down. contemplate their present elevation. exceeded all that arc to These mountains were the present Azores.SOME CONSIDERATION OF THE DELUGE LEGENDS. and One has but to remember the depth to which they detre- scend in the ocean. we are told " the fountains also of the deep and the windows of heaven were stopped." etc. (From " The Walls of Nineveb. We have in Plato the lowing reference to the mountains of Atlantis — fol- "The whole precipitous on the side of the sea. The Mountains of the North." This is a reminiscence by an inland people. who dwelt in the abyss." . to realize their mendous In the altitude and the correctness of fish- the description given by Plato. represents Poseidon. sheltered from the north. 123 "the same day were vii. country was described as being very lofty and The whole region of . esis." of the Chaldean legend.

air. 1783. threw out such masses of ashes as to darken the floating cinders to the west of " The Sumatra formed.''^ It thus appears that the very statement of Plato which has . which were covered with such a mass of volcanic ashes from the eruption of a. voked the incredulity and the modern. on the 12th of April. that they were once more brought in to the light of day and the knowledge of mankind. in digging for a well.''^ The eruption in the island of Sumbawa." even as in Dominica the rain was full of "thick gray mud. through ivhich shijjs with difficulty forced their way.124 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. " and ships were considerably impeded in their course. We and have seen that. world. so that navigation became place. a mass two feet thick and several miles in extent. penetrated the roof of a house. We have but to remember the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Khasisatra says. " I looked at the sea and the whole of humanity had returned to mud. *' Mud which Stopped Navigation. The to. —We it are told by Pla- Atlantis disappeared beneath the sea." The explorations of the ship Challenger show that the whole of the submerged ridge of which Atlantis is a part i^ to this day thickly covered with volcanic debris. on account of the quantity of mud which the ingulfed island left in its This is one of the points of Plato's story which proridicule of the ancient.d." accompanied by an " overpowering smell of sulphur. . the volcanic eruption in Iceland covered the sea with pumice for a distance of one hundred fifty miles. remained buried at a depth of from a new population and labored above them an aqueduct was constructed over their heads. observing. and it was only when a lived farmer. and then that sea inaccessible. in April. and even of We : find in the Chaldean legend some- thing of the same kind attentively. 79 that for seventeen centuries they fifteen to thirty feet." on ceased. 1815." In the "Popol Vuh " we are told that a "resinous thickness descended from heaven.

says " The deity. dence in the stories of the Deluge —There in is a singular coinci- another particular. appeared to him (Xisuthros) in a vision. we find in the Egyptian legends a passage of Manetho. stelae. in his version of the Chaldean flood. and of the in Now. there would be a flood by which mankind would be destroyed. The Preservation of a Record. into the Joseph us tells us that " The patriarch Seth. found the sea impassable from the masses and pumice. was the inventor of the alphabet art of writing. They returned terrified to the shores of Europe and the shock inflicted by the destruction of volcanic ashes . before the Deluge. inscribed on or tablets. the i\tlanteans. the principles of all knowledge. us that Taautos. in order that wisdom and astronomical knowledge should not perish. "in the City of the Sun at Sippara. on which this knowledge was engraved. before the Deluge. in hieroglyphics. which Thoth (or Hermes Trismegistus). or Taut. and warned him that.SOME CONSIDERATION OF THE DELUGE LEGENDS. The legends tell of the Phoenicians. Ea ordered Khasisatra all to and the principles of sciences. one of brick. 125 provoked the ridicule of scholars is in itself one of the corrob- orating features of his story." In the Chaldean legends the god inscribe the divine learning. He therefore enjoined him to write a history of the beginning. Chronos. the other of stone. two columns. upon the loth day of the month Doesius. It is probable that the ships of after the tempest to look when they returned for their country. and bury them. preserved by Sanchoniathon. and which existed in the Siriadic country. . in prevision of the double destruction by fire and water predicted by Adam." Berosus. or sacred char- acters. erected. After the Deluge the stelae second Thoth translated the contents of these vulgar tongue. on tables of terra-cotta. of Atlantis upon the civilization of the world probably led to in one of those retrograde periods in the history of our race which they lost all intercourse with the Western continent.

over. Most of the inhabitants. . who warned Satyravata of the coming of the Flood. whither the people were gathered together. procedure. the relations of their governments to one another were regulated by the injunctions of Poseidon. " in order to preserve abyss. A Succession of Disasters. and the waves of the sea combined with volcanic fires to overwhelm and ingulf it.12G ATLANTIC: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WOULD." etc." them from Hayagriva. three of these is catastrophes are constantly mentioned. probably at long intervals apart ." in these convulsions. which show that the " Dolphin's Ridge " was connected with the shore of South America north of the mouth of the Amazon. and deposited them as memorials with their robes. directed him to place the sacred Scriptures in a safe place. which was situated in the middle of the island. " was shaken by frightful earthquakes. a marine horse dwelling in the Are we to find the original of these legends in the following ? passage from Plato's history of Atlantis " Now. Each convulsion swept away portions of the land until the whole disappeared. translated by De Bourbourg. as the law had handed them down. p.) . —The Central American books. leaving the line of coast as it now is. . This by the explorations of the ship Challenger. at the Temple of Poseidon. They received and gave judgments. These were inscribed by the first men on a column of orichalcum. . and at daybreak they wrote down their sentences on a golden tablet. " The land. The Hindoo Bhagavata. and to bury it in the City of the Sun at Sippara. and sometimes there reference to one or two more.Parana tells us that the fish-god. and conclusion of all thin^. There were many special laws which the several kings had inscribed about the temples. . and to build a vessel. 120." (Critias. state that originally a part of the American continent extended far into the Atlantic Ocean. . The Central American books tell us that this tradition is strikingly confirmed region of the continent was destroyed by a succession of frightful convulsions.

the most ancient will find hereafter ans praying God to liold the land firm. the inhabitants of " especially one month Izcall% which were instituted to commemorate in which. and on the shores of Central America? And we find this succession of great destructions of the At- lantic continent in the triads of Wales." ica. where traditions are preserved of "three terrible catastrophes." p. say this frightful destruction of land and people. 176.' Can we doubt the which we thus find con- firmed by religious ceremonies at Athens.SOME CONSIDERAriON OF THE DELUGE LEGENDS. or to portions of the land which for a time (Baldwin's "Ancient Amerescaped immediate destruction." We . and that Atlanat last was but the stump of the ancient continent. . lost in the night of ages" We —preceded that of Deucalion. and some fled for safety to the summits of high mountains. are told by the explorations of the ship Challenger that the higher lands reach in the direction of the British Islands and the Celts had traditions that a part of their country once extended far out and was subsequently destroyed. were destroyed but some escaped in ships. and the sacred books. 127 taken amid their regular employments. And the — of the kings of Boeotia or Attica.) This accords precisely with the teachings of geology. and it is reasonable to believe that tis it went down piecemeal. in Syria. hymns of the AryThe people of Atlan- . where a deluge of Ogyges " the most ancient into the Atlantic. which perished from the same causes and in the same way. The in the fact that this tradition existed is among America proven by the existence of festivals. * princes and people humbled themselves be- and besought him to withhold a return of reality of events such terrible calamities. fore the divinity. same succession of destructions is referred to in the Greek legends. We know that the land from which America and Europe were formed once covered nearly or quite the whole space now occupied by the Atlantic between the continents. a quite mythical person.

must have lived under a great and perpetual terror. ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. as I will show hereafter. finds confirmation in the original identity of the alphabetical . and also an explanation of that other legend of the Tower of Babel. was common to both continents. and judging that their own time must inevitably come. and in which they sought to build a tower high enough to escape the Deluge.128 tis. which. . will see hereafter. and the hold which it took upon the minds of men and this condition of things may furnish us a solution of the legends which have come down to us of their efforts to perpetuate their learning on pillars. a conclusion which. which will go far to explain the origin of primeval religion. as we signs used in the old world and the new. having seen their country thus destroyed. All the legends of the preservation of a record prove that the united voice of antiquity taught that the antediluvians had advanced so far in civilization as to possess an alphabet and a system of writing. section by sec- tion.

and creeping things. might be defined to be the result of a whereby man improves his condition. seasons bring him neither seed-time nor harvest. the cold. is Every step toward a step of conquest over nature. berries. own advan- in the The savage man is a pitiable creature as Menaboshu says. series of inventions and discoveries. in its time. appeasing in part the everlast- ing craving of his stomach with seeds. his insatiable hunger could be 6* . pinched with hunger. for eve- ry manifestation of nature the lightning. The age could now reach his game . THE CIVILIZATIO]^ OF THE OLD WOELD AND NEW COMPARED. AN INHERITANCE. the heat — are threatening and danall gerous demons." he is exposed unprotected to the blasts of winter and the heats of summer. A The great terror sits upon his soul . He is powerless and miscivilization erable in the midst of plenty. and he has no means to arrest their flight. he is pursued by a " perpetual hun. a far greater stride forward for the human race than the steam-engine or the telegraph. Chippeway legends. —the storm. 129 PART III. Chapter CIVILIZATION Material civilization I. The invention of the bow sav- and arrow was. the thunder. and controls the forces of nature for his tage. he sees the animals of the forest dash by him.CIVILIZATION AN INHEMITANCE. the wind. ger .

in all that earliest period added nothing to the arts which existed of Egyptian history. pottery. In six thousand years the world made no advance on the civ- ilization which it received from Atlantis. iron was first worked in the same way by shaping meteoric iron into spear-heads. Atlantis." I shall undertake to show hereafter that nearly all the arts essential to civilization of Atlantis — which we possess date back to the time Egyptian civilization certainly to that ancient which was coeval with. was The discovery of fire and the art of cooking was another immense step forward. and the art of metallurgy was begun . and thus pottery was invented. roads. India. not beyond the reach of this new and wonderful weapon. and perhaps tens of thousands. of years intervened between each step many savage races have not to this day achieved some of these steps. raining. Phoenicia. Richard Owen says. engraving. Tlie savage gradually learned that he could dispense with the wood. language. literature are of slow growth. "Unprepossessed and sober experiit . But ence teaches that arts. Then some one (if we are to believe the Chippeway legends. one another in rapid succession. beat them into shape. covered the wood with clay the clay hard. painting. having nothing but wooden vessels in which to cook. the construction of canals. and aqueducts. Egypt. and an outgrowth from. Chaldea. "towering in its pride of place. Prof. sculpture. the very eagle." satisfied.130 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. glass-ware. the arts of Phoenicia terial and Egypt extended. must not be supposed that these inventions followed Thousands. without maa change or improvement. metallurgy. era. it The present age has entered upon new has added a series of wonderful inventions to the At- . to a period but two or three hundred years ago. Greece. navigation. and Rome but passed the torch of civilization from one to the other lapse of time they at the . In architecture. ened in the fire. on the shores of Lake Superior) found fragments of the pure copper of that region. the results of gradual development. The savage.

until And work has but commenced to a plane as : it will continue it lifts man is much higher than the present .340 years before his era. Manetho tells us that Athotis. according to the information he received from the Egyptian priests. The greatest pyramids were built by the Fourth Dynasty. and theologians. mythologists. during which mankind did not in- vent. tells us (" Euterpe. a spacious temple. It was in its early days that Egypt worshipped one only God in the later ages this simple and sublime belief was buried under the corruptions of polytheism." says Winchell. and so universal was education at that time among the people that the stones with which they were built retain to this day the writing of the workmen." cxlii. 131 it has subjugated steam and electricity to the uses its of man.) "In the time of Menes the Egyptians had long been architects. Menes. AN INHERITANCE.) that." p. and showed priests They introduced him into him the statues of 341 high. and yet the age of Columbus possessed no except that of printing (which was ancient in China). All these statements imply that even at this early period the Egyptians were in a high state of civilization. 120." (Wincheirs ""Preadamites. " At the epoch of Menes. or nearly 14. who had in turn succeeded each other arts. The first king was Menes. " the Egyptians were already a civilized and numerous people. thus testifying that it drew its greatness from a fountain higher than itself. and left anatomical books. that he was a physician." Professor Richard Owen says: "Egypt is recorded to have been a civilized and . painters. but simply perpetuated. their written history dated back 11. which was not known to the Egyptians and the civilization of Egypt at its first appearance was of a higher order than at any subsequent period of its history. sculptors. as the present above the barbaric condition and in the future it will be said that between the birth of civilization in Atlantis and the new civilization there stretches a period of many thousands Herodotus of years. built the palace at Memphis. the son of this first king.000 years prior to this time.CIVILIZATION lantean list . .

and illuminated by marvellous minds. Taine (" History of Eng- . did not ization. yet here. infancy. and entirely without mythical and heroic ages. some region of the mankind must have existed during vast spaces and under most favorable circumstances. at the very first dawn of Mediterranean we it find the son of the king of Egypt recorded "as a physician. to create. and I as having left anatomical books. it. But how far in advance of this stage is a nation administered by a kingly government. That illustrious Frenchman. community of a group of nomad families. with divisions of labor. in and discover those arts and things which constitute civilWhen we have it before our eyes that for six thousand years mankind in Europe. we may conceive must have required to bring savage man to that condition of refinement and civilization possessed by Egypt when it first comes within the purview of arts of it what lapses. of time history. not to heal the people history. into be incontestable that. The pasgoverned community before the time of Menes. as Its civilization has no if the country had never known youth. as portrayed in the Pentateuch. and its art no archaic period. It was already mature. has ever devoted himself to the study of medicine and the writing of medical books for the benefit of mankind? . vent. or Greece. even when led by great nations." hold earth. primitive of time. consisting of grades of society. of which one kind. may be admitted as an early step in civilization." toral We shall attempt to show that it matured in Atlantis. old. or even of these modern nations. Their mission has been to kill.132 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. H. The civilization of the Old Monarchy did not begin with infancy. it and that the Egyptian people were unable to maintain at the high standard at which they had received pages of Plato. and Africa. A. as depicted in the What king of Assyria. advance one inch beyond the Egypt. assigned to the priesthood. was to record or chronicle the names and dynasties of the kings. the duration and chief events of their reigns !" Ernest Renan points out that "Egypt at the beginning appears mature. or Rome. what ajons. Asia.

reservoir. Chaldean." p. bows and arrows. tents. for a multitude of cenIn other words. Saxon. a Chinese. in different no truth in the theory that men pressed by necessity will always hit upon the same invention to relieve If this were so. . I cannot believe that the great inventions were duplicated some would have us believe. "the great marks of an original model. it civilized man and the savage is simply incalcula- represents not alone a difference in arts and methods of life. risen to civilization. as we shall show. in an Aryan. The child of the civilized races . all races would have spontaneously. Civilization is not communicable to it. wherein other springs have. . a deep . many ages." and that when we meet with them " fifteen. but in the mental constitution. and as "all roads lead to Rome. thirty centuries before our era. traits are and argues that these pre-eminent twenty. for certainly the comforts of life are as agreeable to one people as another. and the predispositions of the soul. slings. there is . they represent the work of a great . 133 Literature. sees tlie unity of the Indo-European races manifest in their languages. many savage tribes are incapable of There are two great divisions of mankind.CIVILIZATION lish AN INHERITANCE. and ical it is richest source of these master faculties Such is the first from which histor- events take their rise because this is and one sees that if it be powerful no simple spring. and philosophies. all . all savages would possess pottery. the instincts. . and Celt to maintain civilization training during is simply the result of civilized in "myriads of centuries" some original home of the race. literature. every civ- world has had something of civilization from all the earliest ages. the civilized and the savage ilized race in the and. as countries. an Egyptian. turies. Chinese. and canoes in short." so the converging lines of civilization lead to Atlantis. Aryan. The abyss between the ble. all savages would have invented their wants. but a kind of lake." capacity of the Egyptian. the discharged their several streams. perhaps of several myriads of centuries. 23). the boomerang.

during the His- Period . has yet reached that sublime height of faith they cultivated the ground. thus anticipating our reapers and mowers by two thousand years. the savage boy amuses himself with bows and arrows: the one belongs to a building and creating race a wild. or — Among the Gauls men would lend money to be repaid in the next world.c. The difference between the civilization of the Romans under Julius Caesar and reals . I may be reminded of the Gauls.of. poetry. The Gauls had even invented a machine on wheels to cut their grain. 222 were armed with soft iron swords. hunting stock. they possessed nearly all the ceand domestic animals we have. and in a state Wherever the Romans German tribes. or Britons. influences. came in contact with Gaiils. they possessed written languages. they were controlled by religious ideas . but these were not savages. and conquered races have shared some of the advantages possessed by their conquerors but we will seek in vain for any example of a savage people developing civilization of and among themselves.134 ATLANTIS: TRi: ANTEDILUVIAN WOULD. and employed wheeled vehicles. The Scots. and steel. oratory. and houses of the other to civ- in his sports cobs. and the Gauls who encountered the Roman arms in b. bronze. built houses and walled towns. ilization . and history lieved in . we need not add. according to Tacitus. and they wrought in iron.mail. as well as at the time when Caesar conquered their country. they be- God and the immortality of the soul. and. and Britons. manufactures water-wheels. of rewards and punishments after death. toric and without external those ." The Celts of Gaul are stated by Diodorus Siculus to have used iron-headed spears and coats. who were savages at the dawn of history are savages still barbarian slaves may have been taught some- thing of the arts of their masters. they found them armed with weapons of iron. wagons. that no Christian people . wove cloth. Goths. This abyss between savagery and its has never been passed by any nation through own original force. used chariots and iron swords in the battle of the Grampians "enormes gladii sine mucrone.

questionably produced similarity of tion. sciences. different to the two sides of the Medi- terranean Sea? If. without knowledge of or intercourse with each other. each spontaneously and separately invented the arts. ilizations When we consider the resemblance of the civ- to one another. similarity of origin has unarts.CIVILIZATION AN INHERITANCE. tain of Atlantis. as between the sides of the Atlantic. happening tion. what probability ? is there of three or four separate nations arts all advancing at the same speed to precisely the same and opinions If. Greece. Assyria. by precisely the same steps. Phoenicia. in the one case. we have demonstrated must have descended o'ne from the some common source. Egypt. and traditions. tions The proposition is untenable. then. at precisely the same ends. ar- arts. and condiarts. Why should a rule of interpreta- two from that which holds good as tion prevail. habits. and took up the thread of original thought where Atlantis dropped sand years before it. sciences. habits. on both sides of the Atlantic. or have that they radiated from . other. religious beliefs. civilizawere found substantially identical. 135 the Gauls under Vercingetorix was a difference in degree and not in kind. in the other. it is absurd to say that the peoples of the two continents rived separately. upon the same inven- whether that invention be an arrow-head or a steam-enIf it gine? required of it mankind a lapse of at least six thou- began anew the work of invention. no enough to pretend that Rome. Is there any inand condition prove similarity of origin? stance in the world of two peoples. customs. why. should not similarity of customs. we prove that. The Roman it civilization was simply a developall ment and perfection of the civilization possessed by the European populations. If was drawn from the common foun- we find on both sides of the Atlantic precisely the same customs. and opinions in which they agreed of the Mediterranean nations man is silly but we proceed to trace out the thread of descent or connection from one to another.

" p." vol." 49 . covered with hieroglyphics. Herodotus describes the burial of a Scythian king. both the Peruvians and Egypand the doors were narrower at the top than at the threshold." historic Races. sometimes sculptured. 193). Chapter II." Hoover mer describes the erection of a great symmetrical mound Achilles. often in its rough (Squier. state.136 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WOULD. have a strong resemblance to those of the Mound Builders. and palaces. also one over Hector. "After this they set to all of work to raise a vast moand above the grave. in We need not add that this art was found Egypt and all the civilized countries of Europe. them vying with each other. that they built walls. along the European shore of the Mediterranean. " Serpent Symbol. The mounds of Europe and Asia were made in the same way and for the same purposes as those of America. The obelisks of Egypt. p. Mexico. he says. Architecture. — Plato tells us that the Atlanteans possessed architecture .) The worship of Priapus was found in Asia. temples. and both are in Phallus-worship. Bancroft's " Native Races. and Central America.. Among tians the walls receded inward. 504. THE IDENTITY OF THE CIVILIZATIONS OF THE OLD WORLD AND THE NEW. iii. as well as in Peru. are paral- leled by the round columns of Central America." p. Egypt." says Foster ("Pre"that these Scythic burial rites tall as possible. Alexander the Great raised a . and seeking to make it as "It must be confessed. and in the forests of Central America. supposed to have originated " The usual symbol of the Phallus was an erect stone.

pipiiiliii Mil '! .


clothes. food. at a cost of than a million dollars. INDIA. (Ibid. and : funeral urns. nicia mound The pyramids in of Egypt.) Tumuli have been found in Yorkshire enclosing wooden coffins. 185. 109. The made of stone of the American mounds are exactly like the stone chests. Assyria. or kistvaen for the dead. and Phoe-* had their duplicates grave-cists Mexico and Central America..CIVILIZATIONS OF THE OLD WORLD AND THE NEW. 139 more great raound over his friend nepha3stion. in the British mounds. SABNATU." p.) The articles associated with the dead are the same in both continents arms. In both the Mississippi Valley and among the . p. (Foster's " Prehistoric Races. trinkets. found OAEVINO ON TUB BTTDDQIST TOWER. precisely as in the mounds of the Mississippi Valley. and Semiramis raised a similar over her husband.

and. Sculpture.140 ATLASTLS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WOULD. The American nations possessed all these metals. and the civilization of this latter* region." p. p. metals. so did the American and Mediterranean nations. pages 137. from upon the shoulders. 200. called gold the tears of the sun silver : we will The Peruvians it was sacred to the sun. as was to the moon. gold. or in some region to which it was tributary. in describing the " Cara Gigantesca. and the Incas mined iron near Lake Titicaca. Dr. in Yucatan. Schott sees in the orbic- ular wheel-like plates of this statue the wheel symbol of Kronos . 391). mined ores. the neck of tlie skull. as shown in the preceding designs. or of copper cans manufactured bronze. and and probably iron. the working of metals probably originated in America. Arthur Schott ("Smith. 139. vase being too small to permit the extraction of the (Foster's " Prehistoric Races. as show. style of ornamentation in The architecture was much the same on both hemispheres. a short veil falls those of the Hebrew hierarchy." Dr. and even "Behind and on both under the mitre. in they used copper. sides. The age combined with tin. Metallurgy. and worked silver. was preceded in America. probably dated back to Atlantean times. bronze. This particular appendage vividly calls to mind the same feature in the symbolic adornments of Egyptian and Hindoo priests. Rep." 1869. Chaldeans vases were constructed around the bones. known alike to the European and American The use of the arch was known on both The manufacture of bricks was -known sides of the Atlantic. possessed this art. a monument of Yzamal. and nowhere else. —The Atlanteans tin." or gigantic face.) The use of cement was nations. in both the Old and New Worlds. therefore. The Mexiof bronze.. —The Atlanteans says. by a simpler age of copper. so as to protect the back of the head and the neck.

Public Works. —This art was known on both sides of the Athm- The paintings upon the walls of some of the temples of Central America reveal a state of the art as high as that of Egypt. had public roads. —The American nations known five built public works as great as or greater than any in Europe. tom prevailed. Stones . in Egypt it was drawn by oxen. hundred to The Peruvians two thousand made so thoroughly as to elicit the astonishment of the Spaniards. Phoenicia. THE OLD WOULD AND THE NEW. Painting." They built aqueducts for purposes of irrigation some "of which were five hundrjed miles long. Agriculture. In both the plough was in known It . and Assyria. and subsequently known among the Persians in the time of among the Romans. Engraving. stone. one thousand miles long. by means of in a day. tic.CIVILIZATIONS OF . a system of posts. accommodation of Humboldt pronounced these Peruvian roads "among the most useful and stupendous works ever executed by man. in turn. it may be supposed that the wheel of Kronos was simply the cross of Atlantis. both in Peru and Mexico. — Plato tells us that the Atlanteans engraved upon pillars. 141 and Saturn and. The American nations also had this art in com- mon with Egypt. thus dignifying and consecrating In Peru precisely the same cus- the occupation of husbandry. surrounded by its encircling ring*. was drawn by men in the North of Europe down to a comparatively recent period. established for the At every few miles taverns or hotels were travellers. They had. —The people of . and Peru by men. plough at ah annual In Egypt the king put his hand to the festival. pre- which news was transmitted hundreds of miles cisely like those Herodotus. They constructed magnificent bridges of and had even invented suspension bridges thousands of years before they were introduced into Europe. Atlantis were pre-eminently an agricultural people so were the civilized nations of America and the Egyptians.

") Navigation. (See Prescott's " Peru. Columbus met. fifteen million dollars. Music. similar to mile -stones were placed along the roads in Peru. they made pottery as beautiful as the ANOIENT lElSU VAtJE OF TUE BRO:<ZE AQB.142 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. equipped with and loaded with a variety of textile fabrics of divers colors. Manufactures. len —The American nations manufactured wool- and cotton goods. —Sailing sails. — It has been pointed out that there is great resem- blance between the five-toned music of the Iliirhland Scotch . vessels were known to the Peruvians and the Central Americans. they engraved they manufactured glass wares of Egypt gems and precious stones. The Peruvians had such immense numbers of vessels and ornaments of gold that the Inca paid with them a ransom for himself to Pizarro of the value of . . a party of the Mayas in a large vessel. in 1502. at an island near Honduras.

they consisted of bows and short arrows. and the sun. 143 and that of the Chinese and other Eastern pology. and lers. festival of the and flowers. axes. The Guanchcs of the Canary — Islands. was honored as his representative. believed in the immortality of the soul and the resurrection of . - of the the sarae as those of the Old New World were identically World. Religious Beliefs. and both peoor buck- ples used shields and casques of wood or If hide covered with metal. Absolute identity in so strongly ar- many weapons Religion. and simple. darts. atl. his most Quetzalcoglorious work. the founder of the Aztecs. its sacrifices were fruits erected to the sun. ("Anthro- 292. they worshipped the sun. nations. they made no regular sacrifices but fruits and flowers. throughout Egypt. who were probably a fragment of the old Atlantean population. condenmed all sacrifice but that The first religion of Egypt was pure of fruits and flowers. was pure and simple. —The religion of the Atlanteans. these weapons had been derived from separate sources of or invention. one country the other possessed would have implements not known etc. battle slings. like the blow -pipe. . to the other. swords. In Peru a single deity was worshipped. Ra. The Phoenicians wor- shipped Baal and Moloch the one represented the beneficent.) Weapons." p.CIVILIZATIONS OF THE OLD WORLD AND THE NEW. the boomerang. as Plato tells us. ANCIENT VASE FBOM TUB MOUNDS OF THE UNITED STATES. temples were In Peru the great sun was called Ra-va\. gues identity of origin. and the other the injurious powers of the sun. —The weapons spears.

The Phoenicians the Peruvians had a devil called Cupay. The Aztecs. The Peruvians. Baptism was a religious ceremony with them.) the Chinooks and Flatheads. I need not add that . like the Egyptians. (Dorman. The embalmment of the body was also practised in Central x\merica and among the Aztecs.) ginia Indians were preserved by embalming. and preserved the bodies of the dead by embelieved in the immortality of balming them. The Eg-yp- tians believed in the immortality of the sonl and the resurrec- tion of the body. and they too preserved the bodies of their dead by embalming them. 47. The Peruvians the soul and the resurrection of the body. 173. and from these prognosticated the future. they were in each case pledged to if celi- bacy. tary priesthood. Central Americans. The use of confession and penance was known in the religious ceremonies of some of the American nations.. "Origin The bodies of the kings of the VirPrim. uniting in the same beliefs.144 tlie ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. Egypand Hebrews each had a powerful heredibelieved in an evil spirit called Zebub . vol. among 693. separated by immense distances of land and ocean. p. the Deluge and all of them possessed systems i . Phoenicians. body. tians. cense in their temples. and in the same practical and logical application of those beliefs. Superst. Vestal virgins were found in organized communities on both sides of the Atlantic . when they sacrificed animals. all these nations preserved traditions of of writing.. The Peruvians burnt inThe Peruvians. and preserved their dead as mnmiiiies. examined their entrails." v." p. (Beverly. and devoted to death they violated their vows.) Here are different races. In both hemispheres the recreant were destroyed by being buried alive. mummified their dead by taking out the bowels and replacing them with aromatic substances. Mexicans. p. and the bodies of the dead were sprinkled with water. "A few mummies in remarkable preservation have been found (Schoolcraft.

. upon their entrance into Mexico.") language pan. and in very natural that recollection of myths and legends he should preserve some events so appalling and destructive. signifies "equality to that which above. Central." the rocks "boiled with tumult. the traditions of these people go back to fire. (Brasseur's Introduction in Landa's The names of both Pan and Maya enter extensively into the Maya vocabulary." is called Quia Tonatiuh. and there also arose the rocks of vermilion or. Maia being the same as Maya." they had also memories of "the Drift Period. Among was Maia. referred moving round the earth and in the heavens" "(comets). American record tells us that the third era of the world." from which those only escaped who lived The " Codex Chimalpopoca " a Nahua. makes the name of the ancient capital Mayapan.) 7 . 145 of The Egyptian priest of Sais told Solon that the myth Phaethon.CIVILIZATIONS OF THE OLD WORLD AND THE NEW. to " a declination of the bodies — — " because in this age there fell a rain of fire." In other words. near rivers and seas. which caused a "great conflagration upon the earth. Egyptian story. chariot of the sun. " Relacion. In the Nahua . ("North Americans of Antiquitv. and there fell a rain of gravel. or pani. he must have passed through many of the great catastrophes which are it is written upon the face of the planet. one of " the bodies moving round the If earth and in the heavens." p. 467. the fact Pan was the ancient god his wife The Abbe Brasseur de Bourbourg calls attention to that Pan was adored in all parts of Mexico and Central the early Greeks . America ples and at Panuco. man has existed on the earth as long as science asserts. or Panca. a great cataclysm of as in the when the earth possibly encountered. the principal name of the peninsula and paii." andPentecatl was the progenitor of all is beings. the Spaniards found. having attempted to drive the and thereby burning up the earth. literally Panopolis. all which existed col- burned." and of the outburst of Plutonic rocks. the son of Helios. or sun of rain. superb tem- and images of Pan. or " third sun. added to Mat/a.

but not with the same bloody p. . Precisely the same custom ob- tained among the nations of Asia Minor and other parts of the continent of Asia. the Romans re- same way and in Sweden even now a "need-fire is kindled in this manner when cholera or (Tylor's "Anthropology. wherever sun-worship prevailed. ancient Mexicans believed that the sun-god would de- The stroy the world in the last night of the fifty-second year. ." p.) rites as in Mexico. 21. " Maya Archaeology. They offered sacrifices to him at that time to propitiate him they extinguished all the fires in the kingdom they broke all their household furnithey hung black masks before their faces they prayed ture and fasted and on the evening of the last night they formed that he would never . that there is a hell and a heaven that hell is below the earth. appearing occasionally to mortals. and heaven above the clouds that the souls of the wicked sometimes wander the face of the earth. up to their chins in water in sight of the which they can never enter. and fire ly revolving another piece of wood upon was then produced by rapidit a spark was car. 262. The dead passed to heaven across a stream of water by means of a narrow and slippery bridge." To newed this day the Brahman of India "churns" his sacred it fire out of a board by boring into their sacred fire in the with a stick . A ing was sacrificed exactly at midnight. . . The American Indians think that the spirits of the dead Main the form and features which they wore while living. ried to a funeral pile. and come back. a block of laid at human bewood was once on the body. (Valentin!. at the periodical reproduction of the sacred fire. whose rising flame proclaimed to the anxious people the promise of the god not to destroy the world for another fifty -two years." A belief in ghosts is found on both continents. who believed . The story of Tantalus is found among the Chippewayans. a great procession to a neighboring mountain. from which many were lost. . .) other pestilence is about.146 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. The Zunis set apart . that bad souls stand spirit-land.

are found among {Ibid. among 147 a day in each year which they spent dead. is found American tribe. Apis. were part of the iio:ion of the American tribes. Asia. The transmission of spirits by the laying re- on of hands." p. this animal was held by the Britons. Superst. of the Egyptians. vol. singularly enough.. p. which was supposed to possess supernatural power. believing them to Caesar gives an account of the horror in which be witches. or the metamorphosis of men into wolves. reappears in the sa- cred white buffalo of the Dakotas. p. (Dorman. Wabasso was changed into a white rabbit. and after death its became a god. and Scylla and Charybdis. with their wolf-hides hung upon sticks to The Irish legend of hunters pursuing an animal which dry suddenly disappears. is found among all the American tribes. in the traditions of the communing with Charon reappears Chippewayans. the hare. i. was believed in.) The Stygian flood. . 35. The souls of men passed into animals or other men. 50. their spirits.. whose death brought tribe. 33. The white doe of European legend had misery to the representative in the white deer of the Housatonic Valley. they found on May-day among their cattle. whereupon a human being appears in its place. and the exorcism of demons. 37. the graves of their — and bringing them presents a kind of All-souls-day. and canonized in that form.. an object of superstitious reverence and fear in EuThe ancient Irish killed all the hares rope. That timid and harmless animal.) The souls of (Dorman. the wicked passed into toads and wild beasts.CIVILIZATIONS OF THE OLD WORLD AND THE NEW. and America. Superst. was.) Even the boat of the legends of the Caribs. " Prim.) Among both the Germans and the American Indians lycanthropy. In British Columbia the men-wolves have often been seen seated around a fire. The Oriental belief in the transmigration of souls in every ! The white bull. Divine honors were paid to the hare in Mexico.. "Prim." p. (Schoolcraft. The Calmucks regarded the rabbit with fear and reverence.

") animals are much feared. p. (Ibid.) The Ojibbevvays believed that the barking of a fox was ominous of ill. p." (Dorman. 57. of Scandinavia. "Prim. pound of tobacco Bay kept the winds The In- in leather Among "Prim. 261. man or animal sac- (Ibid. 55. (Eastman's "Sioux. and other creatures half man and half animal.) In both continents the future was revealed by the flight of birds and by dreams. The peasantry of Western Europe have the same belief as to the howling of a dog. says.. lost America. after an eructation." p. who practised divination by watching the movements and songs of birds." is (Tylor. p.. are duplicated in America.) The confession of their sins was with a view to satisfy the evil spirit and induce him to The spirits of of the leave them.offerings were sacrificed to the gods. 214.. evil Cult.. Thus an Omaha.. p. The witches who produced tempests by their incantations. pp. animal. 259.) them the impudent fox sent every morning to ask how and the bear shook his fat sides at the joke. pp. (Ibid. The Kickapoos tails.) Sickness caused by entering into the sick person. (Ibid. 226..." vol. "this was done to ..148 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. In Peru and Mexico there were colleges of augurs. In both continents the priests divined the future from the condition of the internal organs of the rificed.. are Darwini- "They think their ancestors had and when they their tails were." Among the natives of Brazil the father cut a stick at the wedding of his daughter. spirits and disposed of them as they pleased. 232. (Ibid. in Central America and on the (Ibid. are insane are " possessed of devils. A Cree sorcerer sold ! three days of fair weather for one dian sorcerers around Freshwater bags. Superst. as in Rome. 225).) Animals were worshipped banks of the Nile. " Thank you. and their departure out body of the invalid is a cause of thanksgiving. survived in ans. 123-126. the American Indians it is believed that those who or epileptic ii. p.) In both continents burnt. The belief in satyrs.

) Jove. and scattered (Dorman.. part of the mythology of the Hindoos and the American races. 418. are part of the mythology of the American tribes. In Peru. rose to heaven in the presence of the multitude." thence fish-like. is duplicated in the Mexican god of thunder. is represented by the Mexican god (Bancroft. after the destruction of the world.. Xblanque. died . grew into a youth. vol. " Prim. Superst. pp. 278. an ancient culture-hero of the Iroquois. (Ibid. and the physical is translation of heroes to heaven. there . iii.) is Deucalion repeopling the world repeated in Xololt." is represented holding " He rode upon a tornado. Hiawatha. with the thunder-bolts in his hand. p. This. who." p. 12. i. 193.) Texcatzoncatl. with the same features as before. 384.) The mermaid of the Ottawas was " woman to the waist and fair . fa- ther of the present race.. whereupon they changed (Dorinto handsome youths. vol. or Bacchus. The Quiche Hunaphu and their bodies were burnt. cut off the tails of any future grandchildren. from The vocal statues and oracles of Egypt and Greece were duplicated in America. Mixcoatl. their bones ground to powder and thrown into the waters. 98. man. who a bundle of arrows." p. Superst. p. (Bollsert..) Witches and warlocks.CIVILIZATIONS OF THE OLD WORLD AND THE NEW. and when he shifts the burden from one shoulder to another severe earthquakes are produced. sprinkled with blood. 149 (Tylor. descended to Mictlan. Atlas reappears in Chibchacum. the hero-gods. the deity of the Chibchas he bears the world on his shoulders. the lightnings. A belief in the incarnation of gods in men." p.. as they were of the European races.. (Ibid. and brought thence a bone of the perished race. mermaids and mermen. 13. " Prim. the realm of the dead. we are told. 79.) Dionysus.) The snake -locks of Medusa are represented in the snake- locks of At-otarho. p. and vanished sight in the midst of sweet music. in the valley of Rimac. the god of wine.

as the Greeks phosed into stones. asks this question. p. was an an oracle. Both drank toasts.) a work on the folk-lore of the nedid the negro or the North "When American Indian come America ?" Customs. "Prim. an important part of the ceremony consisting in the joining of hands both recognized divorce. both invoked blessings. p. Both celebrated important events with bonfires and illuminacating drink.) The made figures of w^ax of their enemies. and the Peruvians and Mexicans established special courts to decide cases of this kind. South and the myths and stories of certain tribes of Indians in South America. (Charlevoix.) believed that The Peruvians men were sometimes metamora stone. Herbert Smith's " the Amazons. 132. Both had the institution of marriage.) Among an article of faith among all the American the Illinois Indians " they made small images to represent those whose days they have a mind to shorten. it from barley. and which they stab to the heart. 166. both used banners." Mr. Harris. vol. 1881. ii." whereupon the person repis die. which answered questions and became famous as (Dorman. and both strewed the ground before them with leaves and flowers. is {Ibid. p. Witchcraft races. and ^& they diminished the resented expected to witches of Europe victim was supposed to sicken and die. 124. and the Coast. the author of groes. The Oneidas claimed descent from from the stones of Deucalion. 828) points out the fact that there an absolute identity be- tween the folk-lore of the negroes on the plantations of the Brazil. 1879. in contact with the tribes of South intoxi- —Both peoples manufactured a fermented. and had triumphal processions for their victorious kings.150 ATLANTliS: idol THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. The Ph(je- . (New York: Scribner.. A writer in the Popular Science Monthly is (April." p. the other from maize. Superst. as revealed by Mr. Both the Americans and Europeans erected arches. tions.. the one deriving . and gradually melted them at the fire.

divided into five brief periods of twelve years each. both practised planet -worship. being kindled from concave mirrors by the The Romans under Numa had precisely the same The Peruvians had theatrical plays. Humboldt. Both the Egyptians and the Peruvians held agricultu- mony performed by the Chippeways. PalaHonduras. both used scales and weights and mirrors. 1870)." ed. Calmucks. Jap- anese. every year the fire fires of the The Peruvians renewed kingdom from the Temple of the Sun. boys before an idol called Kingsborouo'h rite. 84. in Hebrews. The Peruvians. They chewed custom.. Mantchou. The Mexicans added five intercalary days and the Egyptians. 151 cio relates that at Azori. and the months into lesser divisions of weeks. and Chaldeans divided the year into twelve months. Egyptians. had already the same practice. Both inserted additional days. whose high authority cannot be questioned. Among . so as to give the year three hundred and sixty-five days. He cites the fact that the Chinese. by . the new sun's rays. (" Carta. the natives circumcised Icelca.j shown the relative likeness of the Nahua calen- dar to that of Asia. and other hordes of Tar- tars have cycles of sixty years' duration. He further shows satisfactorily that the majority of the names of the twenty days employed by the Aztecs are . The method of citing a date by means of signs and numbers is quite similar with Asiatics and Mexicans. both took a census of the people. 148 et seq. an elaborate discussion (" Vues des Cordilleras." p. both the land was divided per capita division among the people in Judea a new was made every all fifty years. who on great festivals sung ral fairs . THE OLD WORLD AND THE NEW. in the time of Amunoph I. has p. the leaves of the cucu mixed with lime.CIVILIZATIONS OF iiiciaiis. as the Hindoo to-day chews the leaves of the betel mixed with lime. minstrels. Both the American and European nations were divided into castes. and Egyptians practised circumcision.) Lord tells us the Central Americans used the same and McKenzie (quoted by Retzius) says he saw the cereBoth had bards and the deeds of kings and heroes. Mongols.

and manners of the Iroquois. "I find the customs. they will " cut the top off the fire.") blind destiny. or stick a knife into a burning stick. . represent an eclipse of the . Cabera thinks he finds analogies between the Mexican and Egyptian calendars. Adopting the view of several writers that the Mexican year began on the 26th of February. and Miamis. not stick an awl or a needle into a stick of or chop on it wood on the with an axe or a knife." The Mexicans the same figure . of a zodiac used since the most remote antiquity among the peoples of Eastern Asia. The tragedies of Sophocles and Euripides paint to me almost literally the sentiments of the red men respecting necessity. in Cremation was extensively practised the New World." will fire.152 those ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. moon as the moon being devoured by a dragon sion long after they eclipse. burnt. sissippi Valley father must take the duties demands " that. in four great primeval ages. and placed in Wooden statues of the dead There is a very curious and apparently inexplicable custom. fatality. while the among the Chinese in the thirteenth century. and the rigor of (Volney's " View of the United States. he finds the date to correspond with the beginning of the Egyptian year. when a child is born. the miseries of human life." which extends from China to the Mis. the mother attends to all Marco Polo found the custom of the household. discourse. and their ashes collected vases and nrns. as the The American nations believed Hindoo does to this day. *'In the Greeks of Homer." it to his bed. as in Europe. The dead were were made. or touch the fire with a The Sioux Indians knife. Delawares. called the " Couvade. and the Hindoos have precisely and both nations continued to use this expreshad discovered the real meaning of an if The Tartars believe that they cut with an axe near a fire." says Volney.

. and the husband put to bed and treated as the patient. p. and there receives the (Max Miiller's " Chips congratulations of his acquaintances. Among kills is the father an animal during the infancy " For six for what-" of the child. at the south of the Black Sea. Diodorus Siculus tells us that among the Corsicans the wife was neglected. Brasseur de Bourbourg is were the same as the ancient Carians of the Mediterranean Sea) the man takes to his bed as soon as a child born. " the women rise immediately after childbirth and attend to the duties of the household. " when a child was born the father lay groaning. " In Biscay." vol. as soon as the mother has become strong enough to leave her couch. months the Carib father must not eat birds or fish." from a German Workshop.CIVILIZATIONS OF TEE OLD WORLD AND THE NEW. putting women. "The father of a new-born child." tribes of mother tended him with food and prepared his The same absurd custom extends throughout the North and South America.. West Indies (and the Caribs. And if herein we find an explanation of a custom the American Indians it otherwise inexplicable. pp. Michel. 17) mentions that. 153 The widow tells Hudibras lie-in in their ladies' stead. while the husband goes to bed.) Strabo (vol. believed that. the spirit of the animal will revenge itself by in- some disease upon the helpless little one. after the birth of a child." says M. gets into bed himself. the bands. ii. among the Iberians of the North of Spain. 2V2. and kills no animals. taking the baby with him. with bis head tied up. Apollonius Rhodius says that among the Tibereni. Among the Caribs in the says." The same custom was found in France." "Chineses thus are said To The practice remarked by Marco Polo continues to this day among the hill-tribes of China. and is said to exist to this dmj in some cantons of Beam. flicting . 4. F. while the baths. tend their husthem to bed instead of going themselves. The same custom existed among the Basques only a few years ago. and thus receives the neighbors' compliments. iii.

we have a very extraordinary and unnatural cussides of the Atlantic. p. and finding in the superstition of the explanation only American races. Among the Esquimaux the husbands forbear hunting during the lying-in of their wive^ and for some time thereafter. the Rus- crumbs of bread behind the saints' pictures on the little iron shelf. " that it was he that had had the child." says Doever animals eats will impress their likeness its or produce disease by entering body. lie on the child." p. 351.) The American Indian leaves food with the dead. and in German all vil- nowadays a needle and thread is placed in the coffin for . 58. on All-souls-day. fasts a number of days. (Dorman. " and you would think.154 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WOULD. of the races on the opposite sides of the Atlantic that the custom and the reason for ica. Here.. reachits ton3." The Brano zilian father takes to his hammock during and after the birth of the child." sian peasant puts 347. then. and believes that the souls of his foreAt the cemetery of fathers creep in and out and eat them." brizhoffer. " Prim..) . Among the Abipones the husband goes to Superst." p. Paris. it and the fact in are both found Amer- while the custom remains in Europe without the reason. would imply that the American population was the older of the two. Pere-la-Ghaise. and for fifteen days eats no meat and hunts game. existing to this day on both ing back to a vast antiquity." (/62C?. A practice so ab- surd could scarcely have originated separately in the two continents .) bed. The Indian lages practice of depositing weapons and food with the dead was universal in ancient Europe. the dead to rope the dead mend their torn clothes with " while man had a piece of money put in ("Anthropology. over Eu- his hand to pay his way with. its existence is a very strong proof of unity of origin . they " still put cakes and sweetmeats on the graves. and in Brittany the peasants that night do not forget to make up the fire and leave the fragments of the supper on the table for the souls of the dead.

In India a Brahman is not allowed to marry a wife whose clan-name natural course. and the paid to the dead ancestors." lares.) Sutteeism the burning of the widow upon the funeral-pile of the husband was extensively practised in America (West's "Journal. says. (Dorman.." as they say) is the same as his own .) We find the Indian practice of burying the dead in a sitting posture in use " .. and . and not let him die lying down. 1869. pp." " Throughout India the hill-tribes are divided into p. among the Nasamonians. (her " cow-stall.CIVILIZATIONS OF THE OLD WORLD AND THE NEW." 351. Rep. the Greeks. servants. They bury their dead according They bury them sitting. or together. 403. as was also the practice of sacrificing warriors. and then letting the stream return to its was secretly (Dorman. or even of the same name. a tribe of Libyans. largely " ancestor. as among the Mediterranean . " Smith." p.worship .) Beautiful girls were sacrificed to septs or clans. Alaric. speaking of the wandering tribes of Northern Africa." held the Roman family Anthropology. nor may a Chinaman take a wife of his own surname. 347. buried in the same way.) Among the Am. to his own clan. Superst. p." p." (Sir John Lubbock." The dead bodies of the caciques of Bogota were protected from desecration by diverting the course of a river and making the grave in its bed. are right careful. and a man may not marry a girl of his own horde.erican tribes no man is permitted to marry a wife of the same clan-name or totem as himself." p. 210-211. Herodotus. to 155 the rites The Indian prays Chinese religion (" is the spirits of his forefathers. to make him sit. 141). when the sick man is at the* point of giving up the ghost. the leader of the Goths. ("Anthropology.) and a man may not marry a woman belonging The Calmucks of Tartary are divided into hordes. and animals at the funeral of a great chief. " Prim. The Ostyaks and Yakuts regard it as a crime to marry a woman of the same family. The same custom prevails among the Circassians and the Samoyeds of Siberia. — — appease the anger of the gods. 195. to the fashion of .

The Indian boils his meat by dropping red-hot stones into a water. in (Ibid. 237." p." (Dorman..) Fathers offered up their the Carthaginians. p. and Linnaeus found the Bothland people brewing beer in this way "and to this day the — rude Carinthian boor drinks such stone -beer. Banners.) p.) " The bark canoe of America was not unknown in Asia and of The poisoned arrows Africa" {Ibid. 297). England. 156. mals. vol.... as (Ibid. 266.) The sailors of Europe and America preserve to this day a custom which was once universal temic tattooing.. children for a like purpose. wherein the dancers acted the part of those ani- had their prototype in the (Ibid. Superst. while the skin canoes of our Indians and the Esquimaux were found pn the shores of the Thames and the Euphrates." In the buffalo dance of the ered their heads with a Mandan Indians the dancers covmask made of the head and horns of the buffalo. as among America had their representatives in Europe. flags.) it is called. In Peru and on the Euphrates commerce was carried on upon rafts supported by inflated skins. p.vessel made of hide. and the "mummers" same custom. 471. (Bancroft.. Among the " every Indian had the it was fetichistic in its origin . image of an animal tattooed on his breast or arm. arrayed in animal masks (Ibid. 298. p. . arms. They are still used on the Tigris. ATLANTIC: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. "Anthropology. 298.." p. or among the lamas of Thibet. among the ancient races.156 races. 254). p. "Prim. are a survival of the The North American dog and Greek dances at the festivals bear dances. at Yule-tide. Indians Tattooing was practised in both continents. Odysseus went to Ephyra for the man -slaying (Tylor's drug with which to smear his bronze-tipped arrows. iii. To-day in the temples of India.) of Dionysia. the priests dance the demons out. or the new year in. p. and armorial bearings arc supposed to be survivals of the old to- The Arab woman still tattoos her face. to charm away evil spirits.

) arrows. mound at the mouth inches high. Western Europe. fairies . p. who resembled the stolen children so much that the mothers were and ivith a taiiy left in their stead deceived and suckled them. they the domes- animals of those lieve in fairies.) Says Prudentius. They stole the children of the Indians. WORLD AND THE NEW. "there were as many tem- ples of gods as sepulchres. " Prim. In America. which forms so large a part of the folkis found among the American races.. like the Irish tic W^hen dis- They have kill their dances. 178. Superst. " Native Races. they were eighteen . 23. called Nirumbees. whereupon they died. they were tended with ."p." The Etruscan sion belief that evil spirits strove for the posses- of the dead was found (Bancroft. p.. The Dakotas also beThe Otoes located the "little people" in a of Whitestone River. The Ojibbeways see thousands of fairies during a rain myriads of them hide in the flowers. and." In both continents we find tree. in the looad with polgy. like them." p. European belief in " changelings." vol. and the young of their own baneful race. who offend them." "The Shoshone little legends people the mountains of Mon- tana with imps. the Mosquito Indians.327. In Mexico and Central America cypresses and palms were planted near the temples. with very large heads they were armed with their resi- bows and dence. and killed those who approached (See Dorman's "Origin of Primitive Superstitions.) This great{Ibid. as in the Old World. ly resembles the p. the temples of worship (Dorman. two feet long. 744. naked.CIVILIZATIONS OF THE OLD and ankles. the Roman bard.) The lore of belief in fairies. 157 The war-paint of the American savage reappeared which the ancient Briton stained his body and Tylor suggests that the painted stripes on the circus clown (Tylor's " Anthroare a survival of a custom once universal. generally in groiqis of threes.worship. among i. dancing in a sunbeam . 24.) were built over the dead.. turbed they disappear underground.

mounted and armed as for war. also. at a public festival. 78. which the bride always offered to her husband." (lUd) tribes. erations the — . Among many American min notably in Brazil. p. Not only infant baptism by water was found both in the old Babylonian religion and among the Mexicans. and the palm to Victory. and which must always be cut by the bride. the husforce. Rep. 352. where the bridegroom and his friends.158 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. and Mexico the caste covered with earth. Lubbock." was also found in the ritual of the Aztecs. rivers. except now and then by accident as happened when one Lord Hoath lost an eye. which mischance put an end Romans captured the Sabine women. great care. made but once a Among the Romans. China. and the Indians of Canada the singular custom prevails of lifting the bride over the door -step of her husband's home. among the Iro'' quois the bride and bridegroom used to partake together of a cake of sagamite. the Chinese.) (Sir John "The bride-cake which so invariably accompanies a wedding among ourselves. carried off the bride." 1869. may be traced back to the old Roman form of marriage by conferreaiio^ or eating together. and received offerings of incense and gifts. on the lakes and at the bottom of the social scale lived upon floating islands of reeds or rafts."p. and as the " Within a few gensame old habit was kept up in Wales.) In Babylonia. ("Buildersof Babel. The same custom prevailed among the Romans the cypress was dedicated to Pluto. " the — Queen of Heaven. as the band captured the wife by main men of Benja- carried off the daughters of Shiloh at the feast. In Peru and Babylonia marriages were year. " Smith.. and in Ireland they used even to hurl spears at the bride's people. which is recorded by the prophet Jeremiah as part of the worship of the Babylonian goddess-mother. but an offering of cakes. though at such a distance that no one was hurt. So. the Abyssinians.

390. . The novice had her hair cut off and took vows of celibacy they lived holy and pious lives. except his girdle . p." (Dorman. p.) There were five thousand priests temples of Mexico. 159 to this curious relic of antiquity.) Peru. pp." p. Superst.) Besides the regular priesthood there cloisters. 376. There were great preachers and exhorters among them. ties. 378. "Prim. training in Mexico and they directed " . they comforted the sick dying. 375. and managed the choirs in the churches. The priests then instructed him in his royal du- {Ibid..CIVILIZATIONS OF THE OLD WORLD AND THE NEW. ex- horted them to maintain peace and harmony. and tied the end of the man's mantle to the dress of the woman he per- fumed them. The priesthood was thoroughly organized They were prophets as well as priests. p. 409. A . and any deviation was punished with death. 374. were monks who w^ere confined in tice of {Ibid. They confessed and absolved the sinners. They wore long white robes and burned incense. 379. There were also convents into which females were admitted. new king ascended the tem- ple naked. They lived in conventual discipline.. [Ibid. and placed on each a shawl on which was painted a skeleton.) Cortes says the Mexican priests were very strict in the prac- honesty and chastity." in the and assisted the {Ibid. .) (Tylor's "Anthropology. he was sprinkled four times with water which had been blessed tle. but were allow^ed to marry they practised flagellation and fasting. and prayed at regular hours." p. "as a symbol that only death could now separate them from one another. They brought the newly-born infant into the religious society their and education . arranged the festivals. priest of the religious orders.) The king was the high.." Marriage iu Mexico was performed by the priest. they determined the entrance of the secrated marriage young men into the service of the state. they conby their blessing.. he was then clothed in a man- and on his knees took an oath to maintain the ancient religion. He .

— ' ' of India —these stories. Superst. (Dorman. The superstition first ... p. men were then to cure the disease bled to withdraw the evil and a practice whose origin is civiliza- lost in the nio-ht of ao-es is continued into the midst of after it tion. Greece. in the Thuringian forest and in the Norwegian villages. " Prim. with almost the same words.) 379. of one age becomes the science of another. Dr. but the original superstition it out of which gotten. Sangrado could have found the explanation of his profession only among the red America. and to which crowds of children listen under the Pippal-trees . and German not only is the abstract name for God the same in India. and their origin carries us back to the same distant past. was for- There is opportunity here for the philosopher to meditate persistence of upon the perversity of human nature and the hereditary error.) The first fruits of the {Ibid. The American sick doctors practised phlebotomy. in this case as in many others. no Hindoo had bathed in the sacred waters of the Ganges. too. 383. earth were devoted to the support of the priesthood. evil spirit They bled the which afflicted man because they believed the him would come away with the blood." p. The priests of the Isthmus were sworn to perpetual chastity. arose. Latin. when no Greek had set foot in Europe. spirit. Says Max Miiller: "Not only do we find the same words and the same terminations in Sanscrit and Gothic not only do we find the same name for Zeus in Sanscrit. In Europe phlebot- omy continued to a late period. ." And we find that an identity of origin can be established fairv tales of between the folk-lore or America and those of . belonged to the common heir- loom of the Indo-European race. and Italy but these very stories. and only overthrown has sent millions of human men of beings to untimely graves. these Mahrchen which nurses still tell.160 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. Folk-lore.

if they fade. succeeded in going the highest. For this reason the eagle's feathers be.never able to fly farther than a hawthorntion a warrior could bear. "You lie!" says the wren. he was so tired. but soon got tired. are fresh. they tell him. plant each a cane in the middle of their grandmother's house. and Central America still. THE IRISH STOKY. the birds came down and met in council to "Then. and. if they fall. its enough. If they their father . the other from THE OJIBBEWAY STORY. bush. where it had perched un." " Now this. The birds met together one day to try The birds all met together one day. and the hinges of being off. So the eagle's back. and which could fly the highest. back. ed. Some flew settled among themselves tliat whichever up very swift. being fresh and unexhaust. 161 the Old World. the eagle was so mad to think how birds." says he. Exactly the same conception occurs in Grimm's " Mahrchen. tells us the story of the two brothers in Central America who.'' award the prize. But king of all. and were of them could fly highest Avas to be the passed by others of stronger was miles above all the rest. that when the wren was coming down he gave him a stroke of his wing.they flew and flew ever so high. and currence in India. nearer to the sun than any of the larger Well. when the rogue of a wren do but hop up and perch gray linnet. we are well . it was given to the eagle. "I'm king of the birds." gold-children wish to see the world and to leave and when their father is sad. and asks them how he shall hear news of them. Well.leave you the two golden lilies from these you can see how we fare. which we print in parallel Ire- columns. we oc- are dead. and could When not fly another stroke. what does the little was ready to claim the victory.and from that day to this the wren was came the most honorable marks of distinc.CIVILIZATIONS OF THE OLD WORLD AND THE NEW." stranger Compare the following land : stories. Germany. starting on their dangerous journey to the land of Xibalba. till the eaperceived. we are ill . but it had carried the linnet on its he was done. precisely such as exists between the legends of Norway and Mr. one from the Ojibbeway Indians. a very small bird. " is strange in Hindoo is stories. Tylor India. just as they were on the eagle went up beyond them all. " We . darting up a because that bird had not only gone up perch and a half above the big fellow." Grimm traces the same idea says Max Miiller. when the two . flew from himself unbeknown on the eagle's tail. . where their father had perished. that she may know by its flourishing or withering whether they are alive or dead.



Compare the following
In Hindoo mythology Urvasi came


Wampee, a
of music,

great hunter, once




from heaven and became the wife of the son of Buddha only on condition that two pet rams should never be taken from her bedside, and that she should never behold her lord undressed. The immortals, however, wishing Urvasi back in heaven, contrived to steal the rams and, as the king pursued the robbers with his sword in the

strange prairie, where he heard faint sounds

and looking up saw a speck

in the

sky, which proved itself to be a basket containing twelve most beautiful maidens, who,

on reaching the earth, forthwith
selves to dance.






catch the

ultimately he suc; ceeded by assuming the disguise of a mouse,

youngest, but in vain

dark, the lightning revealed his person, the

He was very

attentive to his




compact was broken, and Urvasi disappearThis same story is found in different ed. forms among many people of Aryan and Turanian descent, the central idea being that of a man marrying some one of an aerial or aquatic origin, and living happily with her till he breaks the condition on which her residence with him depends;
stories exactly parallel to that of

really a daugliter of one of the stars,

but she wished to return home, so she


a wicker basket secretly, and, by help of a charm she remembered, ascended to her


hunt upon the beautiful Melusina at a fountain, and lives with her happily until he discovers her fish-nature and she vanishes.
of Toulouse,
in the

who chances

If the legend of


recovering Europa, after she has

bull, the spotless cloud, means must journey westward until he sees again the beautiful tints which greeted his eyes in the morning," it is curious to find a story current in North America to the effect that a man once had a beautiful daughter, whom he forbade to leave the lodge lest she should be carried off by the king of the buffaloes and that as she sat, notwithstanding, outside the house combing her hair, " all of a sudden the king of the buffaloes came dashing on, with his herd of followers, and, taking her between his horns, away he cantered over plains, plunged into a river which bounded his land, and carried her safely to his lodge on the other side," whence she was finally recovered

been carried away by the white

that " the sun


by her




same games and sports extended from India

to the shores of Lake Superior.

The game

of the Hindoos,

called pachisij
it is is



played upon a cross-shaped board or cloth

a combination of checkers and draughts, with the throw-

ing of dice, the dice determining the

number of moves; when

the Spaniards entered Mexico they found the Aztecs playing a


called patolli, identical with the

on a

similar cross-shaped board.

The game

of ball, which the In-

dians of America were in the habit of playing at the time of
the discovery of the country, from California to the Atlantic,


identical with the

European chueca,

crosse, or hockey.

One may
tend that

well pause, after reading this catalogue,

and ask

himself, wherein

do these peoples



It is

absurd to pre-

these similarities could have been the result of

accidental coincidences.

These two peoples, separated by the great ocean, were baptized alike in infancy with blessed water

they prayed alike to

the gods


they worshipped together the sun, moon, and stars

they confessed their sins alike

they were instructed alike by

in the same way and by the joining of hands they armed themselves with the same weapons; when children came, the man, on both continents, went to bed and left his wife to do the honors of the household they tattooed and painted themselves in the same fashion they became intoxicated on kindred drinks their dresses were alike; they cooked in the same manner; they used the same metals they employed the same exorcisms and bleedings for disease they believed alike in ghosts, demons, and fairies they listened to the same stories they played the same games they used the same musical instruments they danced the same dances, and when they died they were embalmed in the same way and buried sitting; while over them were erected, on both continents, the same mounds, pyramids, obelisks, and temples. And yet we are asked to believe that there was no relationship between them, and that they had never had any ante-Columbian intercourse with each othen

an established priesthood; they were married












If our knowledge of Atlantis was more thorough, it would no doubt appear that, in every instance wherein the people of Europe accord with the people of America, they were both in accord with the people of Atlantis and that Atlantis was the common centre from which both peoples derived their arts, sci;

ences, customs,

and opinions.

It will

be seen that in every case
in this respect as to AtIt existed in archi-

where Plato gives us any information


find this

agreement to


tecture, sculpture, navigation, engraving, writing,

an established

priesthood, the


of worship, agriculture, the construction
it is

of roads and canals; and

reasonable to suppose that the

same correspondence extended down to
treated of in this chapter.

the minor details









of Central

America there

are repre-

sentations of bearded men.


could the beardless Ameri-

can Indians have imagined a bearded race

All the traditions of the civilized races of Central


point to an Eastern origin.


leader and civilizer of the



the legend respecting

Nahua family was him

^''From the distant East,
this mysterious person

from the fabulous Hue Hue TIapalan, came to Tula, and became the patron

god and high -priest of the ancestors of the



described as having been a white man., with strong formation of body, broad forehead, large eyes, and flowing beard. He wore a mitre on his head, and was dressed in a long white robe reaching to his feet, and covered with red crosses. In his hand he held a sickle. His habits were ascetic, he never married, was most chaste and pure in life, and is said to have endured penance in a neighboring mountain, not for its effects upon himself, but as a warning to others. He condemned sacrifices, except of fruits and flowers, and was known as the god of peace for, when addressed on the subject of war, he is re(" North ported to have stopped his ears with his fingers." Amer. of Antiq.," p. 268.) " He was skilled in many arts he invented" (that is, imported) " gem-cutting and metal-casting he originated letters, and invented the Mexican calendar. He finally returned to the land in the East from which ho came leaving the American coast at Vera Cruz, he embarked in a canoe made of serpentskins, and ^sailed away into the East.'' " (Ibid., p. 271.)
; :





Dr. Le Plongeon says of the columns at Chichen




formed by the head of Cukiilcan,the shaft of
serpent, with its featliers beautifully carved to

body of the

the very chapiter. On the chapiters of the columns that support the portico, at the entrance of the castle in Chichen Itza, may be seen the carved figures of long-bearded men, with upraised hands, in the act of worshipping sacred trees. They forcibly recall to mind the same worship in Assyria."

In the accompanying cut of an
ancient vase from Tula,


see a

bearded figure grasping a beardless

In the cut given below we see
a face that


the old

might be duplicated men of any part of


The Cakchiquel MS. says " Four persons came from Tulan, from the direction of the rising sun that is one Tulan. There is another Tulan in Xibalbay, and another where the sun sets, and it is there that ive came ; and in the direction of the setting sun there is another, where is the god so that there are four Tulans; and it is where the sun


sets that

we came

to Tulan,


the other

where this Tulan is and it is there that we were conceived and begotten by our mothers and fathers."
side of the sea,



That is to say, the birthplace of the race was in the East, across the sea, at a place called Tulan

when they emigrated they
two other Tulans.

called their first stopping-place

the American continent Tulan also

and besides


and on there were



" Of the Nahna predecessors of the Toltecs in Mexico the Olmecs and Xicalancans were the most important. They were

the forerunners of the great races that followed. Accordingwhich are conceded to be one to Ixtlilxochitl, these people occupied the world in the third age they came from the East in ships or barks to the land of Potonchan, which they commenced to populate."


3. The Abbe Brasseur de Bourbourg, in one of the notes of the Introduction of the " Popol Yuh," presents a very remark-

able analogy between the


of Xibalba, described in

that work, and Atlantis.


magnificent, exceedingly fertile, and The empire of Atlantis was divided into ten kingdoms, governed by live couples of twin sons of Poseidon, the eldest being supreme over the others and the ten constituted a tribunal that managed the affairs of the empire. Their descendants governed after them. The ten kings of Xibalba, who reigned (in couples) under Hun-Came and Yukub-Came (and who together constituted a grand councountries



in the precious metals.


of the kingdom), certainly furnish curious points of compar-

And there is wanting neither a catastrophe for Xibalba had a terrific inundation nor the name of Atlas, of which the etymology is found only in the Nahuatl tongue it comes from atl, water and we know that a city of Atlan (near the water) still existed on the Atlantic side of the Isthmus of Panama at the time of the Conquest."



" In Yucatan the traditions
eign origin for the race.


point to an Eastern and for-


early writers report that the na-

have crossed the sea by a passage which was opened for them." (Landa's "Relacion," p. 28.) *' It was also believed that part of the population came into Lizana says that the smaller porthe country from the West. tion, the little descent,' came from the East, while the greater Cogolluda portion, 'the great descent,' came from the \Yest.
tives believe their ancestors to

considers the Eastern colony to have been the larger. . The culture-hero Zamna, the author of all civilization in Yucatan, is described as the teacher of letters, and the leader of the people from their ancient home. ... He was the leader of a colony from the East.'' (" North Amer. of Antiq.," p. 229.)
. .


ancient Mexican legends say that, after the Flood, Cox-


cox and his wife, after wandering one hundred and four years,
landed at Antlan, and passed thence to Capultepec, and thence
to Culhuacan, and lastly to Mexico.

Coming from

Atlantis, they


their first landing-place

we are told, traced their Duran describes Aztlan as "a most attractive land." (" North Amer. of Antiq.," p. 257.) Same, the great name of Brazilian legend, came across the ocean /rom the rising sun. He had power over the elements
All the races that settled Mexico,
origin back to an Aztlan (Atlan-tis).

and tempests the trees of the forests would recede to make room for him (cutting down the trees) the animals used to lakes and rivers crouch before him (domesticated animals)




solid for

him (boats and bridges)


and he taught the

use of agriculture and magic.

Like him, Bochica, the great

law-giver of the Muyscas, and son of the sun

ed for them the calendar and regulated their
white beard, a detail in which

—he who —had a




all the American culture-heroes " of Brazil was probably the " Zamna " of



find in



are forced to one of

America numerous representations of the eletwo conclusions either the


monuments date back

to the time of the




America, or these people held intercourse at some time in the

past with races



possessed the elephant, and from


they obtained pictures of that singular animal.



that the Atlanteans possessed great numbers of elephants.

There are


Wisconsin a number of mounds of earth

representing different animals

— men,


and quadrupeds.





the latter




representing an elephant, "so

perfect in

proportions, and complete in

well acquaint-

of an elephant, that

must have been

ed with


the physical characteristics of

the animal

which they delineated."


copy the representation of
page 168.

mound on

On a farm in Louisa County, Iowa, a pipe was ploughed up which also represents an elephant. AVe are indebted to the valuable work of John T. Short (" The North Americans of Antiquity," p. 530) for a picture of
this singular object.

was found

in a sec-

tion where the ancient

abundant and rich


mounds were very The pipe is of relics.

sandstone, of the ordinary Mound-Builder's

elephant-trunk uead'^^^^^^ palenque.

and has every appearance of age and usage. There can be no doubt of its genuineness. The finder had no conception

archaeological value.

In the ruined city of Palenque


find, in

one of the pal-



His elaborate head-dress

aces, a stucco bass-relief of a priest.

or helmet represents' very faithfully the head of an elephant.

The cut on page 169 is from a drawing made by Waldeck. The decoration known as "elephant-trunks" is found



parts of the ancient ruins of Central America, project-

ing from above the door-ways of the buildings. In Tylor's " Researches into the Early History of Mankind,"
p. 313, 1 find a

remarkable representation of an elephant, taken
It is as follows

from an ancfent Mexican manuscript.




Chapter IY.



insists that the


race issued

from Upalo-

Merou, and adds that some Greek traditions point to " this

particularly the expression fiepoireg avOpoj-rroi,

which can


mean the men sprung from Merou.' " (" Manual," p. 21.) Theopompus tells us that the people who inhabited Atlantis

were the Meropes, the people of Merou.

Whence comes
us that the ocean

the word Atlantic?





after the

mountains of Atlas

but whence did the Atlas mountains get their name

" The words Atlas and Atlantic have no satisfactory etymology in any language known to Europe. They are not Greek, and cannot be referred to any known language of the Old World. But in the Nahuatl language we find immediately the radical a, atL which signifies water, war, and the top of the (Molina, " Yocab. en lengua Mexicana y Castellana.") head. From this comes a series of words, such as atlan on the border of or amid the water from which we have the adjective Atlantic. We have also atlaga^ to combat, or be in agony it means likewise to hurl or dart from the water, and in the preterit makes Atlaz. A city named Atlan existed when the continent was discovered by Columbus, at the entrance of the Gulf of Uraba, in Darien. With a good harbor, it is now reduced (Baldwin's "Anto an unimportant pueblo named Acla.'^'' cient America," p. 179.)




us that Atlantis and the Atlantic Ocean were


after Atlas, the eldest son of Poseidon, the founder of

the kingdom.


that part of the African continent nearest to the site

of the East." this name being especially applied to the inhabitants of Fezzan and Bilma? Where for it did they get the name from ? east of the Atlantic Ocean." p. Ro- mans. the "Atlantes" living along the north and west coast of Africa. and Carthaginians as the "Atlantes." a mythological deity called " Atlas " holding the w^orld on his shoulders . like Now. as contradistinguished from the Mediterrais nean. 253. as well as from these islands to the whole opposite continent that surrounds that real calls it sea. if it known from the most Whence this name At? be not from the name of the great king of Atlantis this be not its origin.172 ' ATLANTIS: TUE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. Plato says that there was a " passage west from Atlantis to the rest of the islands. Plato might have how could he have invented the islands beyond West India Islands). as he says. not a real sea (or ocean) but a landa harbor. which. Hist. of Atlantis ancient times as the Atlas Mountains. probably a remnant of a colony from Solon's island people of the Barbary States were ? How comes it that the known to the Greeks. Can these things be the result of accident ? 4. And if how comes it that the most north-western corner of Africa? we find it And how does in it happen that in the time of Herodotus there dwelt near this mountain-chain a people called the Atlantes. we see that the continent of America does " surround " the ocean in a great enclosing that real sea? half-circle. we find a chain of mountains." He a real sea. and the whole continent (America) If we look at the map. There is no etymology (Lenormant's " Anc. created Atlantis out of his imag- locked body of ination. Could Plato have guessed series all this? If there it had been no Atlantis. las. and no of voyages from that re- . and all an immemorial tradition of an island of Atlantis.) An " Atlas " mountain on the shore of Africa Look at it ! an "Atlan" town on the shore of America. in Central America. but (the w^ater. an ocean rolling be- tween the two worlds called the "Atlantic. an Aztec people from Aztlan.

) If there was an Atlantis. make such voyages. the aboriginal languages of the vast opposite continent (America). forms its compounds by the elimination of ." (" Families of Speech. how could Plato have guessed And how could he have known that the Mediterranean was only a har- bor compared with the magnitude of the great ocean surrounding Atlantis? that fact." p." Gades is the Cadiz of to- day. like the languages of America. extended "toward the pillars of Heracles (Hercules) as far as the country which of is still called the region Gades in that part of the world. the Basques could have passed from one conti- nent to another but if the wide Atlantic rolled at all times un- .CORROBORATING CIRCUMSTANCES. is contracted from hill. vealed tlie half-circle 173 of the continent from Newfoundland to it? Cape St. the knee. forming. resembles. who have no lingual affinities with any is other race on the continent of Europe. Farrar. The doubt that this isolated language. and the dominion of Gadeirus embraced the land of the Iberians or Basques. but whose language similar to the tells languages of America ? us that the dominion of Gadeirus. . day and belhaur. preserving its identity in a western corner of Europe. and is eminently noteworthy. front. Dr. and those alone. referring to the Basque language. who kept close to the shores in their short journeys. did not 5. there has never been any and oin. explain the presence of the Basques in Europe. that while the affinities of the Basque roots have never been conclusively elucidated. certain radicals in the simple words so that ilhun. Roche. says " What is certain about it is. their chief city taking its name from a king of Atlantis. the twilight. with its connecting ridges. one of the Plato kings of Atlantis. How can we. between two mighty kingdoms. Like them. from helhar. 132. dead. that its structure is it polysyn- thetic. and they themselves being Atlantcans. Long sea-voyages were necessary to establish and the Greeks. without Atlantis. a continuous bridge of land from America to Africa. . . . in its grammatical structure. we can understand how . leg. fact is indisputable. and egu7i.

to conceive of such an emioration by an uncivilized people. . on the other hand. photographs of a number of idols exhumed at San Juan de Teotihuacan. it is difficult broken between the two continents. has published in the North American Revieio for De- own monuments ? cember. how can we explain the fact that the early Egyptians their were depicted by themselves as red men on And.174 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. now engaged in exploring those monuments. how can we account for the representations of negroes on the monuments of Central America? Desire Charnay. 1880. Without Atlantis. from which strikingly negroid faces I select the following KBUKO IDOLS FOUND IN OENTBAL AMKBIOii. 6.

PALENQUE. As the negroes have never been a sea -going race. thick lips.' " ology. vera okuz. The features are unmistakably negroid. or commercial relations between America and Af- through the ships of the Atlanteans civilized race. as re- vealed by the deep-sea soundings NEGEOID FIOUKE. found near the volcano of Tuxtla. 62. the " Popol Vuh." p. there were tall figures of people with small heads. The face is strongly Ethiopian. ' We ers. after men describing the creation of the first " in the region of the rising sun " (Bancroft's " Native Races.." vol. Le Plongeon says 175 I " Besides the sculptures of long-bearded men seen by the explorer at Chichen Itza. either the existence of a land connection between Ameri- ca and Africa via Atlantis. r<igarded always see them as standard or parasol bearas negroes. Dr. and curly short hair or wool. . figured by Stephens. p.) (" Maya Archae- The following cut is from the court of the Palace of Palenque. but never engaged in actual warfare. rica of the Challenger. 548). or some other whereby the negroes were brought to America as slaves at a very remote epoch." in which. at Caxapa. v. in the Mexican State of Vera Cruz. the presence of these faces of Central among the antiquities America proves one of two things. figure The below represents a gi- gantic granite head. negko ueao. find And we latter some corroboration of the theory in that singular book of the Quiches.CORROBORA TING CIRCUMSTANCES.

. Africa. and many came hither to Guatemala. and prayed to the Heart of Heaven. . .) M. and how the people under Balam-Quitze — migrated . first and enumerating tbeir black generations. men and lohite together. 547. or west but north. A. an and happy Aztlan in the East. could only refer to Atlantis that bridge of land where the white." in other words. We see the Aryans descending upon Hindostan from the direction of the Medi- . in consequence of separation and how some of the people " went to the East. 547. broken up into dialects. Such are the Charruas of Brazil. and to have lived in great peace.) How did the red men of Central America know anything about " black men and white men ?" The conclusion seems tive. Ev- ranean with Atlantis opposite its ery civilization on Atlantis. how their language became " confounded. of Saint Vincent. dark. again. Such. as isolated tribes in the rnidst of very different populations." (Bancroft's "Native Races. and red races met. "Black populations have been found in America in very small numbers only. and west we find civilization radiating from the Mediten-anean to other lands. ." 7. its World The Meditermouth." {Ibid. is the Jamassi of Flori. and the dark-complexioned Californians. east. south. we are told. ." p. inevitable that these legends of a primiland. inhabited by black and white men." p.176 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WOULD. true ne- groes. south. de Quatrefages (" Human Species. . or Europe —from north. How is comes it that all the civilizations of the Old ? radiate from the shores of the Mediterranean a cul de sac. p. his pas- some representatives of in sage of the Isthmus of Darien in 1513 they were the tribe that Balboa saw . peaceful. in the Gulf of Mexico da. 200) says. shores possesses traditions that point to civilization AVe hear of no coming to the Mediterra- nean from Asia. the Black Carribees . Here they awaited the rising of the sun. to which all the civilized nations of America traced their origin. The " Popol Vuli " proceeds to tell how this first home of the race became over-populous. " All seem to have spoken one language.

" p. They present all the appearances of a later race. expanding itself be-tween and into the territories of two pre-existing neighboring races. under some strong impulse. a race colonized on sea-coasts. and are bordered on the north and east by the Asiatic Mongols. that at some time previous to these migrations a people speaking a language of a superior and complicated structure broke up their society. shores of the Mediterranean like frogs around a marsh. barley. How are we to explain the existence of the Semitic race It is in Europe without Atlantis? 9." ites. Their territories extend from the Atlantic to the Ganges.) Modern civilization is Atlantean." Dr. The Mediterranean has been because tion. maize. 280. and gradually established themselves in all the lands now inhabited by the Caucasian race. have in the .inventions from Hindostan. " th& nations are gathered around the whose ships colonized of America. oats. as they did also the shores Plato says. of years of development which were had in Atlantis civilization could Without the thousands modern inventive faculty of not have existed. The the present age tion 8. and on the south by the negro tribes of Central Africa. Where are its Old World affinities? Why is it that the origin of wheat. and rye —the essential plants of civilization ? — is totally lost in Greek mythology legends of the introduction of most of these by Atlanbut no European nation tean kings or gods into Europe 8* the mists of a vast antiquity We . and. and claiming descent from a region not far from the Mediterranean. it the centre of the modern world.CORROBORATING CIRCUMSTANCES. an intrusive race. lay in the path of the extension of an older civilizaits shores. is taking up the great delegated work of crealeft it where Atlantis thousands of years ago. terranean . poured out in different directions. McCausland says "The obvious conclusion from these facts is. l^T and we find the Chinese borrowino. and forcibly appropriating the room required for its in(McCausland's " Adam and the Adamcreasing population. and from Iceland to Ceylon.

Central America.) to have a striking resem- blance to the ancient incised characters found on the rocks of Northumberland. discovered at Chichen Itza. bearing sculptured symbols simi- . North Americans of Antiquity. and has been impossible to trace them to their wild originals. the early inhabitants of the Canary Islands. whose mummies are Dr. iv. Cholima. p. is it Why that we find in Ptolemy's Minor. Colima. (Short's " 11. by systematic and long -continued experiments.rld mankind portance to the tific in the last seven years has not developed a single food-plant to compare in im- human family with these." (Bancroft's " Native Races. 20." vol. Zuivan. Seemann (Ibid.d." in a list of cities in Armenian Choi. " Some stones have recently been discovered in Hierro and Las Palmas (Canary Islands). Zuivana. Out of the thousand whole flora of the wo.) feet How comes it that the sandals upon the of the statue of Chacmol. are " exact rep- resentations of those found on the feet of the Guanches. Colua-can. " almost identical in form as well as material with specimens found in Suffolk County.. develop useful plants from the humble productions of the field and forest. Xalisco.) The rock-carvings of Chiriqui are pronounced by Mr. Mcrritt occasionally discovered in the caves of Teneriffe ?" deems the axe or chisel heads dug up at Chiriqui." 497. England. Was this done in list. Central American Localities. Cities.1Y8 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. 140. Chol-ula Colua. it claims to have discovered or developed them. it nation should propose nowadays to add to this the past on the island of Atlantis? "Geography of Asia Armenia Major in a. and. England. the names of five cities which have their counterparts in the names of localities in Central America? 10. p. If a wise and scien- would have to form great botanical gardens. Zalissa.

" The Atlantic Islands. populations of Africa. Tuaricks. Retzius (" Smithsonian Report. who occupied the isles of Greece before the and antedated the Phoenicians in the control of the The Abbe Brasseur de Bourbourg claims that these CaWest Indies.) (Lan- 14. lar to those 179 found on the shores of Lake Superior. which faces Africa. Pelasgi." p. or Carians. 266).CORROBORATING CIRCUMSTANCEiS. and this has led M." 1859. Atlantidse. the rians were identical with the Caribs of the Caras of Honduras." pp. that they are nearin the Guanches Canary Islands. one of the most extraordiis nary customs ever known to mankind that to which I have already alluded in a preceding chapter. They must believe implicitly in the immortality of the . das. Professor p. and possessed of an organized and influential priesthood. Bertholet." (Benjamin. 52-65. which Latham comprises under the name of EgyptianWe find one and the same form of skull in the Islands. " Relacion. the liistorioo-rapher of the Canary Islands. b. with a purpose that the body live may again in a future state. and the Gurani of South America. is The color of the skin on both sides of the Atlantic represented in these populations as being of a reddish-brown.." 13. in front of the African coast. the Moors.) it 12. to perpetuate so troublesome a custom from age to age. Canary Islands. When we consider it closely. How comes that that very high authority. and to the Atlantic etc. Copts. the of the itself embalming body of the dead man. namely. and in the Carib on the opposite coast. The Barbarians who are alluded to by Homer and Tliu- cydides were a race of ancient navigators and pirates called Cares. To arrive at this prac- tice several things must coexist a. " With regard to the primitive dolichocephalae of America I entertain a hypothesis ly related to the still more bold. sea. 130. to conclude that the first inhabitants of the Canaries and those of the great West were one in race. The people must be highly religious. declares. to wit.

Second. then. d. common necessiwhich so many reis semblances have been explained the practice a religious cere- mony. and not a merely spiritual body. and nowhere else. that the very flesh and blood in which the man died shall rise with him on the last day. is The doctrine of chances ty driving is all against to the it.180 soul . is not enough. and body. ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. who believed in the immortality of soul their dead. and resurrection from the grave on some day of judgment in the But a belief in the immortality of the soul distant future. and this implies . preserved their dead as mummies. with . and the resur- rection of the body . That the Guanches of the Canary Islands. the oldest colony of Atlantis. bility that all these four things should coexist by accident in several widely separated races is slight indeed. Not even the Jews believed in these things. If. we have certainly furnished evidence which can only be explained by admitting the existence of Atlantis. supposed to be a remnant of the Atlantean population. That the Egyptians. for all Christian nations hold to these beliefs they must supplement these with a detershall mination that the body not perish. and of some great religious race dwelling on Atlantis. after death c. a belief in rewards and punishments hell. to wit. as I have First. their dead in embalmed such vast multitudes that thev are . it should appear that among the races which we claim were descended from Atlantis this practice of embalm- ing the dead is found. and who embalmed shown : We find. that the live man who dead shall live again. Now all these four things must coexist before a people proThe probaceed to embalm their dead for religious purposes. again in the very body in which he died. There here no men same expedient. growing out of and all religious beliefs by no means common is or universal. in a heaven and a its They must believe in the immortality of the body.

as in the map of Cosmos (see page 95 ante) . now 181 exported by the ton to England. "the mother goddess. the Mexicans. All the traditions of the Mediterranean races look to the ocean as the source of men and gods.) The ancients always alluded to the ocean as a river encircling the earth. on page ante). p." coming to Achilles "from the deep abysses of the main "The circling Nereids with their mistress weep. caused by the Brahma. Fourth. followed the same practice. probably a remi- niscence of the great canal described by Plato which surround- ed the plain of Atlantis. and some of the account for this singular custom. reaching Indian tribes. and ground up into manures to grow English turnips. the Persians." Plato surrounds the great statue of Poseidon in Atlantis with the images of one hundred Nereids. the Ethiopians. and warned him of the coming all In this legend the indications point to an It says: ocean as the scene of the catastrophe." says. Is it possible to through a belt of nations. 402. the Greeks. icere . " The fair river of Ocean was the first to marry. In the 8*7 Deluge legends of the Hindoos seen (as given fish." Orpheus ter. and even the Romans embalmed their dead. 16. who was his mother's daugh- (Plato's "Dialogues. and he espoused his sister Tethys. the Central Americans.CORROBORATING CIRCUMSTANCES." Cratylus. On the American continents we find that the Peru- vians.) describes Tethys. whence his creatures. and completely around the habitable world. without Atlantis ? 15. in different worlds. sleep of "At the close of the last calpa there was a general destruction. book xviii. Homer sings of " Ocean. saving a small which sub- sequently grew to a great of the Flood. That the Assyrians. Third. the origin of gods and Mother Tethys. we have Manu size. And all the sea-green sisters of the deep. Homer :" (Iliad.

lam-Agah.. . . . secondary divinities. then reigned. the herogod of the Quiches in Hu-napu. and Iqui-Balam. i. p. showers from immense clouds. 230... " Hu the mighty. While I do not attach much weight to verbal similari- ties in the languages of the two continents. ii. in Hu-nbatz. ." vol. augmented by.182 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. In seven days the three worlds" (remember Poseidon's trident) " shall be plunged in an ocean of death. ocean. and continue in it secure from the Flood on one immense ocean. semi-divine heroes of the The Phoenician deity El " was subdivided into a Quiches." vol. We have seen the Pan and Maia of the Greeks reappearing in the Pan and Maya of The god of the AVelsh trithe Mayas of Central America. the flood-gates of heaven. the substance of the deity" ("Anc." . Bap.. a hero-god and in Hu-huare . nap-hu. drowned in a vast (Poseidon . . emanating from East.. named Satyavrata. . nance. .) All this reminds us of " the fountains of the great deep and ' " Thou shalt enter the spacious ark. 219)." and seems to repeat precisely the story of Plato as to the sinking of Atlantis in the ocean. Balam-Quitze. a servant of the spirit ivhich moved on the waves''" " and so devout that water was his only suste?). applied to the semi-divine progenitors of the human race." ("Asiatic Researches. Hist. A holy kino-. ." is found in the Ilu-nap-hu. deluged the whole earth. ads.'' The sea overwhelmed its shores. number of hypostases called the Baalim.. in Hii-ncam. and this word Baalim we find appearing in the mythology of the Central Americans. 17. nevertheless there some that are very remai-kable.

Irish. Tacitus spoke of the " Black Celts. and red men. on the opposite side of that sea. exclusively . has no hard and fast lines. might Span- not inappropriately be applied to some of the iards. " On the whole." and the term. sucli as height. Europe is supposed to be peopled by white men but in reality every shade of color is represented on that continent. black. Africans. Italians. Scandinavians. only a shade lighter than the Berbers. There is a general misconception as to the color of the Eu- ropean and American races. The tendency direction of scientific thought in ethnology is in the more and more importance to the race characteristics. Tylor says (" Anthropology. and yet none of them are connected by birth or descent with the country where that language was developed. so far as complexion goes. white. speak the English language. it seems that the distinction of color. and the formation of the skull and body generally. THE QUESTION OF COMPLEXION. of giving merely the result of conquest or migration. Mexicans. Gerall mans. and Portuguese." p. eyes and skin. from the fairest Englishman to the darkest African. 183 Chapter Y. than The language possessed by a people may be to language. 67). all and by the test of language they are Englishmen . in the United States to-day. color of the hair. from the fair complexion of the fairest of the Swedes to the dark-skinned inhabitants of the Mediterranean coast. while the Basques are represented as of a still darker hue. Italians.THE QUESTION OF COMPLEXION. the deof French. scendants F'or instance. or Moors. Spanish. but varies gradually from one tint to another." And when we turn to America we find that the popular .

p. ("North Americans of Antiquity. 269. still the peculiarity of the complexion of this people has been marked since the first time a European encountered them." In foot-note of p. blue eyes. early attracted the attention of the Jesuit missionaries.' formerly occupied the region bordering on Lake Michigan. While it is true that hybridy has done much to lighten the color of many of the tribes. from the ash-color of the Menominees through the cinnamonred.184 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. Explorations for a Railroad Route to the Pacific Ocean. sometimes called the White Indians." and of the same hue to from Patagonia Mankind. Prichard says ("Researches into the Physical History of vol. and have no tradition of intermarriage with any foreign race. Short says p. there are among them white races with a florid complexion. until we reach the dark-skinned Kaws of Kansas. and tribes black or of a very dark hue . 4th ed." 189): ' " The Menominees. is a gross error. and countenance are almost equally diversified. S. The circumstance creates no surprise among this people. iii. i." " we are told. are white. tribe.. around Green Bay. copper. 107 of vol. which is compared to that of white mulattoes. and bronze tints. may be found among the tribes formerly occupying the territory east of the Mississippi. figure. that their stature. all opinion that Indians are " red men." . and are quite good-looking." *' Hudson's Bay. for from time immemorial a similar class of people has existed among the fair skin. Many of the Indians of Zuni (New Mexico) They have a chestnut or auburn hair. The whiteness of these Indians. Almost every shade. and has often been commented on by travellers. of " U. The variety of complexion is as great in Soutli America as among the tribes of the northern part of the continent. They claim to be full-blooded Zunians." John T.. 1841) It will be easy to show that the American races show near- ly as great a variety in this respect as the nations of the old continent. who are nearly as black as the negro.

Among some the black races of tropical regions we find. while in Mexico were tribes of an olive or reddish complexion. : Upon this question of vol.. I find them to be of the like countenance. straight. letter of August. I have seen among them as comely European-like faces of both sexes as on your side of the sea. in the next place. not ly walk with a lofty chin. and mostTheir eye is little and black. . they are said to lay their altars upon twelve stones. gen- These sometimes have light hair and blue eyes. and they tread strong and clever.." of singular proportion .." (Winchell's " Preerally..) in his William Penn said of the Indians of Pennsylvania. the Afghans of India. . I mean of the stock of the ten tribes to be of the Jewish race and that for the following reasons: first. complexion Catlin. etc. This is the case with the Tuareg of the Sahara. adamites. tall. customs of women. 95. . well-built. light-colored tribes interspersed. they offer their first-fruits. and the noses of several of them have as much of For their original. their mourning a year. . and possessed legends of a clearly Atlantean character. 185. . . ns some curious in- We have already seen that the Mandans preserved Catlin says an image of the ark. — — . Winchell says 185 "The ancient Indians of California. . relatively light. in the latitude of forty- two degrees. I am ready to believe them the Roman. they have a kind of feast of tabernacles. 1683: natives " The . p. . and truly an Italian complexion hath not much more of the white. are generally . "A stranger in the different shades of Mandan village is first struck with the complexion and various colors of hair which . with many other things that do not now occur.THE QUESTION OF COMPLEXION. But this is not all they agree in rites. and the aborigines of the banks of the Oronoco and the Amazon.." formation. i." p. they reckon by moons. gives in his " Indians of North America. and their children of so lively a resemblance that a man would think himself in Duke's Place or Berry Street in London when he seeth them. were as black as the negroes of Guinea... unlike a straight-looked Jew.

with the nor can they themselves account for it. "Among the females may be seen every shade and color of hair that can be seen in our own country except red or auburn. and is at once disposed to exclaim. and indicates no inequality in disposition or intellect. but it is unquestionably an hereditary characteristic which runs in families. and of every age. lived Major James W. with hair of a bright silvery-gray. . with hazel. 'These are not Indians. before I started for this place. Since that time until now (1835) there have been very few visits of white men to this place. with gray. " The stature of the Mandans is rather below the ordinary man. differing materially from the hair of other colors. and wonderful suppleness and elasticity. and among the women particularly there are are almost white. with beautiful symmetry of form and proportion. and with blue eyes. Why this diversity of complexion I cannot tell. There are very many of both sexes. so far as I can" learn them. Their traditions. who among the Dakota Indians for nine years. And by passing this hair through my hands I have found it uniformly to be as coarse and harsh as a horse's mane. and was killed by them in the great outbreak of .' There are a great many of these people whose complexions appear as light as half-breeds many whose skins most pleasing symmetry and proportion of feature. with mildness and sweetness of expression and excessive modesty of demeanor. . And I recollect perfectly well that Governor Clarke told me. afford us no information of their having had any knowledge of white men before the visit of Lewis and Clarke. which. The faces are European. which render them exceedingly pleasing and beautiful." size of Catlin gives a group (54) showing this great diversity in complexion : one of the figures is painted almost pure white. and with light hair. and in some instances almost perfectly white.186 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. and surely not enough to have changed the complexions and customs of a nation. is generally as fine and soft . among the Mandans. made to their village thirty-three years ago. Lynd. that I would find the Mandans a strange people and half white. as silk. from infancy to manhood and old age. This unaccountable phenomenon is not the result of disease or habit. he sees in a crowd about him. which is not to be found.



of three mummies in a cave on the south side of the . the Crows. the deformation of the skull. large heads." cilasso. the ancient inhabitants of the mountains of Peru and Bolivia. says that the modern Peruvians. in the Universal Traveller. "appear. Minnesota. p. as found upon their mummies. 47). from numerous examples of hair Gar- in their tombs. us of the discovery. are as fair as the people of the south of Europe. and become quite as white as the American child. who are taken very young. of Dakotas. with regular features. yet it becomes still lighter by change of condition or mode of life. and a drying up of the vital juices. by smoke. They practised in early times Professor Wilson describes the hair of the ancient Peruvians. to have been an auburn-haired race. who had tells an opportunity of seeing the body of the king. Those children in the Mission at Hazlewood." of lighter ' The Aymaras. and a thoughtful and melancholy cast of countenance. and nearly vanishes. The Mandans are as light as the peasants of Spain." 187). 189 1862. "Hist. Haywood century. as " a lightish brown. even in the child. Dakotas varies with the nation. Historical Society. and the middle-aged man lighter than the superannuated homo. who. Goodrich. after calling attention to the fact that the different tribes of the Sioux nation represent several different degrees of darkness of color : complexion than the young "The Dakota child is brave." Library." says Short ("North Americans of p. and not allowed to expose themselves. are described as having an olive-brown complexion. fineness of texture "The found Antiquity. at the beginning of this Yiracocha. It may be set down. this one lighter than the middle-aged man.' p. and also with the age and condition of the individual. paint. while their brothers." ancient Peruvians. dirt. and of a which equals that of the Anglo-Saxon race. in the warmer regions of Peru.THE QUESTION OF COMPLEXION. however. describes the hair of that monarch as snow-white. Dr. says (MS. lose almost entirely the olive shade. under constant ablutions and avoiding of exposure. are as dark as the Arabs. as a shade lighter than olive . 154. apThe color of the pears to be the true copper-colored Dakota.

in baskets. On the other hand. ("Natural and Aboriginal History of Tennessee. Savonarola. who were buried fair the Peruvians were occasionally buried. and their hair auburn. every face here could be precisely matched among the in." p. habitants of the southern part of the old continent. on page 193. as Cumberland River (Tennessee).190 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. look at the portrait of the great Italian It looks orator and reformer. and of a fine texture. The portraits on this page and on pages 187 and 191. Survey for a Route for a Pacific Railroad. taken from the " Report of the U. more . 191.) OUOOTAW." present features very much like those of Europeans in fact. Neither is the common opinion correct which asserts all the American Indians to be of the same type of features. and whose skin was and white. S.



Winchell tells us that ADaMall. AD6M and ADOM signifies red.) "The Arabs among distinguished ruddy." p. the color of a "ADaM. one red. it appears. red. They classed themselves . a human being. Adam was. 161. The radical letters " something out of which vegetation ADaM was made red heifer.THE QUESTION OF COMPLEXION." the red men. the earth. as of a horse. ruddy. if it any of the preceding faces." to wit. the other black. to germinate. (Ibid. a man. like the 193 tlian hunting Indians of North-western America In fact. bay-colored. ruddyy (" Preadamites. male or female. Adam is derived from the are found in a red man." SAVONAROLA." or " Sitting Bull. red earth. was dressed with a scalp- lock it would pass muster anywhere as a portrait of the "Man- afraid-of-his-horses.) mankind into two races.

but tliere is evidence that." paint. The idols of the Indians were also painted red. and Lepsius. Champollion. yellow. Minn. the they were red men. the religious color. from the highest antiquity." and the white men " Tamhu. upon these disword for color in Sanscrit {varThe red men. 85. red was a sacred color. in fact. early branches of the Atlan- The Cushites and ion tean stock. way we find that the ancient Aryan writings divided mankind into four races black : —the white. of Dakotas. races of men They themselves belonged to the "^o^." or red men. The ancient Egyptians were red men. and white men. also — — black " men were called "iVaAsw. and the Arabs were painted red on the Egyptian monuments. name from their "sunburnt" complexHiniyar." p. and the four castes of India were founded tinctions in color. Ethiopians. yellow. or made like some laying it over with vermilion.) and red was (Lynd's MS. according to the Mahdhhdrata. the of the Himyaritic Arabians. The Wisdom it of Sol- omon ly." Library. it and fashvile beast. were the Kshatrivas — the warrior caste — who were afterward . the nci) means caste. that they represented themselves on the monuments as of a crimson hue —an exaggeration of In the same their original race complexion. red. took their . it ioned to the shape of a man. refers to this it custom : "The carpenter carved elegant- and formed it by the skill of his understanding. and were taken by them from the great works of Belzoni. Society. the gods of the ancients were always painted red. and with and covering every spot therein. black. In later ages so desii-ous were the Egyptians of preserving the aristocratic distinction of the color of their skin. The name prefix means red. of the Phoenicians signified red. Hist. They recognized four the red. Not only was Adam a red man. the yellow men they called "A^«??m" it included the Asiatic races. " Hist.'''' The following figures are copied from Nott and Gliddon's Types of Mankind.194 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. coloring red.

and the The present inhabitants of Egypt range from a yellow color in the north parts to a deep bronze. to some extent." p. tribes and. Greeks. Phoenicians. Tylor red -brown. originally as I have shown. and they were con- stantly depicted on the Egyptian monuments as red or light .THE QUESTION OF COMPLEXION. and designates them as " darkwhites. dark Welshmen. Egyptians belonged to a brown which embraced the Nubian Tunis. and people of the Caucasus into one body. The great Manii was also of the red race." their The Himyarite Arabs. and from their stock Buddha was born. So that not only the Mohammedan and to be derived Christian but the Buddhistic religion seem from branches of the Hamitic or red stock. The Egyptians. 95) that the ancient race. is of opinion ("Anthropology. Tellow. engaged in h fierce 195 contest with the whites — the Brahraans and were nearly exterminated. the Berbers of iVlgiers and He groups the Assyrians. represented the nations of Palestine as yellow-brown. derived name from their red color. Bretons. Persians. Andalusians. Black TUE RAOES OK MKN ACUaKUING TO THE EGYI'TIANS.white. while they painted themselves Libyans yellow . although some of them survived. Romans.

" art. 464. Brazil. also painted themselves red. from their appearance. Herodotus tells us that there was a nation of Libyans. Peru. were built by Poseidon . ("The Human America. compares the inhabitants of Guanaani to the Canary Islanders mingo Domore beautiful and fair. The Zavecians. their complexion. though in the Semitic family with cannot be classed Hebrew. Troy was an Atlantean colony). (an Atlantean race). the ancestors of the Zuavas of Algiers (the tribe that gave their name to Some of the French Zouaves)..) Tylor says ("Anthropology.) Ferdinand Columbus. Chili. Angraud. to say. Cyclop. called the Maxyans. China." it p." pp. in his relation of his father's voyages. or undressed and unshaven. Comanches. 147. were dressed alike. 244. also resemble the Canary Islanders.) The same of author believes that tribes belonging to the Semitic type are also found in He refers to "certain traditions . p. he said. Chickasaws. 201. Species. In Peru the Charanzanis. etc." (" Amer. and beard. These Maxyans painted their whole bodies red.196 brown. and describes the inhabitants of San as still Pierre Martyr speaks of the Indians of the Parian Gulf as hav- ing fair hair. who claimed descent from the people of walls of Troy.." These last also appear in the Berber languages of were called by the ancients the Atlanteans. " If a congregation of twelve representatives from Malacca. Japan. whether due to the long intercourse between the two races in Egypt or to and such analogies North Africa. 160) : "The language of the ancient Egyptians. correspondence. Mongolia. Sandwich Islands. has important points of some deeper ancestral connection." (Fontaine's " How the World was Peopled. ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. the most skilful anatomist could not. Egypt. the Ethiopians were " copper-colored. separate them." p. Troy (the that is we shall see. L'Abbe Brasseur de Bourbourg imagined himself surrounded by Arabs when all his Indians of Rabinal were around him for they had. studied by M. features.

'''' When able to disabuse itself of the Mortonian all theory that the aborigines of America are red men. and the use in the country of a weapon entirely characteristic of the ancient Canary science is Islanders. 197 Guiana. for peculiar mental and moral characteristics go with these complexions. The . Everything in Europe speaks of vast periods of time and longcontinued and constant interfusion of bloods. we may hope that the confluence upon the continent of widely different races from different countries may come to be recognized and intelligently studied. white. and yellow men have united to form the original population of Ainerica. the characteristics of the different nations in depending upon the proportions which the dark and light races are mingled. black. . of a dark -brown or red race — with a white race . and nations with this color of hair their blood is now intermingled with all the races of men. until there a fair-skinned is not man on the Continent that has not the blood of . There can be no doubt that red.THE QUESTION OF COMPLEXION. and all belong to one race. from Palestine to Iceland. the dark-haired race in his veins nor scarcely a dark-skinned man that is not lighter in hue from intermixture with the white stock. red-haired people are a dis- tinct variety of the white stock there were once whole tribes . And there can be as little doubt that the entire population of Europe and the south shore of the Mediterranean is a mongrel race a combination. in varying proportions.

condition . who were the merchants of the world of Christ. and covered with water. in both instances. in the opening chapters of the Book of Genesis that cannot be duplicated from the legends of the American and its scarcely a custom known to the Jews that does not find counterpart among the people of the New World. Chapter YI. the Phoenicians. and that it struction agrees in particulars with the account given by Plato. GENESIS CONTAINS A HISTORY OF ATLANTIS The HeLrevvs are a branch of the great family of whicli that powerful commercial race. they had formerly been in a happy and sin. the Book of Genesis. can be asserted that there prominent fact nations. they had become great and wicked they were destroyed for their sins —they were destroyed by and it water." .. ani: mal. i. were a part. many important The people de- stroyed were. 2) that in the beginning the earth was without form and void. many I of which have come down to us in that oldest and most venhave human compositions. or green herb sea —there was nothing — to be seen but the and the heavens. the ancient race that had created civilization less . bird. is But we can go scarcely a farther. shown that the story of the Deluge plainly refers to the deof Atlantis. fifteen hundred years before the time The Hebrews carried out from the common erable of storehouse of their race a mass of traditions.198 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. "at first all was sea no man. Even in the history of the Creation we find these similarities The Bible tells us (Gen. In the Quiche legends we are told.

" In Genesis (chap. "The Creator the Former. moved upon the waters like a glowing — — — light. and from whom (" mankind are descended. and rose plains like a vapor -cloud.. And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground. " : of a garden. and the cypress and pine apthat peared. woman in the world. ' says. first man is represented as naked.. round the root of the tree is entwined a serpent. Let the waters let under the heaven be gathered together unto one place. the Dominator the feathered serpent those that give life.' Blessed be thy coming. " The first man was made of clay but he had no intelligence. i." is Mexican Antiquities. 9). arose." The Quiche legend says.GEXESIS COyTAIXS A HIISTORY OF ATLAXTJU." Even the temptation of Eve reappears in the American legends. i." vol." The Quiche legend cried out. and agrees with the Indian historians. who disobedi- . animals. 2). viii. p. and man were the same in both records. and : the dry land appear and it was so. Torque- mada admits first all the existence of this tradition among them. Hura- The order formed is which the vegetables. thunder-bolt. " Then Gucumatz was filled with joy. and kan. " And God said. with a single tree standing in the midst.. 19. ii. whose head appear- ing above the foliage displays the face of a woman. " in O Heart of Heaven. The AzThe sun was much nearer the earth then than now." The Quiche legend says. 199 The Bible says (Gen. and his grateful warmth rendered clothing unnecessary.. immediately the and the mountains Bible tells us. " The creative spirits cried out Earth !' and in an instant it ' was formed. "And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters. and was consumed in the water. who affirm that this was the who bore children." The Quiche legend says." The " And God saw it was good.) There also a legend of Suchiquecal. " . Lord Kingsboroiigh says " The Toltecs had paintings In Genesis the tec legend says." The Bible says (Gen. 7) we are told.

whereupon they determined to return to the place from which they started. they found a very adhesive clay and bitumen. encircled in every part by water. in his MS. and thereby disgraced and in(" Mexican Antiquities. all her posterity. proposed to go and seek them. the Lord of the Heavens. a version of the legend as to It is as follows the building of the great pyramid of Cholula. viding themselves into two parties. without hill or elevation. " In the beginning. this land (Cholula) was in obscurity and darkness." a. so that they say it reached to the sky..'200 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. without tree or created thing and immediately after the light and the sun arose in the east there appeared gigantic men of deformed stature and possessed the land. some journeyed to the west and others toward the east. Shatana?) Deluge and the other We have seen that the Central Americans possessed striking in Genesis. they determined to build a tower so Having collected high that its summit should reach the sky. and void of any created thing. said to the inhabitants of the sky. jured herself and vol. . these travelled until the sea cut off their road. 401." underlie Genesis.) of the Old in the The legends World which were used by Milton "Paradise Lost. of Zoure- — Arabic. quotes from the lula. and desiring to see the nativity of the sun. all was a plain. p. not finding the means of reaching the sun. "Historia Antiqua de Nueva Cho- Espana. and arriving at this place (Cholula). . la Father Duran. with which they speedily commenced to build the tower and having reared it to the greatest possible altitude." appear in the Mexifall can legends of a war of angels in heaven. materials for the purpose.d. lips of a native of over one hundred years old. and ently gathered roses from a tree. before the light of the sun had been created. vi. Satan bellious spirits. being enamored of the light of the sun and . enamored of his light and beauty. and the tem-que (Soutem. parallels to the account of the There is also a clearly established legend which singularly resembles the Bible record of the Tower of Babel. enraged. Dias well as his Occident. 'Have you observed how they of the earth have built a high and haughty tower to mount hither. 1585.

for only a highly civilized people would have attempted such a vast work. superiority Their mental and command of the arts gave them the character ." One can race. by a ruder highly civilized people . and divided all parts of the earth. living in the flesh. who had divided into of giants who arrived from the East two great emigrations. one moving eastward (toward Europe).GENESIS CONTAINS A HISTORY OF ATLANTIS. because it is not rio-ht that they of the earth. his beauty ? Come and confound tliem.' Immediately the inhabitants of the sky sallied forth like flashes of lightning . and scattered its builders to they destroyed the edifice. of a recognize in this legend the recollection. They were sun-wor9* . should minole with us. 201 KUINS OF THE PYEAMIB OF CUOLULA. the other westward (toward x\merica).

Can any one doubt that these two legends must have sprung in some way from one another. said to the inhabitants of the sky. to form pyramid of Egypt. Come and confound them. Go to. covers but twelve or thirsome conception of the magnitude of this this legend American structure." says the Bible record." says the Indian "They found a plain in the land of Shinar. we have only to remember that the teen acres. And nothing will be restrained from the Lord said. ' . and They built of brick in they dwelt there. both cases. " Let us build us a tower whose top may reach iinto heaven." says the Mexican legend. Have you observed. It is even now. or from some common source? There are enough points of diiference to sliow that the Amer." says the Bible. hill or elevation. ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. shortly after the conquest of Mexico." says the Bible. covers forty-five greatest 1400 feet square at the base. for we are told " tliey uere enamored of the light and beauty of the sun. "The Lord of the Heavens. let us go down and confound them." and they built a high place for his worship. Behold them which they have imagined to do. Cheops. priest." says the Indian "And the Lord scattered them abroad from thence record." says the Bible. on all the face of the earth." says the "And the Lord came down to see the city its and the tower which the children of men had builded. " They scattered its builders to all parts of the earth. and acres. . from before the lips of an old Indian who was born Columbus sailed Observe the resemblances between this legend and the Bible account of the building of the Tower of Babel "All was a plain without legend. enraged.' etc.202 shippers . 160 feet high. ever erected The pyramid of Cholula is one of the greatest by human hands. tower so high that Indian legend. constructions in its ruined condition. " They determined to build a summit should reach the sky. It must not be forgotten that was taken down by a Catholic from Spain. .

black. should another occur." In Genesis (chap. to God said. They built it to reach the : . precisely as we find the ark of the Deluge resting upon separate mountain." and while he slept God made Eve According to the Quiche tradition. icau 203 is not a servile copy of the Hebrew legend. sleep became his last repose.GENESIS CONTAiyS A HISTORY OF ATLANTIS. ii. and eat. "And is man's first iii. and the Creator made wives for them " while they slept. it was in the one case affixed to the tower of the Chaldeans. that of the Toltecs. Behold. 21) that "the Lord God caused a deep upon Adam. The men who built it. and God drove him out of the garden. and white races) and these men were without wives. according to his account. the 22). were foreigners. In the former the story comes from a native of Cholula it is told nnder the shadow of the mighty pyramid it commemorates it is a local legend which he repeats. he said. and referred to some gigantic structure of great height built by that people and when the story emigrated to the east and west. as a sun-temple ." But the resemblances between Genesis and the American legends do not stop here. In one form of of Babel legend. sleep to fall . while in the Bible record architects. In the Quiche legends we are told. and in the other to the pyramid of Cholula. out of one of his ribs.. Both legends were probably derived from Atlantis. know good and evil and : now. " The gods feared ." Some wicked misanthrope referred to these traditions when We are told (Gen.. sun —that is to say. and take also of the tree of forever:" therefore life. he put forth his hand. by confounding the speech of the people. "And the Lord man lest become live as one of us. we are told that the pyramid of Cholula was erected " as a means of es- the Tower cape from a second flood. chains all the way from Greece to Armenia. Babel was built to perpetuate the glory of the Indian legend the gods stop the the Bible account its In in work by a great storm. yellow. there were four men from whom the races of the world descended (probably a recollection of the red.

Both had a species of serpent-worship." four corners of the earth.G. did the Mexican monarchs before their idols.. that they had made men too perfect.R. and they breathed a cloud to of mist over their vision. and killed four hundred of them. Compare our representation of the great serpent-mound so in Adams County. pulled down the building in which his captors had assembled." who. Both believed in devils. and both were afflicted with leprosy.. worshipped toward the east. serpent-mound Ohio. As David leaped and danced before the ark of the Lord.S. with the following description of a great Scotland in ^^Serpent-ivorship in the West.204 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. Mr. told of in the " Popol Vuh. " There were giants in those days. John S. Both punished adultery with stoning to death. This parallelism runs through a hundred particulars: Both the Jews and Mexicans Both called the south " the right Both burnt incense toward the Confession of sin and sacrifice to both peoples. Both considered women who died in childbirth as worthy of honor as soldiers who fell in battle. as the Red Sea was The story of Samson is paralleled in the history of a hero named Zipanca. America the Divinity parted the sea for their passage. F.S.G. in Scotland. of atonement were common Both were punctilious about washings and ablutions. the abiding-place of an invisible god." AVhen the ancestors of the Quiches migrated parted for the Israelites." says the Bible. deal of the Central A great American history is taken up with the do- ings of an ancient race of giants called Quinames. Phene. to have been — Some additional light appears thrown upon ancient serpent-worship in the West by the recent archaeological explorations of Mr. being captured by his enemies and placed in a pit. F. Phene has just investigated . Both had an ark. hand of the world.

an account of which was lately published. The sinuous winding and articulations of the vertebral spinal arrangement are anatomically perfect ly identified. or cairn. This mound corresponds almost entirely with one 700 feet long in America. OHIO. Squier. This is most perfect when the spectator is on the head of the animal form. 205 a curious earthen mound in Glen Feechan. is a most perfect one. Phene first visited it. as the outline cannot be understood unless the whole of it can be seen. In the American mound three rivers (also objects of worship with the ancients) were evidentthree peaks are seen over the length of the reptile is The person The number three was a sacred number in all ancient mythologies. GREAT EBRPENT-MOUND. when Mr. . after careful survey. of an altar having been placed there. as being in the form of a serpent or saurian. Argylesliire. . at tbe late meeting of the Britisb Association in Edinburgb. and the body of the earthen reptile 300 feet long and in the centre of the head there were evidences. referred to by bim.GENESIS CONTAINS A HISTORY OF ATLANTIS. The mound. says the /Scotsman. The shape can only be seen so as to be understood when looked down upon from an elevation. by Mr. The altar toward the head in each case agrees. or on the lofty rock to the west of it. when a standing on the head. The position with regard to Ben Cruachan is most remarkable. The head is a large cairn.

mound. was found.) We Age in find a striking likeness between the works of the Stone America and Europe. in which was a quantity of charcoal and burnt earth and charred nutshells.206 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. and burnt bones. beneath the cairn forming the head of the animal was found a megalithic chamber. beneath the peat moss." {Pall in the Argyleshire The gentlemen state that Phene during his investigation Mall Gazette.MENTG OK EUROPE AND AMElilOA. America. Illinois. Stone Arrow-heads. Stone Arrow-head. which. as already stated. as shown in the figures here given. to be formed by a careful adjustment of stones. STONE IMPl. present with Mr. Switzerland. im iiii ii i i i'"""" ' '""" "'"'""""'"'" i i iiii i iii i iii tij Stone Axe.E. North Germany. is 300 feet long. Stone Axe. The back or spine of the serpent. the formation of which probably prevented the structure from being obliterated by time and weather. a flint instrument. . beautifully and minutely serrated at the edge.

and both agreed in the occult in the strong and versal idea of uncleanness connected with that period. "As among Jews the ark was a sort of portable temple. to cure a formed a dog of maize paste and left it by the roadside. sons with it. MS. might wash . Antiq. " Hist. Both believed tised baptism. Both Jews and Mexicans offered water to a his feet oil . ccxiii. ii. for " a man to raise up seed for his deceased brother by marrying his widow." similar torn. Torquemada. " Prim. p.. so among the Mexicans. (Las Casas." p. had its counterpart among the Mexicans. 377-8. saying the first passer-by would carry away the illness. Both ate the flesh of the sacrifices of both poured the blood of it. both uni- anointed with separated the both sacrificed prisoners both periodically women." sacred to be touched by any but the vol. (Dorman. which led from the earth to heaven. The Jewish custom ness.) (Kingsborough..OEXF^IS COyTAIXS A HISTORY OF ATLANTIS.. up and down which the spirits passed. in which the Deity was supposed to be continually present. "Mex. an ark was held in the highest veneration.. Ind.. ccxv. of laying the sins of the people upon the head of an animal. 207 The same singular custom wliicli is found among the Jews and the Hindoos. Super. 258. p. faced the east. and turning him out into the wilder- fever. viii." cap. Apoloq.) stranger that he . like the Jewish.) No one but the Jewish high-priest might enter the Holy of Holies. 67. power of water. 59. . they smeared upon walls and The Mexthe ican temple. 25. and the Indians of Michoacan and Honduras. and both prac- ." The Peruvians p. A custom obtained atonement . " Monarq. the sacrifice on the earth they sprinkled it they marked perstones.." was found among the Central American nations... in Peru.. who. the earth would not be again destroyed by a deluge.) believed that the rainbow was a sign that {Ibid. the Cherokees. (Ibid. both ate dust in token of humility . and was considered an object too priests.) Jacob's ladder had its duplicate in the vine or tree of the Ojibbeways.

new and the washing away of the original sin. I pray that this celestial water. . thou hast to live on the earth. .) The Scythians.' Then the midwife poured water upon the head of the child. ' . The Christian we know. saying. Take all the heads of the people. and there live. : was also a Jewish custom " And the Lord said unto Moses. . and hang them up before the Lord against the sun. begone! leave it. that removes receive it may the goddess see good to purify all filthiness and cleanse thine heart. and anew is it born. and said. the goddess of water. blue and light blue. 4. iii. by this flourish . I pray that it may destroy in thee and put away from thee all the things evil and adverse that were given thee before the beginning of the world. .. now again is it purified and cleansed now again is it shaped and engendered by our mother. which is thy life. O thou hurtful thing.' gers she touched the breast of the child. that the fierce anger of the Lord may be turned away from Israel. And Moses said unto the judges of Israel. p. putting her moistened fingers in its mouth. the putting of the fingers in the mouth. 5. Slay ye every one his men that were joined unto Baal-peor. was not a Christian invention. the birth. may enter into thy body. the touching of the breast. O my grandson my son take this water of the Lord of the world. HerodoUis tells us. and said. Behold the pure water that washes and cleanses thy heart.. : ' — — . from the great storehouse of Asiatic traditions and beliefs. invigorating and refreshing. scalped their enemies. for now does it live anew. to grow through this we get all things that support Then with moistened finexistence on the earth. rite.. XXV." (Numb. Here we of baptism : find many resemblances to the Christian ordinance the pouring of the water on the head. Wheresoever thou art in this child.208 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. washing and cleansing. "Then the Mexican midwife gave the child to taste of tlie water. put thyself apart." (Bancroft's "Native Races.) ' Take and to this . The Mexicans hung up this the heads of their sacrificed enemies." vol. receive it. but was borrowed from ancient times. 372.


of their saddles


and carried the scalp

at the


the Jews

probably scalped their enemies
" But God shall wound the head of his enemies, and the hairy scalp of such a one as goeth on still in his trespasses."
(Psa., Ixviii., 21.)


ancient Scandinavians practised scalping.



old Ilarefoot seized his rival, Alfred, with six hundred follow-

he " had them maimed, blinded, hamstrung, scalped, or em(Taine's " Hist. Eng. Lit.," p. 35.)


Herodotus describes the Scythian mode of taking the scalp

He makes

a cut round the head near the ears, and shakes the

skull out."



precisely the Indian custom.

man teemed among them." The Indian scalp-lock
scalps a

has," says Herodotus, " the

The more more highly he is es-



found on the Egyptian monuments

one of the characteristics of the Japhetic Libyans, who


the head except one lock in the middle.
of Tartary wear a scalp-lock, as do the

The Mantchoos
ern Chinese.


walls of Corinth, devoured

Byron describes the heads of the dead Tartars under the by the wild dogs
"Crimson and green were the shawls of their wear, And each scalp had a single long tuft of hair, All the rest was shaven and bare."

These resemblances are so striking and so numerous that
repeated attempts have been
itants of


to prove that the inhab;

Jews some have claimed that they represented " the lost tribes " of that peoare the descendants of the


But the Jews were never

a maritime or emigrating peo-


they formed no colonies



it is

impossible to believe

and marched across the whole face of Asia, took ships and
has been asserted) that they
left their flocks

across the greatest of the oceans to a continent of the exist-

ence of which they had no knowledge.


we seek the
origin of these extraordinary coincidences in

we must go far back of the time of the must seek it in the relationship of the Jews to the family of Noah, and in the identity of the Noachic race destroyed in the Deluge with the people of the drowned Atlantis.
opinions and habits,
lost tribes.





surprise us to find traditions perpetuated for

thousands upon thousands of years, especially having a religious priesthood.


a people


essence of religion



little is


nothing perishes

change comes from without

and even when

one religion


supplanted by another



as the


of the


faith, or

they pass into the folk-lore and
see Votan, a hero in America,

fairy stories of the people.


become the god Odin or Woden in Scandinavia and when his worship as a god dies out Odin survives (as Dr. Dasent has proved) in the Wild Huntsman of the Hartz, and in the Robin Hood (Oodin) of popular legend. The Hellequin of France becomes the Harlequin of our pantomimes. William Tell never existed he is a myth a survival of the sun-god Apollo, Indra,
; ;

who was worshipped on

the altars of Atlantis.

Nothing here but

doth change

Into something rich and strange.''


rite of

circumcision dates back to the


days of Phoe-

Egypt, and the Cushites.

lantean custom, invented in

was probably an Atthe Stone Age. Tens of thousands

of years have passed since the Stone
bronze, and iron have intervened



the ages of copper,

this day the Hebrew rabbi performs the ceremony of circumcision with a stone

and yet to








Cathedral, in

"Into what depths of antiquity the ceremonies carried me back To the mysteries of Eleusis to the sacrificial rites of Phoenicia. The boys swung the censors as censors had been




The girdle and cassock in the adoration of Bacchus. the veil and tonsure were of the priests came from Persia from Egypt the alb and chasuble were prescribed by Numa Pompilius the stole was borrowed from the official who used to throw it on the back of the victim that was to be sacrificed
; ;

the white surplice was the same as described by Juvenal and Ovid."


it is

evident that

many thousands

of years must

have passed since the men who wrote
western India, could have

in Sanscrit, in



Europe, yet to this day

they preserve
Ireland; and


their ancient

books maps and descrip-

tions of the western coast of Europe,

and even of England and

among them

a fuller knowledge of the

vexed question of the sources of the Nile than was possessed

by any nation

in the

world twenty-five years ago.

This perpetuation of forms and beliefs
fact that the fornmlas used in the

illustrated in the

Middle Ages

Europe to

exorcise evil spirits were Assyrian words, imported probably


of years

before from the magicians

of Chaldea.


the European conjurer cried out to the demon,

hilka, besha, besha,''^ he

had no idea that he was repeating the

very words of a people

who had

perished ages before, and that
evil one, evil one.

they signified Go away, go away, mant, " Anc. Hist. East," vol





of 360 degrees

the division of a chord of the

circle equal to the radius into

60 equal

parts, called degrees;

the division of these into 60 minutes, of the minute into 60
seconds, and the second into 60 thirds

the division of the day

into 24 hours, each hour into 60 minutes, each minute into 60



the division of the


into seven days,

and the very

order of the days


have come down to us from the Chalwill



and these things

probably be perpetuated

among our

posterity " to the last syllable of recorded time."


need not be surprised, therefore, to find the same legends
cropping out



the nations of Central America



and the people of



should teach us to regard


of Genesis with increased veneration, as a relic dating

from the most ancient days of man's history on earth;
cross the great ocean


every line


valuable; a word, a letter,

an accent

may throw

upon the gravest problems of the

birth of civilization.



conviction which, during thousands of years, at

times pressed

home upon

the Israelites, was that they were a

"chosen people," selected out of

the multitudes of the earth,

to perpetuate the great truth that there was but one



omnipotent, paternal


who rewarded

the good

and punished the wicked
nations of the earth.

in contradistinction

from the multi-

farious, subordinate, animal



demi-gods of the other

This sublime monotheism could only
civilization, for

have been the outgrowth of a high



religion is necessarily a worship of " stocks

and stones," and

history teaches us that the gods decrease in
creases in intelligence.




was probably

in Atlantis that


theism was



The proverbs

of " Ptah-hotep," the

book of the Egyptians, show that this most ancient colony from Atlantis received the pure faith from the mother-land at the very dawn of history this book preached the doctrine of one God, " the rewarder of the good and the punisher of the

p. 38.)

(Reginald S. Poole, Contemjoorary Rev.^ Aug., 1881, " In the early days the Egyptians worshipped one only

God, the maker of

things, without beginning

and without


the last the priests preserved this doctrine and taught

privately to a select few."

("Amer. Encycl.,"

vol. vi., p.

The Jews took up

this great truth

where the Egyptians dropped

and over the heads and over the ruins of Egypt, Chaldea, Rome, and India this handful of poor shepherds ignorant, debased, and despised have carried down to
Phoenicia, Greece,



times a conception which could only have originated

in the highest possible state of




even skepticism must pause before the miracle of the



continued existence of this strange people, wading through the
ages, bearing

on their shoulders the burden of their great


and pressing forward under the force of a perpetual and
sistible impulse.

The speech


may be
and, at a

heard to-day in the

synagogues of Chicago and Melbourne resounded two thousand
years ago in the streets of



earlier period,

could be heard in the palaces of Babylon and the shops of


in Tyre, in Sidon, in Gades, in

Palmyra, in Nineveh.

How many
into ruin,

nations have perished,

how many languages have

ceased to exist,

how many splendid civilizations have crumbled how many temples and towers and towns have gone


to dust since the sublime frenzy of

seized this extraordinary people
tribes are

All their kindred

monotheism first nomadic
hands of

gone; their land of promise

in the



but Judaism, with

offspring, Christianity, is taking

possession of the habitable world; and the continuous

one people

— one

poor, obscure, and wretched people

— spans —of



the tremendous gulf between "Ptah-hotep" and this nineteenth century.
If the Spirit of

which the universe


but an expression

whose frame the

stars are the infinite molecules

— can be

posed ever to interfere with the laws of matter and reach down

would it not be to save from the wreck and waste of time the most sublime fruit of the civilization of a belief in the one, only, just God, the the drowned Atlantis
into the doings of men,

father of

all life,

the imposer of


moral obligations




Chapter VII.

of the

most marvellous inventions

for the

our pres-


the phonetic alphabet, or a system of signs rep-

resenting the sounds of





ent civilization could scarcely have been possible.


solution of the origin of our

European alphabet has yet
the Egyptians, and the ar-

been obtained: we can trace

back from nation to nation,

and form to form,


we reach

chaic forms of the Phcenicians, Hebrews, and Cushites, but be-

their hieroglyphic system of wi'iting not as their ow^n invention, but as " the language of the (Lenormant and Cheval, " Anc. Hist, of the East," vol. gods." " The gods " were, doubtless, their highly civilized ii., p. 208.)

yond this the light fails us. The Egyptians spoke of


— the

people of Atlantis

— who,



shall hereafter

became the gods of many of the Mediterranean

"According to the Phoenicians, the art of writing was invented by Taautus, or Taut, whom the Egyptians call Tliouth,' and the Egyptians said it was invented by Thouth, or Thoth, otherwise called the first Hermes,' in which we clearly see that both the Phoenicians and Egyptians referred the invention to a period older than their own separate political existence, and to an older nation, from which both peoples received it." (Baldwin's "Prehistoric Nations," p. 91.)
' '




Hermes," here referred to (afterward

called Mer-

cury by the Romans), was a son of Zeus and ifam, a daughter
of Atlas.


the same

Bourbouro- identifies with the

Maia whom the Abbe Brasseur de Mava of Central America.



William Drummond,

in his " Origines," said:

" There seems to be no
early use of letters


of accounting either for the

different nations, or for the resemblance which existed between some of the graphic systems employed by those nations, than by supposing hieroglyphical writing, if I may be allowed the term, to have been in use among the Tsabaists in the first ages after the Flood, when Tsabaism (planet-worship) was the religion of almost every country that was yet inhabited."




Henry Rawlinson says

the analogy between the first principles of the it appears to have been pursued in Chaldea, and as we can actually trace its progress in Egypt, that we can hardly hesitate to assign the original invention to a period before the Hamitic race had broken up and dividedy
science of writing, as
It is

" So great

not to be believed that such an extraordinary system

of sound-signs could have been the invention of any one


or even of any one age.



our other acquisitions,

must have been the slow growth and accretion of ages; it must have risen step by step from picture-writing through an intermediate condition like that of the Chinese, where each word or thing was represented by a separate sign. The fact that so old and enlightened a people as the Chinese have never reached a phonetic alphabet, gives us some indication of the greatness of the people among whom it was invented, and the lapse
of time before they attained to



" According to the views which, since Champollion's great discovery, have been gradually adopted regarding the earlier

condition of the development of alphabetical writing, the Phoenician as well as the Semitic characters are to be regarded as a phonetic alphabet that has originated from pictorial writing; as one in which the ideal signification of the symbols is wholly disregarded, and the characters are regarded as mere signs for sounds." ("Cosmos," vol. ii., p. 129.)



Baldwin says ("Prehistoric Nations,"


nation that became mistress of the seas, established communication with every shore, and monopolized the commerce of the known world, must have substituted a phonetic alphabet for the hieroglyphics as it gradually grew to this eminence; while isolated Egypt, less affected by the practical wants and tendencies of commercial enterprise, retained the hieroglyphic system, and carried it to a marvellous height of


must be remembered that some of the
later nations.

letters of



phabet are inventions of the
phabets there was no
converted the g into

In the oldest


g taking

its place.

The Romans


and then, finding the necessity for a
a tail-piece to the c G).



made one by adding


Greeks added to the ancient alphabet the upsilon, shaped


or Y, the two forms being used at



they added the




they converted the

of the Phoeni-

cians into th, or theta;


s into

signs for double consoi

nants; they turned the Phoenician y {yod) into
consonantal, into



Greeks converted the Phoenician alphabet, which was partly
one purely phonetic

— "a




for the expression

of spoken language."

added to the Phoenician alphabet.

The w was The Romans added
also, in

the y.


first i

and^ were both

indicated by the same sound;

a sign for^ was afterward added.

AVe have


with other European languages. Added a double U, that



to represent the
letters, then,



which we owe to the Phoenicians, are A, B,
S, T, Z.

C, D, E, H,

K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R,



are to

trace out resemblances with the alphabet of

any other country,

must be with these
Is there

any other country to which we can turn which posIt

sessed a phonetic alphabet in any respect kindred to this Phoenician alphabet

cannot be the Chinese alphabet, which has


signs than words


cannot be the cuneiform alphabet

of Assyria, with

seven hundred arrow-shaped characters.

none of which bear the





the Phoenician

It is

a surprising fact that


find in Central America a jjho-

netic alphabet.


is in

the alphabet of the Mayas, the an-

cient people of the peninsula of Yucatan,


claim that their



came from the



across the sea in shij^s

direction of Atlantis.

from the east, The Mayas succeeded

to the Colhuas,

fore the time of Christ

whose era terminated one thousand years befrom them they received their alphahas come to us through Bishop Landa, one of the

early missionary bishops,



who confesses to having burnt a great Maya books because they contained nothing but the

works of the


fortunately, however, pre-

served for posterity the

alphabet of this







Diego de Landa was first bishop of Yuca-



wrote a history

Mayas and their country, which was preof the

served in

manuscript at

Madrid in the library of the Royal Academy of
History. ... description tion of the phabet of
It contains a

and explana-

phonetic althe Mayas. Landa's manuscript seems to have lain neglected in the library, for little or nothing was heard of it until it was discovered by the French priest Brasseur de Bourbourg, who, by means of it, has deci-

^^^,,^.^ alphabet.




some of the old American writings. He says, the alphabet and signs explained by Landa have been to me a (Baldwin's "Ancient America," p. 191.) Rosetta stone.'"

When we

observe, in the table of alphabets of different EuI give herewith,

ropean nations which


greatly the forms of

the Phoenician letters have been modified,
to find

would surprise us

any resemblance between the Maya alphabet of two or three centuries since and the ancient European forms. It must,
however, be remembered that the Mayas are one of the most
conservative peoples in the world.



adhere with

striking pertinacity to the language they spoke

when Colum-

bus landed on San Salvador; and

it is

believed that that lan-



the same as the one inscribed on the most ancient
Seiior Pimental says of them,

monuments of their country. " The Indians have preserved
that they will speak no other
to address

idiom with such tenacity


necessary for the whites


in their

own language

communicate with


It is therefore probable, as their

alphabet did not pass

from nation to nation, as did the Phcenician, that it has not departed so widely from the original forms received from the


But when we consider the and the fact that we

vast extent of time

which has

are probably w^ithout the inter-

mediate stages of the alphabet w^hich preceded the archaic

be astonishing



find resemblances be-

tween any of the Maya

and the European forms, even

though we concede that they are related. If we find decided affinities between two or three letters, we may reasonably pre-


that similar coincidences existed as to


others which

have disappeared under the

attrition of centuries.



thought that occurs to us on examining the Landa
the complex and ornate character of the


Instead of the two or three strokes with which
sign for a sound,


indicate a

we have here rude

pictures of objects.



find that these are themselves simplifications of older

*.f f A >s u •^1? ^ 4f ? t ^n p t^ "f A ^ > n ^ Q P s w A n w ^ 7 ^ ux P Qr w i ^ I . T f? ^7 X a jp\ rt Z \ s B n7< 3: r i 15 r e \) Z ^ H t^ 1 B 6^ Q -f-x ^ A 0' T I X. ") 7^ A ^ ^ X > y« ^ U) TV A ^ M > A^ ^ > ? 9 Vi ^S ? s f) inH ®o §" f f O p Q Jt ^ (D /H (3 a o . O o / 5f oo V 7 >r X g 6 O . <!> ^^ 4Q -^ A ^^ 1 it A ^ F ^^ ^ 1 I 2: f(/'( ^ C £ r z CM. . e m s 9 ®X i-^ 6 X "© 1x } ^^ :^ V ) /TV =!:>' ^^ m 3^ y '^ ^ i i^i J €) /b JU Vl^ 'o r H t^ $ K X 31 2^ .The Alpha iVe? 5 -^ . 1 t t |l A :b 111? 1 '3 1 1 i cS 1 u n 1 ^ 1 A ^ >^ s ii Cil ^ •* ^A A A A f A f) ^ ^ 6 m 6 ^9 43 1 ^ 4^ -< h B a & © E w 3 A ^ A a y .ssx 6 // ^ k-^ L/ -M ^ f? ».V r ^ w y ^ M.


six contain human faces. of a ter still 221 let- more complex character. men whom time was valuable. we would then have the . The same is appear. were probably tions. for instance. would naturally expect. j : Take. The form The variation is given as H. if we turn to the ancient hiero- glyphics upon the monuments of Central America. and afterward the Phoenicians. and when lost. as given in Landa's alphabet the original form more ra'. we will find the human face appearing in a great many of them. rude lines. in the Landa alphabet a tendency to simplification. out of seven hieroglyphical figures. And we let find that in the whole inscription of the Tab- of the Cross there are 33 figures out of 108 that are made up can in part of the human countenance. be seen that. elaborate than the variation of it. is The same tendency is is plainly two forms of original the letter h. where the figure of the pp and x of the Maya human face remains only in shown in the . Now. the natural . We take the hieroglyphs from the left-hand side of the inscription. but not so plainly. We see. which we copy from the Tablet Here it will Palenque. commercial people. first And this is what we When the emblems — which intended for religious inscrip- where they could be slowly and carefully elab- orated — were placed with in the hands of a busy. let us imagine that the same tenden- cy does away with them altogether. active. for X. they would natu- as we find in the letters alphabet. in the sign which ^^. therefore. the pp in Landa's alphabet. Now let : us suppose seen this simplification to be carried a step farther first we have the upper and lower parts of the form shrink into a smaller and less elaborate shape . as in of the Cross at the following. l« here are evidently the traces of a face.THE ORIGIN OF OUR ALPHABET. such as were the Atlanteans. tendency would be to simplify and condense them the original meaning of the picture was rally slur it.

as in the Maya h. The Egyptian hieroglyph for h is "E^ while cA is In time the Greeks carried the work of simplification still farther. H of the Maya alphabet represented by this figure. where does that come from? this It from the heart of the original figure wherein does this prove ? appears. and we find it Now it is known that the Phoenicians wrote from right to left. and eliminated the top lines. But we find also an m com• bined with the letter o. the Maya sign becomes in the archaic Phojnician this. when they sought to simplify their That the Atlanteans. the figure clearly taken by the central part of -TL. Now let We have seen in the table of alphabets that every lan- guage. they are . as we have supposed the Atlanteans one. ^*0v* In some of the Phoenician alphabets we even find the letter h made with the double strokes above and below. from our own day to the time of the Pha3nicians. as it takes less time to in make a single stroke than a double turn now to the arwe find the letter h indicated by this sign. it certainly remarkable. Q now. precisely the Maya letter h simplified. What others. says Landa. or e. all Now is it may be said that this is coincidence. and just as we in writing from left to right slope our letters to the right.222 letter ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. Q. in the Maya alphabet. H. If it is. o. Mayas. and* they left the letter as it has come down to us. and Q . § • to have eliminated the double strokes. this would become time Q. Hence so did the Pha?nicians slope their letters to the left.. in this form. We chaic Greek and the old Hebrew. The first is ^). o—'"^-o m here is certainly indicated combination. or letters and combine rep- them with took from the centre of the ornate hierocharacteristic glyphical figure some mark with which they us apply this rule in resented the whole figure. o has been represented by a circle or a circle within it? a circle. Now where did the Phoenicians get There are two figures for o Clearly from the Mayas. But let us go a step farther We The is it have seen in Landa's alphabet that there are two forms of the letter m. We turn to the archaic Hebrew.

latter. We find the precise circle. o-JT—o. which is. ^. as in the Maya. until ^ . the later Greeks made A/. and by exactly the same forms in the Egyptian hieroglyphics in the Runic we have the circle in the circle in one form of the Greek o the dot was placed along-side of the circle instead of below it. in characteristic found in each the the case pen- dant from the hieroglyph lower part of the it. then it passed ^ : the archaic Greek form it is "^ . Hebrew became ^ . We find in the archaic Ethiopian. the Moab gives still ^ the later Phoenicians simplified the it archaic form into further. . within a repeated in the Phoenician forms for thus. itself probably a simplification of some more ornate form. it . Phoenician it comes still closer to the S shape. This is something like our letter S. the essential circle. we have but closely to the to curve these angles to approximate very Maya n . N. or a dot o. Qi and 223 seen to Q . and used alone. proved by the very sign used at the foot of Landa's alphabet. as in the case of the m. but quite unlike our But let us examine into the pedigree of our n. Maya o a circle in a circle. ^ . me.THE ORIGIN OF OUR ALPHABET. and which represents the Cushite branch of the Atlantean stock. a language as old as the Egyptian. and . the rule which we have first m to these figures. @. Landa in it calls this ma. in the centre of the And that this circle was withdrawn from is hieroglyph. in the other. N. thus. or circle mo . the sign for n (no) is ^ this . All these forms seem to be representations of a serpent we turn to the . now. Are these another set of coincidences ? Take another letter The letter n of the Maya alphabet is represented by this sign. in archaic . if exist in the case of the we apply Maya is . ij The stone Samaritan makes inscription J3 the old . it it Troy form was found. from which passed into the present form. ^ or in this form. in . it is prob- ably the and we have the detached from the hieroglyph.

y. becomes and in the later Greek. details they would abbreviate ^ . t: it Turn now to the Maya sign for distinctive is g^. while in the Phoenician . thus. k 6^. turn to the letter k. its with its tail doubled around like the middle. the Himyaritic Arabian t>(. an erect serpent with in the hair of their an enlarged body deities. It has already been remarked by Savolini that this erect serpent is very much Egyptian Urceus. valley of the Nile. The Maya letter sign for . 2 • Can anything be more languages ? significant than to find the serpent all the sign for n in Central America. and that the Egyptian hieroglyphic for we find k was a serpent with a convoMaya. let us see what is the distinguishing feature here . >! ^^ that the they changed the writing from left to right. the Etruscan. serpent. [^ • two lines projecting from the upright stroke of our English K are a reminiscence of the convolution of the serpent in the Maya original and the Egyptian copy.'224 ATLAATLS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WOULD. vp^^ the Pelasgian n was 2 . AVhat is the mark about this figure? It is the cross is composed this of two curved lines. and we have ^. Now it suppose a busy people trying to give all its this sign instead of drawing the serpent in into something like this. ''SLjv ' ^^^^^ ^^^^ transformed into the Egyptian ^ . It probable that in . it is clearly the figure of a serpent standing erect. This does not look much like our in the case of the letter K but let iis examine Following the precedent established for us by the Mayas m. the serpent and the protuberance reappear in one of the Phoenician forms of ky to wit. precisely as in the thus. letter lution or protuberance in the middle. 5 5 while in the Punic we have these forms. for n was the ^ . forming a circle. the Ar- cadian. now we it turn or to the ancient Ethiopian sign for k [ka). — a sacred emblem found We turn again to the valley of the Nile. ^ and : ^. in the archaic Greek. when ^ . and we find that the Eg-yptian hieroglyphic . and in these Old World is Now it.

j. or the ancient Greek was the foot reversed. the oldest Greek form to the ® . the third is If plainly a foot or boot. And when we turn to the Egyptian q we find it in this shape. and in the Syr- ^. Turn next what is to the Maya sign for q {Jcu) ? it is K^. like a figure Here again we turn iac ^ to the valley of the Nile.. Now is the peculiarity of this hieroglyph The circle below not significant. The 5^ . it would become X. and generally in a hurry. have been ^'^. if one was called upon to simplify this. and would indicate the lower circle with a line or dash. would he not represent this could it thus. the in time "J" Moab stone as X . thus. 2 . the later Greek became our A. thus the t repeats the Maya form almost exactly as X and Y\. t the Egyptian hieroglyph for it is is ^ and we find that and 0^. he would retain the two small circles joined side by side at the top. and can we not conceive that a. and the Greeks gave . The first looks very much like the foot of a lion or tiger. But before it reached even that simplified form it had crossed the Atlantic. A : . the third fj. and the cross would soon be made without curving the lines. which was ^)>v. Maya sign the cross is 225 8. many circular figures in the Maya Clearly. and appeared in the archaic Ethiopian sign for the sign for tsa. Now suppose a busy people compelled to make this mark every day for a thousand years. 10* . which give Punic something of the appearance of the numeral 8. for there are alphabet. became and X* is Take the letter a. in time modified into the Phoenician which was The hieratic Egyptian a was <f . or X . fied this into the old this Romans T. united at the bottom.THE ORIGIN OF OUR ALPHABET. the ancient Hebrew. it We even find the curved lines of the Maya ?. Ms later (+) and ^ ^. and modiHebrew gave it as X and +. one were required to give hurriedly a rude outline of either of these. it In the archaic Phoenician is . repeated accurately in the Mediterranean alphabets. . In the first is Maya there are three forms given for this letter.

There is. This precisely the form found by Dr. as found on the Moab stone? nicians gave it It is yt. the Moab stone was q) . precisely like our r laid its back. ^J. the Romans changed ^. and discard we have this left. would appear that the r. '^. Phoenician to alphabet did not contain the letter the Phoenician alphabet. we apply the Maya rule to this. /^. yOQ^ vve turn to tlie Ethiopian q {kkua). The Can all this be accident? (for the is letter c or ^ two probably gave the same sound as in the Phoenician) given in the Maya alphabet as follows. senting This would in time be simplified into a figure repretlie two is sides of a triangle with the apex upward. the Himya- Arabian form became Cp the the Greek form was Cp. apparently. the Maya cu. and another for pp. Greek form the the later Greeks this into limb of the figure was shortened. sign for p. Now. posed Maya form ritic in Cp. in the earlier '. . Egyptian figure for p was left ^ . "A it. which graduated into Roman Q. and the figure would assume the cross 07i this form. would be made X| . In time the curved straight. reversed and wrote it f. But we now turn we will find one of the curious forms . thus. In the Maya we have one The on first contains a curious figure. and we find Phoenician conies still it •^ or as qua. thus. But a still more striking- proof of the descent of the Phoenician alphabet from the Maya is found in the other form of the q. ^. The Carthaginian PhoeThe hieratic more of a rounded form. Schliemann is the ruins of Troy. if the outside line circle. A. thus. in A. and it finally became C. thus. which is (>g). wliile the nearer the sup. /^ .226 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. and the Roman it r grew out of the later Phoenician r earliest if formed thus. A- What the Phoenician form for g. the next step would be to make the is straight line. no r in the Maya al- phabet. One of the ancient Phoenician forms ^. ^^.

If we this are asked. thus. or an acute angle formed by joining the two 1/ . the archaic Hebrew was ^ and A* . if we again apply the good with the letter of these rule is which we observed to hold m — that is. Greek into B. in the is k^^^ the other Maya is in two forms. should contain this singu- the p. was A^. LjlJ. of the 227 p given thus. or i- . One Etruscan signs for h was "^ while the Pelasgian h was repre- . draw from the inside of the hieroglyph some symbol that will briefly indicate the whole letter — we lines will have one of two forms. and to the left. also in the Phoenician C^ . [j . Now. a very fair representation of an r lyingIs it not upon its face. the hieratic Egyptian L. which are unconnected. and in the later . another remarkable coincidence that Phoenician. t]. reversed in the direction of the writing. on the Moab stone thus I and either of these forms brings us quite close to the I letter of the Old World. (^. 6 • The archaic Phoenician form of was y. thus. we find that h is represented by the same crescentlike figure which w^e find in the middle of this hieroglyph. in time the lines. We find / formed. thus. Now. and this we find is is very much like the Phoenician p. to reduce to its elements. archaic Hebrew^ while in the the we have the same crescent figure as in same direction. the Greek form was /\ —the Roman The Maya letter h is shaped thus. we would use a figure like this. p The The Greek ph letter I $. but ) . in both lar sign ? Maya and The form of pp in the Maya alphabet is this. _Cj a similar form is Maya.^. one X^. if we turn to the Phoenician. turned found in the .THE ORIGIN OF OUR ALPHABET. either a right-angled figure formed thus. and this in the earliest Greek of the changed into ^. but accompanied by a line drawn downward. tendency would be to shorten one of these perpendicular thus. on the principle already indicated.. H.

the Egyptian line w^as letter h fl) : gradually in these the left-hand dropped. TFT ter e. and in the Ethiopic Dm We find one form of the Phoenician where the m is made thus. J-\ and i this passed into the Phoeni- cian form. this developed simpler form. let- find the old Greek form. 9^ when the £J. : the old direction Hebrew.228 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. : we even thus. Schliemann found a form 1'i^'oy> like this is on inscriptions deep in the ruins of f^- This exactly the form found on the American in time monuments. and IHHHyHI. and 'jy- the old Greek a^. The Maya into a still i is ^^ i . t^. for m. of the writing was changed this became Dr. and ^=3. sented thus. . . this in time became the old Hebrew <\^ or We developed into the Greek J. Mayas themselves into this figure. ^ . ^-inlines horizontal . and ^. C m in the Maya is n . ^'. this became time <i> . ^^ . have seen the complicated symbol for m reduced by the this : and this rapidly. w^. D. in the Chaldaic m. . then ttt (we form on the Maya monuments) the dots in time were indicated by strokes. the Illyrian b was ^ in The Maya see this ^^ . this became . /1~\. and this is not unlike the m on the stone of Moab. /T7. _n. <^ ^ . and w^e come to the figure used on the stone of Moab. the Syriac sign for b was r^ . The Samaritan was formed all thus.if w^e attempt to write we find it very difficult to always keep the base naturally we form something like this. 3 and the later Phcenician. or the ancient Hebrew ^^^. or the ancient Phoenician forms. e is the Chaldaic b was 3. '^^. and we reach the hieratic Egyptian form. . : the distinctive figure within the sign for or We see this repeated in the Egyptian hieroglyphics E. find in some of the ancient Phoenician inscrip- tions the original 2 . lO and in the Punic it appears thus. Maya t^ien we circles preserved in making the "^ .

old Hebrew. contains no sign for the letter s there The Maya alphabet it is however. to kindred European this . Phoenician. represented by this figure *^^^ simplified again into (^ the sign for k in the Phoenician inscription on the stone of Moab Maya in the is j/ . civil. @ . thus? tttt- this would appear to be a If simplification of ca. Greek becomes M W . A somewhat simdownk while found in the body of the symbol for k. (x) . The yi^x^oi . or the Moab ^. later Phoenician. o letter t : . and not evidently represents a different sound. its elements. Or take the Maya. the Chaldaic. : the later Greek form was S. For instance. letter o : . old Phoenician. the Ethiopic. thing like ^/\ or ^^ and this is very much stone. maritan. circle. ilar sign is The sign ca is this. o. In some cases the pedigree so plain as to be indisputable. k. now we turn to the Egyptian letters . reduced to this. or the Hebrew. probable that the sign ca stands for the soft sound of as in our in the words citron.THE ORIOIN OF OUR ALPHABET. 229 the Maya alphabet is a hand pointing downward. etc. . find the resemblance letters. and the Illyrian s c is xii We is have thus traced back the forms of eighteen of the an- cient letters to the Maya alphabet. -tec tian letter s The Egyptian hieroglyph \2> for s is Y?f?t the EgypUJ . would be expressed some. sign ca. . . : H . or the ^. indicated by the still more striking The Phoenician s is l_l/ u/ uu the Sa^. o old Greek. erg . o . old Hebrew. or the old Greek. old Greek. the Hebrew is w/ . ^ is. take the h Maya. ^. Phoenician. . . (+) and x . Or take the Maya. uj . ^. this. ^. like the x of the archaic Phoenician. it As it is written Maya alphabet ca. we find the sign . old Greek. but turned ward. a symbol called ca immediately above the letter k c. If fc. ^ . ^. circus. now we we turn to the s sound.

which they d and r. the letter ments. cp and letter ^ . Pelasgian. Or take the Egyptian. Phoenician. old Phoenician. . we find in the same way but one sign to express the d and t. called t in the Landa alphabet. Greek. therefore. Arcadian. and it is a singu- poverty of invention seems to have been such that they used to express both very the little modification. Q. ^^ ^ 'b 9 ^9 d r Old Greek . which are lacking . Ethiopian. appear that after the Maya alphabet passed to the Phoenicians they letters added two new signs for the lar fact that their d and r. . and ancient Hebrew. with had already obtained from b. Or take the Maya. . t being used in its place. k n : Egyptian. In the oldest known form of the Phoenician alphabet. (g) Maya. letter q : Or take the Maya. D does not occur on the Etruscan monube seen that the r. The Finns and Lapps do not distinguish between these two sounds. Old Ilebrew It -^3 V ^ S in the Phoeniin the thus appears that the very signs cian. A A^ d and r. The sounds d and t were probably indicated in the Maya tongue by the same sign.^. 2 . J. the same sign. Surely all this cannot be accident But we It will find another singular proof of the truth of this theory: Maya alphabet lacks the letter d and The Mexican alphabet possessed a d.230 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WOULD. It would. early Greek. tJ. letter : §j^ ^-T* . ^ . 5> Phoenician. ^ . Maya alphabet as the symbol for To illustrate this we place the signs side by side Phoenician . that found on the Moab stone.

were supplied by imitating the Maya sign for h. the Egyptian sign for " Still is B was the human is it leg. (" Ameri- can Cyclopaedia. that the more surprising H H . I quote : " It is astonishing to notice that while Landa's first B is. " In the present so-called Hebrew. or vau. an interesting article pointing out other resemblances between Maya alphabet and the Egyptian. while the Egyptian But the most striking coincidence of all occurs in the coiled or curled line representing Landa's IT. Landa's (T) is a disk with lines inside the four quarters. as in the Syriac. represented by a footprint. of Landa's alphabet is a twisted cord. D . Palrayrenic. 231 it Maya. bythe-way. the 154. of whom one was Isiris (Osiris. confined as they were to the valley of the Xile. the allowed Mexican symbol for a day or sun. . Sabaeic. which they did not receive from the Atlan- tean alphabet. the inventor clude the d and of the three letters^ Did these three letters inr. yet they tell us that Taaut and " delivered them to his successors and to foreigners. and some other kindred writings. for it is absolutely identical loith the JEgijjytian curled U. but w hy should Egyptians. 1880. The Mayan word for to wind or bend is Uuc ." F. ." art. write their precisely like Landa's alphabet in Central America? There is one other remarkable coincidence between Landa's and the Egyptian alphabets and. the English and other Teutonic dialects have a curious share in it. and is a curious fact that while the Phoenician legends claim that art of writing.) I find in Since writing the above. and abhorring as they did the sea and sailors. Maya alphabet? we herewith append we have or/. as represented to us by the In the alphabetical table which represented the sign V. the Egyptian god). according to Yalentini. the " Proceedings of the p. American Philosophical Society" for December. F occurs in the same place also on the Idalian tablet of Cyprus. Taaut invented the made records. and that path and footprint are pronounced Be in the Maya dictionary. by the Maya sign for U. and some other writings. a tie of cord.THE ORIGIN OF OVR ALPHABET. and indicates the sounds of v and u. U U . the vau takes the place of F. also in Tuarik (Berber). in Lycian.

" far as far as the is So It drew is would appear as if both the Phoenicians and Egyptians their alphabet from a common source. —and that now —combinations to of their signs shall not in any- wise resemble the letters in use.' ideograph for (l) country and (2) the sun's orbit is essentially the same. the k. in the letter And yet I have shown that the closest resemblances exist between the Maya alphabet and the Egyptian signs^— in the c. They fol- lowed out different characteristics glyph. but did not borrow from one another. in both alphabets. is one chance is one hundred that such might five hundred that same sound. k^ I. angles. work apart. They go lines. they bring their alphabets to- gether for comparison. and s eleven letters in all in some cases. </. It is be the case but there not one chance in this sign should in both cases represent the barely possible tliat two men working thus apart should hit upon two or three identical forms. same original hiero- for instance. the signs . — are identical ." we have ! thirteen letters out of sixteen in the lated to each other. sound form is . Let us suppose that two men agree that each that they shall employ only simple forms straight or curved lines shall construct apart from the other a phonetic alphabet of sixteen letters. the English day represents it so concerned. as. Under such circumstances might in it is ble that out of the sixteen signs one sign apjjear in both alphabets . of which the Maya a survival. as in the n and k. n. the Egyptian 'cake. but altogether impossible . t. m. circles. there . h. i. o. in the h. concerned. referred to in the " Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. they have a multitudinous array of forms to draw from —the and possi- thousand possible combinations of curves . but a serpent with a protuberance or convolution in the middle If we add to the above the h and u.232 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. is not only a serpent. Maya and Egyptian re- account for all this? Can any theory of accidental coincidences And it must be remembered that these resemblances are found between the only two phonetic systems of alphabet in the world. when they have finished.

Here we . |0 . We ratic American hieroglyphs peculiar signs which take the place of pictures. that these forms should have the stretch of the imagination can it 233 . . in Bishop Landa gives addition to the alphabet. without correspondence. and that further discoveries of inscriptions in of the New and Old World find in the Europe may approximate the alphabets still more closely by supplying in- termediate forms. (f . also sign. and entering into many of the hieroglyphs. .(W)**. Although alphabet. which we think is the simplification of the letter e. like the hie- symbols mingled with the hieroglyphics of Egypt. the form of the Phoenician find also t c^ | . thirteen out of sixteen signs should be the It is same in form and the same meaning. we used in writing. if not impossithe ble. . also this sign. to translate compound words formed from far Maya enough to see that they used the system of simpler sounds for the whole hieroglyph to which we can go we have referred. ^ . ^ also find the tau sign (thus Ij) often repeated also the sign this 1c\ which we have supposed to represent 6. and which are evidently compounds of the Maya letters. and which probably. us. we | find this sign on the walls of the palace of Palenque. For instance. the signs which represent the days and months. and CO. also this figure. For instance. we have this figure as the representative of the month Mol. which we suppose to represent this. this is not unlike and we upon these monuments the letter o represented by a small circle. same significance and by no be supposed that in these alphain bets so created. There is an evident tendency to reduce the complex figures to simple signs whenever the writers pro- ceed to form words. probable that a full study of the Central American mon- the uments may throw stronger light upon the connection between Maya and the European alphabets.THE ORIGIN OF OUR ALPHABET. repre- sent alphabetical sounds. yet it has so far been found the diflScult. ^ mi .

Abagh Chiraax Abba. the living representative of the Phoenician tongue. Tischiri. Son of Seth Chabin Enot Chabic. Ilehiew. Bath. Son Daughter Father Star in Zodiac Been Batz Ben. Chimah. Chiapenec. And even after the lapse of so many thousand years most remarkable resemblances have been found to exist between the Chiapenec language and the Hebrew. and the Hebrew. following of words taken from the Chiapenec and the Hebrew English. 475) gives the. I and which in the derived from the figure in the sec- ond sign for Maya alphabet. is One of the most ancient races of Central America the Chiapenec. Chanan. settlers of the country. the sign © for o. Maloe. The Mexican scholar. Elab. a branch of the Mayas. their legends tell us. a branch of the Phoenician." p. Attempts have been repeatedly made by European scholars to trace the letters of the Phoenician alphabet back to the elaborate hieroglyphics from which all authorities agree they must . from the East. from beyond the sea. while we find such extraordinary resemblances between the Maya alphabet and the Phoenician alphabet. Enos. King Molo applied to Name God Adam Afflicted Abagh Chanam Elab Tsiquin Abah. They claim to be the first They came. tlie letter see very plainly n is for m. we find equally surprising coincidences between the Chiapenec tongue.234 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. Senor Melgar ("North Americans of list Antiquity. September More Rich Chic Chi. To give Votan Votan. Thus. and we will possibly find the sign for I in the right angle to the right of the m sign. a branch of the Mayas.

and." and " the writings of Pridian or Hu. but we are able to go a step farther. been developed. The Druids believed in books more ancient than the Flood. art of writing There was a general belief among the ancient nations that the was known to the antediluvians. they represent the language of antediluvian times.. but we scent in the very mode in which reason thiit tells us it must have visited origin. but such attempts have been But here. 151. In the light of such a discovery the upon the monuments of Central America assume importance the oldest . but must be remembered that if the Flood legends of Europe and Asia are worth anything they prove that the art of writing existed at the date of the Deluge. the very matrix in which the Phoenician alphabet was formed.THE' ORIOm OF OUR ALPHABET. or to that prehistoric age when intercourse existed between ancient Euit rope and America. inscriptions incalculable they take us back to a civilization far anterior to in known Europe it is . but that come from Phoenicians having accidentally we have before us the the source. all 235 failures. while Plato tells us that the people of Atlantis engraved their laws upon columns of bronze and plates of gold." vol. in the Maya alphabet.) . They styled them " the books of Pheryllt." " Ceridwen consults them before she prepares the mysterious caldron which shadows out the awful catastrophe of the Deluge. 150. and that records of antediluvian learning were preserved by those who escaped the Flood . have been developed. by means of the inscriptions upon the monuments of Copan and Palenque." (Faber's " Pagan Idolatry. deduce the alphabetical hieroglyph . ii. tion did not All this proves the similarities in ques- the shores of America. itself from an older and relationship trace its de- more ornate figure we thus not only discover the of the European alphabet to the American. pp. we are not only able to extract from the heart of the hieroglyphic the typical sign for the sound. It may be said that improbable that the use of an al- phabet could have ascended to antediluvian times.

possessed. says.) men. many details as would have been impossible to preserve to dates. It has been suggested that with- out the use of letters the ark. it p. Suidas. prior to history. p. lib. " cap. the people of Ad. the (Smith's " Sacred Annals." . " Our rabbins assert that Adam. and " wrote annals before the Flood.) That is to Hebrews preserved a tradition that the Ad-ami. Bero- speaking of the time before the Deluge. vol." p. 1.'''' recovered the holy books /rowi the bottom of the sus. at the time with great accuracy. in use.236 In the ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. 3. or Adlantis.) (Fosbroke's " Encyclopaedia Pliny says.) Mitford (" History of Greece. 85. first Avatar of Vishnu we after the Deluge.. 49." says. expresses tradition when he Adam was the author of tians said that their arts and letters.. while yet dwelling in Paradise." vol. which were delivered to him by God in Paradise." i." The Chinese have traditions that the earliest race of their nation. are told that " the divine ordi- nances were stolen by the demon Haya-Griva. iii." p. our father of blessed memory. "taught " The Goths always had all the arts of life and wrote books. the art of writing. 121) says." i. says: "Oannes civil wrote concerning the generations of mankind and their polity. " The births and deaths of sec. quoting Jewish illustrious traditions. he ocean. were noted down (Ant. and Vishnu became when the waters had subsided." and Le Grand afiirms that before or soon after the Flood " there were found the acts of great men en- graved in letters on large stones. a Greek lexi- cographer of the eleventh century. Josephus. 355." the use of letters. ages." The Egypgod Anubis was an antediluvian." The Hebrew commentators on Genesis say.. as of the it handed down to us in Genesis. a fish . of Antiquity." vol. " Letters were always Strabo says. "Nothing appears to us so probable as that (the alphabet) was derived from the antediluvian world.. composed a book of precepts. iii." say. be- tween Adam and Noah.. and measurements. " The ords uiritten before the DelugeP inhabitants of Spain possessed rec(Jackson's " Chronicles of Antiquity.

before the ancient metallurgists had . have been preceded were used separately. and one part of tin. 237 Chapter VIII. subdivided into two periods an age of rough stone implements and a later age. Articles of bronze are found over nearly all that continent. ical This age continued down to what we the Histor- Period. which dates back to a vast antiquity. and embraces our present civilization cient remains are more anmixed with coins of the Gauls. The Bronze Period has been one of the perplexing problems of European scientists. when the great mass of implements were is manufactured of a compound metal. 2. ments. although bronze remained in use for ornacall . but in especial abundance in Ireland and They indicate very considerable refinement and Scandinavia. of There exist in Europe the evidences of three different ages human development It 1. Greeks. and civilization upon the part of the people who made them .TEE BRONZE AQE IN EUROPE. a wide diversity of opinion has prevailed as to who that people were and where they dwelt. when these implements were ground smooth and made in improved forms. it was observed that the age of bronze by an age when copper and (a compound of copper and tin) must. The Bronze Age. The Stone Age. : . and its Romans. An age when iron superseded bronze for weapons and still cutting tools. In the first place. in the natural order of tin dis- things. consisting of about nine parts of copper 3. THE BRONZE AGE IN EUROPE.

although a knowledge of that metal nmst have been the preliminary stage He thinks that this may be in the manufacture of bronze. true. and yet in Europe the mains of no such age have been found. only thirty celts museum and one sword-blade are said to be made of pure copper." p. Sir W. we . Superior. origin of the manufacture of copper implements and on the first shores of that lake we find pure copper. re- covered the art of combining them. " It is remarkable that so few antique (in copper implements have been found Europe). says ("Prehistoric Times. 59). derived supplies of copper. in Mexi- but it held the same relation to the copper as the copper held to the bronze in Europe — it was the exception as against the rule. And among the Chippeways of the shores of Lake alone. out of which the metal tools were probably hammered before shores of this same American lake man had learned to reduce the ore or run the~ metal into moulds. Wilde says. R. and even as to some of these there seems to be a question. in the great at Dublin. Where on ized tribes the face of the earth are we to find a Copper Age ? Is it in the barbaric depths of that Asia out of whose uncivilsaid to have issued ? all civilization is By no means. from Bolivia to Lake Superior. thousands of years ago. Again we are compelled to turn to the AVest. Sir John Lubbock of implements "The absence made either of copper or tin seems to me to indicate that the art of making bronze was introduced into.238 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. not invented in. Exiropey The absence of articles of copper is especially marked nearly all the European specimens of copper implements have been found in Ireland. In America. Age bronze existed. And on the their we find the ancient mines from which some people. and among them we find any traditions of the . and yet out of twelve hundred and eighty-three articles of the Bronze Age. find everywhere the traces of a it is long-enduring Copper co." accounted for by supposing that "but a short time elapsed between the knowledge of smelting and casting copper ore .

. IMl'LEMENTS AND ORNAMEXTS OF TUE BRONZE AQE. Ireland.Bronze Hammer. Ancient Adze.


place. 241 and the subsequent manufacture in America the evidence that thousands must have elapsed during which copper was used alone. Sir John Lubbock shows ("Prehistoric Times. 242 will show the chardantly represented." weapons." But here we have of years tin. animals and plants were abunThe cuts on p. coins or pottery. In the Bronze Age First. and the introduction of and use of bronze. de Fallenberg. Sir John Lubbock why the Phoenicians could not have been the authors of the Bronze mentation is different. while on the ornamented shields. 11 in the " Bulletin . the Phoenicians.. p. the form of burial is different in the Bronze Age from "In the third place. due to the Phoenicians.. and the tools used in preparing the materials for Sol- omon's Temple were of This view is also held by M. It Roman bronze contained a large proportion of which is never the case in that of the Bronze Age." In the next acter of the ornamentation of the Bronze Age. as well as in the decoration of Solomon's Temple. etc. find upon them representations of animals and plants.THE BRONZE AGE IN EUROPE. The Bronze Age cannot be attributed to the Roman civilization. and we rarely. has been customary to assume that the Bronze late Age was {Ibid. or other remains of the Roman Peri- that bronze articles have been found in the greatest abunlike Ireland dance in countries invaded by and Denmark. if ever. 21) that bronze weapons have never been found associated with Roman od ." p. and produced a superior metal. and that the lead. and that the character of the ornais mentation of the works of bronze Roman in character. but of 73) gives the following reasons the highest authorities have taken issue with this opinion. in we know them. described by Homer. which were never not Roman armies. the ornaAge "this always con: sists of geometrical figures. that of the Phoenicians. so far as iron . before it was discovered that by adding one-tenth part of tin it gave a harder edge. were well acquainted with the use of Homer we find the warriors already armed with iron this metal.

nicians " It seems surprising that the nearest neighbors of the Phoethe Greeks. Bronze Hiacelut.242 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. the Etruscans. Switzerland. de la Societe dcs Sciences " of Berne.. while — — . the Egyptians. 383. (See " Smithsonian Rep.) He says. OUNAMENTS OP THE DEONZE AGE. p. and the Romans should have manufactured plumhiferoiis brooizes." 1865-66.

and whose physiognomy. . If such a commerce really existed before the time of the Phoenicians. on the contrary. it their strength . at least. since it contains lead. and it can why they should have excluded it from their commerce on the Scandinavian coasts. and it has already been seen that the composition of their bronzes is different. moreover. Phoenicians certainly knew the use of iron. I consider that the first knowledge of bronze may have been conveyed to the populations of the period under review not only by the Phoenicians. according to Morton. may remark. Now "The scarcely be conceived . positively mentions prisoners.civilized tribes. under the name of Tokhari. have replaced the more costly tin by the cheaper metal. who were vanquished in a naval battle fought by Rhamses III. Desor. they must. and. beyond both the Etruscans and Phoenicians in attempting to identify the commerce of the Bronze Age of our palafittes. We We there is room to suppose that if these Tokhari were energetic enough to measure on the sea with one of the powerful kings of Egypt. with stronger reason. have been in a condition to carry on a commerce along the coasts of the Mediterranean.THE BRONZE AOE IN EUROPE. . but by other civilized people dwelling more to the south-east." says. then. . it would not be limited to the southern slope of the Alps. and perhaps of the Atlantic. Professor E. that there is nothing to prove that the Phoenicians were the first navigators. . with distant and half. ." . it can scarcely be doubted that the calculating Phoenicians would have done as much. On the whole. It will be the province of the historian to inquire whether. The Etruscans. . History. then. in passing. in his work on the " Lacustrian Constructions of the Lake of Xeuchatel. there may not have been some maritime and commercial people who carried on a traffic through the ports of Liguria with the populations of the age of bronze of the lakes of Italy before the discovery of iron. exclusive of Phoenicians and Carthaginians. were acquainted with the use of iron as well as the Phoenicians. which is entirely a stranger to our bronze epoch. 243 the Phoenicians carried to the people of the Nortli only pure If the civilized people of bronzes without the alloy of lead. in the thirteenth century before our era. would indicate the Celtic type. must look. . the Mediterranean added lead to their bronzes.

" For tlie merchants of the Bronze Age we must look beyond even the Tokliari. The accompanying figure represents one of these people as they upon the Egyptian (See Nott and Gliddon's "Types of Mankind. extended also to the people of the age of bronze The introduction of bronze would thus as- ^vollld liave in Switzerland. are represented as taken prisoners in a sea-fight with Rhamses III. Morton thinks these people. to have " strong Celtic features.) Here we have. but probably a representative of one of the that sprung OEhTIO WARRIOR. for in 700 b. syrian to the nations of the East for many we find them depicted on the Asbe observed that the headal- monuments. The Tokhari. more reasonable to suppose that the authors of the . painted on the Egyptian monu- ments. FROM MONU-MENTS." It is at least interesting to daring race who more than three thousand years ago the west of Europe in their ships to attack the mighty power of Egypt. 108. Those familiar with the Scotch Highlanders may recoghave a portrait of one of the left nize a speaking likeness.244 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. about the thirteenth century b. doubtless beyond the limits of the most ancient European races. of the twentieth dynasty. Dr. six though separated by a period of It is hundred 'years. cend to a very hii^h antiquity. of Atlantis. dress (apparently of feathers) the same in both portraits.c. as mixed races from its colonies. we have seen.." p. not an inhabitant appear monuments. who were contemporaries of the Phoenicians.c. They are probably the Tochari of Strabo. They were troublesome centuries. This figure represents one of the Tokhari It will is of the time of Sennacherib.

that the manufacture of bronze was of foreign importation^ He then shows that. But we are met by the objection that. would have commenced by manufacturing utensils of copper . yet thus far no utensils of this metal have been found except a few in the strand of Lake Garda. and whose colonies in America represented this older form of metallurgy as it existed for many generations. or Phoenicians. as we have seen. have been on by the Romans. It would appear. In this idea we acquiesced for a moment..THE BRONZE AGE IN EUROPE. Professor Desor says " We are asked if the preparation of bronze was not an indigenous invention which had originated on the slopes of the Alps ? . It was this people we who passed through an age of copper before they reached the age of bronze. in view of the prodigious quantity of bronze manufactured at that epoch. Now. the probability is that even "the copper also was of foreign importation. FROM ABSTBinasmuch as it is a stranger to the Alps. which necessitated the employment of tin. and this could not be obtained except by commerce. more natural to admit that the art of combining tin with copper in other words. Etruscans. who were highly civilized. jects The is great majority of metallic obof bronze. CELTIC WARKIOE. 245 Bronze Age of p]urope were the people described by Plato. IAN MONCMENT8. . therefore. the natives. who were workers in metal. if this were so. this single branch of commerce must itself have necessitated the — — most incessant commercial communications. who preceded call in time all the nations which ancient. Greeks. like the ancient tribes of America.'''' And carried as this commerce could not. although copper ores are found in the Alps..

14). who carried and bronze (unalloyed by the lead of the south of Europe) to Denmark. France." p. ? came the thousands of tons of copper and tin that during the Bronze Age. reaching to a depth of sixty feet. tin. as recorded by Plato. as there was a province of Anti on their slopes) may it not be that the name of Atlantis is derived from these originals. or the copper mountains in the sea these ? And from must. the Andes derived their name. Sweden. vast quantities of copper. and signified the find : we copper island. because their civilizations flourished during the Iron Age. and Italy ? Ireland. Switzerland. England. where then are we to look for a great maritime and commercial people. great intelligence was shown in following up the richest veins even when interrupted . in large part may it not be that these supplies were drawn from the shores of Lake Superior in America? tions of some ancient people were there its The mining operacarried on upon a gi- gantic scale. and commerce provoked the astonishment of the ancient Egyptians. Where can them save in that people of Atlantis. to which this age of bronze was anterior. Norway. if we are to seek for the source of the vast else amount of copper brought into Europe somewhere than in Atlantis. Or. were of foreign origin.246 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. Morlot has pointed out that the bronze implements of Hallstadt. the excavations were drained by underground drains. In one place the excavations extended in a nearly continuous line for two miles. have been introduced into Europe There are no ancient works to indicate that the (see " Prehistoric tin mines of Cornwall were worked for any length of time in the early days Times. docks. whose ships. No . sections of land on this island the On three that amount of mining exceeded mined in twenty years in one of our largest mines. Spain. The Toltec root for water is Atl . canals. At Isle Royale vast works were found. probably. in Austria. because they contain no lead or silver. the Peruvian word for copper is And (from which. with a numerous force constantly employed. not only along the shores of the lake but even far out upon islands.

actuated by an ambition which we to-day would not be ashamed to acknowledge. whose dominion extended to Italy and Egypt. those men dared to face the unknown. have been conveyed in ves- great or small. to be ' available." Such vast works in so remote a land must have been inspired by the commercial necessities of some great civilization. 387) supposes that the curious so-called "Garden Beds" of Michigan were the drew their supplies of food. therefore. — — " The discovery of bronze. Asia.THE BRONZE AGE IN EUROFE. from which they "The discoveries in Isle Royale throw a new light on the character of the Mound Builders. 132). may. the result of their mining. there is first the dis- . as a mere intellectual the knowledge of how to effort. whose dangers are formidable to us now. as Plato tells us. enormous fleets trading to all parts of the inhabited world whose cities roared with the continual tumult of traffic. and often proving their destruction. and who held parts of " the great opposite continent of America under their control ? A continuous water-way led from the island of Atlantis to the Gulf of Mexico. The copper. p. As regards bronze. Henry Gillman (" Smithfields sonian Rep. 247 remains of the dead and no mounds are found near these mines. that the miners came from a distance." 1873. Arthur Mitchell says ("The Past in the Present. tlieir homes. in. across a treacherous and stormy sea. being dreaded even by our Leaving largest craft. and make it. and why not by that ancient and mighty people who covered Europe. be regarded as rather above than below^ the effort which is involved in the discovery and use of iron. to brave the hardships and perils of the deep and of the wilderness. sels.' giving us a totally distinct conception of them. and Africa with their manufactures of bronze and who possessed. and dignifying them with something of the prowess and spirit of adventure which we associate with the higher races. He adds. it and carried their dead back with them." p. all probability. must. would seem. and thence up the Mississippi River and its tributaries almost to these very mines of Lake Superior..

Denmark. It seems highly improbable. that the human mind. That the invention should then be perfected. and the hog. covery of copper. indications are that the Bronze Age represents the com- ing in of a new people believed. and the way to get it from its ore . represent the types of the This people must have sent out colonies to the shores of France. is a thing easily understood. They were a race with long skulls. Italy. of Atlantis extended. was a small with very small hands . There is a considerable leap from stone to bronze. Ireland. by an admixture of tin with copper in proper proportions. It is infinitely more probable that bronze was discovered in one or more centres by one or more from its ore then the discovery of tin. and then the further discovery that. an alloy with the qualities of a hard metal can be produced. the ox. the sheep. The drawings on the following page two races. 311. It (Morlot.. Spain. . . It is surely no mistake to say that there goes quite as much thinking to this as to the getting of iron from its ore. p. and Norway. at some particular stage of its development." — — We The will find the knowledge of bronze wherever the colonies . first With that era. who bore . it is Europe for the time the domesticated animals —the : horse. but the leap from bronze to iron is comparatively small. this is shown in the size of the sword-hilts they are not large enough to be used by the pres- ent races of Europe.. and everywhere independently. and the way of getting..248 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. if not altogether absurd. should here. There is nothing analogous to such an occurrence in the known history of human progress.) race. appears in —a civilized people. and as the result of reaching that stage discover that an alloy of copper and tin yields a hard metal useful in the manufacture of tools and weapons. there. "Smithsonian Rep. and nowhere else and Plato tells us that the people of Atlantis possessed and used that metal. the goat. and its various applications found out." 1860. as con- tradistinguished from the round heads of the Stone Period. and tliat it should thereafter spread more or less broadly over the face of the earth. and the conversion of that iron into steel. and that its first use was solely in such centre or centres.

) til have been termed in the native sagas 'West men' loho had come over the sea from the ivestioard^ vestan um haf) ?" (Humboldt's " Cosmos. and the Scandinavians may easily have mistaken Atlantean books and bells for Irish books and massbells. as they found the island uninhabited.THE BRONZE AGE IN EUROPE. Says Humboldt.d. ^ who had come from these objects belonged to Irish the Faroe Islands. mass-bells. then. . DENMAEK {i NATUEA. as in is They proved by the bronze sickles found different parts of Europe. They do not say that there were any evidences that these relics belonged to a people who had recenthj visited the island and. HULL OF TIIK EARLIEST TIMES OF THE AGE OF IRON. elapsed since the books and bells were left there. testimony here referred to. If they came " from the West " they could not have come from Ireland. is It not even certain that their explorations did not reach to Iceland. and other objects which had been left behind by earlier visitors.. with them the arts and implements of civilized raised crops of grain. (kommer p. the "When Northmen first landed in Iceland (a. 249 A SKULL OF THE AGK OF STONE. why sliould they (Vestmen). 11* . it would be impossible for them to tell how many years or centuries had . monks (papar). UFJfMARK (^ NATURAL SIZE). al- though the country was uninhabited. 875). ii. as we may suppose from the the clerici of Dicuil.L SIZE)." vol. life. 238. they found there Irish books. called Papar these pap^e (fathers) were If.

who carried on a commerce at the same time with all these regions. Denmark. proved by the striking similarity which It is between the bronze implements of regions as widely separated as Switzerland. DANISU CELT. the from Ireland. 1EI8II CELT. these two decorated bronze celts. for instance. and Africa. first Compare. . is and did not originate independently in different countries. the second from Denmark and then com. fact that the The implements of the Bronze Age came from some common exists centre. Ireland. and the coincidence of design which we find to exist can only be accounted for by the fact that the articles of bronze were obtained from some sea-going people.250 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. not to be supposed that any overland communication existed in that early age between these countries .

Leaf-shaped Stone Sword. LEAF-SHAPEP BRONZE SWOBPS. Tennessee. Earthancient from work on Big Harpeth River.) Sweden. {^ natural size. .


The feast of Baal. the northern and western coasts of Europe. was celebrated al- on midsummer's night in Scania. as . from represented in the illustrations 254. that the Phoeit nicians were Atlantis. Sweden. We shall find. And we find that this great deity. argue from these facts. or Beltinne. whose name crops out Bel of the Babylonians. and Denmark called —and then observe the same very peculiar shape the leaf-shape. as it is — in the stone sword from Big Harpeth River. and the Allah of the Arabians. most to the Loffoden Islands. In the central figure tian-looking we have a representation of an Egyp- man holding a cup before him. whose woralso ship extended so widely among the Mediter- ranean races. The same similarity of form Denmark and Switzerland. but that the same great parent-race which carried the knowledge of Baal to the Mediterranean brought coasts of Europe. it also to the western ed also and with the adoration of Baal they importthe implements of bronze now found in such abundance exists in the bronze knives in those regions. Switzerland. We shall see. and far up into Norway. Here we have the same form in the four precisely. I was celebrated in Ireland to a late period. not that the worship of Baal came to Ireland and Norway from Assyria or Arabia. illustra- Compare the bronze swords tions preceding —from Ireland. Tennessee. lantis unquestionably identified with and that was probably from Atin the they derived their god Baal. 253 in mound Tennes- given below. or Bel. pare both these with a stone celt found in a see. as we proceed.T. and the Beelzebub of the Jews. the Elohim. was known and adored upon STONE OET. MOUND IN TENNESSEE. or El. or Balder. until within the last fifty years. as on p. Professor Nilsson finds traces of Baal worship in Scandinavia he tells us that the festival of Baal.THE BRONZE AGE IN EUROPE.

relic It is possible that in this ancient of the Bronze Age we have certainly a rep- resentation of the magnetic cup. represented above has upon its handle a wheel. The second knife SWITZERLAND. that the magnetic needle. The have magnetic needle must been an object of great interest to a people who. cup. or cross surrounded by a ring. from the MediterraBUONZE KNIVES FEOM nean to the Baltic. through able to carry on its agency. and that consisted of a bar of magnetized iron floating upon a in a piece of wood UEONZE KNIVES FROM DENMARK. ." it dates back to the days of Hercules. was pre-eminently the symbol of Atlantis.254 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. we shall see hereafter. were commerce on all the shores of Europe. we proceed. or " mariner's compass. which.

THE BRONZE AGE IN EUROPE. and we turn to them to learn something of the habits and cus- toms of "that AVe find great. which : probably gives us some idea of the houses of the Atlanteans is it evidently made to represent IIUT a house. rude fashion in which they fast- ened their doors. original. 255 If we are satisfied that tbese implements of bronze were the work of the artisans of Atlantis of the antediluvians they must acquire additional and ex- — — traordinary interest in our eyes. broad-eyed. The museum at Munich contains a very interesting piece is of pottery. . and shows us even the UBN. are a shows that UKONZE LAKE VILLAGE." the Bronze among the relics of Age an urn. sunken race. very The Mandan Indians built round houses much of this appearance. ALIl\NO. The accompanying lustration it. belongs to the Among the curious relics of the Bronze Age number from which we may conclude that the habit of shaving the whole or some part of the face or head of razor -like knives. il- represents spiit The double it ral ornament upon Bronze Age. which supposed *to represent one of the lake villages or hamlets of the era when the people of Switzerland dwelt in houses erect- ed on piles driven into the bottom of the lakes of that country.

and fig- there were probably ten rings at the left-liand side of the ure. and it not impossible that their curisails. sent them. There were. the stars in the sky are ten in number. dates back to a great antiquity. The illustrations below reprefigures These knives were found in is Denmark. The upon them represent ous appendages ships. series of lines. so the recurrence of the figure ten in the emblems upon . may : have been a primitive kind of An examination of the second of these bronze knives reveals a singular feature Upon the handle of the razor there are ten KKONZE EAZOK-KNIVE8.256 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. . we are told. ten subkingdoms in Atlantis and precisely as the thirteen stripes on the American flag symbolize the thirteen original States of the Union. two being obliterated.

in — the in- America. or Atlantis. compare the pictures of the ships upon these ancient razor-knives with the ac- FROM A EOM. taining an inscription. represents the only implement of the Bronze The cut below it Age yet found conit. to see that there can be no question that they represented the galleys of that remote age. tliis 257 bronze implement may The have reference to the ten sub- divisions of Atlantis.I. It has been impossible to decipher its or even to tell to what group of languages alphabet belongs. a strongly-made weapon. as we shall Aztlan. They are doubtless faithful portraits of the great vessels fillino- which Plato described as the harbors of Atlantis.THE BRONZE AGE IN EUROPE. companying representations of a Roman galley and a ship of William the Conqueror's time. see. large object in the middle of this ship may be tended to represent a palm-tree symbol. of We have but to ANOIENT CVl.KY. SIIII' OF WILLIAM THE CONQLEIlOli We found give on page 258 a representation of a bronze dagger in Ireland.VN COIN. .

for bronze. a colony from Atlantis. It is proper to note. armlets. IBISH BEONZE DAQGEE. that grain. that their me- chanics used hammers. etc. in connection with a discussion of the Bronze Age. and chisels . which may serve to throw light upon the habits of the ancient people. The copper mines worked of the Basques were extensively at a very early age of the world. some illustrations on pages 239 and 242 of ornaments and implements I give of the Bronze Age. . fingerrings. and cut them with their women ornamented themselves with bracelets. that our word bronze is derived from the Basque. and amulets. either by the people of Atlantis or by the Basques themselves. and the Italians hronzo. specimens of pottery. hair-pins. and that they possessed very fair Sir John Lub(" Prehistoric Times.258 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. or Iberian hroncea. as well as the metal dates back to Plato's island. bock argues 14. earrings.): " A new civilization is indicated not only by the mere presence of bronze INSOIilBEK OELT. from which the Spanish derive bronce. 16. It will be seen that they had reached a considerable degree of civilization . that they raised crops of sickles." pp. The probabilities are that the name itself. adzes.

arrows. bracelets. rings. !59 and a variety of other articles. ear-rings. and knives. the nearer we approached the site of those the nations the of greater should be number find Sir . as before.THE BRONZE AGE IN EUROPE. Etruscans." he says. or rope had been derived from the Phoenicians. . lances." is This state inexplica- of things ble unless we suppose their di- that Ireland and Den- mark rectly received bronze implements from some marnation itime whose bronze haib-pins. bronze swords that have the been found in Den- mark. during the Stone Age. 20) shows that more than three hundred and fifty the case. Ro- mans. pins. bronze re- weapons we would verse is but the John Lubbock (" Prehistoric Times. fish-hooks. sickles." If the bronze implements of EuGreeks. but by the beauty and variety of the articles made from it. " while. axes. in addition. but. " I have only been able to hear of six all bronze swords in Italy." p. and tains twelve Dublin Museum con- hundred eighty -three bronze weapons found and in Ireland . We find not only. swords.

'2Q0 site ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. whether in Ireland.. and Hungary. in Scotland. Wright ("Essays on Archrcology. other than the people of Atlantis. Italy. Etrus- ." What race was there. in distant Scandinavia. The found striking resemblance between the in the different portions of bronze implements Europe is another proof that they were derived from one and the same source from some — great mercantile people who carried on their commerce at the same time with Denmark." p. Mr. etc. was practically as near their shores as it of the Mediterranean. in Sclavonic countries. Egypt. 120) says. that existed before the Iron Age — before the Greek. acter^ hut identical. 59). are so similar that they seem as if they must have been cast by the same maker. but some of the swords. Switzerland. Spain. alike." p. knives. "Whenever we find the bronze swords or celts. or still farther east. in the far west. Ireland. ibliS FKOM MOITNDS IN TDE MIS8ISSI1': found throughout Europe daggers. Norway. "Not . in the they are the same not similar in charSays Sir John Lubbock (" Prehistoric only are the several varieties of celts Times. ante^ to see that Atlantis was considerably nearer to Ireland than it was to Italy.'''' Germany. Roman. We have but to look at our was to the shores map on page 43. Greece.

It will be seen that these vases could scarcely stand upright unsupported. in use. as in the an- The Mound Build- ers used the same contrivance." The objects represented were taken from an ancient ANCIENT 8W1HS VA8K AMD SUPmound in Illinois. 77. "North Americans of Antiquity. that worked in metals. and we find that the ancient inhabitants of Switzerland had circles or rings of baked earth in which they placed them when nexed figure.H BWITZEELANU. The two figures on page 260 represent vases from one of the mounds of the Mississippi Valley. Compare them with the following from the lake dwellings of Switzerland : VASES FKO. thousands of miles . It would be POBTEB. can. commerce with all parts of Europe? Does — liistory or tradition make mention of any such ? We find a great resemblance between the pottery of the Bronze Age in Europe and the pottery of the ancient inhabitants of America. indeed surprising if two distinct peoples. and Phoenician 261 that carried on a that was civilized.THE BRONZE AGE IN EUROPE. living in two different continents. of discoidal The illustrations stones on page 263 are from the p.

FliOM illustration represents this. Switzerland. It was part of a large The an- nexed SPIRAL. which now passed out Europe is of use. 265 is an illustration. on the opposite page. figure in an ancient UKONZE OniSELS. which is given on p. as given in the " United States Pacific Railroad Survey Report. here shown. . Scotland. the same overlapping of the metal around the very peculiar has or handle — mode of uniting them together. iii. in the We American spear-head and the staff. 49. 255 . Central America. We find the same fragment of pottery from the Little Colorado. vessel. without er. any intercourse with each oth- not only form their vases in the same inconven- ient form. Pottery. Swiss hatchets. A in favorite design of the men of the Bronze Age It the spiral or double-spiral form. FKOM SCOTLAND. but should hit as a upon the same expedient remedy. p. it also appears in the rock sculptures of Argyleshire. observe. art. apart. Bl'lBALS. appears on the face of the urn in the shape of a lake dwelling. of which the cut on p. should.262 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. also found in ancient rock etchings of the Zunis of New Mexico.. is NEW The same design JIEXIOO." vol.



Vv^o also find this figure 265 repeated upon a vase from a Mississippi Valley mound. 260.spiral figure upon a shell ornament found on the breast of a skeleton. to a great extent. are not of Asiatic. 69. (See p. of Their stone axes are made largely of jade or 12 . in a carefully constructed stone coflSn. 158) that the bronze in implements found Egypt. Civil..) This Treasure House of Atreus in Greece. from In- dia. Tennessee. in a mound near Nashville. six as the Egyptians had sea. SHELL OBSAMEXT. of Atreus. a horror of the some commercial nation must have brought the tin. a fragment of a pillar was found which is literally covered with this doublespiral design." p. near Memphis. vol. Lenormant remarks ("Anc. the Caucasus. Greece. or Spain. the nearest points to Egypt in which tin is found. but of African. at Mycenre. and. of which the bronze was in part composed. civilized plants of the lake dwellings Heer has shown that the Efjvptian origin. (See " Rosengarten's Architectural Styles. House MEXICO. MOUNT> XEAB NASIIVILl TENNESSEE.THE BRONZE AGE IN EUROrE." p. had been buried for thousand years and that at that time. which we give elsewhere. ii. is one of the oldest buildings We find the double.) It is found upon many of the monuments In the Treasure of Central America.

BrOUZC AgC. These. FRAGMENT OF POTTERY.266 nephrite. the other to the Copper Age of America. WATERFORD. NEtTF- FRAGMENT OF POTTERY. LAKE OUATEL. Professor Foster calls attention to the striking resem- blance in the designs of these two widely separated works of art. relegates to a great antiquity. JOSE. then. strange to not say. 44. geologists have found the in place on continent of Europe. SWITZERLAND. with this representation of a copper axe of the COPPEK AXE. The fact that it is anterior in time to the Iron Age is . INDIANA. this OUUd pit f COPPER AXE. Compare specimen of pottery from the lake dwellings of Switzerland with the following specimen from San Jose. in conclusion. IRELAND.''^ (Foster's " Prehistoric Races.) Compare this pict- ure of a copper axe from a mound near Laporte. are our reasons for believing that the Bronze 1. IreProfessor Foster pronounces them almost identical. Indian a. SAN MEXICO. Age of Europe has relation to Atlantis The admitted fact that it is anterior in time it to the Iron Age 2. near Waterford. FBOM A MOUND NEAR LAPOETE. "a mineral which. Mexico." p. one belonging to the Bronze Age of Europe. ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WOULD. land.

that the manufacture of bronze conclusive testimony was an importation into those some foreign country. We find many similarities in forms of implements be- tween the Bronze Age of Europe and the Copper Age of America.THE BRONZE AGE IN EUROPE. in We shall see hereafter that the mythological traditions of Iron Age. 7. the Atlanteans were a great com- mercial nation. The fact that there was in Europe. we shall see. and immense quantities of bronze implements were manufactured and carried to Europe. conclusive that Asiatic nations. which must necessarily have preceded the Bronze Age. . the Bronze Age was de- veloped out of the Copper Age. and were great workers the other metals. where. clearly Atlantis. trading to America and Europe. continents from 5. 3. teaches us to look to the westward of Europe and beyond the sea for that foreign country. reasonable to suppose that there must have been some intermediate station between America and Europe. As we find but a small it is development of the Bronze Age in America. and. The fact that in America alone of all the world is found the Copper Age. the Atlantic Ocean. as 8. at the same time. during a long period of time. If Plato told the truth. it is 267 or not due to any of the known European all of which belong to the Iron Age. beyond the Pillars of Hercules. or Africa is no cop- per or tin age prior to the Bronze Age. which was an island in Greece referred to a Bronze Age which preceded an and placed this in the land of the gods. 6. 4. and this land was. they possessed bronze. Asia.

Professor Anders Retzius proved (see " Smithsonian Report. iv.. Rathke. and several Indian tribes in North America. which had lately been found found in in Lower Austria. which speaks of the practice In 1854 Dr. Fitzinger published a learned among the Scythians. In 1849 a remarkable memoir appeared from the pen of M. The Huns under Attila had the same practice of flattening the heads.ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. but it was long forgotten by the civilized world." It is still in use among : the Flat-head Indians of the north-western part of the United States. and in parts of Turkeij. that the practice of flattening the head early date throughout the East. memoir on the skulls of the Avars. and calling attention to the book of Hippocrates." 1859) that the cus- tom still exists in the south of France. and described an ancient greatly distorted by artificial means. " De Aeris. An examination of the American monuments shows (see fig- ure on page 269) that the people represented were in the habit of flattening the skull Roman totally by artificial means. Aquis et Locu. showing that similar skulls had been found near Kertsch. ARTIFICIAL DEFORMATION OF THE SKULL." lib. . Chaptee IX. until it w^as discoverwriters ed. a branch of the Uralian race of Turks. He shows had existed from an skull. and a passage of Strabo. It was afterward found that the ancient Peruvians and Mexicans practised this art in ed several flattened Peruvian skulls are depictMorton's " Crania Americana. The Greek and had mentioned this practice. in the Crimea. to be the usage among the Ca- rib Islanders. as an unheard-of wonder. Skulls similarly flattened have been Switzerland and Savoy.

ARTIFICIAL DEFORMATION OF TEE UKULL. while in Brittany they preferred to press it round." 241.) Professor Wilson remarks " Trifling as it may appear. (Tylor's "Anthropology.i^^Mi^^_i^^sMJ___U 8TUO0O UA8S-BEIJEF IN THE I'ALACK OF PAT-ENQUE. *' 269 Xot long since a Frcncli physician surprised tlie world by the fact that nurses in Normandy were still giving the chil- dren's heads a sugar-loaf shape by bandages and a tight cap. by the disclosures of ancient . it is not without interest to have the fact brought under our notice. No doubt they are doing so to this day." p. .

over vast regions of country. centre? The annexed sents an ancient Swiss skull. (" Crania Britannica. which represents a Peruvian flat-head." chap.) Here. prevailed in Britain and the north of Europe long before the first notices of written history reveal the presence of man beyond the Baltic or the English Channel.) to Behring's Strait. Gosse testifies to the prevalence of the same custom among the Caledonians and Scandinavians in the earliest times and Dr. A. Thurman has treated of the same peculiarity among the Anglo-Saxons. distorted. . from a cemetery near Lau- from a drawing of Frederick Troyon. copied from Morton's "Ethnography and Archaeology sanne. on both sides of the Atlantic. and the Flat -head Indians. barrows and cysts." Dr. Is it possible to explain this ex- cept by supposing that originated from it some comcut repre- mon ANCIENT 8WI88 SKULL. is an extraor- dinary and unnatural practice which has existed from the highest antiquity. 38. bound to a flat cradle-board." 1862. 286. and that in all probability the same custom prevailed continuously from the shores of the German Ocean (" Smithsonian Report. of the American Aborigines.. L. then. p. iv." 1846. Compare this with the illustration given on page 271. that the same practice of nursing the child and carrying it about. and which is perpetuated unto this day in races as widely separated as the Turks.270 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WOULD. This skull is shockingly The dotted lines indicate the course of the band- ages by which the skull was deformed. the French. p.

They show that the receding forehead was a natural characteristic of the ancient people of Central America. which we to have been practised in both the Old and New \Yorlds. 271 PEEUVIAN SKULL.AUTIFIVIAL DEFORMATION OF THE SKULL. was . 440." copied into Nott and Gliddon's " Types of Mankind. The following heads are from Del Rio's "Account of Palenque. OUINOOK (flat-head). may therefore conclude that the skull-flattening. The AVe find same form of head has been found even in fossil skulls." p. AFTER CATLIN.

Amedee used it Thierry. whose heads were flattened by Nature. and the same purpose influences caves the Indians of Oregon.272 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WOULD. Lund. an attempt of other races to imitate the form of skull of a peo- whose likenesses are found on the monuments of Egypt and of America. Dr. Brazil. HEADS FROM PALENQUE. . in his "History of Attila. "show not only head. It has been shown that this peculiar form of the head was present even in the foetus of the Peruvian mummies. found in the bone of Minas-Geraes. even to the entire disaj^pearance of the for eSir of the Orinoco a tribe Robert Schomburgh found on some of the affluents known as Frog Indians. " These skulls. ancient human bones associated with the remains of extinct quadrupeds." says the Huns for the same reason ." says Lund.^^ the peculiarity of the American race but in an excessive degree. ple • Hippocrates tells us that the practice among the Scythians was for the purpose of giving a certain aristocratic distinction. a Swedish naturalist. as shown in newly-born children.

that of the . C. E. line.) In this respect the Mound Builders of Michigan were identical with the man of Cro Mag- non and the ancient inhabitants of Wales. rep- / //y'' Z/^' j ^^.. had circular hole in the top of the skulls of their dead. that of a skull from the Inca cemetery of Peru. V." of Amer- and the Neolithic people of France and alike an extraordinary the Canary/ Islands. Kurds." "Smithsonian Mound Builders and Peruvians custom of boring a Report. (Ibid. it has been found that in all these ancient populations the skeletons exhibit a tibics remarkable degree of platicnemism. but has been found (see Henry Gillman's "Ancient 1875. so that the soul might readily pass in and out. The /' / "^'•>. 1873. the head to this standard of an early civilized and dominant people. that of the PI ODTLISE8 OF SKULLS OF DIFFEEENT BACKS.-<<^^'"^^^^?^ J«"\ 'N>. We have but to compare these lines with the skulls of the Egyptians. ica. D. 12* . or flattening of the or leg bones. and the heroic type of heads in the statues of the gods of Greece. 242) that the Man in Michigan. More than this. to see that there a receding forehead skull was formerly an ancient race marked by and that the practice of flattening the was probably an attempt to approximate the shape of . y ^ J Mound 1 Build- v' United States. x-w tlie next. p. and the same atthis natural and peculiar conformation by it arti- flattening of the head. In the accompanying plate 273 we show >'"' the difference in the conformation of the fore- head in various races. and the next. 367. \\V \ \ Australian that of the er of the . . the \ ' . p. the next. B. Guanche of the Canary Islands. upper dotted A. Not only do we tempt to imitate ficial find the same receding forehead in the skulls of the ancient races of Europe and America.ARTIFICIAL DEFORMATION OF THE SKULL. resents the shape of the t'<^'-^ \ \\ *1 European forehead next line.

The first illustration is taken from a stucco relief found in a temple at Palenque. indicate either that the people of the Nile deformed by pressure upon the front of the skull. Central America.274 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. The from sec- ond is an Egyptian monu- ment of the time of Rameses IV. or that EGYPTIAN UEAD8. These heads are below the heads of priests. and therefore represented the aristocratic class. ancient Egyptian heads. EGYPTIAN HEAD. The outline drawing on the following OENTKAL AMEBIOAM HEAD. page shows the form . there was some race characteristic which gave all this appearance to their heads. copied from the The annexed their heads mon- uments.

FEOM TUE ANCIENT the couvade. CEMETKEY OF PAOHAOAMAO.ARTIFICIAL DEFORMATION OF THE SKULL. we array together a mass of unanswerable proofs of prehistoric identity of race. due to either artificial deformation of the skull or to a common race charac- teristic. unity of religious beliefs and customs.V SKULL. folk-lore. the practice of circumcision. and not the result of compression. . lan- guage and flood legends. We tice of must add the fact that the extraordinary prac- deforming the skull was found all over Europe and America to the catathe people of both conti- logue of other proofs that nents were originally united in blood and race. Both illustrations at the bottom of the preceding page show the same receding form of the forehead. of the skull of the royal Inca line : 215 the receding forehead here artificial seems to be natural. With PEKirVIAN INO. and alphabetical signs.

who is called Ad^ the grandson of Ham. or Atlantis.Ad. His descendants multiplied conIn the time of the latter the each composed of several After his death his sons Shadid and Shedad reign- ed in succession over the Adites. or Shed.) .. We find allusions to the Atlanteans in the most ancient traditions of many different races. Among known the Arabians the first inhabitants of that country are as the Adites. PART IV." {Ibid. TRADITIONS OF ATLANTIS. and the Shepherd Egypt are. 296. by many Arab writers. of Atlantis or Ad-lantis. vol. invasion of it is said. Chapter I.) Ad came from the north- " He married a thousand wives. and lived twelve hundred years. to They whom everything is ascribed^ eral centuries of life. 295. p. thousands of men. their establishment in Syria.276 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WOULD. people of Ad were a thousand tribes. siderably." mant and east. had four thousand sons. p. from " their progenitor. Great conquests are attributed to Shedad he subdued. attributed to an expedition of Shedad. all Arabia and Irak.. The migration of the Canaanites. These Adites were probably the people are personified by a monarch and to whom is assigned sev("Ancient History of the East." Lenorii. Chevallier. THE MYTHOLOGIES OF THE OLD WOELD A KECOLLECTION OF ATLANTIS. the son of Ad. The great antediluvian king of the Mussulman was SheddAd-Ben-Ad.

remembered by the Arabians as a great and They are depicted as men of gigantic stature.) In other words. as among the Canaanites. from which proceeds a terrible hurricane (the water -spout?) which sweeps away everything." says Lenormant. among the Arabs. sun-worshipping." {Ibid." p." Nor is there wanting a great catastrophe which destroys the whole Adite nation. in short. constructors of great buildings. of whose delights he had heard. are civilized race." old as Ad. and It surrounded by a magnificent garden. arose the custom of calling great ruins "buildings of the Adites. 296. . This empire of its power was the country of Sheba proper." expressions proving that their " idolatry was considered to have been tainted with Sa- bseism or star-worship. analogous to that of Chaldea. " It tial was a paradise that Shedad had built in imitation of the celes("Ancient Paradise." History of the East. a whom material progress was allied to great rites. and conquering race overran Arabia at the very dawn of history . their brothers by origin." built To this is day the Arabs say "as In the Koran allusion made to the edifices they on " high places for vain uses . for they are everywhere met with among the Cushites." (Ibid. The Adites " hence. and they easily moved enormous blocks of stone. their strength was equal to their size. powerful. A black cloud assails their country. except a very few who escape because they had renounced idolatry. and " They raised many monuments of their power. moral depravity and obscene These facts must be true and strictly historical. they were the sons of Adlantis their king tried to create a palace and garden of Eden like that of Atlantis.) " In these legends. professing a religion similar to the Babylonian nation. The first Adites were followed by a second Adite race probThe centre ably the colonists who had escaped the Deluge. . an ancient. and builders. with . was called Irem.TRADITIOXS OF ATLANTIS. Shedad built a palace 277 ornamented with superb columns. with an advanced civilization. " we find traces of a wealthy nation.) They were architects.

language spoken to this day by the Arabs of Mahrah. and the frame- work of the doors they place plates of gold incrusted with precious stones. It was originally a religion without images." says Agatharchides in their all sorts. upon the Egyptian monuments tians themselves . as very The Adites are represented much like the Egypwere a red or sunburnt surmounted by buildp. endured for a thousand years. "It and sweetest language have ever heard. by the Span- The Adites worshipped the gods of the Phoenicians under names but slightly changed " their religion was especially solar." was the empire of Dionysos. ("Ancient History of the East." All this reminds one of the descriptions given iards of the temples of the sun in Peru. called ^^hothes. p. " from the Caucasus to the Indian Ocean." It would lan- be interesting to compare guages of Central America.. In all these things we see resemblances to the Atlanteans. Their buildings have porticos with columns sheathed with gold. 321." p. which in the earliest ages prevailed. this primitive tongue with the The god Thoth eign country. Carter. ornaments. beds and tripods of silver. ." (Ibid. or surmounted capitals of silver. . the empire of " Ad.278 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. as Mr. is H. The from the shores of the Mediterranean to El Eldrisi called the the mouth of the Ganges. and without a priesthood. who was was the god of a for- who invented letters. they race ings. in Eastern Arabia. and of the Egyptians. and utensils of of gold and silver... says." and Dr.) They believed in the immortality of the soul. " the language of the people of Ad. ." the empire of Atlantis. and all the furniture of astonishing richness. Rawlinson says.) They idolatry." "The Sabse- ans. in the softest J. great Ethiopian or Cushite Empire. without {Ibid. 325.) in other words. ("De Mari Erythraeo. the Bombay Journal I of July. by On the friezes. : their great temples were pyramidal." "worshipped the sun from the tops of pyramids. "have houses an incredible number of vases. 102). 1847.

his wife was Heva. first. by a great convulsion of nature. invented ornaments. fortified towns." The Arv-ad of Genesis was the Ar-Ad of the Cushites it is now known as Rn-Ad." "Adon" was one of Supreme God of the Phcenicians from it .' or Regulations. said to be they the island and reached the main -land. full of the most massive and gigantic . and promulgated among men a sacred book. and consequently the father of the present world. He and his wife having survived the former cycle." We have already seen that the primal gods of this people are identical with the gods of the Greek mythology. It is a series of connected cities twelve miles in length. the names of the sians called the first and Ada signify the firsts The Perman "Ad-amah. taught men to take the fleece from sheep and make clothing .Ad ' * was. In Sanscrit first Adim means Ceylon . in the opinion of the ancient Persians. their communication with the parent land was forever cut "Bible in India. 279 We family turn now to another ancient race. the Indo-European —the Aryan race. Sir William Jones gives the tradition of the Persians as to the earliest ages.") off. he planted gar- dens. to have a recollection of the destruction of Mr. (See Here we seem Atlantis. the person left at the end of the last great cycle. he built cities. were blessed with a numerous progeny . when. to which the Mussulman author gives the Arabic title of Desatir. along the coast. ruins. con- structed palaces. monarch of and of the whole earth. that he received from the Creator. "Ad was derived the name of the Greek god " Ad-onis. He says : " Moshan assures us that in the first opinion of the best informed Persians the Iran.TRADITIONS OF ATLANTIS. They dwelt upon an island. and introduced arts and com- merce.' Mashab . was Mashab-^c?. in a heavenly language. and were . Among left the Hindoos the man was Ad-\m?i. Bryant says. forged weapons.

of the Aditya is ion " While in ." The Greeks represented their gods as . : The Aditya represent an earlier and purer form of relighymns to the other deities long life. power. is Among the Aditya Yaruna. The sun is sometimes addressed as an Aditya. 9. In the ve- whose identification with Atlantis I have shown. das Varuna is " the god of the ocean. They are all gods of light. or Adlantis.''^ 10. (Ibid." " Ad-itya" we find a strong likeness to the Semitic " AdIn and another reminiscence of Atlantis. if Says Whitney.^'' and in this name ites. seems as here was an attempt on the part of the Indian religion to take a new development the midst." just as in the Bible first we have allusions to " the sons of metallurgists and musicians." people has caused to . There are twelve of them. forgetfulness. (Whitney's " Oriental and Linguistic Studies. are the objects commonly prayed for. and These gods are called " the sons of Aditi." 7.) 3. 1. 39. 8. is She addressed as Adah. they hate and punish guilt. equally wakeful and omniscient. wealth." who were the "Aditi" is not a goddess. corroboration of this view we find. The Aditya " are elevated above all imperfections they do not sleep or wink. "she of fair chil- dren. They are a It dim recollection of a very remote past. the equivalent of Uranos. " Their character is all truth . These twelve gods presided over twelve months in the year. " tion.) 4." We have seen the same traits ascribed by the Greeks to the Atlantean kings. a queen's daughter. or solar gods.280 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. The gods who are grouped together as the Aditya are the most ancient in the Hindoo mythology." p. while yet half finished 6. divinities are grouped together as the seems that these ancient Aditya . and fall in a moral direc- which a change in the character fail in and circunl stances of the back again into (Ibid. But it ^'' originally kings of Atlantis.) indistinct. 2. 5.

Genesis (chap." says M.' ' manity. 45. "Cain went out from the presence of Jehovah." All this indi- . the people of "Ad. the Zalmat-qaqadi. in consequence of their moral degradation and the indignation of the gods.'" The race of Cain lived and multiplied far Adamite huaway from the land of Seth. p.. like the Adites. Atlantis. 42) that " Cain travelled over many countries" before he came to the land tell of Nod. who were light called or Ad-ami. George Smith. In the Persian story he appears as Yima. in the Chaldean account of the Creation (p." he did not call on his name. always describes them as Ilaadam. are identified with the doc- trine of the immortality of the soul. or race. 167 ante. 281 guilt." Ad-mi. The Bible does not us that the race of Cain perished in the Deluge. " in speaking of the men who were swallowed up by ' the Deluge.. and were contradistinguished from " the Sarku. forgiveness of pentance. shows that there was an oiiginal race of men race at the beginning of Chaldean history.) ruler of the golden age and founder of the (See " Zamna. who gives us the primitive traditions of the Jews." 11." The Aditya." p. their destruction by a deluge." or " The author of the Book of Genesis. Schoebcl. Mr." The "fall" probably refers to. ii. they were the "who had fallen. the people that were destroyed were the " sons of Jehovah. tells us (chap. 2) distinctly says that their God created man is male and female. but as the name man. Yama is the god of the abode beyond the grave.. sin. deciphered from the Babylonian tablets. 78)." That to people were the Ad -ami. is used in these legends. not of a v. the name Adam." all refer to Atlantis. and " Paradise:' is made {Ibid. The name Adam of a race." " the Adites." and "the Aditya. and " called say. a dark race. far from the land destroyed by the Deluge. one cannot doubt that the legends of the " sons of Ad. Josephus. in other words.) In view of all these facts. p. craved purity. 43.) freedom from and re- (" Oriental and Linguistic Studies.TRADITIONS OF ATLANTIS. p.

who hundred years.. had been sent out by the mother-laud cates tbat large colonies before it sunk in the sea. and first taught the worship of the true God. god of the Deluge it was (Valentini's "Mexiall can Calendar Stone. the Egyptians. the Hebrews." vol. p. Across the ocean we find the people of Guatemala claiming from a goddess called At-tit.282 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. the Mexicans.) at the base of We thus find the sons of Ad the most ancient races of men. to wit. the Ethiopians. testimony that all these races traced their beginning back to a dimly-reAd-lantis." Maya Archceology. the Arabians.) While the famous Mexican calendar stone shows that the sun was commonly called tonatiuh^ their descent lived for four but when it was referred to art. ov At-onatiuk. the Chaldeans. or grandmother. (Bancroft's *' Native Races. p. the Hindoos. membered . which they afterward forgot. the Persians. 15. iii. 15. as the then called Atl-tona-ti-uh. and the Central Americans .

He was the supreme divinity at On. 283 Chapter II. probably represents very closely the simple and primitive religion of Atlantis. The Hon. Gladstone has had quite a debate of late with Mr. The Babylonian trinity was composed of Hea. The sun was .A7. rings. which they modulated to such descants as best suited their fancies. Lord Bacon said "The mythology of the Greeks. Ptah was the object of their highest adoration. Ra was the sun- god. laid E. or Heliopolis. W. Anu. THE KINGS OF ATLANTIS BECOME THE GODS OF THE GREEKS.NG>b UF ATLANTIS THE OOBJS OF THE GREEKS. guessed very close to the truth in this utterance. Cox as to whether the Greek mythology was under- by a nature worship. Peru. or a planetary or solar worship. which had passed from a more ancient people into the flutes of the Greeks. We He is find the Egyptians in their early ages sun and planet worshippers." This profoundly wise and great man. His symbol was the solar created all by two He that exists below the heavens. worshipping the sun and moon and planets. was no more than a light air. The Phcenicians were also sun-worshippers. and Bel. near disk. who has illuminated every subject which he has touched. Sin was Bel represented the sun. the father of the god of the sun. which their oldest writers do not pretend to have invented. with its sacrifices of fruits and flowers. the ruler of the region of light. supported Memphis. the goddess of the moon. This passed directly to their colony in Egypt. and was the favorite god.

" Every morning even now the Brahmans stand on one foot. "Oricalled gin of Primitive Superstitions. (Dorman. under the name of Elagabahis.) The Egyptians worshipped the sun under the the Hindoos worshipped the sun under the name of Ra name of Rama Peruvians. p. 338. compared with such ancient nations as the Egyptians . "typified in the form of a black conical The stone. worshipped the sun at Eraesa. adoring the sun. underlies the superstitions of the colonies of that country. In Phoenician legends he conquers the mvage races of distant coasts. " The attribntes of both Baal and Moloch (the good and bad powers of the snn) were united in the Phoenician god Melkart. the great god. pulled back the sun to the earth at the time of the solstices. rise all The Samrisest. the god of light and the heavens." p. The Comanches have a similar belief. was found among all the tribes. " When thou. and plants the rocks in the Straits of Gibraltar. The Greeks called him " Melicertes." whom the inhabitants of Tyre considered their special patron. oyed woman says to the sun." and identified him with Hercules. god. of the Sun-worship. to the rising sun. brought life out of destruction. 361. with their hands held out before them and " In Germany or France one may still see the [)easant take off his hat ("Anthropology. the creator and rejuvenator. " king of the city." even.) The Romans. was while the great festival of the called Ray-mi." their faces turned to the east. (" American Cyclopaedia.284 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WOULD. conical stone was the the emblem mounds and pyramids ? It of Bel. which it was believed had fallen from heaven. sun. founds the ancient settlements on the Mediterranean. lessened excessive heat and cold. I too from my bed. By his great strength and power he turned evil into good. as the ancient religion of Atlantis. in later times. represented by Baal-Sainin. Did it have relation to Sun-worship was the primitive religion of the red men of America." art. and rectified the evil signs of the zodiac.) The Chichimecs the sun their father. Mythology. But.

You what passed either here or among yourselves in days of old. eat and drink and make love^and are and and die and who worshipped as immortal in presence of the very monuments that testify to their death. and their most are ignorant of ." Tlhe Greeks." (Murray's " Mytholodeities. and tell you what our fathers have done for nine thousand years I mean their institutions. sion. The savages who killed Captain Cook alive. proceeded to convert its kings into gods. The highly civilized was and would return to punish Romans made gods out of their firmly believed that he for dead emperors. Livingstone mentions that on one occa- talking to a Bushman some time about the Deity. too lantis. he found that the savage thought he was speaking of Sekomi. but I can ascend to a much higher antiquity. the Greeks were children. immortal. were. There can be no question that gods of Greece were huin man beings. Thus we find a great solar or nature worship in the elder nations. their laws. his tomb being pointed out. The history of Atlantis is the key of tliese tlie Greek mythology. the affairs of the world wei'e inthough not eternal in their existence. In Crete there was even a story of the death of Zeus. after Dr. said to Solon. "Yon brilliant achievements.KL\GS OF ATLAXTia THE GODS OF THE GREEKS. the principal chief of the district. is believed. ravish who steal are born and . A priest of Sais Greeks are novices in knowledge of antiquity. We find the barbarians of the coast of the Mediterranean re- . while Greece has nothing bnt an incongruous jumble of gods and goddesses. immortal. that he was yet them. its yonng to have shared in the religion of At- but preserving some memory of that great country and history. The history of eight thousand years is deposited in our sacred books. 285 and Babylonians. The tendency is to attach divine attributes to great earthly rulers one deeply implanted human nature. to it "These whom trusted. and to de- pict Atlantis itself as the heaven of the human race.

286 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. Quarrels. love pas- sages. but always characterized by the highest qualities and grandest forms that could be imagined. and punished crime rigorously." ized the people they to say. like men. and comstrict municated their wisdom to men." (ibid. though the latter. the " encircling ocean " w^as spoken of the ancient legends. p. beings. "They were That is wise. " They had a sense of justice. and such instances as characterize hu(Ibid.) should under- We stand this to mean that where they colonized they established a government of law." Where was Olympus? It was ders of all in Atlantis. and was a region of won- kinds. They lived together like huetc. taking part in battles and appearing in They were conceived to possess the form of human dreams. tread. p. were ascribed to them. " they dwelt in a social state which was but a magnified reflection of the social system on earth. " Okeanos lived there with his wife . stables. The gods dwelt on Olympus. and to be. and rewarded noble actions. mutual assistance." p. garding the civilized people of Atlantis with awe and wonder " Their physical strength was extraordinary.) then civilized world. horses.) man life. subject to love and pain. they civil- came in contact with." This probably alluded to the rapid motion of their sailing-vessels." (Ibid. in all The It was a great island.." it is true they were less conspicuous for (Murray's " Mythology. beings. "The ocean en- circled the earth with a great stream. 10. 23. Whatever they did was done They moved through space almost without the loss of a moment of time. storehouses. the earth shaking sometimes under their speedily. 4.." They succeeded to the management of a world already in existence. as contradistinguished from the anarchy of barbarism. they possessed palaces. man .) fied Another proof that the gods of the Greeks were but the deikings of Atlantis is found in the fact that " the gods were not looked upon as having created the world. "There were gods' tales of personal visits and adventures of the among men.

Hermes and Hestia (or Vesta). Poseidon (or Neptune)." Xectar was probably a fermented intoxicating liquor. Artemis (or Diana). (or Mercury). : These deities. the last that given by the Romans.KIXGS OF ATLANTIS THE GOBS OF THE GREEKS. parts is Diodo- rus Siculus tells us that among the Babylonians there were twelve gods of the heavens. made from Soma was a kind of whiskey. Hera (or Juno). month of the The Hindoos had twelve primal gods. each personified by one of the year." {Ibid. who dwelt on Asgard." These were doubtless the the twelve gods from whom the Egyptians derived their kings. and possessed a liquor of some kind and a species of food superior to anything in use among the barbarous tribes with whom was an they came in contact. 23." Moses erected twelve pillars at Sinai.) lived." p. list. It lay spread out in the ocean " like a disk. down the mountain. with the mountains rising from it. and ambrosia bread wheat. island full of wonders. " while the mansions of the other deities were arranged or in ravines lower upon plateaus. 287 Tethys : these were the Islands of the Blessed. the garden of the gods. Where two names first are given to a deity in the above name is that bestowed by the Greeks. It This blessed land answers to the description of Atlantis. Apollo.) On the highest point of this mountain dwelt Zeus (the king). The Scandinavians believed in the twelve gods. were twelve in number Zeus (or Jupiter). Demeter (or Ceres). signs of the zodiac. Hephsestos (or Vulcan). who danced around the ark. Pallas Athena (or Minerva). the sources of the nectar and ambrosia on which the gods (Murray's " Mythology. The Mandan Indians celebrated the Flood with twelv^e typical characters. and the Hindoos deified "The gods lived on nectar and ambrosia" simply meant that the inhabitants of these blessed islands were civilized. It is not impossible that our division of the year into twelve a reminiscence of the twelve gods of Atlantis. the Norse Olympus. Ares (or Mars). Aphrodite (or Venus). and worshipped in a certain . "the Aditya. it. includ- ing Zeus. the Aesir.

tells us that " the outer edge of the garden was slightly raised. land." p.) Atlas lived in these gardens. twelve. p.. 60. is a survival of the ancient council of Asgard. Diligent investio-ation may yet reveal that the number of a mod- ern jury. covered with fruit of every kind.." (Smith's " Sacred Annals. like the description which Plato gives of the great plain of Atlantis. 156.) This is very much Here were found the golden apples. was also located " under the mountains of an island in the midst of the ocean in the remote west.) (Ibid. 131. "The Garden of the Hesperides" (another name for the dwelling-place of the gods) " was situated at the extreme limit Greek tradition located the island in situated " in the far west. and supported the heavens on his shoulders." {Ibicl. in speaking of the Garden of the Hesperides. and as revealed by the deepsea soundings of modern times. we have happy was king of Atlantis." " where the sun shone when it had ceased to shine on Greece. 58." And Plato tells us that the land where Poseidon and Atlas ruled was Atlantis.^.) the dead. the region of Hades. the Gardens (Murray's " Manof the Hesperides were in the remote west^ ual of Mythology." . " The Elysian Fields (the islands) were commonly placed {Ibid." " on the western boundary of the known world. and surrounded by precipitous mountains descending to the sea. the gloomy home of {Ibid. who stood upon the western confines of the earth..288 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. p. 259. Patriarchal Age. in the remote loest. The Greek mythology. seen.) which Olympus was beyond Africa..) They were ruled over by Chronos. " According to the traditions of the Phoenicians. in a region of the west where the sun continued to shine after he had set upon Greece." and where the mighty Atlas " held up the heavens. Atlas was said to have surrounded it on every side with high mountains." Tartarus. Atlas. so that the water might not run in and overflow the Another reminiscence of the surrounding mountains of Atlantis as described by Plato." " in the ocean of Africa." Atlas was described in Greek mythology as " an enormous giant." p. p. 258.

Atlas.. " Hyperion. Hercules. iv. and Saturn. Laws. this tradition refers to an ancient time when the forefathers of the Greeks were governed by Chronos.) taking Northern Africa. earth. through Atlantean governors. In like manner God in his love of mankind placed over us the demons. who reigned over a great kingdom composed of countries isl- around the western part of the Mediterranean." they kino-s that ruled over countries on the western shores of One account says the Mediterranean. or Saturn. . Dionysos. who are a superior race. and Saturn the countries on the opposite shore of the Mediterranean to Italy and Sicily." p. In other words. Cratylus. 289 Chronos." . 397) moon. logues.. of the Cronian Sea (the Atlantic). speaking of the traditions of the Greeks (" Diac. and was be- then killed by the Titans. Hyperion. The kingdom was then divided tween Atlas and Saturn —Atlas 357. logues." p. Africa and Spain. that ilized. which are still the gods of many barbarians. taking care of us and giving us place and reverence and order and justice never failing." (Baldwin's "Prehistoric Nations.KINGS OF ATLANTIS THE GODS OF THE GREEKS. known gods? to the aboriginal Hellenes. is able to order human affairs and not overflow with insolence and wrong." the civ- Plato puts into the mouth of Socrates these words ("Dia" My notion would be that the sun. . civilized who by all their wisdom preserved peace and created a golden age for —they were the demons. with great care and pleasure to themselves and no less to us. or Chronos.What shall follow the Must not demons 13 . were were all connected with " a great Saturnian continent . 713). with certain ands in the Atlantic. were sons of Uranos. Atlas. and they. " the knowing ones. "There is a tradition of the happy life of mankind in the days when all things were spontaneous and abundant. and heaven. with the Atlantic islands. p. were the only gods . Hyperion succeeded his father. invested peaceful with supreme power. king of Atlantis. .. ." Phito says. : the populations under their control is. . made the tribes of men happy and for Cronos knew that no human nature. and stars.

as in the . He . to whom. then a Silver Age . — these it constituting a great period of peace and happiness then reached a Bronze Age sent . and men. there came a day when everyfort. where might was right. in their confidence of prosperity and com- Men were rich then (in the Silver Age). Dike. upon these people by Zeus as a punishment for their sins. speaks of 'a golden race of men' who came first. then an Iron Age. 44. We " read Golden and lived in plenty but still they wanted the iimocence and contentment which were the true sources of human happiness in the former age and accordingly. Instead of cultivated lands. . ." . . . . Age of Chronos. and retired to Olympus. and none but Deucalion and his wife Pyrrha were saved. while Zeus determined to destroy the human race hy a great flood. The whole of Greece lay under water. or Astrsea. first. they denied the reverence they owed. passed through. and heroes and men come next? Consider the real meaning of the word demons. and finally perished hy a great Jlood. and. of Chronos and Uranos and Zeus. . modesty and truth. and forgot the gods. in which enfeebled mankind had to toil for bread with their hands. . did their best to overreach each other.' them demons because they were ^ar^fioveg (knowing This is made the more evident when we read that this region of the gods. . ." (Murray's " Mythology. Beneficent averters of ills.) . You know Hesiod uses the word. them. while living in luxury and delicacy. bent on gain. He says of guardians of mortal men. a period of constant quarrelling and deeds of violence. they became overbearing in their manners to the highest degree. turned her back on such scenes. and a life of peaceful occupations and orderly habits. were never satisfied." p. men not men literally made he says we are of the age ' of gold.* He means by He called the golden but good and noble men or wise). the goddess of justice and good faith.290 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. They ai^e holy demons upon earth. " 'But now that fate has closed over this race. big and powerful as they were. became physically worn out. Then followed the Bronze Age. a Golden Age. Finally came the Iron Age. of iron.

And this identification of the land that stroyed by a flood Zeus — with here — the was de- land of Chronos and Poseidon and the Bronze Age. ''all (page 109. were willingly pleased. and the Flood of Deuca- was the Flood of the Bible." according to the Egyptians. ." agrees with Plato's account of the Atlanteans. (page 237." lightly of the possession of gold and other all property stated it a time when." " filled with unrighteous avarice and power. 291 It is remarkable that we find here the same succession of the Iron tific Age after the Bronze Age that has been revealed to scienmen by the patient examination of the relics of antiquity in Europe. as the chants of the Delaware Indians a7^^e). when might was right. and weapons of Europe were mainly imported from And lion we find that the Flood that destroyed this land of the gods was the Flood of Deucalion. were While the description given by Murray in the above extract of the degeneracy of mankind in the land of the gods. the result of accident? Can all these precise coincidences be May we not even suppose that the very w^ord "Olympus" is a transformation from " Atlantis.KINGS OF ATLANTIS THE GODS OF THE GREEKS." and " in a most wretched state. and this. confirms the view expressed in ante)^ that Chapter VIII. as we have shown. was " the last great Deluge of all. when they became " aggressive. both were never peaceful. The foregoing description when "men were rich and Plato's description of the Age of Chronos. both were spoiling." reminds us of happy age of Atlantis. when men despised everything but virtue. and thinking ." And in all three instances the gods punished the depravity of man- kind by a great deluge." " unable to well-happified. fighting. not caring for their present state of life." " unseemly. of the Golden which destroyed Atlantis." in accordance with the laws . the bronze implements Atlantis." bear their fortune. "a period of constant quarrelling and deeds of violence. " lived in plenty." And here again Indians might quote from the chant the Delaware — " they became hating each other both were I of troubled." " base.

In the ages previous to the decline of Phoenician influence in Greece and around the ^gean Sea. separated by great walls from be urged that their subjects. the Cronidffi. the Hyperboreans. . in the midst of the and It palaces. 13. and on this mountain were their magnificent temples where they lived. "relate to Spain. suppose that when the Greeks said that their gods dwelt Nearly in " Olympus. the Hesperides. there was an eminence bearing the same designation. But in Mysia. and the Islands of the Blessed. may Mount Olympus could not have refer- red to any mountain in Atlantis. And when we we find that turn to Plato's description of Atlantis (p. midst of an island in the ocean which was subsequently destroyed by a deluge its on account of 'the wickedness of people." says Baldwin ("Prehistoric Nations. that regulate the changes of letters of the same class into each other? letter Olympus was in Atlantis written by the Greeks " Olumpos. "Many of the oldest myths. in the far west. Homer described the Atlantic region of Europe in his account of the wanderings of Ulysses. There is a natural tendency among uncivilized peoples to give a " local habitation " to every general tradition. ante) Poseidon and Atlas dwelt upon a mountain island . North-western Africa. in Elis." The a full. because the Greeks gave that name to a group of mountains partly in Macedonia and partly in Thessaly.292 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. such as those concerning Hercules. all We have seen the twelve principal gods in the dwelling on the mountain of Olympus." p. and other regions on the Atlantic. and on the plain of Olympia. 376)." all the gods of Greece are connected with Atlantis. Lycia. like the a in was sounded by the ancient world broad and our words all or altar. therefore. the people of those regions must have had a much better knowledge of Western . We may. It is not far to go and this into Olumpos. . and elsewhere there were mountains called Olympus." it was the same as if they said that they dwelt in " Atlantis. Cyprus. proximates very closely to the sound of to convert Otlontis into Oluntos. . in these words it apo.

. and colonizations of palaces. but represented atmospheric and meteoro- myths. it it in falling in took nine days and nights of a Atlantis. . ences to statues. or stars whipped their wives or flung recalcitrant young men out of windows. moon. it is as if one would show that the name of the great Napoleon meant "the lion of the desert" (Napo-leon). to sup- pose a barbarous people creating their deities out of clouds and sunsets is to reverse nature. of the brazen or bronze anvil that was preserved in one fell which . Men first worship stones." Atlantis. aerial sprites. the movements of clouds. Resemblances of names prove nothing. sublimated spirits. kings. Hence the referetc. queens. rebellions. that fell from heaven. and which were regarded as the most precious possessions of the people. and should thence argue that Napoleon never existed. sea-voyages. Rude nations repeat. that he was a myth. and the sun. The mythology of Greece is really a history of the kings of The Greek heaven was Atlantis. and actually did something like the thing described certainly gods. that he represented power in solitude. murders. the inference is that Jove was a man. adulteries.KJXGS OF ATLANTIS THE GODS OF THE GREEKS 293 Europe than prevailed there during the Ionian or Hellenic period. and princes Avars. workshops. and were preserved in the temples of the different states along the shores of the Mediterranean from a vast antiquity. would puzzle the myth-makers to prove that the sun. of sword-making. from heaven. planets. tem- ples. and was nine days and nine nights other words. swords. were relics of the lost race received in the early ages. absurd. . or some such stuff. engraving and . then spirits. and forges . do not act after this fashion . then other men. of love-making. They Thus we read city. When we read that Jove whipped his wife.. and threw her son out of the window. The history of Atlantis could be in part reconstructed out of the mythology of Greece it is a history of and it . sailing-voyage to bring from The modern theory logical is that the gods of Greece never had any personal existence. they do not invent.

'" We should suppose that Pluto possi- bly ruled over the transatlantic possessions of Atlantis in America.' and that Spain. of the Titans was clearly the empire of Atlanjudicious The empire tis. and the Kyklopes or Cyclops. the extremity of the then known world. "The most among our mythologists " (says Dr. metallurgy of wine." art. and PlaTitans. thought to be a very low country in re- spect of Asia. (the earth). over those "portions of the opposite continent" which Plato tells us were dominated by Atlas and his posterity. I incline to the belief that these and that the peculiarities ascribed to the last sels in two refer to the ves- which they visited the shores of the barbarians. and Father Thomassin — are of opinion that the partition of the world among the sons of of the tra- Noah to^'' — Shem. Marsham. in after-times. Neptune. and which. . that the sea and islands which fell to Neptune occasioned their giving him the title of god of the sea . He probably represented the race previ- ous even to the settlement of Atlantis. to be taken for . Who ? can doubt that it represents the history of a real people Uranos was the great race. wheat. sheep. Rees. npon the breaking up of the great empire of the "The made which was of this vast empire came. the n)ost potent of the three brothers. being far bevond or below sunset. that is to say. were the " under-world" of . barley. first god . the Hekatoncheires.294 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WOULD. and silver. his As he was at the commencement of all symbol was the sky. the partition of the whole world that Asia remaining in the hands of Jupiter (Zeus). made him looked upon ' as the god of Olympus. and agriculture generally. Ham. He was a son of Gaea He seems to have been the parent of three races were civilized races. falling to famous for its excellent mines of gold Pluto. " New British Cyclopaedia. the Titans. occasioned him to be taken for the and 'god of the infernal regions. and Japheth —was the original learned Pezron contends that the division dition of the same partition among Jupiter. the first king of the things. cattle. Titans) — " such as Ge- rard Vossius. Bochart. horses.

^5^. ._:-.


Pezron.) In manner. and Diodorus adds a part of Africa. these Sanchoniathon seems to join Syria. in answer to a message from Jupiter. the grave of the drowned Atlanteans." p. 350." The under-world of the dead was simply the world below the western horizon " the home of the dead has to do with that far west region where the sun dies " at night.) On the coast of Brittany. indeed." ("Anthropology.ion which are the Atlas Mountains. or Poseidon. from Saturn came. in the days of Herodotus. constitnted the island division with Western Africa and Spain. And hush the roaring of the sacred deep. the Canaries. the island of Crete. Three brothers. and in which. was the land of the mighty dead. where Cape Raz stands out westward is ' into the ocean. according to the ancients. etc. Xo vassal god. Homer alludes to Poseidon as " Around the globe. earth's immortal lot Assigned by our triple rule we dame know Infernal Pluto sways the shades below: O'er the wide clouds. Murray tells us ("Mythology.' the launching-place where the departed like spirits sail off across the sea^ (Ibid. Iliad. and o'er the starry plain Ethereal Jove extends his high domain My court beneath the hoary waves I keep. deities. book xviii. and the kingdoms of Mauritania. There. " the empire of the was very extensive they pos. Thrace. sessed Phrygia. while Atlantis. 58) that Pluto's share of the kingdom was supposed to lie " in the remote west. a part of Greece. 297 the ancients . says." kinojdoms of Mauritania embraced of Africa nearest to Atlantis in all The that north-western reo. dwelt the Atlantes." p. Neptune. Titans." continues F. Odysseus found the land of the dead in the ocean beyond the Pillars of Hercules. To and several other provinces to the inmost recesses of Spain..KL\OS OF ATLANTIC THE GODS OF THE GREEKS. " However this be. The god whose liquid arms are hurled whose earthquakes rock the world." 13* . there the Bay of Souls. And ancient Rhea. nor of liis train am I.

as detailed in the " Odyssey " of Homer. Oceanus was at the base of the Greek mythology. Here we have a real battle on an actual battle-field. are strangely connected with the Atlantic Ocean. tells Mythology us that when the Titans were defeated by . and Atlas. they were all the sons of Uranos. The islands of the Phseacians were apparently in mid-ocean We Hath commerce with dwell apart. vol. and when Ulysses .298 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. and Rhea. afar Within the unmeasui-ed deep. and thus terminated a ten-years' war." " Oceanus and Tethys were the chilTiraaeus. us. and beat them for the last time near Tartessus. p. and all those whom we know as their brethren. Saturn they retreated into the interior of Spain Jupiter fol- lowed them up. harbors. we would find it in the names of the Titans : among these were Oceanus. twenty days' sail from the Phaeacian isles. The description of the Phseacian walls. ." The elder Minos was called " the Son of the Ocean :" he first gave : . and many more with them and from Chronos and Rhea sprung Zeus and Hera. he engraved his laws on brass. and Chronos. civilization to the Cretans . etc. seems like a recollection of Atlantis. and others ivho were their childreuy In other words. pal- aces. 533) dren of Earth and Heaven.. ships. The isl- and of Calypso appears also to have been in the Atlantic Ocean. all their gods came out of the ocean they were rulers over some ocean realm Chronos was the son of Oceanus. pre- cisely as Plato tells us the laws of Atlantis pillars of brass. — Odyssey. were engraved on The wanderings of Ulysses. cities. and from these sprung Phorcys. If we needed any further proof that the empire of the Titans was the empire of Atlantis. book vi. Saturn or Chronos. amid its waves The most remote of men no other race . and from him the Atlantic Ocean was called by the ancients "the Chronian Sea. and Chronos was an Atlantean god. ii. Plato says (" Dialogues. ..

26. and with one eye in the middle of the forehead. flashing eye. he " home of the Reached the far confines of Oceanus. would be curious to in- how and far the poems of Homer are Atlantean in their rela- inspiration. the founder and god of Atlantis. with a light It is not impossible that in Kyklopes we see a tradition of sea-going burning at the prow." It beyond the quire tions Pillars of Hercules.) Are not these hundred arms the oars of the galleys. which was placed at the juncture between the nose and brow. and giving out thunder and lightning." p. Gyges or Gyes. as became beings who were personifications of the storm-cloud. with its flashes of destructive lightning and peals of thunder. and armed with some explosive preparation. beings each with a hun- dred hands. " the under-world. with bis They were represented as having only one stream of light. Sterupes. and Islands regarded the ships of that their sails were wings. and the frightful crashing of the waves their movements in the water ? also were three in number Brontes. and may have been derived by them from Atlantis. however. this picture of the ships." (Mur- — — ray's " Mythology. were three in number Kottos. and Briareus and represented the frightful crashing of waves. eye. \'ith his lightning. and its resemblance to the convulsions of earthquakes. with thunder. and Arges. It was. a large. with a roar like thunder. "The Hekatoncheires. Ulysses's wanderings were a prolonged struggle with Poseidon. and a flash like lightning." his "The Kyklopes — We shall show hereafter that the invention of gunpowder dates back to the days of the Phoenicians. or Cetira sen i. destroyed those against employed? It at least requires less strain whom it was upon our credulity memory of great to suppose these monsters were a barbarian's ships than to believe that human beings ever existed with a hundred arms. The natives of the West India Columbus as living creatures.KINGS OF ATLANTIS THE GOBS OF THE GREEKS 299 goes to the land of Pluto. which. ." the dead.

and there concealed . Demeter. speaking of the ancient days of Chaldea. From that time nothing material has been added hy way of imfrovcment to his instructions. And when sea. first five He anticipated that his sons would dethrone him. an animal endowed with reason. to found temples. the harvest-god. he instructed them in everything which could tend to soften Dianners and humanize their laws. which converted the war-vessels of the Atlanteans (the Kyklopes) into men with one blazing eye forehead. who bore him Pluto. similar His voice too to those of a man. middle of the ITranos was deposed from the throne. that under the fish's head he had another head." This is clearly the tradition preserved by a barbarous people of the great ships of a civilized nation. to compile laws. and he gave them an insight into letters and arts of all kinds. by name Oannes. Poseidon. and succeeded by his son Chronos. in short. Zeus. but took no food at that season. identified with the beginning of the Agricult- married his Rhea.300 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. and language was articulate and human..'' sister and was probably ural Period. and showed them how to collect the fruits. and Hera. tomed to pass the day among men. Hestia. with feet also below. the sun set. whose whole body (according to the account of Apollodorus) was that of a fish . and explained to them the principles of geometrical knowledge. from that part of the Erythraean Sea which borders upon Babylonia. coast and introduced the arts and sciences who colonized their among them. for he was amphibious. deceived him with a stone image of the child and Zeus was in a cave conveyed to the island of Crete. retired again into the and passed the night in the deep. Oannes. He He was called "the ripener. He taught them to construct cities. " In the first year there appeared. And as a living here we see the same tendency to represent the ship in the thing. and a representation This being was accusof him is preserved even unto this day. as he had dethroned his father. and would have swallowed the sixth child. Zeu". He made them distinguish the seeds of the earth. After this there appeared other animals like Oannes. subjoined to the fish's tail. and he swallowed his children. this being. Berosns tells us. Uranos. but that his wife Rhea .

called by the Romans the " Chronian Sea." He was known to the Romans under the name of Saturn. and seems to last by the use of gunpowder. He The tells us that the rule of the Atlanteans extended to Italy agricultural. and. or Chronos. . off seem to have been wise. By such from a rude and comparaone of order and peaceful occupa- means he tions. in at length raised the people tively barbarous condition to consequence of which he was everywhere held in high esteem. and as. civilization of and commercial people." This myth prob- ably means that Chronos had his children raised in place. Subsequently Chronos " yielded back to the light the children he had swallowed. when innocence. that they were a civilized." p. for example. 301 and raised to manhood. some secret where they could not be used by his enemies as the instruments of a rebellion against his throne image of Zeus. 32. his throne. Golden Age. which thereupon sumed the name of Saturnia as a — a land ' as- of seed and fruit. and ruled oyer "a great Saturnian continent" in the Western Ocean.' The period of Saturn's government was sung in later days by poets happy time.) All this accords with Plato's story. His precautions . and drove the old gentleman from lowed. for as soon as the children returned to the light they commenced a rebellion." (Murray's freedom. "and proceeded to instruct the subjects of the gardening. Rome . Janus. and gladness reigned throughout the land in such a de'gree as to deserve the title of the " Mythology. A rebellion of the Titans fol- The struggle have been decided at was a tremendous one. Saturn. was selected by Janus to share with him the government of the country.KLXGii OF ATLANTIS THE GODS OF THE OJiEEKS. latter in agriculture. when sorrows were unknown. was probably substituted for his own. palmed soine other child and the stone upon him by Rhea. We came to Italy: he presented himself to the king. as I shall show farther on. many other arts then quite unknown to them how to tend and cultivate the vine. have seen Chronos identified with the Atlantic. in course of time.

punished the ing story is cruel. who amid the flash of lightning and the roar of thunder. paid a visit. During the time of Zeus Atlantis seems to have reached its He was recognized as the father of the whole world he everywhere rewarded uprightness. and was received by them very kindly as a weary travBidding him welcome to the eller." We last find a reminiscence of it in the Roman The Zeus. and . were living peacefully and full of piety toward the gods in their cottage in Phrygia. when Zeus. . they set about preparing for their guest. greatest height of power. a recollection of the Golden Age. to inquire into the behavior of men. directly was therefore an outgrowth Atlantis. and children received presents from their parents or relIt was a time of jollity and mirth. " Carnival. house. who often visited the earth. He was called "the thunderer. a farther on. master and met as equals . truth. who was accompanied by Hermes. from the civilization of The Roman Saturnalia was colonization. To illustrate his rule on earth the follow- told " Philemon and Baukis. an aged couple of the poorer class. was a period of joy and ." He was represented with thunder-bolts in his hand and an eagle at his feet. . which he pretended to be. the Titans. slave It a remembrance of the Atlantean festivity . in passing through Phrygia on such a journey. the distinctions of poverty and wealth inflicted . and kindness he was merciful to the poor. third and on the throne of the highest god was little AVe shall see him. rose against his power. were forgotten ters no punishments for crime were ser- vants and slaves went about dressed in the clothes of their mas. by the aid of some mysterious engine overthrowing the rebels. disguised. when Zeus interfered for he was touched by their kindliness and genuine piety." and "the mighty thunderer. to these poor old people. and for this purpose were about to kill the only goose they had left. faithfulness.302 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. as excellent a meal as they could afford. atives. and that all the more because he had .

pine) . pair. . Dionysos (Bacchus) by Maia. they were changed into two trees. She was Zeus on one oc- casion beat her. death overtook them. and another identification with Atlantis. etc. 303 observed among the other inhabitants of the district nothing but cruelty of disposition and a habit of reproaching and despising the gods. and to reward them in a striking manner. and took to himself a num- By Demeter . Aphby Semele. Hermes (Mercury) by Alkmene. that they might both die together. represent the earth and sea. or Juno. We have thus the whole family of gods and goddesses traced . . rodite (Venus) by Leto. 38. Apollo and Artemis (Diana) by Dione. that grew side by side in the neighborhood an oak and a linden. and threw her son Hephsestos out of Olympus on another occasion he hung her out of Olympus with her arms tied and two great weights attached to her feet a very and ungentlemanly trick but the Greeks transposed this into a beautiful symbol the two weights.) Juno probably regarded the transaction in an altogether different light and she therefore united with Poseidon. VHL. etc. say the poets. naturally jealous of the other wives of Zeus. and his daughter brutal : — — . Hercules. the king's brother. and granted their prayer When. transformed their })oor cottage on the hill into a splendid temple.) — Here we have another reference to the Flood. Juno was generally to blame." (Murray's " Mythology." p. back to Atlantis. but to save from it Philemon and Baukis. the good aged couple. To this end he revealed himself to them before opening the gates of the great flood. installed the aged pair as his priest and priestess. they say. p. Hera.. Zeus was a kind of Henry ber of wives.KINGS OF ATLANTIS THE GODS OF THE GREEKS. " an illustration of how all the phenomena of the visible sky were supposed to hang dependent on the highest god of heaven !" {Ibid.. (Ceres) he had Persephone (Proser. To punish this conduct he determined to visit the country with a fiood. w^as the first and principal wife of Zeus. in There were numerous conjugal rows between the royal which. after many years. 47.

doubtless an emblem of the three continents that were embraced in the empire of Atlantis. daughter of Zeus. " and would have succeeded had not Thetis brought to his aid She seems in the main. his people first domesticated the horse. and was the type of all the womanly virtues. and seems have had settlements Delphi. to wit. at Corinth. who had no mother. which probably signified that her ling. inhab- . in other words. in a rebellion to put the old fellow in a the sea-giant ^gseon." that is " He was tells the first to train and employ to say. a ship. Athena. In the division of the kingdom he its fell ocean and and to the navigable rivers. In the "Iliad" Poseidon appears "as ruler of the sea. He founded many colonies along the shores of . His islands. a brother of Zeus." showing that he represented an advanced civilization. named after his niece Athena. to ravage part of the Trojan territory. the Mediterranean . to have been a good wife. He was also master of an agricultural people " the ram with the golden fleece for which the Argonauts sailed was the offspring of Poseidon. ^Egina. strait-jacket.304 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. He settled Attica and founded Athens. us of the importance attached and of the baths and race-courses provided for him." probably a war-ship. Poseidon Naxos. symbol was the horse. parent of to to all the olive-trees of Greece. according to Plato. first Poseidon. olis mother's name was not known first olive-tree — Athena caused the of Athens. This agrees with what Plato to the horse in Atlantis. He sent a sea-monster. seajjort Temples were erected to his honor in nearly all the towns of Greece. the king of Atlantis. however. he was king of a maritime and commercial people. " he helped to build the walls of Troy . He was worshipped in the island of Tenos " in the character of a physician." the tradition thus tracing the Trojan civilization to an Atlantean source. was. she was a foundgrow on the Acrop- but had sprung from the head of Zeus. horses." He carried in his hand a three-pronged symbol. the trident. and a son of Chronos. heir to the according to Greek mythology.

travelled " through all grain. when she landed. the shaking of the I'ObEIDON. and presented his son with the seed of barley. earth was an association with earthquakes. and sent him out to teach mankind how to sow and utilize that Dionysos. traversing. .KlXiJS OF ATLANTIS THE GODS OF THE GREEKS. He is also associated with well - watered plains and valleys. the "well-watered plains and valleys" remind us of the great plain of Atlantis described by Plato. the daughter of Poseidon. 51. ." (Murray's "Mythology.) The palace in the depths of the sea was the palace upon Olympus in Atlantis. grandson of Poseidon. hos- Greek Ceres. or stirring the powerful billows imtil the earth shakes as they crash upon the shores. near Athens. . All the traditions of the coming of civilization into Europe point to Atlantis. For instance. Keleos.its surface in a chariot. the traversing of the sea referred to the movements of a mercantile race." p. and in return she taught him the use of the plough. the at Eleusis. who lived pitably received Demeter. OK NEPTUNE. 805 iting a brilliant palane in its depths. .

sporting. making merry with Apollo or Hermes (Mercury). known world. but always in a hostile attitude toward the wanton and excited Satyrs. 119. ." p. as he proceeded. it was believed." off the north or west coast of Africa. offspring of Atlantis. The Hesperides were also " daughters of Atlas . while the aristocracy lived on the high- And this is confirmed by the fact that part of them were called Atlantids. how to tend the vine. besides teaching them the value of just and honorable dealings.) The Greeks celebrated great honor down to the coming of Christianity. singing sweet songs. a personification of " the region of the West. bathing. In extraordinary cases they were summoned. And lantis. or accompanying deities who passed through their territories hunting with Artemis (Diana)." their mother was Hesperis. communicating with living like the gods on both." Their home was " an island in the ocean." gave Zeus a tree bearing golden apples on it. rushing about with Dionysos (Bacchus)." (Murray's in his "Mythology. thereupon a serpent and to named Ladon was put watch the tree. plainly the female inhabitants of Atlantis dwelling on the plains." — The Nymphs were er lands. in secluded grottoes and dle beings . and how to practise many other arts of peace. "The Nymphs peaceful valleys. and gave the apples to the Hesperides. even into the remotest parts of India. This tree was put in the care of the Hes- perides. weaving. here we find a tradition which not only points to At- but also shows some kinship to the legend in Genesis of the tree and the serpent. " a goddess of the earth. to the councils of the Olympian gods but they usually remained in their particular spheres. but they cotdd not resist the teyyiptation to plucic eat its fruit . was a son of Zeus. occupied in spinning. of Atlantis. in- structing the people. dancing. . loved and respected by both ambrosia. Heracles (Hercules). festivals of Grecian mythology were a kind of midbetween the gods and men. Titaea. Hercules slew the serpent. .306 the ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WOULD. . we have seen. king One of his twelve labors (the tenth) was the car- .

) This was simply the memory of a cattle raid made by an uncivilized race upon the It is civilized. 6. They were simply barbarian recollections of the who in early days visited their and brought with them the arts of peace.KJXO>S OF ATLANTIIS THE GODS OF THE GREEKS. They were not the makers. ." 4. are the proofs of our proposition Here then. and landed them i-ying off the cattle of safely. cattle-raising people of Atlantis." p. The meaning of Geryon is "the red glow of the sunset^ He dwelt on the island of " Erythea. but the rulers of the world. put them on the ship. and civilized the people of the shores of the Mediterranean. Their land was destroyed in a deluge. The in entire erate race. by^ a degenand highly civilized empire. 307 Geryon. in conclusion. They were human in their attributes they loved." Iberia. . and over the Alps (Murray's " Mythology. 7. 3. 1. not necessary to pursue the study of the gods of Greece any farther. mighty. Gaul. which a remote past covered large _parts of Europe. that the gods of Greece had been the kings of Atlantis 2. They were ruled over by Poseidon and Atlas. They dwelt upon an . Asia. the very sites of which are given they founded cities. driving them " through down into Italy. island in the Atlantic. . Greek mythology is the recollection. precisely as stated by Plato. 5. ." Hercules took a ship. rulers of a great civilized people shores. sinned. and America. reached the island and placed himself on Mount Abas. " in the remote it west. Hercules killed Geryon. in the remote west^ beyond the Pillars of Hercules. where the sun shines after has ceased to shine on Greece. of a vast. They existed daring the Bronze Age and at the beginning of the Iron Age. and fought battles. Africa. Their empire extended to Egypt and Italy and the shores of Africa. stole the cattle. and after encountering a storm. 257. .

For instance. we have the names of two other kings of Atlantis. : four sons Ilus (El). rebellion against Ouranos. He mariied his sister Ge. god Ouranos had a great jealous they quarrelled. THE GODS OF THE PH(ENICIAN8 ALSO KINGS OF ATLANTIS Not alone were the gods of the Greeks the deified kings of Atlantis. The Phoenicians tell us. and Dagon. " Ouranos had by who is called Chronos. Ouranos was the son of Autochthon. and he attempted to kill the children he had by her. and the ancestor of Atlas. and." Here. it is Zeus who attacks and overOuranos had a daughter called As- . after a great battle. we find in the Phoenician cosmogony that the Titans (Rephaim) derive their origin from the Phoenician gods Aorus and Ao. the Titans dwelt. In the Phoenician mythology Chronos raised a : The Greek Uranos was the The Phoenician many other wives his wife Ge was . where. father of Chronos. In the Greek legends throws his father.rotus. which signifies bread. the offspring of the earth. and Betyhis (Beth. Chronos. dethroned him. Autochthon was one of the ten kings of Atlantis. who was the son of Gcea (the earth). and. These four sons probably represented four races. Chapter III.corn.308 ATLAXriH: THE AXTKDILUVIAX WORLD. but we find that the mythology of the Phoenicians was drawn from the same source. This connects the Phoenicians with that island in the remote west.El). and Atlas (Tammuz?). He is the Uranos of the Greeks. ac- cording to the Greeks. This is the legend which the Greeks told of Zeus and Juno. again. according to Plato. in the midst of ocean. According to Sanchoniathon. whom Ge he married.

and palm- branch. mention made of Poseidon. civilization to both Atlantis There can be no doubt that the royal personages who formed the gods of Greece were also the gods of the Phoenicians. Isiris (Osiris). This not only connects the Phoenicians witb Atlantis. the Phoenicians. that the Cabiri set down Taaut. dates back. their records of the past "and they delivered by the command of the god them to their successors and to. vented the alphabet. clerk of the He under -world. as in the sacrificed. and "circumcised himself." It would thus appear that this singular rite. " Cbronos visits the different regions of the habitable world. the Hebrews. after he had found out bread-corn and the plough. We have seen the Autochthon of Plato reappearing in the Au. Cbronos gave Attica to legends. the Mexicans. the Ethiopians. his daughter Athena. all Sanchoniathon tells us. as we might have expected." called Zeus-Aro- We find also. founder and king of Atlantis." who had inThe Egyptians called him Thoth. to Atlantis. pen. and he was represented among them as " the god of letters. the brother of Chua. another called Rhea. the gave Egypt as a kingdom to the god Taaut. foreigners.GODS OF THE PH(EmCIANS KINGS OF ATLANTIS." bearing a tablet. and compelled bis allies to do the same thing. his Greek In a time of plague he son to Ouranos. after narrating the discoveries by which the people advanced to civilization. of whom one was the inventor of the first three letters. but shows the relations of Egyptian and the Phcenicians. was trius. and the red men of America. practised as we have seen by the Atlantidae of the Old and New Worlds. " And Dagon. the Atlas of Plato in the Atlas of the Poseidon of Plato in the Poseidon of the Phoenicians . while the kings Mestor and Mneseus of Plato are probably the gods Misor and Amynus of the Phoenicians. the Egyptians. tochthon of the Phoenicians the Phoenicians . 309 tarte (Asbtoreth). in the Phcenician legends. who is called the Phoe- .

310 nician. Max " Muller says varieties of one form of primitive language from The Semitic languages also are all Though we do not know that speech. Hebrew from Sanscrit. p. p. or Sanscrit from Hebrew but we can well understand how both may have proceeded from one common source. 475. In the Greek mythology the tenth labor of Hercules consisted in driving away the cattle of Geryon. which the Semitic dialects diverged. They are both channels supplied from one river. would even appear that there was an island of Erythea. 228. but there was a very old city of Erythia. and they carry. . and have already yielded satisfactory results to careful analyzers. though not always on the surface. yet we know that at one We cannot derive time such language must have existed.. Phoenician came loug after and that he was a foreigner. beyond the . and. therefore." vol. as it compared with them . near the coast of Spain. and this has been supposed to mean the Persian Gulf. on the Atlantic its May not this town of Erythia have given name It to the adjacent sea? And this may have been the start- ing-point of the Phoenicians in their European migrations.) . floating materials of language which challenge comparison." vol. in utter ruin in the time of Strabo. East. that could not have been the Phoenicians proper who made the several inventions narrace. which was built in some ancient site age. . rated by Sanchoniathon.) first This would show that the this line of the kings or gods. long before the founding of Gades." (" Outlines of Philosophy of History. but some other from whom the Phoenicians might have been descended. " an island somewhere in the remote west. And in the delivery of their records to the foreigner Osiris." ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WOBLD. (Lenonnant and Chevallier. the god of Egypt. . who lived in the island of Erythea. we have another evidence that Egypt derived her civilization from Atlantis.. There was an ancient tradition among the Persians that the Phoenicians migrated from the shores of the Erythraean Sea. of that town. "Ancient History of the ii. i.

" vol.) The extent of country covered by the nicians represents to Empire. practised The Phoenicians. v. This Atlantean sailor. and at a later date to the Persian Gulf carried — as we have seen the name York from England to the banks of the Hudson. over the Alps. croft's " and used drums. drove them "through (Ibid.) It is Iberia. poisoned their arrows. p. When Columbus discover a new world. the Indians. Strabo sailed to estimated that they had three hundred cities along the west coast of Africa. of gave their name to a town on the coast of Spain. (Ban- Native Races. Pillars of Hercules:' cules stole the cattle 311 (Murray's " Mythology. that from the Atlantic." probable that a people emigratis. sailing from an Atlantean port.. he took his departure from a Phoenician seaport. founded by that great race two thousand five hundred years previously.) Her- from this remote oceanic island. ing from the Erythraean Sea. and water. simply re-opened the path of commerce and colonization which had been closed when Plato's island sunk a curious fact that his in the sea. with his Phoenician features. in common with human sacrifices to a great extent they . or re-discover an old one. and around to Ireland and England . re- turning. adopted the names of the animals whose skins they wore that is to say. commerce of the Phoesome degree the area of the old Atlantean Their colonies and trading-posts extended east and west from the shores of the Black Sea. And it is Columbus had the antediluvian world in mind's eye even then. where civilization in later ages They touched every point made its appearance. and first through Italy. 257. while from north to south they ranged from the Baltic to the Persian Gulf.GODS OF THE PHCENICIANS KINGS OF ATLANTIS. for when he reached the mouth of I . worshipped fire — — offered peace before beginning battle." p. through the Mediterra- nean to the west coast of Africa and of Spain. and then to builders of the Central the Arctic Circle. Gaul. The American cities are reported to have been a bearded race. 11. and. they had the totemic system telegraphed by means of fires.

Who These were great fownders of the loorld — Founders of cities and of mighty states Who showed a path through seas before imkiiown. a branch of the Phoenician stock. Upon the Syrian sea the people live style themselves Phoenicians. the Phoenicians succeeded to their arts. " There are out of Paradise. And sent each wandering tribe far off to share A different soil and climate. In the first ages. To each his first department they bestowed Of land a portion and of sea a lot. Dyonysius of Susiana. Hence arose The great diversity. . 'Mid nations widely severed. . for not only does sition home to here great indications suggesting the proximity of the earthly it correspond in mathematical poprobable." with the opinions of the holy and learned theologians. and especially their commercial supremacy . and hence the close resemblances which we have found to exist between the Hebrews. It would ap- pear probable that. while other races represent the conquests or colonizations of Atlantis. so plainly seen. Greece. . they assigned . sciences. it the Orinoco he thought was the river Gihon. that flowed Spain.d. other signs concur to but all make it Sanchoniathon claims that the learning of Egypt.312 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WOBLD. and the people of America. d?0. 1he first . and he wrote Paradise. Knew not which when the sons of men way to turn them. a. and Judaea was derived from the Phoenicians.

He ed with many of the attributes of the Greek god supposed by some to be identical with him. 14 The date of . is representis Zeus. In the Scandinavian mythology the chief god was Odin. The Cliiapenese of Central America (the people whose language we have seen furnishing such remarkable resemblances to Hebrew) claim to have been the first people of the New World. the Woden. Antiq. OR WOTAN. WODEX. del Messico. OR WOTAN. he was one of those who undertook to build the tower that should reach to heaven. 313 Chapter IY.. i. Igh He built a great city in America called " Nachan. the tivelve ^sir." from his is City of the Serpents (the serpent that tempted Eve was Na- own race. hash). WODEN. He was the father of poetry. 1807. sented as a grave-looking elderly Odin is repre- man with a long beard. or gods. The Scandinavian Olympus was probably Atlantis. that according to the traditions of the Chiapenese there was a Votan who was the grandson of the man who built the ark to save himself and family from the Deluge. the Norse Olympus. which was named Chan. and accompanied by two dogs and two ravens. " He came from the East. This Nachan supposed to have been Palenque. or Wuotan of the Germans. The Lord ordered him to people America. a land half-way between the regions of frost and fire (to wit.TEE GOB ODIN. Ciavigero vol. and Imox. and the inventor of Runic writing." Eug. Wotan. THE GOD ODIN. which arose out of Midgard.) tells us (" Hist. car- rying in his hand a spear. He had been preceded in America by two others. in a temperate climate). trans. and He dwelt with upon Asgard.'''' He brought seven families with him. a serpent.

Phoenicians ures refer to . until and assigned lands to them . . table-cloths. that he ac- cordingly made four voyages Chivim that he arrived in Spain .c. is. chosen captain of It is all these united families. Rome that he saw the house of God building that he went . dishes.. and in the tenth century b. and Gaza. He claims that Cadmus and his wife Hermione were of this stock and according to Ovid they were metamorphosed into snakes (Culebres). that he determined to travel relations. Azotus. 3000 of the his journey is placed in the legends in the year world. xiii. which from its founders received the name of Tzequil . had bored by the road which his brethren. they taught him the knowledge of God and his w^orship his first ideas of a king. he came to the root of heaven and found his the Culebres. and Chiquimala. and made himself known to . them . that this conti- he conducted seven families from Valum-Votan to nent.314 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. verse 4). who were scended of Heth. and Joshua (chap. verse 32). he found seven other families of the Tzequil nation who had joined the first inhabitants. He thinks de- the Chivim of Votan were the Hivim. that he went to . builders of Accaron. and napkins. Mayapan. and obedience to him that he was . deeds. and that he passed by the houses of the thirteen Culebres. basins. Ca- brera claims that the Votanites were Carthaginians. . He relates that. he speaks of the place of the Cu- where they built the first town. son of Canaan. and proofs that he belonged to the tribe of Chanes (serHe states that " he is the third of the Votans . ii. he af- firms that. and rec- ognized in them the same origin as his own. He also founded three whose capitals were Tulan. cups. He wrote a book containing a history of his pents). tributary monarchies. Ascalon. that lebres. in return- ing from one of his voyages. the that he marked it. Culebres." probable that Spain and Rome are interpolations. having taught them the refinement of manners in the use of the table. or Givim. they were the The Scriptthem as Hivites (Givim) in Deuteronomy (chap. to . The name Hivites in Phoenician signifies a snake..

possibly. People very dark. Livingstone's last letters. who accompanied Captain Speke in his famous exploration of the sources of the Nile. This country reminds me of what I saw in the country to the south of the Lake Tanganyika. and so wide four hundred yards that they could see their way tolerably well while passing through it. in them ' . Water never came through from the river overhead it was procured by digging wells. He described Loowemba its to Ooroongoo. 315 he not. OR WOTAN Europe . in the "Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society. and — — . Tall reeds. they could not touch the top." And Captain Grant. WODEN. cable His singular allusion to " a way which the Culebres had bored " seems at first inexpli. His guide Manua describes it to if him he had ever seen any country resembling it. the thickness of a walking-stick.' He and all his party went " I asked Manua I then asked. Manua added that the people of Wambweh take shelter in this tunnel. on the highway between Loowemba and Marunga. and outer angle of eyes slanting inward. or subway. in Some excavations are said to be thirty miles long. the sides of which are similar in precipitousness to the rocks before us. if mounted upon camels. and not letters I otherwise should have gone to see them. There is a river there called the Kaoma. and re- length as having taken them from sunrise till noon to pass through it. 1869. a whole district can stand a siege The writings therein. published 8th No- vember. The rocks looked as if they had been planed by artificial means. but Dr. and so high that. have passed into may have travelled altogether in Africa. near Lake Tanganyika. : through it on their way from turned by it. ' Do they have no boats . and even if they had.THE GOD Votan may ODIN.' ' ' the people cross this river in boats ?' No . . the people could not land. the people. grew inside the road was strewed with white pebbles. and rills ' have running them. I have been told by some of . as the sides are too steep they pass underneath the river by a natural tunnel. tells of a tunnel or subway under the river Kaoraa. His reply was. when travelling with an Arab's caravan from Unjanyembeh. well made. are drawings of animals. . running into the lake." mention that " tribes live in underground houses in Rua.

as we shall see hereafter. it is curious to see the names of Bondvar.) We There are many things to connect the mythology of the Gothic nations with Atlantis. Chaldeans. flood legends . and Votan designating in India. descended from the Zooloo Kafirs. according to the learned researches of Celtic origin. or Wodan. a warlike But little it is book of Votan. their gods Krodo and Satar were the Chronos and . who were closely connected with Poseidon and Atlas and. 148. Cushites. the day of a brief period. evidence that there was actual intercourse between the Old World and the New " in remote ages." this ed. their language has a distinct relationship with the tongues of the Arabians. however reliance we may place in its dates or details. they had. Wodansdag. 1810. with their families and cattle. Odin and Buddha are probably the same person. an American who appears of the same family with the Wods or Odins of the Goths and of the people Since. . Saturn of Atlantis their Baal was the Bel of the Phoenicians." interesting to find in this Watuta. as we have seen. of Sir William Jones. Humboldt remarks have fixed the special attention of our readers upon Votan. when molested by the race.316 live there ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD." p. . and Phoenicians. Scandinavia. and in Mexico (" Vues des Cordilleras.

Where authentic history is silent on the subject. to which all the families of mankind were severally and irresistibly drawn. on the hoariest monoliths and the rudest statuary on coins. . session of every people in antiquity — — . and vases of every description and. on natural rocks and sepulchral galleries. so to say. according to the progress achieved in civilization at the period. AND THE GARDEN OF shown to the EDEN.PYRAMID. Diversified forms of the symbol are delineated more or less artistically. in not a few instances. on the ruined walls of temples and palaces. it is so still in almost every land where that of Calvary is unrecognized Apart from any distinctions of social or intelor unknown. the material relics of past and long since forgotten races are not wanting to confirm and strengthen this supposition. lectual superiority. of caste. or by means of which each and all preserved. the Cross was undoubtedly one of the commonest and most sacred of symbolical monuments. and by which their common descent was emphatically expressed. or location in appears to have been the aboriginal posthe elastic girdle. . 1870. CROSS. medals. THE No fact is CROSS. THE PYRAMID. are preserved in the architectural proportions of subit either hemisphere. which embraced the most widely separated heathen communities the most significant token of a universal brotherhood. a knowledge of the primeval happiness and dignity of their species. upon " this question From the dawn of organized Paganism in the Eastern world to the final establishment of Christianity in the Western. to a remarkable extent. better established than the reverence all sign of the Cross in the ages prior to Christianity. AND GARDEN OF EDEN. 317 Chapter Y. amid every vicissitude of fortune. nationality. and. color. article in the : We can- not do better than quote from an able Edinburgh Review of July.

. hence the most persistent labor. George. we repeat. . terranean as well as superterranean structures. were lavished upon it. and. etc.' in Ojaaca. and distinguished by the familiar appellations of St. the City of the Moon. the Greek. . the Latin. the most consummate ingenuity. having been reconsecrated in later times by their lineal descendants.. Andrew. The marvellous rockhewn caves of Elephanta and Ellora.318 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. are still recognized as military and national badges of distinction. and followers withal of independent and unassociated deities. also excavated in the living rock. " Among the earliest known types is the crux ansata. vulgarly called ' the key of the Nile. made by peoples as intellectually as geographically distinct. a very much older and more sacred signification than this. It was the symbol of as fanes. and pursuits the highly-civilized and the demicivilized. to magnify and perpetuate some grand primeval symbol. of tumuli as well The extraordinary sanctity attaching to the symbol. . . St. of another. ' — . in the West. however. It has. while a third may be instanced in the great temple at Mitzla. . in this and other European states. in every age and under every variety of circumstance. may be cited as characteristic examples of one laborious method of exhibiting it and the megalithic structures of Callernish and Newgrange. Populations of essentially different culture. — — . in the East. the Maltese. " Of the several varieties of the Cross still in vogue. . and the stately temples of Mathura and Terputty. the settled and nomadic vied with each other in their efforts to extend the knowledge of its exceptional import and virtue among their latest posterities. empires. No revolution or other casualty has wrought any perceptible difference in their several forms or delineations they have passed from one hemisphere to the other intact. Central America.. justified any expenditure incurred in its fabrication or embellishment. tastes. have survived dynasties. as national or ecclesiastical emblems. there is not one among them the existence of which may not be They were the common traced to the remotest antiquity. and manifesting the same stupendous labor and ingenuity as are observable in the cognate caverns of Salsette of endeavors. and races have been borne on the crest of each successive wave of Aryan population in its course toward the West. property of the Eastern nations. etc.' because of its being found sculptured or otherwise represented so frequently upon Egyptian and Coptic monuments.




symbols, the mystical Tail, the hidden wisdom,' not only of ancient Egyptians but also of the Chaldeans, Phoenicians, Mexicans, Peruvians, and of every other ancient people commemorated in history, in either hemisphere, and is formed very similarly to our letter T,with a roundlet, or oval, placed imme-

Thus it was figured it. on the gigantic emerald or glass statue of Serapis, which was transported (293
diately above
B.C.) by order of Ptolemy Soter from Sinope, on the southern shores of the Black Sea, re-erected within that famous labyrinth which encompassed the banks of Lake Moeris, and destroyed by the victorious army of Theodosius (a.d. 389), despite the earnest entreaties of the Egyptian priesthood to spare it, EGYPTIAN TAU. because it was the emblem of their god * and of the life to come.' Sometimes, as may be seen on the breast of an Egyptian mummy in the museum of the London only is planted on the frustum of University, the simple a cone ; and sometimes it is represented as springing from a heart; in the first instance signifying goodness; in the secAs in the oldest temond, hope or expectation of reward. ples and catacombs of Egypt, so this type likewise abounds in the ruined cities of Mexico and Central America, graven as well upon the most ancient cyclopean and polygonal walls as upon the more modern and perfect examples of masonry and is displayed in an equally conspicuous manner upon the breasts of innumerable bronze statuettes which have been recently disinterred OBOSS FROM MONUMENTS OF from the cemetery of Juigalpa (of unknown anPALENQUB. tiquity) in Nicaragua."




the Spanish missionaries

first set

foot upon the soil

of America, in the fifteenth century, they were amazed to find

the Cross was as devoutly worshipped by the red Indians as

by themselves, and were
the Evil One.


doubt whether to ascribe the fact
or to the cunning device of
their atten-

to the pious labors of St.


The hallowed symbol challenged


tion on every

hand and




every variety of form.






^— J

peared on the bass-reliefs of ruin-


.-Jr:z^__<^^^ ;;-^



^^ ^^^ deserted as well as on
those of inhabited palaces, and


was the most conspicuous orna-


in the great temple of


zumel, off the coast of Yucatan.

According to the particular


and the purpose which it served, it was formed of various

of marble and gyp;


in the

open spaces of


and by the way-side



in the teocallis or chapels

on pyramidal summits and

in sub-

terranean sanctuaries
of kings and nobles.


and of emerald or jasper

in the palaces

When we

ask the question



comes that the sign of the

Cross has thus been reverenced from the highest antiquity by
the races of the Old and
it is


Worlds, we learn

a reminiscence of the Garden of Eden,

in other words, of Atlantis.

Professor Hardwicke says

"All these and similar traditions are but mocking satires of the old Hebrew story jarred and broken notes of the same strain but with



all their exaggerations they intimate how in the background of man's vision lay a paradise of holy joy paradise secured from every kind of profanation, and made a paradise full of obinaccessible to the guilty jects that were calculated to delight the senses and I I ^—Tj p"^ to elevate the mind a paradise that granted to its tenant rich and rare immunities, and that fed with its perennial streams the tree of life and immor-







To quote again from the writer huryh Review^ already cited

in the




" Its undoubted antiquity, no less tlian its extraordinary difit must have been, as it may be said to be still in unchristianized lands, emblematical of some fundamental doctrine or mystery. The reader will not have failed to observe that it is most usually associated with water; it was
fusion, evidences that

*the key of the Nile,' that mystical instruriient by means of which, in the popular judgment of his Egyptian devotees, Osiris produced the annual revivifying inundations of the sacred stream it is discernible in that mysterious pitcher or vase portrayed on the brazen table of Bembus, before-mentioned, with its four lips discharging as many streams of water in opposite directions it was the emblem of the water-deities of the Babylonians in the East and of the Gothic nations in the West, as
; ;


lation in

mixed popuAmerica. have seen with what peculiar rites the symbol was honored by those widely -separated races in the western hemisphere and the monumental slabs of Nineveh,
well as that of the rain-deities respectively of the



in the


of London and Paris, show us how it was honored by the successors of the Chaldees in the




it was emblematical of creapower and eternity in India, China, and Scandinavia, of heaven and immortality; in the two Americas, of rejuvenescence and freedom from physical suffering while in both hemispheres it was the common symbol of the resurrection, or 'the sign of the life to come ;' and, finally, in all heathen communi14*

" In Egypt, Assyria, and Britain



without exception, it was the emphatic type, tlie sole enduring evidence, of the Divine Unity. This circumstance alone determines its extreme antiquity an antiquity, in all likelihood, long antecedent to the foundation of eith'er of the three And, lastly, we have great systems of religion in the East. seen how, as a rule, it is found in conjunction with a stream or streams of water, with exuberant vegetation, and with a hill or in a word, with a land of beauty, fertilia mountainous region ity, and joy. Thus it was expressed upon those circular and sacred cakes of the Egyptians, composed of the richest materials and with which the serpent of flour, of honey, of milk


other reptiles and beasts consecrated to the service of Isis and their higher
bull, as well as



were daily fed and upon certain festiwere eaten with extraordinary ceremony by the people and their priests. The cross-cake,' says Sir Gardner Wilkinson, *was their hieronrlyph for civilized land:' obviously a land suC5»'r




perior to their own., as

it ivas,

indeed, to all other




was that distant, traditional country of sempiternal contentment and repose, of exquisite delight and serenity, where Nature, unassisted by man, produces all that is
territories; for it

necessary for his sustentation."


this land

was the Garden of Eden of our



was the Olympus of the Greeks, where
" This same mild season gives the blooms to blow,

The buds
In the midst of


harden and the

fruits to


was a sacred and glorious eminence the "toward which the heathen in all parts of the world, and in all ages, turned a wistful gaze in every act of devotion, aifd to which they hoped to be admitted,

umhilicus orhis terrarum

or, rather, to

be restored, at the close of this transitory scene."

In this "glorious eminence" do we not see Plato's mountain in the middle of Atlantis, as he describes

" Near the plain and in the centre of the island there was a mountain, not very high on any side. In this mountain there dwelt one of the earth-born primeval men of that country.



whose name was Evenor, and he had a wife named Lencippe, and they had an only daughter, who was named Cleito. Poseidon married her. He enclosed the hill in which she dwelt all around, making alternate zones of sea and land, larger and smaller, encircling one another; there were two of land and three of water ... so that no man could get to the island. He brought streams of water under the earth to this mountainisland, and made all manner of food to grow upon it. This island became the seat of Atlas, the over -king of the whole island upon it they built the great temple of their nation they continued to ornament it in successive generations, every king surpassing the one who came before him to the utmost
. .



of his power, until they made the building a marvel to behold for size and beauty. And they had such an amount of wealth as was never before possessed by kings and potentates as is not likely ever to be again."


The gardens of x\lcinous and Laertes, of which we read in Homeric song, and those of Babylon, were probably transcripts
of Atlantis.


sacred eminence in the midst of a superless distinctly in al-

abundant, happy region figures more or

most every mythology, ancient or modern. It was the Mesomphalos of the earlier Greeks, and the Omphalium of the
Cretans, dominating the Elysian fields,
in pure, brilliant,

upon whose

tops, bathed


light, the

gods passed their days

in ceaseless joys."

together constitute us that the decussated figure (the cross), whether in a simple or a complex form, symbolizes the traditional happy abode of their primeval ancesthat 'Paradise of Eden toward the East,' as we find it tors expressed in the Hebrew. And, let us ask, what better picture, or more significant characters, in the complicated alphabet of symbolism, could have been selected for the purpo'^c than a circle and a cross the one to denote a region of absolute purity and perpetual felicity the other, those four perennial streams (Edinthat divided and watered the several quarters of it?" burgh Revieiv, January, 1870.)
nearly half the population of the world,

"The Buddhists and Brahmans, who



And when we

turn to the mythology of the Greeks,





that the origin of the worid was ascribed to Okeanos, the ocean.

The worid was at by a great stream


an island surrounded by the ocean, as


"It was a region of wonders of all kinds; Okeanos lived these were the Islands of the there with his wife Tethys Blessed, the gardens of the gods, the sources of nectar and amWithin this circle of water brosia, on which the gods lived.

the earth lay spread out like a disk, with mountains rising from and the vault of heaven appearing to rest upon its outer edge (Murray's " Manual of Mythology," pp. 23, 24, et all around."



the mountains dwelt the gods; they had palaces on these

mountains, with store-rooms, stabling,

of the Hesperides, with their golden apples, were believed to exist in some island of the ocean, or, as it was sometimes thought, in the islands off the north or west coast of

The Gardens

They were far famed in antiquity for it was there Africa. that springs of nectar flowed by the couch of Zeus, and there that the earth displayed the rarest blessings of the gods it was


another Eden."

{Ibid., p. 156.)



in these


" Stern winter smiles on that auspicious clime, The fields are florid with unfading prime, From the bleak pole no winds inclement blow, Mould the round hail, or flake the fleecy snow But from the breezy deep the bless'd inhale The fragrant murmurs of the western gale."

"It was the sacred Asgard of the Scandinavians, springing from the centre of a fruitful land, which was watered by four primeval rivers of milk, severally flowing in the direction of the cardinal points, the abode of happiness, and the height of


It is the



the celestial mountain-land,





enchanted .gardens' of the Chinese and Tartars, watered by the four perennial fountains of Tychin, or Immortality; it is the hill-encompassed Ila of the Singhalese and Thibetians, the ev'

and just.' It is the Sineru of the Buddhist, on the summit of which is Tawrutisa, the habitation of Sekra, the supreme god, from which proceed the four sacred streams, running in as many contrary directions.
erlasting dwelling-place of the wise



the Slavratta, 'the celestial earth,' of the Hindoo, the of his golden mountain Merii, the city of Brahma, in the centre of Jambac?\vlpa, and from the four sides of which gush forth the four prirneval rivers, reflecting in their passage the colorific glories of their source, and severally flowing northward, southward, eastward, and westward."


It is

the Garden of

Eden of the Hebrews


And the Lord God planted a garden eastward in Eden and there he put the man whom he had formed. And out of the ground made the Lord God to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of knowledge of good and evil. And a river went out of Eden to water the garden and from thence it was parted, and became into four heads. The name of the first is Pison that is it which compasseth the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold and the gold of that land is good there is bdellium and the onyx stone. And the name of the second river is Gihon the same is it that compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. And the name of the third river is Hiddekel that is it which goeth toward the east of Assyria. And the fourth river is Euphrates. And the Lord God took the man and put him into the Garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it." (Gen. ii., 8-15.)









the four rivers



Genesis are not branches of any
it is

one stream, and head in very different regions,

evident that

there was an attempt, on the part of the writer of the Book, to

adapt an ancient tradition concerning another country to the


features of the region in which he dwelt.


us (chap,


p. 41),



the garden (of Eden)

was watered by one river, which ran round about the whole earth, and was parted into four parts." Here in the four parts we
see the origin of the Cross, while in the river running


the wonderful canal of Atlantis, described by Plato, which was " carried around the whole of the

the whole earth

we have


and received the streams which came down from the The streams named by Josephus would seem to

represent the migrations of people from Atlantis to



Phison," he
tells us,

" denotes a multitude



ran into

India; the Euphrates and Tigris go


into the

Red Sea;

while the

Geon runs through Egypt."


are further told (chap,


42) that

murder of Abel,

the land of

when Adam, "he

Cain, after the


countries " before he reached the land of




In other land of Nod was to the eastward of Adam's home. words, the original seat of mankind was in the West, that is

Wilson tells us that the Aryans of India believed that they originally came " from the West." Thus the nations on the west of the Atlantic look to while on the east of the Atthe east for their place of origin
to say, in the direction of Atlantis.

lantic they look to the west: thus all the lines of tradition

converge upon Atlantis.

But here


the same testimony that in the Garden of


there were four rivers radiating from one parent stream.


these four rivers, as

we have



find in the Scandinavian


in the legends of the Chinese, the Tartars, the

Singhalese, the Thibetians, the Buddhists, the Hebrews, and


Brahman s.
not only do we find this tradition of the Garden of
in the


Old World, but


meets us also among the


ized races of America.




said to Cortez,


fathers dwelt in that

happy and prosperous place which

they called Aztlan, which means whiteness. ... In this place
there is

a great 7nountain in

middle of the water which
this cause it is called


called Culhuacan, because

has the point somewhat turned

over toward the bottom


and for


which means


crooked mountain.' "


then proceeds

to describe the charms of this favored land, abounding in birds,


fish, trees,

fountains enclosed with elders and junipers,

and alder-trees both large and beautiful."
" maize, red peppers, tomatoes, beans, and
in furroivs.''''

The people planted

kinds of plants,

Here we have the same mountain

in the

midst of the water

which Plato describes


— the

same mountain to which


legends of the most ancient races of Europe refer.


inhabitants of Aztlan were boatmen.
v., p.

(Bancroft's " Na-

tive Races," vol.

E. G. Squier, in his

"Notes on

Central America,"


349, says, " It

a significant fact that in



of their migrations, presented by Gemelli, the place

of the origin of the Aztecs

designated by the sign of water,

Atl standing for Atzlan, a pijramidal temple with grades, and
near these a palm-tree^
attention of

This circumstance did not escape the
says, " I

Humboldt, who


astonished at finding

a palm-tree near this teocalli.
dicate a northern origin.

This tree certainly does not



possibility that

an unskilful

should unintentionally represent a tree of which he had

no knowledge
uity," p. 266.)

so great, that any

hangs upon a slender thread."

argument dependent on it North Americans of Antiq-


Miztecs, a tribe dwelling

on the outskirts of Mexico,

had a tradition that the gods, "in the day of obscurity and
darkness," built

"a sumptuous

palace, a masterpiece of skill,

which they made their abode upon a mountain.

The rock

abode on earth, living many years in great rest and content, as in a happy and delicious land, though the world still lay in obscuThe children of these gods made to themrity and darkness. selves a garden, in which they put many trees, and fruit-trees, and flowers, and roses, and odorous herbs. Subsequently there

was called

The Place


there the gods

came a great
p. 71.)

deluge, in which


of the sons and daughters

of the gods perished."

(Bancroft's " Native Races," vol.

Here we have a distinct- reference to Olympus, the Garden of Plato, and the destruction of Atlantis.


in Plato's account of Atlantis

we have another


tion of the

Garden of Eden and the Golden kgQ of the world and and again the cultivated

" Also, whatever fragrant things there are in the earth, whether roots, or herbage, or woods, or distilling drops of flowers

grew and thrived

in that land




both the edible fruits and other species of food which we call by the name of legumes, and the fruits having a hard rind, affording drinks and meats and ointments all these that sacred island, lying beneath the sun, brought forth For many generations, as long as the divine in abundance. nature lasted in them, they were obedient to the laws, and wellaffectioned toward the gods, who were their kinsmen for they
fruits of the earth,






possessed true and in every way great spirits, practising gentleness and wisdom in the various chances of life, and in their inThey despised everything but virtercourse with one another. tue, not caring for their present state of life, and thinking lightly of the possession of gold and other property, which seemed only a burden to them neither were they intoxicated by luxury nor did wealth deprive them of their self-control but they were sober, and saw clearly that all these goods were increased by virtuous friendship with one another, and that by excessive zeal for them, and honor of them, the good of them is lost, and friendship perishes with them."



All this cannot be a mere coincidence



points to a comrivers flowed


tradition of a veritable land,

where four

opposite directions from a central mountain -peak.


these four rivers, flowing to the north, south, east, and

west, constitute the origin of that sign of the Cross

which we

have seen meeting us at every point among the races who were
either descended from the people of Atlantis, or who, by commerce and colonization, received their opinions and civilization

from them.
Let us look at the question of the identity of the Garden of

Eden with

Atlantis from another point of view

If the alphabet of the Phoenicians is

kindred with the


alphabet, as I think

is clear,

then the Phoenicians were of the

some race with which the Mayas were connectwere from Atlantis. Now we know that the Phoenicians and Hebrews were of the same stock, used the same alphabet, and spoke almost precisely the same language. The Phoenicians preserved traditions, which have come down

race, or of


in other words, they

to us in the writings of Sanchoniathon. in expressing the invention of Amynos. fits in wonderfully with the physiognomy of the race of the Cainites in the Bible narrative. they tell us.PYRAMID. whether we take dXrjrai simply as a Hellenized transcription of the Semitic Elim^ 'the strong. in Sanchoniathon the genealogy does not end with Amynos and Magos. because they " have discovered how to produce fire by the friction of two pieces of wood. who produce Genos and Genea (Qen and Qenath). " who taught to dwell in villages arid rear flocks." In another fragment. In like manner Lamech. and Flame). which are precisely the same as the in terms ohel ujniqneh. given to Agros and Agrotes in the Greek of the Phoenician history. AND GARDEN OF EDEN. These two personages are succeeded by Misor and Sydyk. were Protogonos and Aion (Adam and 'Havath). is a true synonyme of Agrotes.. the wanderers . 14). the released and the ' ' . The two human beings. both in the signification of his name and also in the savage character attributed to him by the legend attached to his memory. and Phlox (Light. v." " And the title of 'AXrjrai. as that of the Cainites in the Bible does with the three sons of Lamech.vag. which the Bible uses speaking of the iv." The connection between these Atlantean traditions and the is shown in many things. from whom again are descended three brothers. iv.' or whether we take it in its Greek acceptation. Agros and Agrotes (Sade and Ced). and this is what is signified by the name of his grandson 'Yirad. Only. 20). dwellings of the descendants of Jabal (Gen. at the origin of the human race we see in succession the fraternal couples of Autochthon and Technites (Adam and Quen — Cain?). Fire.. fathers of the agriculturists and hunters . and have taught the use of this element. CROSS. uses the Bible record words Kojfiag Ka\ 7roip. the mighty. For instance. of tial first all 329 the great essen- inventions or discoveries which underlie civilization. chap.. inventors of the manufacture of bricks. then Amynos and Magos.' for such is the destiny of Cain and his race according to the very terms of the condemnation which was inflicted upon him after his crime (Gen. Phur. named Phos. "the Greek text.

' To Misor is born Taautos (Taut). as given in Genesis then. Pagan in the Idola- and pagodas same category. 'who invent the use of salt. " Genealogies between Adam and the DelContemporary Review. to the eastward. the institutors of naviga(Lenorraant." placed artificial tumuli. but in Atlantis. as the name of the sister of the three sons of Lamech. conceiving that tain all were transcripts of the holy mounin the centre which was generally supposed to have stood . Hebrews and Phoenicians to an island in was the Garden of Eden. to whom we owe letters and and the just' .330 jnst. irresistible that Atlantis who looked the sea. the starting-point of the Aztecs. pyramids. to the west of Europe. we find the original model of all those pyramids which extend from India to Peru. the original seat of the —Na'emah. a pyramid with worshippers kneeling before it. of Eden or. according to the Botturini pictured writing. through their alphabets. the habitation of the gods. or Na'amah. the conclusion becomes and the Garden of Eden were one and the same." uge. in the midst of the picture of Aztlan. but rather the upright (Mishor and ^udiiq). in his " Origin of try. Fifty years ago Mr.) We have. was the same If. 1880. In the Puranas of the Hindoos w^e read of pyramids long anterior in time to any which have survived to our day." the Cabiri or Corjbantes. The Pyramid. ' Sanchoniathon translates them. as intimated in more than one place by . as their starting-point. the fact that the Phoenician name for their goddess Astynome (Ashtar No'eraa). similar erections If Cheops was preceded by a countless host of which have long since mouldered into ruins.' as ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. to Sydyk tion. the reader will turn to page 104 of this work he will see. rather. Faber. whom the Greeks called Nemaun. April. and if the Phoenicians are shown to be connected. with the Central Americans. Not only are the Cross and the Garden of Eden identified with Atlantis. also. — This singular architectural construction dates back far be- yond the birth of history.

iii. east. and trans- by Dr. and which without Atlantis. In a manuscript preserved in the Bodleian Library. They were built with large blocks of marble. 18. 16. in order Two to have some refuge against the approaching calamity.) The pyramid is one of the marvellous features of that probis lem which confronts us everywhere. Abou Balkhi says : "The wise m^^. and amid the forests and plains of America ? And why. the garden itself 331 was situated on an eminence.. should they stand with their sides square to the four cardinal points of the compass ? Are ? they in this. ble that Is it not proba- we have here another . 4. previous to the Mood. and they were so well put together that the joints were scarcely perceptible. and of the four rivers of Atlantis that ran to the north. and west . ioremcmg an impending judgment from heaven. v.. but there are no buildings of such dimensions to be found anywhere in Egypt. of these buildings exceeded the rest in height. 15. being four hundred cubits high and as many broad and as many long. chap.PYRAMID. either by submerfiion or fire. Ixviii.reference to the great record ? preserved in the land of the Deluge of Were not the pyramids Egypt and America imitations of similar structures in AtMight not the building of such a gigantic edifice have lantis ? given rise to the legends existing on both continents in regard to a Tower of Babel ? How it ? did the ? the pyramid human mind hit upon this singular edifice By what process of development did it reach Why should these extraordinary structures crop out on the banks of the Nile. south. Upon the exterior of the building every charm and wonder of physic was inscribed. too. which would destroy every created thing. (Psalms." This tradition locates these monster structures upon the mountains of Upper Egypt. built upon the tops of the mountains in Upper Egypt many pyramids of stone. CROSS. vs. AND GARDEN OF EDEN the Psalmist. Sprenger. and chap. in both countries. a reminiscence of the Cross. insoluble The Arabian lated traditions linked the pyramid with the Flood.

the Olympus of He adds " Thomas view. The megalithic structure of Callernish. is The writer just quoted believes that Mr. This. island of Lewis before mentioned. too. but the Babylonian crux ansata. who occupied the oval or sphere above it. the cone symbolized death as well as life. Mata. mode of expressing a particular primitive truth or mystery from the days of the Chaldeans to those of the Gnostics. of a conical or pyramidal This. He Maurice. to the Assyrian god of fertility. In exceptional instances the cone is introduced upon one or the other of the sides. is yet a third combination that demands a specific is not unfrequently planted upon what Christian archaeologists designate 'a calvary. Isis. the debatable ground between primitive Christianity and philosophic paganism. 1870. like those upon which Jupiter was originally adored. July. to be brief. is the ordinary form of the altars dedicated shape. Astarte. held the same conceived the use to which pyramids in particular . Aphrodite. who is no mean authority.) notice. Faber correct in his opinion that the pyramid in the is a transcript of the sacred mountain which stood Atlantis. or from one extremity of the civilized world to the other. upon a mount or a cone. It is seen in the treatment of the ash Yggdrasill of the Scandinavians. and who inscribed it upon their tombs. In every heathen mythology it was the universal emblem of the goddess or mother of heaven. " There The decussated symbol — If the reader will again turn to will see that the tree appears page 104 of this work he on the top of the pyramid or mountain in both the Aztec representations of Aztlan. in the hemispheres." (£Jdinhurgh Review.' that Thus it is represented in both is. and the several eminences consecrated to her worship were. midst of Eden. or is distinguishable in the always accompanying mystical tree. or Venus . the original island-home of the Central American races. is the most perfect example The mount is preserved to of the practice extant in Europe. as well as in that of the Bo-tree of the Buddhists. the lower member of which constitutes a conical support for With the Gnostics.332 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. by whatsoever name she was addressed whether as Mylitta. The prototype was not the Egyptian. was the recognized conventional this day.

and Maltese Cross. The pyramidal as perhaps the imitations. and which are the counterparts of the Gueber dokhmehs overhanging the Caspian Sea. in the lower valley of the Nile or in the plains of Chaldea. scattered about the shores of lakes Umayu and Titicaca. whether in Africa or Asia. from motives of pride and superstition and the principal chamber in each was used as tombs. was devoted. Hence we may reasonably infer that they served as well for temples for planeSubsequently to the descent tary worship as for observatories. as tombs. both round and square.PYRAMID. the races of the Old World." . constituting a portion of a Cyclopean wall. Those accompaniments. CROSS. graved equally well. connects them with the science of astronomy a science which. which is most elaborately carved in bass-relief on a massive piece of polygonous granite. the Egyptians derived from the Chaldeans. whatever may be their actual date. dear to the hearts of colonists of the sacred mountain upon which their gods dwelt. the Platonic philosopher.' Now. and accompanying it are four tassel -like ornaments. or with whatsoever people they may have originated. are disposed without any par- . their hallowed precincts were invaded by royalty. According to Herodotus. Accordingly. temples. AND GARDEN OF EDEN. and Proclus. to sun and fire worship. the cross is enclosed within the ring. That it was also the religion of their more highly civilized predecessors on the soil. 333 were anciently applied to have been threefold namely. the pyramids of Egypt were unquestionably destined to very opposite purposes. of the shepherds. and observatories and this view he labors to establish in the third volume of his Indian Antiquities. south of the equator more especially. he adds. — ' — . they were introduced by the Hyksos. the well-defined symbol of the On the Mexican feroher before alluded to. we find. among these and other vestiges of antiquity that indissolubly connected those long-since extinct populations in the New with . however. mountain itself was. and was the national religion of the Peruvians at the time of the Conquest. is evidenced by the remains of fire-altars. The same writer says World " That Sabian worship once extensively prevailed in the New is a well-authenticated fact it is yet practised to some extent by the wandering tribes on the Northern continent.

which was demolished in the seventeenth century by the Emperor Aurungzebe.' Yet something not very dissimilar in character to it was formerly the boast of the ancient city of Benares. above which rose a massive structure of a pyramidal form.334 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. reminding us of the temple . which was discovered some time since namely. having succumbed and the fury of the bigoted Mussulman. arms of the cross. with a lofty dome at the centre. and depicted by his friend. " No country in the world can compare with India for the . Baradere. the accounts of some others which have long since disappeared. a hamlet. would sound in our ears as incredible as the story of Porsenna's tomb. We allude to the great temple of Bindh Madhu.' and made ' Ossa like a wart. engraved on a tablet of gypsum. The body of the temple was constructed in the figure of a colossal cross (^. with balconies at stated distances for places of rest. . has preserved a brief description of it. M. and a couple of bead-annulets or rosaries are. bors of Egypt are rivalled. and which is described at length by its discoverer. identical in even the minutest particular with an Asticular regard to order. but also with other symbols very similar in style to those inscribed on the obelisks of Egypt and on the monoliths of this country. and sometimes surpassed. but for the fact of such monuments of patient industry and unexampled skill being still in existence. Captain du Paix. e. on the banks to the ravages of lime of the Ganges. The same regularity is observable on a much smaller but not less curious monument. which ' o'ertopped old Pelion. neverand accurately point to the cardinal quarters. and which were ascended from the outside by steps. Tavernier. the sides of which are profusely ornamented.. Here the accompaniments a shield. severally — — — syrian monument emblematical of the Deity. Andrew's Cross). in an ancient Peruvian huaca or catacomb or pandean pipe. The like figure occurs on the equally ancient Otrusco black pottery. not only with Maltese crosses. exposition of the pyramidal cross. but tlie four theless. . But by far the most remarkable example of this form of the Cross in the New World is that which appears on a second type of the Mexican feroher. At the four extremities of the cross there were four other pyramids of proportionate dimensions. There the stupendous laIndeed. cut out of a solid mass of lapis ollaris. who travelled thither about the year 1680. the French baron. with a single exception. a St. a syrinx.

and covers between twelve and thirteen acres. the line through the cen- tres of the structures is in the astronomical meridian . is 746 feet square." The most ancient pyramids in Mexico are at Teotihuacan. one within the other. . In Mexico pyramids were found everywhere. So about 200 feet high. acres. while that of Cholula covers nearly four times as mid. measured by Humboldt. with a level area at the summit. much space. are described at length in the well-known work by Maurice. on the Coromandel coast. letter to Charles V. of Beliis. Their temples were on those "high places.FYHAMIB. 450 feet high. each built of cut stone. including the subterranean temple at Elephanta and the caverns of Ellora and Salsette. This and many others. the structures are orientated with slight variation 3. and four stages lead- ing up to it. follows: the site chosen is the same. and covers an area of eleven that is it appears that the base of the Teotihuacan structure nearly as large as that of Cheops. as 1. eight leagues from the city of Mexico cated to the . and as many pyramidal gate-ways in the midst of each side which forms the limbs of a vast cross. cm OSS. as described in the pages of Herodotus. 2. who adds that. states that Cortez. round the central quadrangle. besides these. The larger one is 680 feet square at the base. there were seven lofty walls. there was yet another device in which the Hindoo displayed the all . the . Cheops. The Cheops pyramuch in height both the American Serior Garcia y Cubas thinks the pyramids of Teotihuacan (Mexico) were built for the same purpose as those of Egypt. on the banks of the Jumna. 4." . The Pyramid of Cholula. AND GAMDEN OF EDEN. is 160 feet high. exceeds very structures. the two largest were dedi- sun and moon respectively. 1400 feet square at the base.are found at Mhuttra. 335 The re- mains of a similar building.pervading sign this was by pyramidal towers placed crosswise. and covers forty -five acres! The great pyramid of Egypt. He considers the analogy established in eleven particulars. however. At the famous temple of Chillambrura. in a he counted four hundred of them at Cholula..

or flattened at rule. In the thir- teenth century the Dominican Brocard visited the ruins of the Phoenician city of Mrith or Marathos. they are truncated. " this form of temple (the found. flat-topped) has been found from Mesopotamia to the Pacific Ocean. 9.) top. 6." The Phcenicians also built pyr-amids. It is Ensayo de un Estudio. both pyramids have a small mound joined to one of their faces. in . p. the openings discovered in the Pyramid of the Moon are also found in some Egyptian pyramids. but this is not an universal " In many of the ruined cities of Yucatan one or more pyramids have been found upon the summit of which no traces of any building could be discovered. like the Mexican.336 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD." And there is in Egypt another form of pyramid called the mastaba. 58. their sides forming equilateral (Bancroft's " Native Races.) Bradford thinks that " some of the Egyptian pyramids. There is also some reason to believe that perfect pyramids have been found in America. v." as in Teotihuacan there the dead . Waldeck found near Palenque two pyramids in a state of perfect preservation. square at the base. is construction in grades and steps the same ." vol. 5. the smaller mounds are of the same nature and for the same purpose.") in that objected that the American edifices are different in form from the Egyptian. was flattened on the top while in Assyria structures flattened like the Mexican are " In fact. constructed of blocks of stone from twenty-six to twenty- . although upon surrounding pyramids such structures could be found. which.. the top . are precisely similar to the Mexican teocallV (" North Americans of Antiquity " p. both cases the larger pyramids are dedicated to the sun " a valley of the dead." 7. is the Nile has " a street of some monuments . and speaks in the strongest terms of admiration of those pyramids of surprising gran- deur. 10. and those which with some reason it has been supposed are the most ancient." says one writer. the interior arrangements of the pyramids (" are analogous. in each class have the nature of fortifications 8. and thirty triangles. 423. 11. pointed at the -one feet high.

according to Almarez." says Ferguson. " we still hesitate to pronounce that there was any connection between the builders of the pyra- mids of Suku and Oajaca. 144. at a point sixty-nine feet lery large from the base. eight feet long. 15 . The Pyramid of Teotihuacan. a gal- enough to admit a man crawling on hands and knees. whose thickness exceeded the stature of a 337 tall man. AND GARDEN OF EDEN. and difficult to account for on the theory of mere accidental coincidence. ("Prehistoric Nations. or the temples of Xochialco and Boro Buddor." The Egyptian pyramids all stand with their sides to the car- dinal points. we must at least allow that the likeness is startling. CROSS. has." p.PYRAMID. The Egyptian pyramids were penetrated by small passage-ways so were the Mexican. while many of the Mexican pyramids do likewise.) " If.

Lowenstern PYEAMIDS OF TEOTIUUAOAN. and con- nects with other passage-ways leading up into the body of the pyramid. Bancroft (" Native Races. each five feet square. . according to Mr. and that other cross-galleries are blocked up by debris. on an incline. feet.. which extends inward." is vol. a distance of twenty-five and terminates in two square wells or chambers. states. that "the gallery one hundred and fifty -seven feet it long. increasing in height to over six feet and a half as penetrates the pyramid . extending (apparently) down to the base and up to the sum- mit. iv. inches high. Mr. 533)." In the Pyramid of Cheops there is a similar opening or pas. p. sage-way forty-nine feet above the base it is three feet eleven . and three feet five and a half inches wide leads it down a slope to a sepulchral chamber or well. and one of them fifteen feet deep.338 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WOULD. that the well is over six feet square.

W" [ ..':!..


It connected with ramparts. in Egypt. is is found an is artificial mound one hundred and seventy feet high. kindred to the pyramids. avenues (fourteen hundred and eighty yards . the pyramids of Meidoun Dachhour. at Avebury. AND GAIWEN OF ED EX. Humboldt considered Pyramid of Chokila of the same type as the Temple of Jupiter Belus.FTRIMID. and the group of Sakkarah. GEEAT PYRAMID OF XOOCU. 341 In both the Eg3'ptian and the American pyramids the outside of the structures was covered with a thick coating of the smooth. earthworks and mounds. MEXICO. shining cement. Silsbury Hill. CROSS. even in England. In both of sepulture America and Egypt the pyramids were used as places and it is a remarkable fact that the system of .

where the first men dwelt in primeval peace and happiness. We find everywhere among the European and American naof an tions the memory Eden of the race. We have found the stone vaults at the base of similar truncated pyramids in Ohio. and the earth raised over them in pyramids flattened on the top. long). We find the emblem of the Cross in pre-Christian times venerated as a holy symbol on both sides of the Atlantic and we find it explained as a type of the four rivers of the happy island . Is it possible to all these extraordinary coincidences to be the result of accident? We might just as well say that the similarities between the American and English forms of government were not the that result of relationship or descent. We find the pyramid on both sides of the Atlantic. and in the Aztec representation of Olympos suppose (Aztlan) we find the pyramid as the central and typical figure. circular ditches. and that the parent form of these curious structures is to be found in Silsbury Hill.342 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. with its four sides pointing. like the arms of the Cross. and in the mounds of earth of Central America and the Mississippi Valley. almost identical with In Ireland the those found in the valley of the Mississippi. and stone circles. and necessariiv reached the same . to the four cardinal points —a reminiscence of Olympus. dead were buried in vaults of stone. They were called " moats " by the people. where the civilization of the race originated. but men placed in similar circumstances had spontaneously results. and which was after- ward destroyed by water. There can be no doubt that the pyramid was a developed and perfected mound.

Articles India Cakes of Salt. GOLD AND SILVER THE SACRED METALS OF ATLANTIS. and eggs. West India Islands (1500) Massachusetts Indians Virginia (1700) British Wampum Tobacco. chocolate. tea. The Lacedemonians The Burman Empire Russia (1828 to 1845) Lead. . and whiskey. lous instrument to which civilization. Codfish. . West India Islands . Ancient Romans " Greece Nails of copper and iron. snuff. Money is the instrumentality by which man is lifted it above the limitations of barter. days) Coon-skins. 343 Ceiapter YI. " the Caesars) .GOLD AND SILVER SACKED METALS OF ATLANTIS. Central South America Soap. following is The a table of some of them of Utility. Rome " (under ( Xuma Pompilins) Wood and Land. Platinum. Cocoa-nuts." Baron Storch terms " the marvel- we are indebted for our wealth and It is interesting to inquire into the various articles which have been used in different countries and ages as money.Pins. leather. Cattle. Bornoo (Africa) Ancient Russia Cotton shirts. and rausket-balls. Iron. China Abyssinia Iceland and Newfoundland Illinois (in early Pieces of silk. Skins of wild animals.

and ^vhy it is that gold is regarded as so much more valuable than It was impossible to make silver. cocoa-nuts. gun-metal. Leather. Nothing astonished the American races .344 ATLANTIS: TUE ANTEDU. of values — as money for they can always be converted into articles of use and weapons of war.UVIAN WORLD. trees. silk. Ancient Jews The Indian Islands and Africa Cowrie shells. England (under James South Sea Islands II. salt. when the stamp of the government is impressed upon paper. . and hammers or those articles for which there was a foreign demand. evident that every primitive people uses as money those articles upon whicli they set the highest value — as cattle. Jewels. axes. cotton shirts. pasteboard. musket-balls. and hence find iron. we and lead coming into use as a standard . Axes and hammers. whiskey. But when we ask how it chanced that gold and silver came to be used as money. — wood. no answer presents itself. a metal-working people. and which they could trade off to the merchants for articles of necessity as tea. pins. brass. jew- els. Articles of Ornament. Carthaginians Ancient Britons and iron. Conventional Signs. copper. they were not necessarily more beautiful than glass or the combinations of tin and copper. snuff.) and pewter. manufacturing weapons of iron or copper. China (1200) It is Bark of the mulberry-tree. and tobacco. will seek for the useful metals. slaves. Articles of Utility — Continued. either of them into pots or pans. Holland (1574) Pieces of pasteboard. and these articles are When they need a civilized nation comes in contact with a barbarous people they seek to trade with them for those things which . slaves. codfish. coonThen there is a later stage. tin. Tin. skins. Cattle. leather. swords or spears . or the bark of given a legal-tender character.

And probably they be- the origin of the comparative value of these metals came the precious metals because they were the sacred metals. but they used them as sacred metals for the adornment of the temples of the sun and moon. We can understand this. the very ewers. and then ran for his life to the woods lest the sailor should repent his bargain and call him back. the agricultural implements used in the garden of the temple —were of gold and silver. set upon gold and it. The Mexicans had coins of tin shaped like a letter T. and hence they were respectively sathis is : cred to the gods of the sun and moon. 345 more than the extraordinary value the Spaniards . All these nations were familiar with gold and silver. pipes. literally a mine of gold. The to one value of the jewels which adorned the temple ! was equal that riches of the The hundred and eighty millions of dollars kingdom can be conceived when we remember from a pvramid in Chimu a Spanish explorer named 15* . This too we can understand." — Walls. Gold. and it may have been the highest type of metallic value among them. Avhile the mild moon was simply an attendant upon the sun. as I have shown. while the color of silver resembled the pale light of the moon. The color of gold was something of the color of the sun's rays. and gold was more valuable than silver just as the sun-god was the great god of the nations. and aqueducts — even all were of gold. statuary." It was not used among the people for ornament or money. The Peruvians called gold " the tears wept by the sun. plate. The great temple of the sun at Cuzco was called the " Place of It was. cornices. silver by they could not understand A West Indian savage traded a handful of gold-dust with one of the sailors ac- companying Columbus for some tool.GOLD AND SILVER SACRED METALS OF ATLANTIS. A round copper coin with a serpent stamped on it was found at Palenque. ornaments. for copper was nec- essary in every work of art or utility. for tin was necessary to them in hardening their bronze implements. and T-shaped copper coins are very abundant in the ruins of Central America.

The same process doubtless led to tbe vast accumulations in tbe temples of Atlantis. people could offer tbeir civilized customers and as tbe reverall ence for tbe great burning orb of tbe sun.346 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. and tbey were used to ornament tbe temples and tbus tbe work of accumulatino* tbe sacred metals went on from o-enerin part in . American Antiquities. Gold and silver were not valued in Peru for any intrinsic usefulness . weaker. Tbis view is confirmed by tbe fact tbat tbe root of tbe word by wbicb tbe Celts. so was tbe demand for tbe metal sacred to tbe sun ten times as great as for tbe metal sacred to tbe moon. was tenfold as great as tbe veneration for tbe smaller. in 1577. master of tbe manifestations of nature. $4.450. ("New Toledo took. American Cyclopaedia. we may conclude tbat tbey is were known to tbe Atlanteans. and variable goddess of tbe nigbt." art. witb less all as tbe Atlanteans carried on an immense commerce tbe countries of Europe and Western Asia. tbey were regarded as sacred because reserved for tbe two great gods of tbe nation. as described by Plato. tbey doubt- inquired and traded for gold and silver for tbe adornment of tbeir temples. ation to generation. and tbey tbus produced a demand for and gave a value to tbe two metals otherwise comparatively useless to man —a value bigber tban any otber commodity wbicb tbe . As we fairly find gold and silver mined and worked on botb sides of tbe Atlantic at tbe earliest periods of recorded bistory.) The gold and silver of Peru largely contributed to form tbe metallic currency upon wbich Europe bas carried on ber commerce during tbe last tbree bundred years.284 in gold and silver. confirmed by wbo represents a condition of tbings in Atlantis exactly like tbat wbicb Pizarro found in Peru. and tbis view tbe statements of Plato. . Now. were paid to tbe Inca In Peru tbe annual taxes of tbe people gold and silver from tbe mines. less Doubt- tbe vast accumulations of gold and silver in botb countries were due to tbe fact tbat tbese metals were not permitted to be used by tbe people.

. It is referred to repeatedly in stages. precisely as the physicians the wish taking the place of the prayer. because for thou- sands of years their savage ancestors had used it to the evil spirits out of the man. silver Moon). ^^ the color of the sun. to pass that. p. fifty years ago.) is The custom of wishing. to this day or a courtesy. it probably a survival of moon-worship. And thus has come of Europe. consequent upon an increasing population." the vol. . purple (Jupiter) (the .) (Lenormant's "Ancient " In England. vermillion (Mars) . as well as History of the East. blue (Mercury) (the i. black (Saturn).'''' Anfirst thropology. is measured by the standard of a currency limited by natural ble of laws. when one new moon. draw away modern dependent upon the superstition of a past civilizaand the bankers of the world are to-day perpetuating the adoration of "the tears wept by the sun" which was com- menced ages since on the island of Atlantis. A pyramid bethe Greeks. which means.." 463. and a civilization advancing with giant steps. sees the p. and the longing to the palace of Nineveh the inscriptions. decreasing annually in production.OOLD AND aiLVER SACRED METALS OF ATLANTIS 347 Romans designated gold was the Sanscrit word karat. the least important being at the base: white (Venus). practised bleeding. new moon is saluted with a * bow the curious practice of turning one's silver. equal in it was composed of seven height. " a dif- ferent color representing each of the heavenly bodies.'''' Among the Assyrians gold and silver were respectively consecrated to the sun and moon precisely as they were in Peru. 361.' which seems a (Tylor's " relic of the offering of the moon's proper metal. expanding proportionately to the growth of the world— this Atlantean superstition whether may not yet inflict more incalculable injuries on mankind than those which resulted from the practice of phlebotomy. so the business of our civilization is tion. and each one smaller in area than the one beneath each stage was covered with stucco of different colors. And it becomes a grave question — when we remember that and incapa- the rapidly increasing business of the world. and gold Sun).

we natives will making such voyages in open suppose that there was no original connection between the inhabitants of the main-land and of Atlantis. a people possessed of ships could readily pass from island to island until they reached the continent. Chapter I. Columbus found the canoes. and this region. created colonies along the shores of the Gulf which gradually spread into the table -lands of Mexico. then. w^e have seen this illustrated in modern times in the case of the English East India Company and the Hud- son Bay Company. PART V. . and to the high find. we in the East. THE COLONIES OF ATLANTIS. the commercial activity of the Atlanteans would soon implies the reveal to them the shores of the Gulf.348 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WOJiLV. the trading-post always the nucleus of a settlement. Commerce is plantation of colonies. accordingly. interior. Honduras and Mexico. as I And. We can therefore readily believe that commercial intercourse between Atlantis and Yucatan. where their ancestors had many generations. as the source of their first civilized people. known among them dwelt in peace for as " Aztlan. that all the traditions of Central America and Mexico point to some country and beyond the sea. THE CENTRAL AMERICAN AND MEXICAN COLONIES. have already shown. The western shores of Atlantis were not far distant from the West India Islands. If." lived in the memory of the people as a beautiful and happy land.

349 Dr. . and have often seen Indians of pure blood with blue eyes. Lc Plongeon.THE CENTRAL AMEBICAX AND MEXICAN COLOXIEH. and had attaincivilization. longed to the white who is now explor- ing the ruins of Central America. 1881. " One-third of this tongue (the Maya) is pure Greek. as in and pal- forming continuous the streets of modern cities. " The . The long avenue on the land of mysteries . . not inferior in size to those At Teotihuacan he measured one building two side." of " the ocean of ruins of Egypt." . at first covered with heaps of ruins is — ruins which make no impression.. over a space of five or six is miles in diameter. which aces. ed to a high degree of higher even than that of Eu. I place. Who brought the dialect of Homer to America? or who took to Greece that of the Mayas ? Greek is the offspring of the Sanscrit. the whole ground.. Is Maya? or are they coeval? The Maya is not devoid of words from the Assyrian. stands is lined with ruins of public buildings lines. " with a big head and a heavy beard." He asserts the great antiquity of these ruins. each city is indeed of nearly as large in the base as Cheops. there can be no question it and is also probable. because he found the very highways of the ancient city to be composed of broken bricks and pottery. all these edifices and halls were as nothing compared with the vast substructures which strengthened their foundations. Still." Quetzalcoatl was represented as large. have showrl. thousand feet wide on each vast extent and fifteen pyramids." he says (page 43). I p. "The Toltecs were fair. robust. that they originally beDesire Charnay. says who spent four years exploring Yucatan. rope in the time of Columbus. I include That the population of Central America (and in this term Mexico) was at one time very dense." . bearded. so complete their dilapidation." all The same author speaks (page 44) around. the debris left by earlier populations. . January. . as I race. " This continent. 48). says {North American Revieio. . " is here enter an infinity whose limits shall soon have to quit work in this it we we cannot estimate.

the the Egyptian mummies. in a fossil state. pp. There were thirty grand nobles in the kingdom. they with the same sacrifices of fruits and flowers. The forms of sepulture were the same as known among . in- immense antiquity. same resemblances present monarchy. the ancient races of the Old of their great men. 524. and enclosed the dust in funeral urns World. in vastncss of the realm may be judged by the fact that each of these could muster one hundred thousand vassals from their . both peoples used the arch in both continents we find bricks. oxen. and even porcelain (North American Review. sheep. December. " with blue figures on a white ground . and many were embalmed to Mexico. dlesticks. they raised and w^ove cotton . like that of Pofrom the royal family by the votes of the nobles of the kingdom. Desire Charnay believes that he has found dicating an in the ruins of Tula the bones of swine. they cultivated fruits . the sculptures are alike. both animals not in America. 525). There was a royal famielective The government was an land. made same elements of copper and tin in like proportions coins of copper. 1880. the cement is the same. like that of Atlantis. . glassware. they burnt the bodies some like of their dead were buried in a sitting position. round and T-shaped. and even metallic can. used the sign of the Cross extensively precious stones. and the people. others reclined at full length. they cut and engraved among their carvings have been fonnd repre- sentations of the elephant and the lion. a privileged priesthood." also bronze composed of the We cient .350 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WOULD. an aristocracy. as described by Plato. and horses. The Toltecs possessed a pure and simple ers religion. they were farm. and a common which society Here we have all the several estates into Europe is divided. find the stroiiirest resemblances to the works of the anEuropean races: tlie masonry is similar. the king being selected ly. When we turn themselves. a judiciary.

presided over by the king. to which the last ap- The rites of marriage. own to estates. They even possessed that which has been considered the crowning featuie of European society. tence of the court. all the judges of the realm. the feudal system. 351 And we have only to read of the vast hordes brought into the field against Cortez know that this was not an exaggeration. after a patient liearing of the parties. and even other slaves. or a total of three millions. congress. absolution of When their children were named. " were celebrated with as much formality as in any Christian country. Their religion possessed so many features similar to those of the Old World. There was consisting of peal lay. and "the Lord was implored holy drops to wash away the sin that was given foundation of the world. lips and to permit the it bosoms with water. judiciary. that the Spanish priests declared the devil had given them a bogus imitation of Christianity to destroy their souls. The But the most striking feature was the organization of the The judges were independent even of the king. and magistrates chosen by the people throughout the country." said they. They practised . nobles held their lands upon the tenure of military service. they sprinkled their and baptism. and life. Divorces could not be obtained until authorized by a senSlavery was tolerated. The slave could own property. and the in such reverence that a tribunal institution was held was insti- tuted for the sole purpose of determining questions relating to it." says Prescott." sins. " stole all he could. and his children were free. or parliament. held every eighty days.THE CENTRAL AMERICAN AND MEXICAN COLONIES. but the labors of the slave were light." before the The priests were numerous and powerful. judges in each of the provinces. "The devil. They had confessions." his rights carefully guarded. held their offices for There were supreme judges for the district larger divisions of the kingdom. " also a general legislative assembly.

like the Egyptians. evincing no slight progress in civilization. their mythol- ogy. They appear to have been treated with much consideration by their husbands. embroidery. They wrote on cotton -cloth. and passed their time in indolent tranquillity. prepared like parchment. The Aztecs. black hair might generally be seen wreathed with flowers. though with a serious and rather melancholy cast of countenance. size Their books were about the and shape of our own. Their long. monastic seclusion. and the courts strewed with odoriferous herbs and flowers.352 ATLAXTIS: THE AXTEDILUVIiy WORLD. made from the aloe. flagellations. and rituals. They wrote poetry and cultivated oratory. Cotton napkins and ewers of water were placed before them as they took their known . and the phonetic. Their proficiency in astronomy cott: is thus spoken of by Pres- festivals fix "That they should be capable of accurately adjusting their by the movements of the heavenly bodies. on skins silk and gum." says the same author. The halls were scented with perfumes. could be the result only of a long series of nice and patient observations." " Their women. with strings of precious stones and pearls from the Gulf of California. They also had a species of theatrical performances. and paid much attention to rhetoric. or. vigils. but the leaves were long strips folded together in many folds. the all symbolical. which were distributed in profusion among the guests as they arrived. and should the true length of the tropical year with a precision unto the great 2>hilosophers of antiquity. while their maidens beguiled the hours by the rehearsal of traditionary tales and ballads. or in such feminine occupations as spinning. their political annals and their chronology. " are described by the Spaniards as pretty. their tribute-rolls specifying the various imposts. astronomical calendars. had progressed through all the three different modes of writing —the picture-writing. and the like. among the richer people. and many of them lived in fasts. "Numerous attendants of both sexes waited at the banquets. on a composition of on a species of paper. and soft and beautiful. They recorded their laws.

AMEBIOA with vases of silver and sometimes gold of delicate workmanship. mixed at the board. The fermented juice of the maguey. The favorite beverage was chocolatl.THE CENTRAL AMERICAN AND MEXICAN vseats: COLONIES. in pipes. 353 Tobacco was then offered. regaled by confections and pastry. The meats were The table was ornamented kept warm with chafing-dishes. cially "The OOMMOX FOEM OF AKOU. pal- . espegame. with aromatic substances. bridges. with a mixture of sweets and acids. Aztecs also took the dried tobacco leaf in the pulverized form of snuff. their floating gardens. forts. their aqueducts. or in the form of cigars inserted in It is a curious fact that the tubes of tortoise-shell or silver. table was well supplied with substantial meats. temples. for which their maize-flower and sugar furnished them ample materials. among which the most conspicuous was the turkey. Also." It is not necessary to describe their great public works. OENTKAT. there were found vegetables and fruits of every delicious Their palate was still further variety native to the continent. flavored with vanilla and different spices. supplied various agreeable drinks of different degrees of strength.

We used find a strong resemblance form of arch is in the architecture of Central America and that of the oldest buildings of Greece. SECTION OF THE TREASURE-HOUSE OF ATREUS AT MYCEN. as shown in the picture . aces. fill It in the arch itself with was the custom of these ancient architects to masonry. The Palenque arch made by the gradual overlapping of the strata of the building." page 100.E. all ornamented with wonderful between tlie stat- uary. and gigantic pyramids. as shown in the accompanying cut from Baldwin's " Ancient America.354 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.



or civilization." p. at Mycenae." linson's " Origin of Nations. prosperity. "Etruscan vaults are of two kinds. the Etruscans. 117." p. at Cervetere. under Eu- ropean to rule. but courses of stone are laid horizontally over one another in such a way that each course projects beyond the one below it. Rosengartcn (" Architectm*al Styles.THE CENTRAL AMERICAN AND MEXICAN COLONIES. in conclusion." . If 357 now we look at the representation of the "Treasure-house of Atreus" on page 354 Greece — we — one of the oldest structures in arch. on page 355 of the Arch of Las Monjas. form an arch. formed of horizontal courses of stone. however.) It is sufficient to say. or under her own leaders. Of all those that have survived to the present day the treasure-house at Atreus is the most venerable. filled in in find precisely the same form of the same way. Such is the construction of the Regulini-Galassi vault. and carried on until the aperture at the top could be closed by a single superincumbent slab. 59) says base of these treasure-houses is circular. The more curious and probably the most ancient are false arches. . has never again risen her former standard of refinement. and the covering of a dome shape it does not. till the space at the highest course becomes so narrow that a single stone covers it. the ancient Cajre. each a little overlapping the other. "The The same form of arch is found among the ruins of that interesting people. Palenqne. that (Raw- Mexico. wealth.

" wit. to wit. from whom the Egyptians were descended. owed their own The Phoenician legends show that Misor. According to the Bible. According to the traditions of the Phoenicians. The The fact that the Egyptians claimed to be red men. the Egyp- tians derived their civilization from them . Noah who escaped from the Deluge. and gave all Egypt to the god Taaut. Chapter II. Rama. 3. the inventor of the alphabet. the god letters. tells Sanchoniathon us that " Chronos (king of Atlantis) visited the South. THE EGYPTIAN COLONY. the god of history of the Egyptians. Misor gave birth to Taaut. 2. the sun of the Hin- . and Taaut became Thoth. which must have meant the twelve gods of Atlantis. religion of Egypt was pre-eminently sun-worship. The great similarity between the Egyptian civilization and that of the American nations. who was one 4. 6." "Misor" is probably the king "Mestor" named by Plato. the Egyptians were descendants of the three sons of of Ham. the destruction of Atlantis. proofs have we that the Egyptians were a colony from Atlantis? They claimed descent from "the twelve great gods. What 1. was the child of the Phoenician gods of Amynus and Magus. and Ra was the sun-god of Egypt. and as the Egyp- tians far antedated the rise of the Phoenician nations proper. to Poseidon and Cleito and their ten sons. that it might be his kingdom. 5. tliis must have meant that Egypt derived its civilization from the same country to which the Phoenicians origin.358 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WOULD.

sea. S. and the Atlanteans must have brought that knowledge to them. Poole. which we have seen was an island in the remote ivest. 1881. 18). (R. Rana. the abode of the blessed. beneath the ing into the Atlantic. sion always crossed a to the west. was Atlantis." (Ibid. and Rayani. 17. to which the peasants of Brittany looked from Cape Raz. "To the west.^^ The Egyp- . Raymi. he was expected to cultivate the earth " this task was of su- preme importance.) The Elysian Fields were the " Elysion " of the Greeks. The soul of the dead man was supposed to journey to the under-world by "a loater progress^'' (Ibid. most cases.) In the procession was "a sacred ark of the sun. a god of 7. Contemporary Me- August. whenever possible." All this is very plain: the under -world in the West. and was only to be reached from Egypt it was associated with' the ark. the world beneath the horizon. The Egyptians were the only people of antiquity who were well-informed as to the history of Atlantis. tbe great the sun of the Peruvians. They were not likely We find another proof of the descent of the Egyptians This from Atlantis were Nile. where mighty corn grew. Yemen.. a 359 festival of god of the Toltecs. doos. all in their belief as to the " under-world. on the west bank of the Nile. 8." v/e?^.THE EGYPTIAN COLONY. The presence of pyramids in Egypt and America.. the Nile was crossed where they were on the eastern shore the procession as in . and where . the emblem of Atlantis in all lands. —hence the tombs on the west bank of the as the funeral pro- The constant cry of the mourners cession moved forward was. to send ships to Atlantis." This under-world was beyond the water. The Egyptians were never a maritime people. the most western cape projectIt by crossing the water. -p. the drowned world. p. p. "Where the tombs were. passed over a sacred lake." land of the dead was situated in the West placed. his destination was the Elysian Fields. hence the funeral proces- body of water. 19. the land of the dead. 9.

* est men that ever lived." Everywhere " it in the ancient world we find the minds of men looking to the west for the land of the dead. and rivers. to man is since he had inhabited the globe. The fruits of investigation in this. connection with this we must not forget that Plato de- scribed Atlantis as " that sacred island lying beneath the sun. Instead of exhibiting the rise and progress of any branches of knowledge." a world comprising millions of the dead. indeed. that had been suddenly swallowed up in the greatest catastrophe known 10. but that everything is referable to the very earliest dates. a mighty race. p. "Till lately it was believed that the use of the papyrus for writing was introduced about the time of Alexander the Great then Lepsius found the hieroglyphic sign of the papyrus-roll on monuments of the twelfth dynasty afterward he found the same sign on monuments of the fourth dynasty. mountains. as in many other subjects. one of a tlie latter was called Uranes. .360 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. Poole says. civilization of Egypt was must have been transported there To use the words of a recent writer in Blackwood. developed in Egypt from some otiier country. the protomonarch and. tian belief referred to a real country they described its cities." It {Contemporary Review. it There no evidence that the itself. ? How then can we account for this strong conviction survival of an ancient belief Surely in the must be a which flowed very veins of the race. 1881. they tend to prove that nothing had any rise or progress.) was based on an universal tradition that under "an imin " the far west." there mense ocean. little doubt is entertained that the art of writing on papyrus was understood as early as the days of Menes himself.' but that as soon as men were planted on the banks of the Nile they were already the clever. 19. The experience of the Egyptologist must teach him to reverse the observation of Topsy. which is getting back pretty close to Menes. endowed ivith power than their successors for centuries more knowledge and more and centuries could at- ." was an " under-world. . and to 'spcct that nothing growed. are truly most marvellous. In name which reminds all us of the Atlantean god Uranos.

is found to have been complete from the very first. along which the civilization of Atlantis. in which we may admire the germ that has breaks his shins against since developed into a wonderful art an article so perfect that it equals if it does not excel the supreme stretch of modern ability ? How shall we support the theory if it come to our knowledge that. but have seen her in her very earliest manifestations ." . — — . We The explanation is simple: the waters of the Atlantic all now flow over the country where this magnificence and power were developed by slow stages from the rude beginnings of barbarism. philosophers and astron- omers. . illuminated and illustrated by the most complete and continuous records of human history.THE EGYPTIAN COLONY. savage Egypt. and that their achievements were for magnitude such as. Light may yet be thrown upon her rise and progress. . if we possess the requisite skill. artists and artisans. for speculation never find them without the ability to organize labor. that they possessed it is matter of fact. As 16 far back in the ages as the . in quarrying rock. before Noah was cold in his grave. glorious with temples and pyramids. and strong. to Europe. to Rome. 361 tain to. . g-rubbing in the dust and silt of five thousand years ago to discover some some rude specimens of the ages of Matraces of infant effort gog and Mizraira. streamed forward to Greece. And how mighty must this ! have been the parent nation of which Egypt was a colony Egypt was the magnificent. in a great procession of kings and priests. ten thousand years long. but our deepest researches have hitherto shown her to us as only the mother of a most accomHow they came by their knowledge is matter plished race. in building. the golden bridge. it is impossible to determine the order of her inventions. "But what are we to think when the antiquary. and in sculpture. also. his descendants were adepts in construction and in the fine arts. already skilful. Their system of writing. to America. erudite. or shrinking from the very boldest efforts in digging canals and irrigating. we never attempt to emulate ? "As we have not yet discovered any trace of the rude.

" The joints are scarcely perceptible. colonnades. pressing forward from out that other and greater empire of which even this wonderworking Nile-land is but a faint and imperfect copy. still in their ruins. locks. says. ! by which the Look at the magnifi- cent mason-work of this ancient people Mr." is too much for modern compre- Denon it. Look at the record of Egyptian greatness as preserved in her works strous : mankind. notwithstand- many centuries. gate-ways. lake of Moeris was created as a reservoir for the : The artificial waters of the Nile it was four hundred and fifty miles in fifty cir- cumference and three hundred and wilderness was redeemed from feet deep. sterility. " It is hardly possible to believe. statues.362 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WOULD. it which aroused the astonishment of Herodotus. halls. thousand chambers. and not ivider than the thickness of silver- paper^ and the cement so tenacious that fragments of the casing-stones still remain in their original position. monolithic figures. Look at the Temple of Karnac. even where the perspective dwindles ahnost to a point. pillars. half of them above ground and half below —a find combination of courts. with sub- terranean channels. and the Look at the ruins they were detached. obelisks." ing the lapse of so violence by which had three of the Labyrinth. rows of sphinxes. flood-gates. covering a square Says a recent each side of which is eighteen hundred feet. sculptures. and dams. writer. says. possessed of all the arts of the highest civilization. and pyramids. speaking of the casing of the Great Pyramid. are massed in such profusion that the sight hension. after having seen in the reality of the existence of so many build- . chambers. we can still see the swarming multitudes. Kenrick. " Travellers one and all appear to have been unable to remains inspired them. The pyramids. here to be admired. eye can penetrate. words to express the feelings with which these sublime They have been astounded and overprodigality of worknianship come by the magnificence and the Courts. are the marvel of The river Nile was diverted from its course by monembankments to make a place for the city of Memphis.

their neighbors. but the slaves were -treated with the greatest humanity. a heaven await- ed the good and a hell the vicious there was a judgment-day when the hearts of *' men were weighed is He sifting out the hearts of men Before his judgment-seat. with interest at a high rate. Slavery was permitted. palaces." Every stone was covered with days of Egypt approximated Religion consisted in The state of society in the early very closely to our modern civilization. their country. set inside . and not touch Nile." Monogamy was the strict rule. was covered with temples. and trade on her own account . were allowed to have wife's rights of separate property more than one wife. forty-two commandments prescribed the duties of men . she was "the lady of the house. as he who views the objects them- selves occasionally yields to the doubt whether he be perfectly awake. ings collected on a single point resolute perseverance in 363 — in their dimensions. "It is necessary that the reader should fancy what before him to be a dream. The marriage-ceremony embraced an oath not to contract any other matrimonial alliance. in the early days. not even the kings. . pyramids." could be There were lakes and mountains within the periphery " The cathedral of Notre valley of the sanctuary. tombs. The wife's status was as high in the earliest days of Egypt as it is now in the most civilized nations of Europe or America. . sell. the w'orship of one God and the practice of virtue." she could "buy. and the Deity ." And is again. in the which their construction required. and the incalculable expense of so much magnificence. buried with the dead. The whole and delta of the from the Catacombs to the sea. Dame at Paris one of the halls of Karnac. pillars." in case of divorce her dowry was to be repaid to her. the walls/ . and inscriptions. to themselves. In the confessions. The and her dower were protected by law.THE EGYrriAN COLOXY.

" Then look at the They were the Those Greeks ors. to whom the fact was communicated. no picture represents torture inflicted upon them while the representation of a sea-fight shows them tion of more than captives . however. Professor Mitchell. first mathematicians of the Old World. They knew the rotundity of the earth. employed his assistants to ascertain the exact position of the heavenly bodies belonging to our solar system on the equinox of that year. we must admit that their moral place ranks very high among the nations of antiquity. their humanity in war." his day's labor. One of the learned men of our day. 1881. Enough has been in the Museum a delineation of the signs of the zodiac.C. {Contemporary Review. saving their drowning enemies. which showed that on the 7th of October. August.c. Reginald Stuart Poole says p. This was done. the principles they laid down as the basis of ethics. the date to which they pointed was the autumnal equinox of the year 1*722 B. as proved by their portrayals of a just life. calculating eclipses. which it was supposed Columbus had discovered "The signs of the zodiac were certainly in use among the Egyptians 1722 years before Christ. 1722 b. British . the elevation of women among them. regard as the fathers of mathematics whom we first were simply pupils of Egypt. 43) "When we consider the high ideal of the Egyptians. taken. to show that we need not think that in all respects they were far behind us. who for fifty years labored to decipher the hieroglyphics of the ancients. is made to declare that " I have not incriminated the There was also a clause in the commandments " which protected the laboring man against the exacslave to his master. "The true comparison of Egyptian life is with that of modThis is far too difficult a task to be here underern nations. and a diagram furnished by parties ignorant of his object. proficiency in art of this ancient people. They were the first land-survey- They were the astronomers. and the position of the planets. and w^atching the periods of planets and constellations.364 the soul ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. found upon a mummy." They were merciful to the made in war.

" (Goodrich's p. and was then restored to the feet of the statue. harps. rolled it was discovered.) a single thread of a garment was composed of three hundred and sixty-five minor threads. filled Their dentists teeth with gold . The word " chemistry " comes from chemi. they had even castanets. in the days of Tet (or Thoth). This papyrus is a medical treatise there are in it no incantations or charms but it deals in reasonable remedies. raising They were the all first agricult- Old World. horses. They manufactured linen of so fine a quality that in the days of King Amasis (600 years b. They pos- sessed gold and silver money. musicians. the operation for the removal of cataract from the eye was . such as are now used In medicine and surgery they had reached such a degree of perfection that several hundred years B.C. sheep. copper. unguents and injections. flutes. etc. they manufactured vessels of paper.) They had urists of the clocks and dials for measuring time. etc. cymbals. ashur. they possessed gui- tars. single pipes. and the papyrus was old in his day. King Sent belonged to the second dynasty. They were the and double in Spain. and. lyres. bronze. and iron . which flourished 4751 b. precisely as we are now making railroad car. silver. under the feet of an Anubis in the town of Sekhem. They manufactured glass and all kinds of pottery they made boats out of earthenware.THE EGYPTIAN COLONY. the 365 moon and marked upon the " Columbus. They worked in gold. the sambric. 22.c. of paper." planets occupied the exact point in the heavens coffin in the British Museum. performed among them feats of surgery. . cattle. The later medical papyri contain a great deal of magic and incantations. up in a case. and chetni means Egypt. only one of the most delicate and difficult attempted by us in the most recent of Berlin " states that times. drums. their farmers hatched poultry first by artifi- cial heat. . . they tempered iron to the hardness of steel.c. draughts. the cereals. after whose death it was transmitted to King Sent.wheels . They were the first chemists. " The papyrus .

40). 13) "Now. ly abandoned by all people. Rawlinson says ("Origin of Nations. and as clean apart from all evolution as had dropped from the unknown heavens. it is notorious that there is no indication of any early period of savagery or barbarism. is. which. All the authorities agree that.366 " Great ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD." p. we find in Egypt no rude or uncivilized time out of which civilization is developed. in Egypt. without fa- without mother. definite idea. changes the course of the Nile. bursts upon us Seiss says (" " It has no archaic epoch. see no barbarous customs." It had dropped from Atlantis." A Miracle suddenly takes its place in the world in ther. Under the soil of the modern country are hid away thousands and thousands of relics which may astonish the world for ages to come. she made — and other things known to have been Egyptian being by every advance in knowledge carried back more and more toward the very beginning of things. ." p. " It at once in the flower of its highest perfection. . not even the habit. Menes. of wearing arms when not on military service." Renan says. We Tylor says (" Anthropology. however far back we go. makes a great reservoir." in Stone. the first king. 192) " Among the ancient cultured nations of Egypt and Assyria handicrafts had already come to a stage which could only have . The effect of research seems to be to prove the objects of it to be much older than we thought them to be some things thought to be wholly modern having been proved to be oldest Egypt." . so slow. spell over her still. and change continually its conception of what Egypt was. She shakes our most rooted ideas concerning the world's history she has not ceased to be a puzzle and a lure: there is a repetitions of things Egyptian. and builds the temple of Phthah at Memphis." p. comprehensible and clear. though hard to receive. when once acquired. and splendid is as are the things which we know about a thousand times more sublime by our uncertainty as to the limits of her accomplishments. She presents not a great. if it all its matchless magnificence. " It Osborn says.

Stephens's representation from the Vocal Memnon we almost the same thing. and instead of one bird there are two. obelisks of Egypt have their counterpart in Quoting from Molina ("History of Chili. . so The columns of Copan stand detached and lisks of do the obe60. both are square or four-sided. v. "Antiquities of America." tom. the student should examine that of the ancients. such as the Egyptian. some very striking analogies between the Toltec characters and Among these institutions observed on the banks of the Nile. we read. There is a plate showing an Aztec priestess in Delafield's p. quoted by Delafield. Even the America. 172. "Between the hills of Mendoza and La Punta is a pillar of stone one hundred and fifty feet high. In a letter by Jomard.THE EGYPTIAN COLONY. are disposed much p. and Etruscan.." may The carpenters' and masons' tools of the ancient Egyptians were almost identical with those used among us to-day. p." pp. p..." strikingly Egyptian. i. In both cases the hieroglyphics." vol. stone-cutters. and twelve feet in diameter. been reached by thousands of years of progress. but -immediately it. not on the cross. v." vol. at Palenque. and often putting to shame the modern artificer. wonderful in skill and finish. McCullough writes.. we have a crux commissa. sculpture. though the char- acters are of course different. to which (or to the two priests are offering sacrifice. " I have recognized in your memoir on the division of time the Mexican nations. To see gold jewellery of the highest order. still 367 In museums be examined the work of their joiners.) solitary.) the same manner. 61. upon the stone in (Bancroft's " Native Races.) Egypt. iVl. compared with those of Asia. goldsmiths. 169).. which presents a head-dress In the celebrated "tablet of the cross. 61. In find Mr. Greek. and covered with (Bancroft's " Native Races. instead of an ornamented Latin above cross." (" Researches." we see a cross with a bird perched cross) upon it. among . the difference being that.

It will be conceded that a considerable degree of astronomi- knowledge must have been necessary to reach the conclusion that the true year consisted of three hundred and sixtyfive days and six hours (modern science has demonstrated that cal it consists of three less ten site seconds) to insist hundred and sixty -five days and five hours. conformably to their astronomical observations. and of five complementary days. . — — The Mexican century began on sor. celebrated the festival of the birth of their gods. Now such was the length of the year among the Egyptians they intercalated an entire year of three hundred and seventyfive days every one thousand four hundred and sixty years. and the 26th of February was celebrated from the time of Nabonas- 747 B. .. the use of a year of three hundred and sixty-five days and a quarter is a proof that it was borrowed from the Egyptians. the intercalation of the Mexicans being thirteen days on each cycle of fifty-two years. to its true relation to the seasons. and sixty-five days were called by the Mexicans Nemontemi. composed of equal months. ancient Both were the out- growth of a civilization of the highest order. during that epoch. commencement Egyptians. . 53. had fixed the beginning of the Tothj and the month noon on that The five intercalated days to make up the three hundred day. 52. comes to the same thing as that of the Julian calendar. vast. or that they had a common origin. by the in. The fact of the intercalation (by the Mexicans) of thirteen days every cycle that is. or while the useless. the 26th of February. which is one day in four years and consequently supposes the duration of the year to be three hundred and sixty -five d^^s six hours." pp. .) — — . . because the Egyptian priests. as attested by Plutarch and others..'''' ("Antiquities of America. and a high degree of civilization was requithat the year must be brought around. equally employed at Thebes and Mexico a distance of three thousand leagues. tercalation of a certain number of days in a certain period of time.30« ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.C. at .. and on them they transacted no business of their year. analogies there is one which is worthy of attention it is the use of the vague year of three hundred and sixty-five days. In reality.

is but as a day compared with some of our recognized geological epochs." and placed this period at the very beginning of Egyptian history. nations. its religion. Can we. doubt the statements of the Egyptian priests to Solon. Atlantis in her magnificence velopment attained whose kings were the gods of succeeding Old World children of we have a testimony to the deby the parent country by that country oldest of the . its laws. as it Such a lapse of time.THE EGYPTIAN COLONY. These thirteen thousand nine hundred years were probably a recollection of Atlantis. Manetho. its civilization In Egypt we have the . which transmitted some part of its its 369 astronomical knowledge to colonies through their respective priesthoods. of Atlantis. The Egyptian historian. and whose kingdom extended to the uttermost ends of the earth. 16* . in the presence of such facts. vast may appear. as to the glory and greatness its ? monuments. its sculpture. referred to a period of thirteen thousand nine hundred years as "the reign of the gods.

what would be more natural than that these adventurous navigators. passing around the shores of the Gulf. we will suppose a civilized. that they had reached the Atlantic coast. should. Fontaine claims (" How the World was Peopled ") that this ancient people constructed " levees " to control and utilize the culture bayous of the Mississippi for the purpose of agriand commerce. explore it. would penetrate even into regions where the severity of the climate would prevent great density of population or develop- ment of civilization. at one time of the United States were pre-eminent- Their densest settlements and greatest works its tributaries. THE COLONIES OF THE If MISSISSIPPI VALLEY. in the remote past. were near the Mississippi and historic Races. and plant colonies along its shores. The Yazoo River is called Yazoo-ok" There is no evidence hinnah the River of Ancient Ruins.Chapter III. The results we have presupposed are precisely those which in the Mississippi Valley. spreading thence. 110)." p. sooner or later. Their outlying provinces River . discover the mouth of the Mississippi and what more certain than that they would enter it. maritime people to have plant- ed colonies. no authentic re- — . in time. Says Foster (" Pre- "The navigable streams were the great highways of the Mound Builders." Mr. we find to have existed The Mound Builders ly a river people. wherever they found a fertile soil and a salubrious climate. along the headlands and shores of the Gulf of Mexico. to the table- lands of Mexico and to the plains and mountains of ico New Mex- and Colorado.

of the Missouri . Races. lated Illinois and Indiana were densely popu- by them : it is believed that the vital centre of their col- onies was near the junction of the The chief characteristic of the their Mound Ohio and Mississippi rivers. Their circular mounds are found in Minnesota and Iowa. while its square sides are 700 and 500 feet respectively. not unlike the pyramids of Mexico and Egypt." This would indicate that the up the Mississippi River and spread out over its tributaries. Between Alton and East St. Louis is the great mound of Cahokia.THE COLONIES OF THE mains of the States." p.) New York." (" cans of Antiquity. They reached.) . monuments left by the Mound Builders is great. There was a terrace on the south side 160 by 300 feet. 112. far up the Missouri and zation of this people advanced and thence into Oregon. and from one thousand to closures. Builders was that from creation of great structures which they derived name — the of earth or stone. but did not cross the Alleghany Mountains. like those of the mids — their Egyptian pyramids. cor(Foster's " Prehistoric responding with the cardinal points. 371 Mound Builders are found in the New England North Americivili- nor even in the State of p. The head-waters became one of their great centres of population but their chief sites were upon the Mississippi and Ohio rivers. : . which may be selected as a type of their works it rises ninety-seven feet high. although its height of The number extraordinarily is much less. In Wisconsin we find the northern central limit of their work they seem to have occupied the southern counties of the State. and the western shores of Lake Michigan. . affording a platform 200 by 450 feet. 28. It will thus be seen that the area covered by the mound of Cahokia is about as large as that of the greatest pyramid of Egypt. however. Cheops. fifteen hundred en- Their mounds were not cones but four-sided pyrasides. In Ohio alone there are more than ten thousand tumuli. reached by a graded way the summit of the pyramid is flattened. MISSISSIPPI VALLEY. and some very Yellowstone rivers. large ones in Dakota.

They built great military works surrounded by walls and ditches. has a cuit of between four and five miles. carried over the varying surface of the country. as they do. in the construction of their works. Squier. ular scales of gles They must have possessed regmeasurement. more than four-fifths of a mile in But we not only find accurate squares and but also. perfect circles. The most cult. as we have seen. find Not only do we ico. so that tlic space enclosed by each might exskilful engineer of this day would find it diffiMr. One large At Hopetown. dimensions. Mexis and Peru. . I may coin an expression. but a very singular structure : repeated in Ohio and Peru if I refer to the double walls or prolonged pyramids." They uniform also possessed an accurate system of weights . Fort Ancient. Ohio. with artificial lakes in the centre to supply water. measuring. pyramidal structures of earth like the in the Mississippi Valley very much pyramids of Egypt. shown in the cut page 375. One cir- work. and the means of determining an- and the " and of computing the area to be enclosed by the square circle. circle enare two walled figures — one a square. . . on the Little Miami River. circumference. Ohio. bracelets of copper on the arms of a skeleton have been found to be of size. and each v^Qighmg precisely four ounces. closure comprises exactly forty acres. perfect circles and perfect squares of great accuracy.372 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. The Mound Builders possessed chains of fortifications reach- ing from the southern line of New York diagonally across the . to lay actly correspond. measuring each two and nine-tenth inches. tbey were able to form. octagons of great . the embankment was twenty feet high thousand the fort could have held a garrison of sixty men with their families and provisions. attained a considerable degree of The Mound Builders bad civiUzation . " without the aid of instruments. the other a —eacb con- taining precisely twenty acres." says down an accurate square of the great dimensions above repre- sented.



One of the : mounds is a threefold svmbol. therefore. 375 country. that while they advanced WAI. ante. It would appear probable. the central . I'EKU from the south it was from the north-east the savage races came who drove them south or exterminated them.8 AT GR. and they occupy an area two miles square.1.\N-CUIMU. we find a combination of the cross and pyramid. like a bird's foot . (See p^3S4.) At Newark. Ohio. Ohio.THE COLONIES OF THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY. OHIO. At Marietta. througli Central and Northern Ohio to the AVabash. are extensive 0KOB8 AND PYRAMID MO0>iD. intricate works embraced within embankments twelve miles long*.

259) also proves that the ancient people of the Mississippi Valley possessed this art. presenting an unbroken metallic overlapping edges so well polished as to be scarcely discoverable. of a skeleton.) (See 4th The Mound Builders made sun-dried brick mixed with rushes. first with copper then with silver. note. etc. with strange devices Silver marked upon ornaments have also been found. silver. that they wrought even in iron. lead. a copper axe "cast" has been found in the State of p. 155 feet long. is mound length. is metal so intrinsically valueless as another evidence that they must have drawn their superstitions from the same source as the Copper European nations. was found a copper around the head it. p. Ohio. hollow buttons. are mounds. bosses for ornaments. Beads and stars made of shells have sometimes been found doubly plated. The great esteem in which they held a silver. strikingly found in very in many fillet of them similar to those of the ler Bronze Age Europe. New York. The Mound Builders also understood the art of casting metals.376 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. Cop- per axes.. and there are evidences. and the three-pronged trident of Poseidon 242. articles plainly showing . no thicker than paper. ante. and he gives us representations of various the marks of the mould upon them. shall see." p. and the other two each 110 Is this feet in curious design a reminiscence ? of Atlantis fig. and it is often found in thin sheets. in the Copper implements are very numerous bracelets. so neatly as almost wrapped over copper or stone ornaments to escape detection.. or they held intercourse with some race who did. In one in But- County. rings.) Professor Foster ("Prehistoric Races. as we as the Egyptians . (See Lubbock's "Prehistoric Times. spear -heads." 254. is also often found in this manner ^)/a?ec? over stone lustre^ the pipes. but not in such great numbers. made sun-dried bricks mixed with straw they worked in copper. They seem to have attached a high value to silver.

has been generally thought. S. opposite the depressed portion. by Mr. is a copper rivet or nail. from their appearance. around which are two separate plates by which they were fastened to the leather. was found in sinking a well within the trench of the ancient works at Circleville. composed the lower end of the scabbard. filled with iron rust. rude article in the shape of an axe. and seem to have been preserved by the salts of copper. "Two or three pieces of copper tube were also iowvidi. These pieces. Ohio. in a letter to the American Antiquarian Society. or ornaments for a sword-belt or buckler. and was at the first settlement of Marietta covered with large trees. 377 A lead. The fronts are slightly convex. composed of pure weighing about half a pound. Squier and others. they are composed of copper overlaid with a thick plate of silver. with a depression like a cup in the centre. and weighs one ounce. It seems to have been made for this . P. No signs of the sword itself were discovered. as galena has often been It found on the altars in the mounds. thus speaks of it " Lying immediately over or on the forehead of the body were found three large circular bosses. a mound was opened at Marietta. It seems to have been fastened to the scabbard by three or four rivets. . that there were no evidences that the Mound Builders were ac- quainted with the use of iron. two in breadth. however. Hildreth. Some years since. they resemble the skin of a mummy. There can be no doubt it was the production of the Mound Builders. the holes of which remain in the silver. or that their plating was more than a simple overlaying of one metal on another. near the point of the sword. and they measure two inches and a quarter across the face of each. or on some foreign substance. which appears to have been the upper part of a sword scabbard it is six inches in length. except the rust above mentioned. "The mound had every appearance of being as old as any in the neighborhood. which seems to have refuted these opinions. On the back side. Dr. Near the side of the body was found a plate of silver.THE COLONIES OF THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY. Two small pieces of leather were found lying between the plates of one of the bosses.

Squier says. at the same time. and that Washington was excavated by when first found its surface showed numerous marks of their tools. tive. could only be produced by heat.378 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. contrivances. Hildreth is not mistaken. it must. and many of them crumbled to dust upon exposure to the air." single personage. we would refer to the inter- esting evidences that the copper mines of the shore of Lake Superior had been at some very remote period worked by the Mound Builders." Mr. was discovered.. not simply overlaid. "These articles have been critically examined. with silver. the copper and the silver exists a connection such as. They were very probably acquainted with the ivory. silver. and if it is admitted that these are genuine relics of the Mound Builders. with off. and all also numerous the evidences of extensive and long-contin- ued labor. the conclusion being. as this skeleton alone In connection with this subject. and lead. There seems to be no doubt. from whom these articles were obtained. from which also follows the extraordinary conclusion that the Mound Builders were acquainted ivith the use of iron. of course. it seems to me. subject to the improbable alternative already mentioned. be admitted that they possessed the difficult art There is but one alternaof plating one metal upon another. Beads of shell have been found. oxydized iron or steel was also discovered in connection with the above remains. and in They possessed various mechanical all probability of iron. rude ladders. and it is beyond doubt that the copper bosses were Between absolutely plated. There were found deep excavations. Again. then. lathe. huge masses of rock broken stone tools. duced by turning in a In' a mound on the Scioto River was found around the neck . that the Mound Builders were familiar with the use of copper. It is even said that the great Ontonagon mass of is pure copper which now in these ancient miners. The bones were very much decayed. that they had occasional or constant intercourse with a people advanced in the arts. viz. identical ivith those prolathe. if Dr. looking very much like and showing the circular striae.

throughout the bore is seven-tenths of an inch in diameter at the cylindrical end of the tube. str ice. capable of receiving a polish. 379 the tusks of some animal. made ornamental as The finest specimen yet discovered. The tube under notice is thirteen inches long by one and one-tenth in diameter. "still retain their polish. of a skeleton triple rows of beads. and retains that calibre until it reaches the point where the cylinder sub- sides into the mouth-piece." says Squier. are distinctly very fine. and the can scarcely be surpassed in the delicacy of other terminates in a broad. one end swells slightly. flattened." " Not among the least interesting and remarkable relics. " obtained from the mounds are the stone tubes. and receives a fine though not glaring polish. When we consider that some of their porphyry carvings will turn the edge of the best-tempered knife. instead of being carved or rubbed into shape by hand. The inner surface of the tube perfectly smooth till within a short distance of the point of contraction. was found in a mound in the immediate vicinity of Chillicothe." continues the same author. drill in boring. of tempering copper to the hardness of steel. known to the Mexicans and Peruvians. This stone cuts with great clearness. and bear marks which seem to indicate that they were turned in some machine. we are forced to con- clude that they possessed that singular process." fossil teeth That they possessed saws is proved by the fact that on some found in one of the mounds the strioe of the teeth of the saw could be distinctly perceived. triangular mouth-piece of fine proportions. when it contracts gradually to oneis tenth of an inch. . They are all carved from fine-grained materials. which sion. It is composed of a compact variety of slate.THE COLONIES OF THE MISSISSIPFl VALLEY. and which its workmanship. and being well as useful. formed hy the The carving upon it is For the remaining distance the circular marked. It is drilled is carved with mathematical preci. made of marine shells and " Several of these.

Squier observes: "Various though not abundant specitheir skill have been recovered. on the contrary. All of them are executed with strict fidelity to reptiles. and the faces of men. and the polish which some of the vitrification. but their peculiarities and habits are in some degree exhibited." says Squier. upon toys. and finish. as also in fineness of material. that the ancient people possessed the simple approximation toward the potter's wheel finer vessels possess is . used in weaving. carved from various kinds of stones. There have also been found numerous musi. which in this respect. also shuttle-like tablets. in many respects. etc. very probable. delicacy. cal pipes. with the edges bevelled from the Drills and gravers of copper have also been found. and truthfulness. and in distinct and separate figures. find in the We mounds adzes similar in shape to our own. and with exquisite skill. We give the opinions of those who have exam- ined them. with chisel-shaped edges or sharp points. also matting . with mouth-pieces and stops lovers' pipes. The bowls of most of the stone pipes are carved in miniature figures of animals. a close resemblance. They consist of figures of birds. ." mens of . from a close inspection of the mound pottery. curiously lines and delicately carved. intended to represent the eagle. upon rings. Mr. spirit. animals. upon the bowls of pipes. Not only are the features of nature. the objects faithfully represented. ancient or modern. Traces of cloth with "doubled and twisted fibre" have been found in the mounds . reminding us of Bryant's . are far superior in point of finish." due to other causes than Their sculptures show a considerable degree of progress. The two heads here presented. which in elegance of model. reptiles. . come fully up to the best Peruvian specimens. birds. " It • is not impossible. inside.380 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. birds is admirably preserved in the carving. " but. more than any other. to which they bear. which have fallen under the notice of The peculiar defiant expression of the king of the authors. to any miniature carvings. displays the skill of the artist.



and old From instruments Gave the soft of un remembered forms. in Ohio. 37) remarks. 383 Till twilight came.THE COLONIES OF THE *' MISSISSIPPI VALLEY. In a forgotten language. Brazil. pearls from the Atlantic." All the evidence points to the conclusion that civilized or semi-civilized man has dwelt on the Avestern continent from a vast antiquity. mana- —found to-day on the shores of and Central America — and of the toucan. we find accurate representations of the lamantinc. have in their been found side by side " mounds. has lost through that culture its original nut-like seed. Alluding to the abovenamed plants Dr. tropical and almost also American bird. nevertheless. the ruins of Nineveh and Babylon." There is evidence which goes to prove that the Mound Builders had relations with the people of a semi-tropical re- gion in the direction of Atlantis. palm cultivated by the South American Gulielma speciosa. Maize. Brinton (" Myths of the New World. and is dependent on the hands of its cultivators for its life. Among their sculptures. a or sea-cow exclusively South Florida. the skeletons deposited in our Indian mounds. in perfect preservation. Sea -shells from the Gulf." p. quinoa. are crumbling into dust through age alone. winds a voice. Glid- least two thousand five hundred from the pyramids and the catacombs of Egypt both mummied and unmumraied crania have been taken. and lovers walked and wooed tuties. tee. Several are sure to perish unless fostered by human species of " The only Indians. tobacco. "we have bones of at years old . is The From antiquity of their works now generally conceded. from the Lakes to the Gulf. and obsidian from Mexico. and the mandico plants have been cultivated so long that their wild originals have quite disappeared." says Mr. of don. What centuries elapsed ere I . still higher antiquity. that known as the ' numberless ages does this suggest? How many man thought of cultivating Indian corn ? How many more ere it had spread over nearly a hundred degrees of latitude and lost all resemblance to its original form V care.



In the animal kingdom certain animals were domesticated by the aborigines from so remote a period that scarcely any of their species, as in the case of the lama of Pern, were to be found in a state of unrestrained freedom at the advent of the Spaniards." (Short's " North Americans of Antiquity," p. 11.)

The most

ancient remains of

man found


Europe are


tinguished by a flattening of the tibia; and this peculiarity

found to be present

in an exaggerated


some of the

American mounds.

This also points to a high antiquity.

"None of the works, mounds, or enclosures are found on the lowest formed of the river terraces which mark the subsidence of the streams, and as there is no good reason why their builders should hav^e avoided erecting them on that terrace while they raised them promiscuously on all the others, it follows, not unreasonably, that this terrace has been formed since (Baldwin's "Ancient America," the works were erected."
p. 47.)


have given some illustrations showing the similarity beEurope.
(See pp. 251, 260, 261, 262, 265,

tween the works of the Mound Builders and those of the Stone

and Bronze Age
266, ante.)


The Mound Builders
231, under the
left in

retreated southward toward Mexico,

and probably arrived there some time between

29 and



of Nahuas.


called the region they

the Mississippi Valley "

Hue Hue

Tlapalan "

the old,

old red land

in allusion, probably, to the red-clay soil of part

of the country.

In the


mounds we find many works of copper but none of may indicate one of two things: either the

colonies which settled the Mississippi Valley

may have


Atlantis prior to the discovery of the art of manufacturing


by mixing one part of tin with nine parts of copper, which is more probable, the manufactures of the Mound Builders may have been made on the spot; and as they had no tin within their territory they used copper alone, except, it

be, for such tools as



were needed to carve stone, and these,

perhaps, were hardened witli

It is


that the Mexi-

cans possessed the art of manufacturing true bronze; and the
intercourse which evidently existed between Mexico and the
Mississippi Valley, as proved

by the presence of implements

of obsidian in the


of Ohio, renders

probable that the

same commerce which brought them obsidian brought them also small quantities of tin, or tin-hardened copper implements
necessary for their sculptures.


proofs, then, of the connection of the



with Atlantis are

Their race identity with the nations of Central America
possessed Flood legends, and whose traditions



point to

an eastern, over-sea origin
part of one ^reat

while the


evidences of their

race identity with the ancient Peruvians indicate that they were


of the



extending from




Lake Superior, and,

as I believe,

from Atlantis to



similarity of their civilization,

and their works of

stone and bronze, with the civilization of the Bronze




The presence The

of great truncated mounds, kindred to the

pyramids of Central America, Mexico, Egypt, and India.

representation of tropical animals, which point to an

intercourse with the regions around the Gulf of Mexico, where

the Atlanteans were colonized.


fact that the settlements of the


Builders were

confined to the valley of the Mississippi, and were apparently
densest at those points where a population advancing up that

stream would


reach high, healthy, and fertile lands.


hostile nations

which attacked them came from the
Builders could no longer hold

north; and when the
the country, or



Atlantis sunk in the sea, they retreated

the direction whence they came, and

back upon their
troops in

kindred races in Central America, as the 17




Gaul and Britain drew southward upon the destruction of

Rome. 7. The Natchez
ed from the



are supposed to have descendfire


Builders, kept a perpetual

burning be-

fore an altar, watched by old

men who were

a sort of priest-

hood, as in Europe.

If the tablet said to

have been found



Davenport, Iowa,
intercourse with

genuine, which appears probable, the

mound near Mound

Builders must either have possessed an alphabet, or have held

some people who


(See " North Americans

of Antiquity," p. 38.)
to be a sacrificial

This singular

relic exhibits

what appears
are the sun,


with afire upon



moon, and stars, and above these a mass of hieroglyphics which bear some resemblance to tlie letters of European alphabets, and especially to that unknown alphabet which appears upon (See p. 258 of the inscribed bronze celt found near Rome. For instance, one of the letters on the celt is this, this work.)

^{\ on

the Davenport tablet


find this sign,



on the

we have |^

on the



on the


we have



on the




Chapter IY.


the farthest point in the past to which

human knowlThey

extends a race called Iberian inhabited the entire penin-

sula of Spain,

from the Mediterranean to the Pyrenees.

extended over the southern part of Gaul as far as the Rhone.

"It is thought that the Iberians from Atlantis and the north-west part of Africa," says Winchell, " settled in the southwest of Europe at a period earlier than the settlement of the Egyptians in the north-east of Africa. The Iberians spread themselves over Spain, Gaul, and the British Islands as early as 4000 or 5000 b.c. The fourth dynasty (of the Egyptians), according to Brugsch, dates from about 3500 b.c. At this time the Iberians had become sufficiently powerful to attempt the conquest of the known world." (" Preadamites," p. 443.) " The Libyan-Amazons of Diodorus that is to say, the Libyans of the Iberian race must be identified with the Libyans with brown and grizzly skin, of whom Brugsch has already pointed out the representations figured on the Egyptian monuments of the fourth dynasty." (Ibid.)
. .



ancient days.

stock in

known as Sicanes, colonized Sicily in the They were the original settlers in Italy and They are probably the source of the dark -haired Norway and Sweden. Bodichon claims that the Ibe-


embraced the Ligurians, Cantabrians, Asturians, and AquiStrabo says, speaking of the Turduli and Turdetani, " they are the most cultivated of all the Iberians they employ

the art of writing, and have written books containing meraori-


verse, for

and also poems and laws set in which they claim an antiquity of six thousand years."
als of ancient times,
lib. iii., p.



The Iberians are represented to-day by the Basques. The Basques are " of middle size, compactly built, robust

eyes and black hair.

of a darker complexion than the Spaniards^ with gray They are simple but proud, impetuous,

merry, and hospitable.

The women


beautiful, skilful


performing men's work, and remarkable for their vivacity and

The Basques


attached to dancing, and are

very fond of the music of the bagpipe."

("New American


" According to Paul Broca their language stands quite alone, Of all Euroor has mere analogies with the American type. peans, we must provisionally hold the Basques to be the oldest (Peschel, " Races of inhabitants of our quarter of the world."




the Euscara "has some common with the Magyar, Osmanli, and other dialects of the Altai family, as, for instance, with the Finnic on the old continent, as well as the Algonquin-Lenape language and some others in Amer(" New American Cyclopaedia," art. Basques.) ica.''''

The Basque language

Duponceau says

of the Basque tongue

" This language, preserved in a corner of Europe by a few thousand mountaineers, is the sole remaining fragment of, perhaps, a hundred dialects constructed on the same plan, which probably existed and were universally spoken at a remote peLike the bones of the mamriod in that quarter of the world. moth, it remains a monument of the destruction produced by a It stands single and alone of its kind, sursuccession of ages. rounded by idioms that have no affinity with it."


have seen them

settling, in the earliest ages, in Ireland.

formed the base of the dark-haired population of England and Scotland. They seem to have race affinities with
the Berbers, on the MediteiTanean coast of Africa.



Dr. Bodichon, for fifteen years a surgeon in Algiers, says

"Persons who have inhabited Brittany, and then go to Algeria, are struck with the resemblance between the ancient Armoricans (the Bretons) and the Cabyles (of Algiers). In fact, the moral and physical character is identical. The Breton of pure blood has a long head, light yellow complexion of bistre tinge, eyes black or brown, stature short, and the black hair of the Cabyle. Like him, he instinctively hates strangers in both are the same perverseness and obstinacy, same endurance of fatigue, same love of independence, same inflexion of the voice, same expression of feelings. Listen to a Cabyle speaking his native tongue, and you will think you hear a Breton talking Celtic."

The Bretons, he
ple around them,

tells us,

form a strong contrast to the peotall stature,


are " Celts of

with blue eyes,

white skins, and blond hair
ous, versatile

they are communicative, impetu-

they pass rapidly from courage to despair.


Bretons are entirely different
to their ideas

they are taciturn, hold strongly

and usages, are persevering and melancholic

a word, both in morale and physique they present the type of a

southern race

— of the Atlanteansy Barbary States — that beipg one of the

Atlanteans Dr. Bodichon refers to the inhabitants of the

names by which they

were known to the Greeks and Romans.



Atlanteans, among the ancients, passed for the favorite children of Neptune; they made known the worship of this god to other nations to the Egyptians, for example. In other words, the Atlanteans were the first known navigators. Like all navigators, they must have planted colonies at a distance. The Bretons, in our opinion, sprung from one of them."


Neptune was Poseidon, according

to Plato, founder of At-


could multiply proofs of the close relationship between the

people of the Bronze



Europe and the ancient inhab-

of Northern Africa, which should be read remember-

ing that "connecting ridge" which, according to the deep-sea
soundings, united Africa and Atlantis.



Chapter Y.


we look

at the


of Atlantis, as revealed by the deep-

sea soundings,


will find that it

approaches at one point, by

connecting ridge, quite closely to the shore of South Amer-


above the mouth of the Amazon, and that probably



originally connected with
If the rally

population of Atlantis expanded westwardly,





in its ships

up the magnificent

valley of the

Amazon and

its tributaries

and, passing by the low and feverrested not until

stricken lands of Brazil,

had reached the

high, fertile, beautiful, and healthful regions of Bolivia, from



would eventually cross the mountains into Peru.


would establish


outlying colonies at the terminus

western line of advance, arrested only by the Pacific

Ocean, precisely as we have seen
the Mississippi, and carrying on

advancing up the valley of


mining operations on the

shores of Lake Superior; precisely as

we have




eastward up the

Mediterranean, past the

Dardanelles, and

founding Aryan, Ilamitic, and probably Turanian colonies on
the farther shores of the Black Sea and on the Caspian.


the universal empire over which, the
ruler; this

Hindoo books

tell us,

Deva Nahusha was

was "the great and aggressive this was the mighty kingdom, embracing the whole of the then known world, from which

empire" to which Plato alludes;

the Greeks obtained their conception of the universal father






in this universal

empire Senor

Lopez must

find an explanation of the similarity which, as




show, exists between the speech of the South American

Pacific coast


Italy, Greece, Bactria,

on the one hand, and the speech of Gaul, Ireland, and Hindostan on the other.
us that at


some time near the date

of the

Deluge, in other words, in the highest antiquity, America was
topa, Ayar-chaki, Ayar-aucca,

invaded by a people with four leaders, named Ayar-mancoand Ayar-uyssu. "Ayar," says

Senor Lopez, "
tive chief


the Sanscrit Ajar, or


and means primi-

and manco, chaki, aucca, and uyssa, mean believers, wanderers, soldiers, husbandmen. We have here a tradition of
laboring class (naturally enough in a

names of Athens." new colony) obtained the supremacy, and its leader was named Pirhua-manco, reDo the laws which vealer of Pir, light (Tri/p, Umbrian pir). control the changes of language, by which a labial succeeds a labial, indicate that the Mero or Merou of Theopompus, the name of Atlantis, was carried by the colonists of Atlantis to South America (as the name of old York was transplanted in a later age to New York), and became in time Perou or Peru ? Was not the Nubian " Island of Merou," with its pyratnids built by " red men," a similar transplantation ? And when the Hindoo priest points to his sacred emblem with five projecting points upon it, and tells us that they typify " Mero and the four quarters of the world," does he not refer to Atlantis and
castes like that preserved in the four tribal



ancient universal empire


Manco, in the names of the Peruvian colonists, it has been urged, was the same as Mannus, Manu, and the Santhal Maniko. It reminds us of Menes, Minos, etc., who are found at the beginning of so

many of the Old World traditions. The Quichuas this invading people were originally

a fair-

skinned race, with blue eyes and light and even auburn hair;

they had regular features, large heads, and large bodies.
descendants are to this day an olive-skinned people,
in color than the Indian tribes subjugated



by them.

They were a

great race.

Peru, as


was known to the Span-



iards, held very




relation to the ancient Qnicliii.i

civilization as


in the sixteenth century held

to the

civilization of the

empire of the Ca?sars.

The Incas were simcivil-

ply an offshoot, who, descending from the mountains, subdued

the rude races of the sea-coast, and imposed their ancient

upon them. The Quichua nation extended at one time over a region of country more than two thousand miles long. This whole region, when the Spaniards arrived, " was a populous and prosperous empire, complete in


organization, supported

by an


system of industry, and presenting a notable
arts of civilized

development of some of the more important
(Baldwin's "Ancient America,"


The companions

of Pizarro found everywhere the evidences

of a civilization of vast antiquity.

Ciega de Leon mentions

"great edifices" that were in ruins at Tiahuanaca, "an

groundwork of stone," and " two stone idols, apparently made by skilful artificers," ten or twelve feet high,
raised on a

clothed in long robes.

" In this place, also," says



"there are stones so large and so overgrown that our wonder



being incomprehensible


the power of


could have placed them where
ously wrought, and


see them.


are vari-

some of them, having the form of men, must have been idols. Near the walls are many caves and excavations under the earth but in another place, farther west, are other and greater monuments, such as large gate-ways with hinges, platforms, and porches, each made of a single stone. It surprised me to see these enormous gate-ways, made of great masses of stone, some of which were thirty, feet long, fifteen

high, and six thick."


capital of the

Chimus of Northern Peru



was conquered by the Incas after a long and bloody struggle,

and the capital was given up to barbaric ravage and spoliation. " But its remains exist to-day, the marvel of the Southern Continent, covering not

than twenty square miles.


temples, and palaces arise on every hand, ruined but


Immense pyramidal
water -tank,
its its


some of them half a

mile in circuit; vast areas shut in by massive walls, each containing^ its

shops, municipal

and the

dwellings of

and each a branch of a larger orprisons, furnaces for smelting metals, and almost

every concomitant of civilization, existed in the ancient

of the


of the great pyramids, called the "




812 feet long by 470 wide, and 150 high.

These vast

structures have been ruined for centuries, but

work of


is o-oino-



of the centres of the ancient Qiiichua civilization was

around Lake Titicaca.

constructed of

The buildings here, as throughout Peru, hewn stone, and had doors and win-

dows with posts, sills, and thresholds of stone. At Cuelap, in Northern Peru, remarkable ruins were found. " They consist of a wall of wrought stones 3600 feet long,
560 broad, and 150 high, constituting a

mass with a


mass was another 600 feet long, 500 broad, and 150 high," making an aggregate height of three hundred




were rooms and


which were used as tombs.

Very ancient

showing remains of large and remarkable were found near Huamanga, and described by Ciega de
native traditions said this city was built "



by beard-

ed lohite men,

who came

there long before the time of the

and established a settlement."
large use of aqueducts,


The Peruvians made

which they

built with notable

hewn stones and cement, and making them very substantial." One extended four hundred



miles across sierras and over rivers.

Think of a stone
to the State of

aqueduct reaching from the city of

New York

North Carolina


public roads of the Peruvians were most remarkable;

they wero built on masonry.


of these roads ran along

the mountains through the whole length of the empire, from

thousands of years before the time of the Incas. for These roads were ancient in the time of the Incas. bearded men from Atlantis.394 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WOULD. and were walled in by strong walls " more than a fathom solid in thickness." In many . and extended northward to the equator. another. to give a detailed description of the arts and civilization of the Peruvians. auburn-haired. with their superior engineering skill and mechanical appliances. " The builders of our Pacific Railroad. shrink from the cost and the diflSculties of such a work as Extending from one degree north of Quito to Cuzco. with all . describing seems to me the em- peror (Charles V. were macad- amized with pulverized stone mixed with lime and bituminous cement. Says Baldwin. or that which from Cuzco goes toward Chili. might reasonably this. "When Huayna Capac marched his army over the main road to invade Quito." boldt said. went down to the coast. " This road was marvellous none of the HumRoman roads had seen in Italy. or in Spain. it was so old and decayed " that he found great difficulties in the passage. appeared to Peruvians.) should see to order the construction of another road like that which leads from Quito to Cuzco. starting from this at Cuzco." if Sarmiento." me more imposing than this work of the ancient Along these great roads caravansaries were established the accommodation of travellers. Quito to Chili. They were the work of the white. in a work of this kind." and he immediately ordered the necessary reconstructions. in the south of France. the mountains was far said. used here ages before their introduction into Europe. and from Cuzco to Chili. I certainly think lie would not be able to make I it. it was quite as long as the two Pacific railroads^ and its w^ild route among it. his power. They . These roads were from twenty to twenty-five feet wide. It is not necessary. places these roads were cut filled for leagues through the rock great ravines were up with masonry . rivers were crossed by suspension bridges. " It fit more that difficult.

the parent country. leaves. In the course of twenty-five years after the Conquest the Spaniards sent from gold^ nearly Peru to Spain more than eight hundred millions of dollars of all of it taken from the Peruvians as " booty.THE PERUVIAN COLONY. people regarded the precious metals as sacred to their gods all and they had been accumulating them from world for countless ages. . agriculture. so curious that excited the details wonder of all." In a description of one lot of golden is articles. the soil of which was made of small pieces of fine gold. like the Peruvians. feet of volcanic debris. a treasure which. attended by shepherds. I have already shown. parts of the If the story of Plato is true. sent to *' Spain in 1534 by Pizarro. Their works in 395 cotton and wool ex- ceeded in fineness anything known in Europe at that time. They had carried irrigation. would revolutionize the financial values of the world. there four llamas. mention of and a cistern of gold. they had more than twenty sheep (llamas) with their lambs. covered. viously cutting of Their ac- cumulations of the precious metals exceeded anything pre- known in the history of the world. and the gems to a point equal to that of the Old World. their stems. were simply marvellous. ten statues of it women of full size." Can any one read these and declare Plato's descrip- tion of Atlantis to be fabulous. by hundreds of silver an amount of gold and exceeding many times if that brought to Europe from Peru. which were of ficially gold." In one of their palaces " they had an artificial garden. all made of gold. the more civilized country its and. doubtless. Mexico. brought to in the light. simply because he tells us of the enormous quantities of gold and silver possessed by the people? Atlantis was the older country. chapter upon the similarities between the civilizations of the Old and New Worlds. and this was artiplanted with different kinds of maize. there now lies beneath the waters of the Atlantic. Besides this. and ears. some of the remarkable coincidences which existed between the Peru- . and Central America since the time of Columbus. doubtless.

11. and accordingly embalmed their dead. and the trade of the father de- scended to the son. 4. They used sedan-chairs. The priest examined the entrails of the animals offered in 2. flowers. They had an order women vowed to celibacy and a violation of their vow was punished. and 10. in . They drank toasts and invoked blessings. 3. by their being buried alive.000. Anglo-Saxons. — nuns. and. They regarded agriculture as the principal interest of the nation. and made after the same pattern. date knelt before the king his sandals were put which the candion by a no- .396 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WOULD. . in both continents. They had bards and weapons w^ere minstrels. They believed in the resurrection of the body. moon. They built triumphal arches for their returning heroes. like the kings of Egypt. and ploughed the 16. 10. 1000. and the bodies of 500. 15. 9. who sung as at the great festivals. virgins 6. sacrifice. 14. and. with a govlike the They possessed castes . They had an order of knighthood. The king opened the agricultural season by a great cele- bration. 8. whole nation into ernor over each. and strewed the road before them with leaves and 13. — vestal They divided the year into twelve months. first furrow. 5. 12. They believed in the immortality of the soul. he put his hand to the plough. Their enumeration was by tens the people were divided into decades and hundreds. vians aud the ancient European races fer to a 1. Their the same those of the Old World. as in India. I will again briefly re- few of them : They worshipped the sun. . divined the future from their appearance. and held great agricultural fairs and festivals for the intercliange of the productions of the farmers. 7. and planets. like the Roman of augurs.

shirts. some of the nations of the enough for me to quote Mr. Ferguson's words. very mncli as the spurs were buckled on the 397 European knight. like According to Fernandez. GEEKCE. he was then crowned with flowers. bleman.>U 3. corresponding to the toga virilis of the Romans CYCLOPEAN WALL.THE PERUVIAN COLONY. PEBU. the candidates wore white the knights of the Middle Ages. he was then allowed to use the girdle or sash around the loins. There was a striking resemblance between the architectIt is ure of the Peruvians and that of Old World. with a cross em- broidered in front."^' OYOLOPKAN MASONRY. 17. . that the coincidence between the buildings of the Incas ^fe*JtC 'C.

398 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WOULD. with its walls OWL-HEADED VABE. TEOY. covered with gold. Fergu- son's views. the polygonal masonry. that it is difficult to resist the conclusion that there may be some relation between them. A recent writer says finds *' We may end by observing. must have been exactly like the interior of the house of Alkinous or Menelaus . tecture. and other forms so closely resemble what is found in the old Pelasgic cities of Greece and Italy. with its artificial golden flowers and golden beasts. OWL-HEADED VASE. what seems to have escaped Senor Lopez. as described by Spaniards. in Italy and the Cyclopean remains attributed to the Pelasgians and Greece." " is the most remarkable in the history of archi- The illustrations on page 397 strikingly confirm Mr." a parallel in the Even the mode of decorating their palaces and temples Old World. that the interior of an Inca palace. "The sloping jambs. the window cornice. PEKU.

" found a number of what he I give Dr. PEBU. very likely that these diverse migrations habitually spoke the same language.THE PERUVIAN COLONY. " Silver and golden. Where underneath the brazen floor doth glass Silver pilasters. " * 399 The doors were framed of gold. carried an Atlantean at civilization an early day up the valley of the Amazon to the heights of Bo- livia ilar and Peru. Sefior Vincente Lopez. There can be race. but it seems to me that these extraordinary coin- cidences must have arisen either from identity of origin or longcontinued ancient little intercourse. In Peru we find vases with very I might pursue those parallels much the same style of face. " Preadamites. And dogs on each side of the door there stand. "I can p. calls " owl-headed idols" and vases. specimens on page 398 and page 400. which with grace uphold Lintel of silver framed the ring was burnished gold. and it is OWL-UKAUED VASE. in his excavations of the ruins of Troy.' . 1872 published a work entitled " Les Races Aryennes in in Perou. which the Incas imposed on their subjects over ." which he attempts to prove that the great Qui- chua language." 387) " that a study of ancient Peruvian pottery has constant- ly reminded me of forms with which we are familiar in Egyp- tian arcliseology. light-haired. precisely as a simemigration of Aryans went westward to the shores of the Mediterranean and Caspian. bearded holding the religion which Plato says prevailed in Atlantis. doubt that a fair-skinned. much farther. Schliemann. a Spanish in gentleman of Montevideo. personally testify" (says Winchell.

is still a vast extent of territorv. proofs on this point I quote : Andrew Lang's summary of the left *'Senor Lopez's view. TEOY. and which a livinoj tono-ue in Peru and Bolivia. European speech. that the Peruvians were Aryans who the parent stock long before the Teutonic or Hellenic races entered Europe.WOULD. is supported by arguments drawn from Ian- .400 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN. is really a branch of the great Aryan or Indo- OWL-HKADED VASE.

. SANSCRtT. JIuakia. To which of the stages of language does this belong the agglutinative. is said found in pillu. many. in which one root is fastened on to another. Max Miiller's opinion that there must have been a tiine when the germs of Aryan tongues had not yet reached the inflexional stage. to be ' I sail. to act. and he says pillui. But many of these forms are due to a scanty alphabet. Huayra. and shows that while the form of Quichua is — agglutinative. to call.. with its multitude of words beginning with Aw. to breathe. and a word is formed in which the constitutive elements are obviously distinct. avpa. and just as the Greeks had to spell Roman words beginning with Fwith Ou^ like Valerius OvaXipiog so. from relioious beliefs. Thus. Vas. to do this root is found more than three hundred names of peoples and places in . Here is a list of words in hu : — — QinCUUA. the roots of words are Aryan. living dialect of Peru is barbarous and fluctuating. where the auxiliary roots get worn down and are only distinguishable by the philologist? As all known Aryan tongues are inflexional. Arr. Vd. Quichua has sometimes hu. Quichua abhors the shock of two consonants. a feather. " When we first look at Quichua. in 'phima. Huasi. We must now examine some of the forms which Aryan roots are supposed to take in Quichua. It is not one of the casual and shifting forms of speech produced by nomad races. and its great preponderance of q's/it seems almost as odd as Mexican. a word like irXioj in Greek would be unpleasant to the Peruvian's ear. tins be so.THE PERUVIAN COLONY. In the first place. or the inflexional. any more than Greek has. where Sanscrit has v. 401 guage. ' again. from the traces of institutions. Huasa. Face. air. Vas. to speak. Senor Lopez may appear to contradict himself when he says that Quichua is an agglutinative Aryan language. and really express familiar sounds and . to be able {pouvoir). : in " There is a Sanscrit root.' Quichua has no v. The evidence from language is treated scientifically. a house. again. as in Turanian. But he quotes Mr. to fly. result from the casual spelling of the Spaniards. to inhabit. from legendary records. and not as a kind of inSeiior Lopez first combats the idea that the genious guessing.' The plu. the back. If Quichua may be a linguistic missing link. and artistic remains.

and particularly lines of this discovery. ' I carry.' for ni or mi is the first person singular.402 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. or Cam. they "exhibit the most affinities astounding with the Semitic tongue. The same root gives karoj the hand. in fact. I shall love.' and Apanmi. and Can-mi. whose name may have the same origin as that of our old friends the Carians. like Kaleva-hi. or Apani. Munasa and that the affixes denoting cases in the noun are curiously like the Greek prepositions. — Very recently Dr. Falb rives the conclusion that the high plains of Peru and Bolivia must be regarded as the point of exit of the present human . is the sign of the first person of the present indicative. is. privative' thus A-stani means 'I change a thing's place. It is impossible to do more than refer to the supposed Aryan roots contained in the glossary. brave. but it may be noticed that the future of the Quichuan verb is formed in s I love. Thus there are the Caribs. in Finnish. Rudolf Falb has announced {Neue Freie Presse. Quichua has an 'alpha fancy may connect with koXoq. the Arabic. and mean the Braves." The comde- mon stems of all the variants are found in their purest condi- tion in Quichua and Aimara. in which tongue Dr. Peru has stores of a grammatical form which has happily perished in Europe. Following up the Falb has found (l) a connecting link with the Aryan roots. is I love." — ' — — for I or The resemblance between the Quichua and Mandan words me mi will here be observed. that. and (2) has ultimately arrived face to face with the surprising revelation that " the Semitic roots are universally Aryan. the Greek x^'P? ^^^^ kkalli. For instances. 'I am. added to the root of a verb. can means being. and their land the home of the Braves. Soutbeni America. Falb has been skilled from his boyhood. or 3Iunani. of Vienna) that he has discovered that the relation of the Quichua and Aimara languages to the Aryan and Semitic tongues is very close. and. Dr. from which fact Dr.' So Lord Strangford was wrong when he supposed that the last verb in mi lived with the last patriot in Lithuania.' In the same way Munanmi. Munani. vvliich a person of Again.

curious and important a subject. would not originate in Peru. while the other emigration advanced up the Amazon. but was a from abroad. with the Nile as one of the shores of the tributaries. The very traditions to which we have referred as existing among the Peruvians.THE PERUVIAN COLONY. will be looked for with great . dated Leipsic. upon so to it ten years of study. Falb has devoted A work from such a source. and Dr. 403 [Since the above was written I have received a letter from Scholars will be glad Dr. and created mighty nations upon its head-waters in the valleys of the Andes and Pacific. 1881. however. to learn that Dr. Falb's great work on the relationship of the Aryan and Semitic languages to the Qiiichua and Aimara tongues will be published in a year or two the manuscript contains over two thousand pages. on the shores of the . be said to flow out from the its Black Sea. that the civilized race were white and bearded. with the same arts. separated in Atlan- east and west —the one may to repeat the civilization of the mother-country along the shores of the Mediterranean Sea. and along Red Sea and the Persian Gulf. In fact. and speaking the show that civilization did transplantation tis same tongue and went in an early age of the world. April 5th. more reasonable to suppose that the Quichuas and Aimaras were a race of emigrants from Plato's island than to think that Atlantis was populated from South America. and that they entered or invaded the country. Falb. and only in the direction of Atlantis can we look for a white and bearded race. like a great river. which. interest.] But it is impossible that the Quichuas and Aimaras could if have passed across the wide Atlantic to Europe there had its been no stepping-stone in the shape of Atlantis with bridge- like ridges connecting the It is. kindred races. two continents.

Algiers. p. States. though often crisp and frizzled. .) " Some of the Nubians are copper-colored or black.. Other tribes have forms and features like the European their complexion is black. and Bcnzazi. or a copper color approaching to black. these authors further say 204) : " On the northern coast of Africa. their complexion ranging from almost white to dark brown or black. 194." (Nott and Gliddon. Africa. evidences a commingling all of different stocks: the blacks are not . including Morocco. and almost woolly." Speaking of the Barbary {Ibid. Tunis. frizzled." .404 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. The traces of red men or copper-colored races many parts of the continent. from that of the light Berber.. Tripoli. between Senegal and Gambia. which have been included under the general term Atlas Throughout anciently Atlantis. Such are the Bishari and Danekil and Hazorta. 198. the true ne- his second class is thus described "2. there is a continuous system of highlands. haired like Europe and America. *' Types of Mankind. between the Mediterranean and the Great Desert. and their hair from straight to crisp. Chapter YI. p. with a {Ibid. or a deej) olive. nor all woolly- the Africans pass through all shades. no darker than the Spaniard. THE AFRICAN COLONIES. . and the darkest of the Abyssinians. " The complexion and hair of the Abyssinians vary very much. black. . is not in the least woolly.) tinge of red. while their hair. Prichard divides groes into four classes . • — . now the Barbary States. p. to the deep black of are found in the lolofs.

" A Hodgson " states . have penetrated in considerable numbers into the Desert. The Tuarycks are a luhite people.' have every reason to believe the Berbers existed in the remotest times." suffixed . and have the red-and-ivhite complexion of English women. It displays great varieties. but which formerly had its principal and perhaps aborigiThe real nal abode along the mountain sloi^es of Atlas. They existed in the time of Menes in the same condition in which they were discovered by Phoenician navigators previously to the foundation of Carthage. 405 subdivided of various shades. but hair and eyes always dark. — — We . The women of Mequinas are very beautiful. They are an indomitable. and mixed with the Bedouin Arabs. who. meeting in an acute angle. rather long. rather broad lips. brownish-yelloiv com2yle. many T-amazirgh or Amazirgh-T meaning /r^e. large. and their complexion. a thin. shaded by arched and strong eyebrows. nomadic people. others black. Prichard says " Their figure and stature are nearly the same as those of the southern Europeans. dominant. . . and a stature greater than the middle height. and of a copper color ." Jackson says: " The men of Temsena and Showiah are of a strong. if darker. and black hair. the women are beautiful. with woolly hair. speaking. is only so in proportion to the higher temperature of the country.THE AFRICAN COLONIES. . an oval countenance. depict the Moors as high forehead.t\\\Q\ smooth." black eyes. . since the introduction of camels. now spread over a vast area. name of the Berbers is Mazirgh. of the Berber race the Mozabiaks are a remarkably ivhite people.''"' Spix and Martins. . with all their essential moral and physical peculiarities. with woolly hair. Barbary we encounter a peculiar group of into races." . and even as far as Nigritia. but not too pointed nose. The women of Fez are fair as the Europeans.xion. . with the article prefixed or tribes . Some of these clans are white. robust make. The Wadreagans and WurgeJans are of a dark bronze. or ' noble race. . Speaking of the Barbary Moors. . the German follows travellers. .

maintains that the dolmens of Africa and of Europe were constructed hy the same race.406 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. They have a tradition that their ancestors were whites. explain the existence of these The author does not. which location. hair longer and less woolly than that of the com- mon negroes." art.) The Cromlechs (dolmens) of Algeria " was the subject of an address made by General Faidherbe at the Brussels International Congress. and certain tribes call themselves white men. and histo- ry they present striking differences from the neighboring tribes. Golbery describes them as " robust and courageous. hair is is as Mediterraneans. p. lies to the north of their present The Nubians and Foolahs are classed They are not black. appearance. ("American Cyclopaedia. Ethnoloffy. during their emigration from the shores of the Baltic to the southern coast of the Mediterranean. not woolly but curly. " He considers these structures to be simply after sepulchral monuments. many of a mulatto color. of a reddish-hhick color. attempt to monuments in other countries . and. however. the opinion of ern travellers that the Foolahs are destined to modbecome the dom- inant people of Negro-land. In language. almost white. as describes the Foolahs of Bowen some Bomba as being some black. Fulbe (sing. and to very bright." Dr. and high mental capacity. or Fellatah. type. or red-hrown. their lips them a Mediterranean not puffy. in physical development. are a It is people of The Foolahs. and their languages have no connection with the tongues of the negroes proper. with regular features. with a fuller growth of beard than the negroes. 759. accord- ing to Garth. but inferior. all examining five or six thou- sand of them. Fellani. but yellowish-brown. to whom they are superior in intelligence. Barth found great local differences in their physical characteristics. The oval face gives Their noses are prominent. The . varying from dark Their features and skulls were cast in the Eu- ropean mould. and sometimes quite straight it either dark -brown or black. West and Central Africa. Pullo). They came from Timbuctoo.

—the idolaters be- ing neither Romans.65 or 1. have blue eyes. and General Faidherbe is inclined to think that they . according Atlantis to — colonists of three different races—white. " In Africa. as it is not Egyptian. and my theory. The profiles indicated great intelligence. dwells a negro tribe ruled bv a royal family (Masas). They are of lofty stature. and America. which must have come from the invaders' own language. The the primitive dolmen-builders. 1500 B. for instance.65 metre. tell of invasions of bones found in the cromlechs are those of a large and dolichocephalous race. 1 • too are the descendants of the dolmen-builders.THE AFRICAN COLONIES. who '^^*'^"^'^«*^«'^"''' ^'^^'^"'^-'^ " MONUMENTS. The Masas wear the hair in the same fashion as the Tamahus. nor Christians. and cling to the custom of bearing long swords.74 metre. nor Phoenicians. yellow. 407 Hindostan. but some He regards the Berbers as the descendants of Certain Egyptian monuments Lower Egypt one thousand five hundred years before our era by blond tribes from the West. These people. I . The Tuaregs of the present day may be re- garded as the best representatives of the Tamahus. i' n are of rather fair complexion. . which occurs in the Egyptian documents applied to the Tamahus. (including the General Faidherbe gives the average stature women) at 1. were colonists from sunburnt or red. on the banks of the Niger." be says. to be wielded by both hands.O. In Soudan. The Egyptian documents already referred to call the invaders Tamahu. while the averis age stature of French carabineers only 1. "cromlechs are called tombs of the idolaters" antique race. skash. and claim Masas is perhaps the same as Madescent from white men. He did not find a single brachycephalous skull.

Ladhra was their conductor. THE IRISH COLONIES FROM ATLANTIS. Ladhra. to the and were in those days veiy trou- blesome whole world.'''' Were not these the inhabitants of Atlantis. who. or Kesair. who was the first buried in Hibernia. to find Ireland colonized at an early day by the overflowing population of Flood. now would naturally expect.408 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WOULD." "were a sept descended from Cham. the "Cin of Drom-Snechta. and Fintain. and whose ? subsequent destruction has been attributed to divine vengeance invoked by their arrogance and oppressions . according to Plato. We We have seen that beyond question Spain and France owed Let us turn a great part of their population to Atlantis. the son of Noeh. That ancient book. And. in view of the geographical posi- tion of ^he country. according to the "Annals of Clonmacnois. the Irish annals tell us that their island was settled prior to the In their oldest legends an account given of three Spanish fishermen coast by contrary winds on the of Ireland before the Deluge. After these came the driven who were Formorians. is in fact. Atlantis. or Berba. who. who were led into the country prior to the Del- uge by the Lady Banbha. she was accompanied by fifty maidens and men Bith. Chapter YII. her maiden name was h'Erni. carried their arms to Egypt and Athens. The Irish annals speak of the Formorians as a warlike race." is quoted in the "Book of three — Ballymote" as authority for this legend. to Ireland. and lived by pyracie and spoile of other nations.

killed Partho- and drove the invaders out of the country. they simply meant that they came from the West words. in the Irish annals as known "Partholan's people. encountered off the Hebrides a fleet of thirty ships. led by one Partholyan. the Formorians claimed to come from Africa. and the uniform representation is that they came. 409 Atlantis. They were called Fom- and Formoragh. et Orig. Major Wilford. as the F^omoraig Afraic indicated. the Atlanteans. who told him they were from Sjyain. They possessed Ireland from country. They possessed ships. Spain in that day was the land of the Iberians. and seeking some place to colonize. The Formorians were a sixty ships they had " a fleet of and a strong army. was led by a chief called Partholan his people They They were from Spain. which has been rendered into English as Fonnorians. so early a period that by some of the historians they are spoken of as the aborigines of the The are first invasion of Ireland. civilized race ." When. subsequent to the coming of : the Formorians.") ed him to Ireland. therefore." were also probably Atlanteans. Africa did not mean the continent in of Africa.THE IRISH COLONIES FROM ATLANTIS. Cantab. he was retaken by the Formorians under " More. or Aparica. terms used to signify " the West. filled with men and women. the Basques that is to say." of their dominions was it The next invader captured one of their fortifications. name But in that day as we now under- stand it. from Africa. The British prince direct(" De Antiq. or Gurmund." Neimhidh was driven out of the 18 . The Fonnorians were from horaiccy F''omoraig Afraic. The Formorians defeated lan." just as we now speak of the Asiatic world as " the East. Gulguntius. Partholan's people. from Atlantis —for there was — in other no other country except America west of them." has pointed out that Africa comes from Apar^ Aphar. but Neimhidh. A British prince. Apara. the eighth volume of the "Asiatic Researches.

while Bolgs sent out Breas. one of their great the chiefs. " put a silver hand upon of the island for four hundred years more. and each was delighted to find that the other spoke the same language. He went to the court of his . and that they were intimately connected with the Formorians. lost his hand in battle.410 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. when they were overthrown by the Tuatha-de-Dananns. in . was slain Breas succeeded him he encountered the hostility of the bards. and was compelled to resign the crown. the fingers of which were capable of motion. In the Irish historic tales called "Catha. or Battles. a record is preserved of a great battle which was fought between the Tuatha-de-Dananns and the FirBolgs. Elathe. A battle followed. the artificer. and divided it They lield possession of the country for into five provinces. king of the Fir-Bolgs. named Sreng. " the sons of Milidh.c." as given by the learned O'Curry." who " possessed a large fleet and This last invasion took place about the year Neimhidh must have ocwe will have to assign a still earlier date for the coming of Partholan's people. country. a people more advanced in civilization so much so that when their king. Nuadha. father-in-law." or Milesius. him." we are told.C. which Nunda. probably of Basques. not being . to reconnoitre camp of the strangers . only thirty-seven years. so that the invasion b. the Tuatha-de-Dananns appointed one of their champions. . and an earlier still for the occupation of the country by the Formorians from the West. and the Atlanteans continued in undisturbed possession Then came the They conquered the whole island." great race ruled the This country for one hundred and ninety- seven years: they were overthrown by an immigration from Spain.. or Atlanteans. the two warriors met and talked to one another over the tops of their shields. IVOO of curred about the year 2334 . a strong army. or Iberians. Fir-Bolgs. to meet the emissary of the enemy . " Creidne. a Formorian sea-king or pirate. from which it appears that these two races spoke the same language. As the armies drew near together the FirB.

preserve the history of the. x. a descendant of Breogan." p. whose duty it and they had also in battle .THE miSH COLONIES FROM ATLANTIS. p. son of Japheth. and also their intimate con- been in the Hebrides. to have been a civilized peo- besides possessing ships and armies and working in the metals. On landing on the coast they offered sacrifices to Neptune or Poseidon" —the god of Atlantis. (Tbid. he repaired to the 411 a Formorian chief. well received. These particulars would show the race-identity of the FirBolgs and Tuatha-de-Dananns. 57). " then they entered Spain. and the Milesians were brothers. took part in a war against the Ethiopians. and lived two hundred and fifty years. They were connected with the African colonies of Atlantis." the Nemedians. The Forniorian head-qnarters seem to have Breas and Balor collected a vast array and navy and invaded Ireland. who escaped from the catastrophe which destroyed his country.) gives us the descendants . the Fir-Bolgs. they stopped a while in Crete. camp of Balor of the Evil Eye. then in Scythia. According to the ancient books of Ireland the race known as " Partholan's people. to had an organized body of surgeons. but his people soon after conquered Ireland. if not identity with. 58. went on an expedition to Egypt. but were defeated in a great battle by the Tuatha-de-Dananns. then Ire- they settled in Africa (See MacGeoghegan's " History of there during eight generations.. at a place called Gsethulighe or Getulia. : thence . say land. the Tuatha-de-Dananns. sons of all descended from two Magog. Thus all these races were Atlantean. and with the The Milesians lived in Egypt they were expelled Egyptians. nection. country and the deeds of kings and heroes. Scota : he died in Spain. where they built Brigantia. son of Noah. Milesius. named after their king Breogan : they dwelt in Spain a considerable time. The Tuatha-de-Dananns seem ple . the Berbers.) The Book of Genesis (chap. they was to attend upon the wounded a bardic or Druid class. the Forraorians. married the king's daughter. or Briganza.

We are then given the names of the descendants of Gomer and Javan. and his people were multiplied. the civilization of the Irish dates back to a vast . driven out of : and by the sea to the Pillars of Hercules. and Magog. of Noah's three sons. and Javan. but that the sons of Japheth were not of Magog. place.412 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. and Japheth. and Tiras. tongue shows that later it separated from the Sanscrit original tongue it is than the others. and Meshech. it appears that the population of Ireland came from lantis and not from Asia —that it was one of the problem is many waves of population flowing out from the Island of At- —and herein we find the explanation of that scholars. and dwelt there many years. and through the Tuscan sea. We are told Gomer. and he increased and multiplied. Shem." From all these facts the West. and Tubal. would follow that the Celtic wave of migration must have been the earliest sent out from the Sanscrit centre but it is now asserted by Professor Schleicher and others that the Celtic . Ham. As Rome. origin of the Indo-Euroif pean but very easily understood we recognize the and Celtic migrations as going out about the Aryan same time from In the the Atlantean fountain-head. and he made for Spain. which has puzzled the Aryan from the Punjab than Persia. and passed by the lake of SalivcE to the altars of the Philistines. There are many points confirmatory of first this belief. " Cin of Drom-Snechta. the family where the Bible leaves it. cable This entirely inexpli- upon any theory of an Eastern races. and Madai. Scythians. Ireland farther it or Scandinavia. and between Rusicada and the mountains Azure. Phoenicians ." claims that these Scythians were the and we are told that a branch of this family were Egypt in the time of Moses " He wandered through Africa for forty-two years. Josephus says the sons of Magog were the Irish annals take The up the genealogy of Magog's The Book of Invasions. and he came by the river Monlon. and that more closely allied to the is Latin than any other Aryan tongue. Greece.

to wit. of sun-worship . the island was continuously inhabited. and that Ogyges was "a " The Greeks called Nor can any one. who came from Spain in the Historic Period. that their original religion .THE IRISH COLONIES FROM ATLANTIS. antiquity. 413 We have seen tlieir annals laying claim to an im- migration from the direction of Atlantis prior to the Deluge. lost in the night of ages. perhaps. This demonstrates (l) that these legends did not come from Christian sources. as pre-eminently the cen- tre of that religion which was shared by all the ancient races It is believed that Ireof Europe." Greek legends with a first deluge. and " Ogygia. human (3) that the . that great cataclysm was of comparaand tively recent date. land was the " Garden of Phoebus" of the Western mythologists. books it is referred to as Hiranya. as the Bible record was understood in the old time to imply a destruction of except all who lived before the Flood Noah and family his family . (2) it confirms our view that the and did not drown the whole coming of the Formorians having been before the Deluge. Africa. and America. There are many evidences that the Old World recognized Ire- In the Sanscrit land as possessing a very ancient civilization." It appears. From the Formorians. the " Island of the Sun. unless. to the Milesians. " conceive why they should call it Ogygia. their knowledge. in other words. ." Ireland the " Sacred Isle " says quite mythical personage. with no record that the people of Ireland were subsequently destroyed by the Deluge. Asia." Camden. in that A rude people could scarcely have heard day of a local catastrophe occurring in the heart of Asia. from its antiquity. as another confirmation of the theory of the Atlantis origin of these colonies. who came be- fore the Deluge. since the settlement of Ireland local catastrophe." to wit. for the Greeks called nothing Ogygia unless what was extremely anWe have seen that Ogyges was connected by the cient. Deluge was a it must that as the have (4) occurred somewhere not far from Ireland to have come to Deluge was a local catastrophe.

This would appear to have been a corrupt after-growth imposed upon the tis. was sun-worship this. one of the sun-god. and purer sacrifice of fruits and flowers known in Atlanand due in part to greater cruelty and barbarism in their Hence we find it practised in degenerate ages descendants. and the Hindoos. Gryneus. and some of its customs exist among the peasantry of that country to this day. Sun-worship down to the time of St. In the reign of King Tighernmas the worship of idols was introduced. and Mexicans. . passed from Ireland to England and France. Egyptians. The Druids ence. The priests constituted the Order of Druids. We have seen in the chapter on sun-worship how It extensive this form of religion was in the Atlantean days. earlier on both sides of the Atlantic. The Druids while it is of Gaul and Britain offered human sacrifices. Their chief god was Bel or Baal worshipped by the Phoenicians —the god of the —the same The Irish sun.414 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WOULD. according to Virgil. Romans. Naturally many an- found to exist between the beliefs and customs of the Druids and the other religions which were drawn alogies have been from Atlantis. name for the sun. Hindoos. Grian. whence passed to the Druids. both in Europe and America. would appear probable that the religion of the Druids The metempit sychosis or transmigration of souls was one of the articles of their belief long before the time of Pythagoras. Peruvians. claimed that the Irish Druids did not. names of Apollo — another is. Patrick. as was the case in other countries. We have seen that among the Peruvians. be- came subsequently overlaid with idol-worship. and a new fire kindled at the . the Greeks. The Irish Druidical rites manifested themselves principally in sun-worship. continued in Ireland and other nations. had a pontifex maximus to whom they yielded entire obediHere again we see a practice which extended to the Phoenicians. on a certain day all fires were extinguished throuirhout the kingdom. had probit ably been drawn from the storehouse of Atlantis.

or the lament over the dead. between which cattle were driven." p.THE HUSH COLONIES FJiOM ATLANTIS. as a preventive of murrain and other pestilential disorders." or throwing up five pebbles and catching them on the back of the hand.) custom of saying " God bless you !" when one sneezes. may still be heard in Algeria and Upper Egypt. even as Herodotus heard it chanted by the Libyan women. that and it was established. where the ." The celebration in Ireland of St. penalties. "The Irish keen (caoine). year. rays. chief temple 415 their fire for the by the sun's coming exist. in "Folk-lore" that in Northamptonfires England. Upon the night of what is now fire AU-Saints-day the Druids assembled at this place to offer sacrifice. and Romans. 141. The Irish wakes are identical with the funeral feasts of the Greeks. And unto this day the Irish call the first day of May " Lha-Beul-tinne. stitious purposes Fires are still lighted in England and Scotland as well as Ireland for super. Etrus- The and Romans." which signifies " the day of Bel's fire. was known in Rome. four provinces met. so that the people of Great Britain." The same practice exist- ed among the Egyptians. . the divine fire was kindled. from which the people obtained In Ireland the same practice here. John's-eve by watchfires is a relic of the ancient sun-worship of Atlantis. or the day of Bel's fire. it may be said. The prac- tice of driving cattle through the in his fire continued for a long time. in and Kelly mentions shire. under heavy no should be kindled except from this source. (Cusack's "History of Ireland. and two were lit. Etruscans. This was called Beltinne. We find among the Irish of to-day many Oriental customs. cans. is a very ancient practice it was known to the RoIrish . are still in some sense in the midst of the ancient sun- worship of Atlantis. a convocation of Druids was held in the fires On the first of May royal palace of the King of Connaught. a calf was sacrificed one of these to " stop the murrain " during the present century. The game of " jacks. in the present county of Meath palace called Tlachta. at a was found to A piece of land was set apart.

and devotion extends from Ireland to origin this fact All these things speak of a common it . India. said. tice of pilgrimages. to a plague in the remote past. and were in fact a migration of Hindoos. symptom was sneezing. fasting. and were built by the Christian priests.. by Dr. and yet have preserved no memory of the expeditions or colonizations by which they acquired that knowledge ? Another proof of our theory is found in "the round-towers" Attempts have been made to show. and Spain. in in his and that day the fishermen could them shinina. 05. created by an inundation. man sent out colonies or fleets for exploration but there is abun- dant evidence.416 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. Petrie of Ireland. that these extraordinary structures are of modern origin. has been generally recognized. The practice of the whose first creditor fasting at the door-step of his debtor until he is is paid. but that the Irish has always been interpreted came from the There is East. theory. ster" mention the destruction of fifty-seven of them by an earthquake in A. The to holy wells and particular places. England. and Giraldus Cambrensis shows that Lough Neagh was A.D. it is mans. my son !" The prac- reverence for the wren in Ireland and Scotland reminds us of the Oriental and Greek respect for that bird." " See the round-towers of other days In the waves beneath . 448. the kindly " God save you !" is the same as the Eastern " God be gracious to you.D. We find many points of resemblance between the customs of the Irish and those of the Hindoo. and others. and their very names. on the other hand. of migrations from Atlantis eastward. giving the shape and outline of their coasts. not the slightest evidence to sustain this of The Hindoos have never within the knowledge . known to both countries . or sinking of the land. bodily macerations. and referred. And how could the Sanscrit writings liave pre- served maps of Ireland. in which to keep But it is shown that the "Annals of Ultheir church-plate.

THE IRISH COLONIES FROM ATLANTIS. " to be Scandinavian. or Denmark. in a well-known pasand describing it as " an island in the so fruitful that they skill ocean over against Gaul. but no similar buildings exist in Norway. their singular temples of round form. in the Shetlands. in form. Northmen. we find Diodorus Siculus. the soil of which is mow there twice in the year." their sacred groves." of the little I give above a picture of the Burgh or Broch island of Moussa. We find similar structures in America. to the north. It is circular . 417 sage." says Sir John Lubbock. open at the top the central 18* . IN THE SHETLANDS. " They have been supposed by some. Moreover. referring to Ireland. and India. The remains of similar round-towers are very abundant in the Orkneys and Shetlands. and not inferior in size to Sicily. He and mentions the of their harpers. Sardinia. Sweden. so that this style of architecture is no doubt anterior to the arrival of the THE KCBGa OF MOU88A. forty-one feet in height.

In New Mexico and Colorado the remains of round-towers are very abundant. it be its resembles the towers of Ireland. The illustration below represents one ROUND-TO WEB OF TUE CANON OF THE MANGOS. not only in its at form but also in the fact that some distance from the ground. due to an accidental coincidence. wliich leads to the top of the building. the walls about fourteen feet thick at the base. of these in the valley of the Mancos. It mijrht as well door-way is situated It will not do to say that the resemblance between these in prehistoric countries so far apart as is Sardinia.418 space is ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. A model of it is to be found in the stands at It will Smithsonian collection at AVashington. twenty feet in diameter. U. be arijued that the resemblance . Ireland. in the south-western corner of Colorado. and singular towers. 8. seen that circular The tower present. structures are found in the Island of Sardinia. twenty feet high. and eight feet at the top. in its ruined condition. COLORADO. Colorado. They contain Similar a staircase. and India.

His early youth was passed under the care of St. but afterward he w^ent to Rome in person to justify himself." and that this belief was especially found among the posterity of the Tuatha- de-Dananns." The Irish annals preserve memory of St. When . a lady of the princely family of the Desii. we might just as well go back to the theory of the philosophers of one hundred and fifty years ago. tion of the " The Abbe Brasseur de Bourbourg.d. Popol Yuh. colonized by the Phoenicians (or by people of that race). but that was simply a way nature had of working out extraordinary coincidences in a kind of joke a sort of " plastic power in nature." says in a note to his transla- " There is an abundance of legends and traditions concerning the passage of the Irish into America. In fact. We find another proof that Ireland was settled by the peo. whose connection with the Formorians we have shown. to the charge. 419 between the roots of the various Indo-European languages was also due to accidental coincidence. and say that the resemblance between the fossil forms in the rocks and the living forms upon them did not it indicate re- lationship. and his remarkable voyage to a land in the West. and there he proved to the pope that the Irish had been accustomed to communicate with a transatlantic We world y "This fact. ple of Atlantis in the fact that traditions long existed among the Irish peasantry of a land in the " Far West. and their habitual communication with that continent many centuries before the should bear in mind that Ireland was time of Columbus. or prove that the fossils were the remains of creat- ures that had once lived. who lived in the eighth century. " seems to have been preserved the in the records of the Vatican." as it was called. Brendan of Clonfert. Ita. An Irish saint named Vigile. was accused to Pope Zachary of having taught heresies on the subAt first he wrote to the pope in reply ject of the antipodes. made a. and did not establish any similarity of origin. 545.THE IRISH COLONIES FROM ATLANTIS." says Baldwin.

Kerry he decided to Brendan's Hill still set on the important expedition. He finally reached land. " probably encouraged in went to see the venerHe was the plan he had formed of carrying He the Gospel to this distant land. he proceeded came to a large river flowing from east to west. This land was associated in the minds of the peasantry with traditions of Edenic happiness and beauty. "The . supposed by some to be the Ohio. St. has referred to it in her poem. Brendan sailed in search of a country in the west cannot be doubted. and from the bay ' at the foot of this lofty eminence he sailed for the west. Miss Eleanor C. and the legends which guided him were probably the traditions of Atlantis among a people whose ancestors had been derived directly or at second-hand from that country. bears his name . the dates of which vary from the eleventh to the fourteenth century. the blue waves of the Atlantic washed shores . On his return to St. without aid of oar or sail. Donnelly. able St. he was borne along for many weeks. Euda. ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. where. in a well-provisioned bark. five years old he was placed under the care of Bishop his native Kerry was its home . with a Far West. for counsel.420 he was Ercus." There are eleven Latin MSS. and which extends from the shores of Africa and Europe to America. "After an absence of seven years he returned to Ireland. but of all them anterior The fact that to the time of Columbus. of Philadelphia. but to found a college of three thousand monks at Clonfert. after some rough and dangerous navigation. and lived not only to tell of the marvels he had seen. the coast was full of traditions of a wonderful land in the West. to calm seas. he came. He proceeded along the out coast of Mayo. inquiring as he went for traditions of the West- ern continent." He had probably entered upon the same travelled nearly great current which Columbus one thousand years later.' Directing his course toward the southfaithful few companions. the first abbot of Arran. in the inland until he Bibliotheque Imperiale at Paris of this legend.

THE IRISH COLONIES FROM ATLANTIS. It rises. And *' ' And then I saw it. my eyes o'er the breakers free To the lovely spot where the sun was setting. is No trace of ruin. With a mighty eagle westward floating. my boy) Thou hast looked perchance on the Land of eternal youth and joy " Out of the sea. Like blessed dreams that we see in sleep. Far away Towers and o'er the waters castles deep and chapels glowing. Every plume in their pinions red. all the birds that way were flying. With great soft masses of gray and amber. the fairy city. Brittany looks from the shores of Cape Raz this is Atlantis. Where Nor cloud nor frost can touch that spot. these are the Gardens of the Hes- perides . golden and fair to view of sorrow. Heron and curlew overhead. ' Tir-na-n'oge. " ' The sky was full of the fairest colors Pink and purple and paly green. forever blooming.' these are the Elysian This is the Greek story of Elysion . or change No sign of age where all new. . this is the region in the West to which the peasant of . And *' ' great bright rifts of gold between. I've been on the Straining cliffs out yonder. The bitter pangs of the past forgot. Setting and sinking into the sea." 421 where the starving boy dreams of the pleasant and plentiful land " ' Mother. Fields of the Egyptians. when the sun is setting. acusJiIa (Thy hair wet with the mists. the happy people are ever roaming. " ' Forever sunny. is its " ' What name ?' is ' Be still. Sleeper's Sail.

With sea-weeds Into her room." .422 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. silver . Over Death Sea on a bridge of The child to his Father's arms had passed Heaven was nearer than Tir-na-n'oge. starving child seeks to reach this blessed land in a boat. A drowned '* boy on his bosom bear. " High on the cUffs the light-house keeper Caught the sound of a piercing scream Low in her hut the lonely widow in the Moaned " maze of a troubled dream And saw in her sleep a seaman ghostly. all wet and dripping. clinging in his hair. The and is drowned. And the golden city was reached at last.

solid. says. but which may more properly be called Hamitic. These three oases of language are known by the name of Turanian. THE OLDEST SON OF NOAH. in fact. and Semitic. In these three centres. language ceased to be natural." There can be no doubt that the Aryan and another branch.. and only three. Dr." " If we confine ourselves to the Asiatic continent. if you like. before the beginning of all history. also a branch of To quote again from Max Miiller: " If it can only be proved that the religions of the Aryan nations are united by the same bonds of a real relationship . the Aryan. I have always maintained that this centralization and traditional conservation of language could only have been the result of religious and political influences. and it became permanent. historical speech. a character totally different from the original character of the floating and constantly varying speech of human beings. petrified. That eminent authority. and the Semitic concomitantly with the — — — three great settlements of language. or. which Miiller calls Semitic. 423 Chapter YIII. Max Miiller.. it is a question yet to be is decided whether the Turanian or Mongolian the Noachic or Atlantean stock. radiated from Noah . Aryan. in his " Lect- ures on the Science of Religion. language became permanent and traditional assumed. more particularly in the Aryan and Semitic.THE OLDEST SON OF NOAH. a new character. with its important peninsula of Europe. oases have been formed in which. its growth was arrested. and I now mean to show that we really have clear the evidence of three independent settlements of religion Turanian. we find that in the vast desert of drifting human speech three.

. There was a period during which the ancestors of the Semitic family had not yet been divided. can be proved. law. . and the Teutons derived the worship of their principal deity from their common Aryan sanctuary. the Greeks. we shall not be able to deny that there was likewise a primitive religion of the whole Semitic race. but likewise a primitive Turanian religion. and these relics admit of one explanation only. nor Latin. . worship. the Strong One in heaven. have been preserved among the Aryan and among the Semitic nations. and faith. admits. would be unintelligible. before each of these primeval races was broken up and became separated in language. I believe. in the same way as neither Hindoos. — . . nor Romans have any recollection of the time when they spoke a common language. spirit. I believe. . because. nor Greek. Hebrew. the Turanian. the Semitic. . all the realities of the Semitic languages and the Semitic religions. for that there was not only a primitive Aryan and a primitive Semitic religion. After that. this original relationship. — : . and Arabic point to a common source as much as Sanscrit. was invoked by the ancestors of all the Semitic races before there were Babybefore lonians in Babylon. and national sentiment. such as we find them after their separation.424 wliicli ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WOULD. It was a real period. whether in language or in religion. "These three classes of religion are not to be mistaken as little as the three classes of language. words also expressive of the most essential elements of religion. But I do not hesitate to call this Prehistoric Period historical in the best sense of the word. and worshipped their Father in heaven by a name that was as yet neither Sanscrit. the Romans. That period transcends the recollection of every one of the Semitic races. Greeks. Phoenicians in Sidon and Tyrus The evidence there were Jews in Mesopotamia or Jerusalem. Syriac. of little doubt. and that El. a comparative study of the Turanian religions may be approached with better hope of success. varieties of the — — many Names of the principal deities. have enabled lis to treat their lanajnages as so same type and so also of the Semitic the field thus opened is vast enough. and its careful clearing and And cultivation will occupy several generations of scholars. of the Semitic is the same as that of the Aryan languages the conclusion cannot be different. unless it was real. such as 'prayer^ sacrifice^ altar. and Latin and unless we can bring ourselves to doubt that the Hindoos. Greek.

in the name of Jehovah. events ligion. while Old Testament used exclusively among the Phoenicians Adonai was the supreme In both cases the root Ad is probably a reminiscence of ^cZ-lantis. and in our rehistory of the world. Al-lah. Another evidence of the connection between the Greeks. That mysterious people. £l-ohim.X\\Q strong one. . it is now claimed. the gods. 425 three events in the most ancient which have determined the whole fate of the human race." Uranus was the father of Chronos. Phoenicians. tian There seem to exist similar connections between the Egypand the Turanian mythology. or Venus. and Atlanteans is shown in the name . and the grandfather of Poseidon. and probably with the name of the god Nam of the Thibetians. The Greeks tell us that Adonis was the lover of Aphrodite. Now we as the find Adondi deity. was Neph or Num the chief god of the Samoyedes is Num and Max Muller established an identity between the JVum of the Samoyedes and the god Yum-ala of the Finns. and of which we ourselves still feel the consequences in our language. God and from the same name is derived the Arabian name of God. The great god of Egypt . in our thoughts. and the Aryan. the house of God. M-oah. the Strong One." They mark We lantis. who was the offspring of Uranus " she came out of — the sea. and whose bronze implements agreed exactly in style and workmanship with" those which we think were derived from Atlantis. a branch of the Turanian family. the Etruscans. of Adonis. . Ha-el. were. from whose name comes the Biblical names Beth-el. who inhabited part of Italy. Hebrews. king of Atlantis.THE OLDEST SON OF NOAH. have seen that all the evidence points to the fact that in this original seat of the Phoenician-Hebrew family was so-called Semites At- The great god of the was El.

Isaac Taylor.426 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WOULD. "An Karib). : civilization great classes tis. which includes the Chinese and Japanese. the great Finnic epic. Nuwayri. i. according to all . and the declensions. Aryans and the Turanians are represented tions as "contests between hostile ftro^Aers races must. it was easy to prove that the grammar and vocabulary of the 3000 Etruscan inscriptions were also Altaic. Schamar-Iarasch (Abou There were invasions which reached from the shores of Arabia into China. Two dice had been found in a tomb." vol. the early contests between the in the Iranian tradi. no blood relationship with the people of Atlantis. divide mankind into two those capable of civilization. . ful ruler into Hamza.. corresponded closely to those of the Tartar tribes of Siberia. the conjugations. p.. the Ugro-Finnish appearances." Arabian sovereign. who hold . p. ii. He showed that these words were identical with the first six digits in the Altaic branch of the Turanian family of speech. the Etruscan language had at last been discovered. who carried his arms successfully far Central Asia he occupied Samarcand and invaded China. The words denoting kindred. vol. in . therefore. bearing an inscription. Humboldt ancient is sure " that Ethiopia some connection existed between and the elevated plain of Central Asia. derived from Atlanand those essentially and at all times barbarian. by He stated that the long-sought key to the Rev. be looked upon as a stem. all the building and metalworking races of men who have proved themselves capable of and we may. 23). 62 . "At a recent meeting of the English Philological Society great interest was excited by a paper on Etruscan Numerals.'''' branchy earlier detached than the others from the Japhetic If it be true that the first branch originating from Atlantis then we have derived from Atlantis was the Turanian. the pronouns. with their six faces marked with words instead of pips. The Etruscan mythology proved to be essentially the same as that of the Kalevala. He erected an edifice at Samarcand. and others as a powerand conqueror. Guided by this clew." According to Lenormant ("Ancient History of the East. is described by .

We find the horns of Baal rep- resented in the remains of the Bronze OOWnEADEII IPOL. between the Central American and the Chinese figures representing earth and heaven. In pictures he is represented with two small horns. the tiara was with his bull's the crown subsequently worn by the Persian kings.' like that in use in Central America at the time of the Spanish conquest.c. ' 427 Himyarite or Ciishite characters. and.' These invasions (Baldwin's "Prehistoric Nations. MYOEN/B (FROM SOHLIEMANH). his Lord. in Central America. The Atlanteans having domesticated and discovered ." p.Fokee. Either one people learned from the other. He taught the motions of the heavenly bodies. Charles Walcott Brooks read a paper before the California Academy of Sciences. he also introduced many other useful arts and sciences. or both acquired these forms from a common source. Many physicogeographical facts favor the hypothesis that they were derived in very remote ages from America. in like manner. with his two horns. Bel sometimes wore a horns. to have introduced into China 'picture-writing.) must have been prior to 1518 b. there has been found at Copan. say that the progenitors of the Chinese race came from across the sea. a figure strikingly like the Chinese symbol of Fokee." The two small horns of Tai-Ko-Fokee and Moses are probably a reminiscence of Baal. like those associated with He and his successor are said the representations of Moses. ruled the kingdom of China. it be- came. 110.Ko . Tai . In the name of God. in time. Schamar-Iarasch has erected this edifice to the sun. and that from China Chinese records they passed to Egypt. and cattle. and divided time into years and months. there is a close resemblance " Now. in which he says "According to Chinese annals. the symbol of Papal authority. the great stranger king.THE OLDEST SON OF NOAH. Age tiara of Europe.

165. while the is Bill^ Scotch name for a bull a corruption. Burns says *'0 thou ! whatever title suit thee." "Clootie" is derived from the cleft hoof of a cow. these have descended in popular imagination to the spirit of evil of our day. In the next figure we have a sentation of the war-god of the Dakotas. of Bel. THE PflCKNIOIAN GOD." p. a representation of one of which is shown on the preceding page.) The trident of Poseidon has degener! ated into the pitchfork of Beelzebub And when we cross the Atlantic. Upon the head and of their great god Baal they placed the horns of the bull . SWITZERLAND. associated the bull and cow of the with religious ideas. in the Present. Auld Hornie. with something like a . Scotland. Satan. Nick.The Past devilans" on the island of Inis Maree. The first cut on page 429 represents an the head is idol of the Moquis of New Mexico repre- very bull-like. BAAL. we find in America the horns of Baal reappearing in a singular manner. it Less than two hundred years ago a bull on the 25th of August to the was customary to sacrifice "God Mowrie" and "his (". probably. or Clootie. vast importance to humanity. as revealed in the oldest hymns Aryans and the cow-headed idols of Troy.428 tlieir ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. EELIGIOUS KMBLEM OF THE BKONZE AGE.

THE OLDEST SON trident in his . Compare last figure. 429 Zarate's " Pern." like the traditional conception of the ears.NOAH." and a great caravansary in the desert of Gobi. He this is very much Euro- pean devil —horns. 1>AK0T. wings. sat in the midst of bones and blood. in his " Travels in Central Asia." describes very important ruins near the east- ern shore of the Caspian Sea. Heeren shows that a great overland commerce extended MOQUl IDOL. tempting men to ruin by their sweet music. ancient times between the Black Sea and "Great Mongolia." He found avast aqueduct one hundred and fifty miles long. accord- ing to Grecian mythology. pointed siren." hand wliile the next illustration is taken from and depicts " the god of a degrading worship. Arminius Vambery. and poker." he mentions a "Temple of the Sun. 430 of a Greek from Peru.V II>OT> PERCrVIAN DEVIL. extending even to China. at a place called Gomiishtcpe and connected with these are the remains of a great wall which he followed "ten geographical miles. extending to the Persian mountains. OF. He reports abundant ruins in all that country. with the representation on page one of those cruel monsters who. Here we have in the same bird-like legs and claws as in the Peruvian demon. The early history of China indicates contact with a superior .

" how to raise them. "Fuh-hi. taught the writing. and measures. is believed to have invented weapons. clocks. during a reign of one hundred and forty years. and to have introduced coins. but he did not invent the cattle.c. armies and in? whose vaded " his territory He instituted the ceremony riage. or are borrowed from some other more civilized people. running through many centuries. had domesticated them and from what nation was he more . Hwang-ti. it is all ed them no emperor of China ever inventduring a period of one hundred and sixty -four certain that I . wagons. Shin -nung." He might have in- vented his alphabet.430 race. weights." (Ibid. The next emperor. ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. He art. and musical instru- ments. founded the Chinese Empire 2852 people b. introduced cattle. who is regarded as a demi-god. introduced agriculture and medical science. ships. centu- many of civilization. and taught the China.) As these various inventions in all other countries have been the result of slow development. "His successor. likely to have ob- tained them than from the Atlanteans." ilized of marciv- (Ibid.) This also was an importation from a land. whose colonies we have his seen reached borders.) art of ("American Cyclopaedia. he must have got them from some during ries nation who.

Sir William Jones says " The Chinese believe the earth to have been wholly covered with water. ii. their early legends. and the stars changed their motions the earth fell to pieces. has been considered synchronous and identical with the Noachic Deluge. which occurred in his reign. 376. is In 2357 his son Yau ascended the throne. the moon." vol. then subsiding and separating the higher from the loioer ages of mankind .. the sun. then. These. in works of undisputed authenticity. and their first location placed by Winchell near Lake Balkat. a short distance east of the Caspian. Man having rebelled against Heaven. that this division of time. just preceded the appearance of Fo-hi on the mountains of Chin. 431 the West. A great flood. the heavens sunk lower toward the north. they describe as flowing abundantly. Ti-ku. where we have already seen Aryan Atlantean colonies planted at an early day. The following history of this destruction of their ancestors vividly recalls to us the convulsion depicted in the Chaldean and American legends " The pillars of heaven were broken the earth shook to its very foundations. were also importations from In fact. established schools. from which their poetical history begins. . and the waters enclosed within its bosom hurst forth with violence and overflowed it. the Chinese themselves claim to have invaded China in the early days is /row the north-west .) .THE OLDEST SON OF NOAH." There can be no question that the Chinese themselves. the system of the universe was totally . ("Discourse on the Chinese Asiatic Researches. years. and from his reign that the regular historical records begin. connected their origin with a people in who were destroyed by water earth. and to Yau is attributed the merit of having successfully battled against the waters. . in a tremendous convulsion of the Associated with this event was a divine personage called Niu-va (Noah ?). which. and was the to practise it polygamy. p. "The third successor of first Fuh-hi.

Kiengi." and embraced. Right hand Hero Earth Dzek Tan Kien-kai Zag. as recorded texts. English. in turn.432 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. To shine To die Book Cloth Mut Mut King Sik Mul. or Nai Korti. the Susian and this. M. Ku Ku. while numerous words are very much alike. Dun. The sun was eclipsed. course. may be a reminiscence of in Nakhunta. Mit. the chief of the gods. disordered. member of the Asiatic Society of Paris." de la their A learned Frenchman. Chaldee. M. " parts of the continent of America. Kin. de Couperie gives a table of some of these I similarities. a recollection of the Dcva-Nahusha of the Hindoos. and China were of Atlanand that the name of Nai Hoang-ti. the king of Atlantis. Cow Brick Lub Lu. from which quote as follows Chinese. quarters of the races. the planets altered and the grand harmony of nature was disturbed. still This surprising discovery brings the Chinese civilization nearer to the Mediterranean head - increases the probability that the arts of tean origin . Terrien in Couperie. has just published a work (1880) which he demonstrates the astonishing is clearly fact that the Chinese language related to the Chaldean. whose great empire reached to the "farther parts of India. signs exist for The same many la words." Linguistic science achieved a great discovery when it es- tablished the fact that there was a continuous belt of languages from Iceland to Ceylon which were the variant forms of one . according to Plato. and that both the Chinese characters and the cuneiform alphabet are degenerate descendants of an original hieroglyphical alphabet. lup. the founder of Chinese civilization. Sik. the Dionysos of the Greeks.

433 itself but is it must prepare still wider generalization. to saw. the language of Atlantis. and our word to saio. mother-tongue. bic word jabara. we see this root in the . the Welsh hen. and Hamitic were all derived —the language of Noah. The Hebrew banah. to build. to do. becomes the Welsh word the Ghaldee nasar. the language of the empire of the Titans. The Arabic word val. to fade. The Sanscrit is juga. to the word Morpheus. The Arabic najida. and the Arafade. the language of the great "aggressive empire" of Plato. and the English The Arabic word abara signifies to prick. is probably the 19 . is the same as the Italian /at/o. to bend the knee. to found. Syrifrom this the ac. to operate. and our senile. the Dutch ^w^. There abundant proof with which pages might be filled —that there was a —proof older mother-tongue. whence our word spear. is the root of becomes. and Arabic zug means to join. is the Irish bun. the Dutch vadden. we can derive the Latin serra. the Latin fatuus (foolish. fundare. and we the word yoke. foundation. is The Hebrew word ckanah. the Romans jugum. to be old. Welsh bar. Semitic. a house. The Arabic baoj)ei'ate. when it means interGerman and Dutch hinnen and within. is hinnon . signifying fall asleep. while the Germans obtained 70^ ov jog. a summit. the Danish sauga. and the Latin /undo. from it is derived our word fall and fool (one who falls) the Chaldee word is nabal. to work. the Latin operor. to make foul. the god of sleep. the Indo-European for a still . In the Chaldee. that is. to fall on the breast. andjodr. and our to The Ethiopia word gaher. from which Aryan. to fall. goberu. a hotel. The Arabic sanna. bin. reappears in the Latin senex. space. to couple Greeks obtained Zvyog. the Swedes ok. this Saxon binnon. to make strong. the parent of the Anglo- Saxon inne and Icelandic inni. andjoer.THE OLDEST SON OF NOAU. and the Arabic word nabala means to die. the High German sagen. tasteless). From the last syllable of . within. to sting. raka. and of our word inn. The Ethiopian word aoi-f. to make. a spit. a spear. the to dwell. The Hebrew word naval or nafal signifies to fall.

The Arabic word means to fraka. something which supports like is an arm. or pus. and our words meet and mete. Latin frico^frio. Dutch regen. to strain or purify. something which covers. the Saxon rceccan. word 7'ack. Welsh rheg. The to rub Chaldee frak. from this root also comes the Latin cooperio and the French couvrir. rain. our word mature is originally from the Chaldee mita. Cimbric rcekia. a limit. is the Irish braic or raigh. but I have given enough to show that all the Atlantean races once spoke the same language. the German reichen. a branch. to bring forth. The Arabic word amida signifies to end. to long for it is the same as the Greek optyio. to to shackle. the Danish brdkke. to rack wine. The Chaldee word braic. and our is the same as the word rake. the Latin porrigere. and precisely our English word bara. is our word From the Arabic walada and Ethiopian walad. is to rage. Welsh The Arabic baraka also signibregu. the Swedish brdcka. and from this comes the noun. to tread out grain. and covert. Latin meta. and the time all is not far distant when the identity of the languages of the Noachic races will be as clearlv established and as uni- . and from this we get the Saxon rcegn. to rub. The Arabic word shakala.434 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WOULD. and the rain. as wine. and coffer. The Chaldee rag. : that the dispersion on the plains of Shinar signifies that break- ing up of the tongues of one people under the operation of vast spaces of time. to cover. Philology is yet in its infancy. to cover. the Latin brachium. a shooting out and hence our word lad. is from the Arabic madda . to rain. is our word to cover. rain. to create. beget. and our word to break. as to bear children a great number of words in all the European languages contain this root in its various modifications. Saxon brecau. The Arabic is ratika. and our to reach. The Hebrew word kafar. a secret place. to fies to rain violently . The Hebrew our word to bear. a termination. ragag. the Welsh braic. I might continue this list. to bind under the belly. we get the Welsh llawd. English b)'ace. . an arm. the Icelandic rakna. desire. Our word matter.

la lingua Othomi. Me Recently Herr Forchhammer. True. Ky Ku Po Hy(ji). Cold. Kuan Siao Tsa To perfect. . L J. To leave. It many in- has been the custom to ascribe the recognized similarities between the Indians of America and the Chinese and Japanese to a mim-ation bv wav of Behrino. Happiness. Gain." p.. Sa To mock. but when we find that the Chinese themselves only . Honor. Female. Hu Xa Hu Ye Hoa Xugo Xi Hmu Xa He He Hia And Word. Chinese. Head. identity of the languages And tral precisely as recent research has demonstrated the rela- tionship between Pekin and Babylon. Y Ten Siao A mu . so investigation in Cen- America has proved that there is a mysterious bond of union connecting the Chinese and one of the races of Mexico. of Leipsic... versally 43 i of the acknowledged as is now the Aryan family of nations. To Pa Who. Xa Xin Tseu Tso Ta Xsu Tsi. Othomi.'s Strait from Asia into America . Othomi. Tien Sui Tsi Ye Yo Du Yo . Lord. 8 : < gives a list of words from which I quote the folio win q: Chinese. The great. Khuani. That. Shining. . The resemblances are so great that Mr. The. "There no doubt that strong analogies exist between the Otomi and the Chinese. . and Seminole languages with the Ural-x\ltaic tongues. Xo. Pa Tsun Da Xsu To give." Senor Najera (" Dissertacion Sobre co. mo . wound. Ho Pa Mu. in which he has developed teresting points of resemblance. Cho To N-y (Ju. .> Xuy Xho Da Ti Thou. Death. English. Sir. Muscogee. English. Mother. Son.THE OLDEST SOX OF NOAH. Chickasaw. Hao Ta Li The good. ti . that. has published a truly scientific comparison of the grammatical structure of the Choctaw. Vifht Tooth.. Mexi- pp. 494) says. Short (" is North Ameri- cans of Antiquity. Man.

yet we find the Hebrews and Phanicians united by the ties of a common language. the Tartars. a Semitic stock.'''' and the tenth chapter of among the descendants of Ham. Japheth. just as the Phoenicians were the great merchants of the world Christ. calling etc. then we have. Havilah. I . the Tura- embracing the Etruscans.436 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. it seems more reasonable to conclude that the resemblances between the Othomi and the Chinese are to be accounted for by intercourse through Atlantis. Semitic stocks If the two great so-called —the Phoenicians and Arabians — are Hamites. the son of Ham. while the Hebrews were descended from Shem . fifteen centuries before Moreover. surely the third member of the group belongs to the same " sunburnt " race. the Mon- and Japanese . Raamah. and common race characteristics. them Seba. Hamitic stock. the Arabians. We " find a confirmation in all these facts of the order in : which Genesis names the sons of Noah Now these Ham. If we concede that the Jews were also a branch of the firstly. the Chinese. common traditions." are the generations of the sons of Noah Shem. and flood. reached the Pacific coast within the Historical Period. who are popularly classed as Semites. or sons of Shem. the Finns. it from the direction of the Mediterranean and and when we find so many and such distinct recollections of the destruction of Atlantis in the Flood legends of the American races. gols. a Hamitic family. The Jews are the great merchants of the world eighteen centuries after Christ. admit in their traditions that they are de- Genesis classes them scended from "Ad. nian. secondly. and nnto them were sons born after the : Can we not suppose that these three sons represent three ? great races in the order of their precedence The record of Genesis claims that the Phoenicians were de- scended from Ham. and that they came to Atlantis.

for instance. 36. embracing the Greeks. and the Hungarians are not to be distinguished in appearance from the most perfect branches of the white race. Genesis as to the It classes different races as both Semites and . the Aryan family. the sons of Japheth. Japhetic or whiter stock.) Is it not more reasonable to suppose that the so-called Semitic races of Genesis were a mere division of the Hamitic stock. and the entire If men who wrote Sanscrit — in other words. and Genesis. the white^ red^ yellow. Egyptians. in some of the most ancient inscrip- the facility of intercourse between the Semites of . Italians. there seems to be a confusion of Hamitic and Semitic stocks. thirdly. and that division of the sons of we are to look for the third Noah among the Turanians? is great Francis Lenormant. a —a red race — including . the Osmanli Turks. Hebrews. recognized by the Egyp- tians as embracing all the people known to them. classed among the sons of Shem and In fact. who belong to the yellow race. as. He regards the Turanians as intermediate between the white and yellow races. according to among the descendants of Noah — we races. Celts. in There seems to be some confusion Semitic stock. and black. graduating insensibly into each. not included. " This is shown in the blending of Hamitic and Semitic in tions. and. " The Uzbecs. etc. and the Semitic adoption It is of the Hamitic gods and religious system. Berbers. high authority. we add to these three races the negro race is — which cannot have the four be traced back to Atlantis. the son of Japheth. the Tchorides almost exactly resemble the Tongouses." p. Phoenicians. on the other hand. or Meshech. the two families had dwelt to- gether and spoken the same language. Goths. Ilamites . .THE OLDEIST SON OF NOAH. of the opinion that the Turanian races are descended from Magog. Asia and the Ilamites of Egypt absorption of all in the peaceful and unobserved manifest that. at a period not long previous. "the sunburnt" race 437 the Cusliites." (Winchell's "Pre- Adamites. the Asiatic Hamites. is Sheba and Havilah while the race of Mash.

"Empire of China.) " It appears most evident to me. the The Peruvians reCamac-Hya was name Hindoo goddess. also the word derives the ^«//e-lujah.." (Ibid. and plains of Bogota. 275." vol." vol. (Du Halde. are The Turanian languages tive character marked by the same races. Haylli was the burden of every verse of the song composed in praise of the sun and the Incas. much rejoicing and many cere- A similar custom prevails in China: The emperor ploughs a few furrows. John Ranking word HaylU. agglutina- found in the American The Mongolian and the Indian are alike in the absence of a heavy beard.." tom. systems of cosmogony. was (Bancroft's " Native Races. and many myths of America. offer striking analogies with analogies which indicate an ancient the ideas of Eastern Asia communication. recent research has discovered teocallis like those in Mexico. 68. At certain seasons the Incas turned up the sod here. are read from above downw^ard. Mongols from the of a earliest times. And when we reach the sea . " the sun was the peculiar god . yellow the Peruvians was sun-worship of the The religion of the color of the imperial family in China. " that the monuments. amid monies. which a knotted reckoning-cord. word Allah from the In the city of Cuzco cultivate was a portion of land which none were permitted to except those of the royal blood. and twelve illustrious persons attend the plough after him.'''' in use in v. p.) east of " In the ruined cities of Cambodia.438 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WOULD." garded Pachacamac as the sovereign creator. p. Crit. Mr. which lies farther to the Burmah.. methods of computing time." says Humboldt. In Peru and China " both use hieroglyphics." (" all nations are found in the dawn of civili- Exam.) in China. among the Muyscas of the elevated The '"'' quipu. ii. and the remains of temples of the same type and pattern as those of Yucatan. p. is The royal color of the Incas was yellow.. i.) The cycle of sixty years was in use among most of the nations of Eastern Asia. Peru and 48. and are not simply the result of that uniform condition in which zation.

first It is a type of the white race imperfectly developed. we encounter at Siiku. 418.. Ferguson said. a teocalli 439 is which absolutely Mr. in Java." vol. secondly. " would lead us to regard the Tura- nian race as the first branch of the family of Japheth which .) those of Central America. or rather preserved.THE OLDEST SON OF NOAH. then came the Hamitic race then the Japhetic. therefore. went forth into the world and by that premature separation..) remote periody sufficiently "The coincidences are belief that the civilization of Anahuac was .. p. Prescott says strong to authorize a in some degree influenced by that of Eastern Asia and. iii. common source . that the discrepancies are such as to carry back the communication to a very (" Mexico. .' " identical with that of Tehuantepec. and. i. at every step we meet wjth forms of art becoming more and more like (" Builders of Babel. 'as we advance eastward from the valley of the Euphrates. took." vol." continues Lenormant (" Ancient History of the East. 88. "All appearances." p. reaching farthest and oldest wave away from . . a completely distinct physiognomy. p." We from the may regard this yellow race as the Atlantis. 64).. by an isolated and antagonistic existence.

868 it was employed by the Northmen. A. THE ANTIQUITY OF SOME OF OUR GREAT INVENTIONS. to investigate this subject.440 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WOULD. known to the inhabitants of Atlan- And yet. chap. 1190 refers to it as in use among the Italian sailors at that date. if iny readers are satisfied that the Atlanteans civilized were a highly maritime people. from which points we collate the following "In A. The people a few centuries since out of a state of semi-barbarism. we find that as far go in the study of the ancient races of when we proceed back as we may the world. Chapter IX." vol.) An Italian poem of a. i. carrying on commerce their course in the with regions as far apart as Peru and Syria. This was the case with the mariner's compass.D. Goodrich's "Life find a curious history of the magnetic we pass prior to that time." In that interesting work. rising possessed of a knowledge of the virtues of the magnetic stone. It may seem like a flight of tlie imagination to suppose that the mariners compass was tis. and in the habit of utilizing it. we find them of Europe. 2. of Columbus. and accordingly.D." ("The Landnamabok.d. In the ancient language of the Hindoos. have been in the habit of claiming the invention of many things which they simply borrowed from the older nations.. the Sanscrit has been a dead language for twenty-two hundred years — which —the . we must conclude that they possessed some means of tracing great seas they traversed. 1302. It was believed for many years that it was first invented by an Italian named com- Amalfi.

The magnet was called the " Stone of Hercules.ANTIQUITY OF SOME OF OUR GREAT INVENTIOXS. coat of arms of the Pha. the and pointing to the south. on the front of carriages. as we have shown. that invention without which their great voyages were impos- From them the magnet passed to the Hindoos. who certainly possessed it at an early In the year 2700 b." (" Herodotus." of the magnet. their and colonized on the shores of the Mediterranean. the cross represented the com- which was a magnetized needle." the Phoenicians. and with these. and from them date." Hercules was the patron divinity of the Phoenicians. 36." The Talmud speaks and it is alluded to in the early Hebrew prayers as Kalamitah^ the same name given it by the Greeks.) may be useful to him iv. a maritime. as a recollection of the four rivers of Atlantis. He was. carried " a guiding arrow. one of the gods of Atlantis probably one of its great kings and navigators. which the Chinese regarded as the 19* . as their successors "the whole opposite continent that surrounds the and descendants. way with the other." which Pythagoras gave him. in order that it The hy- perborean magician. but because ages. commercial people. The Phoenicians were familiar with the use of it as " the stone of attraction . sible. floating wise upon a piece of reed or wood.nicians The cross became the — not only. as we have shown elsewhere. Abaras. trading up the Mediterranean as far as Egypt and Syria. from the reed upon which the compass floated. and across the Atlantic to sea.c. long journey. of a At the prow of their vessels stood the figure woman (Astarte) holding a cross in one hand and pointin water cross- ing the pass. possibly. — as Plato tells us. The Atlanteans were. the Emperor Wang-ti placed a arm always turning magnetic figure with an extended arm. to the Chinese. inherited civilization and their maritime habits.. to it represented the secret of their great sea-voy- which they owed their national greatness. " in all difficulties in his p." vol. 441 magnet was called " the precious stone beloved of Iron. like the Astarte of the Phcenicians.

" an explanation of that otherwise inexplicable Greek legend about Deucalion "throw- ing the bones of the earth behind him. rose when instantly men from the ground. Do we find in this curious designation of iron and loadstone as "bones of the descendants of the earth. to the European colonies of Atlantis. the earth goddess. already thickly inhabited? . and the world was repeopled?" Does it mean that by means of the magnet he sailed. (See Goodrich's " Columbus. the bone of The ancient Egyptians Haroeri." p. Typhon was and an evil genius. This illustration represents one of these chariots CHINESE MAGNETIC CAE. and iron the bone of Typhon. Haroeri was the son a wind-god of Osiris and grandson of Rhea.) principal pole. etc.442 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. but also a son of Rhea. a queen of Atlantis. 31. and mother of Poseidon . after the Flood. In the seventh century Baltic Sea and the it was used by the navigators of the called the loadstone German Ocean. a goddess of the earth.

This cup was the compass. with which he sailed over the ocean.d. and for the price paid to a pilot. and represented in the chap(See p. But whether this famous. as as accidental. being once overpowered by the heat of the sun. Costa says Gama got it from Mohammedan seamen. in Skinner's Etymology. and Oceanos. and in everything else. which old writers have called Lapis Heracleus. the god Phoebus. And may be antique the explanation of the recurrence of a cup in paintings and statues. Tradition aflBrms that the magnet originally was not on a pivot. brought it to Europe in a. drew his bow against that luminary whereupon . was the name by which the Greeks designated the Atlantic Ocean. Genebrand says Melvius. admiring his intrepidity. 443 A tells late writer. the French antiquarian. in his hand . and Lucian says it was a sea-shell." we know. 1303. a. and sees a compass in the Golden Fleece of Argos. we even in . 1260. as the Welsh do to-day. 254 ante. a Neapolitan.' is the word (lode).) on the Bronze Age. Osonius says that Gam a and the Portuguese got the compass from some pirates at the Cape of Good Hope. but set to float on water in a cup. 1180. this who lent the magnetic cup to Hercules. speaking upon the subject of the loadstone. The old antiquarian is wildly theoretical on this point. many Hercules is often represented with a cup ter bronze dagger found find the cup upon the handle of the Denmark. afterward deified. a god of Atlantis.AXTIQUITY OF SOME OF OUU GREAT IXVEXTIOXS. we can hardly regard the association of his name with so many it whom was found associate it ivith regions ivhere myths 2>revailed. us " Hercules.d. M. call a pilot llywydd Lodemanage. Fauchet. it was said. finds it plainly alluded to in some old poem of Brittany belonging to the year a. But all nations with Heraclean one of the most curious facts is that the ancient Britons. Paulo Venetus brought it in the thirteenth century from China. gave him a golden cup.d. Pisander says Oceanus lent him the cup. where it was regarded as oracular. mariner (Hercules) had a compass or not. And ' Western monuments Hercules was. Yet undoubtedly there are some curious facts connected with the matter. in the oracular needle which Nero worshipped. in this work.

which our appears in Genesis. with the serpent twined around it. always So "oracular" an object pointing to the north. the original source of mark Compare [$]. When Hercules the coast of Eni'ope to sail to the island of Erythea in the Atlantic.444 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. as this self-moving needle. dollar it is said. in Greek mythology (Murray. that he borrowed "the cup" of Helios. and this is another proof that the use of the magnetic needle in sea -voyages was associated with the Atlantean gods. and in the combination of the two pillars and the serpent we have. Here. in the remote west. p. as a vessel in which to hold the water where the needle and hence upon the ancient coins of Tyre we find a sea-shell represented. and the tree of life or knowledge. we have the Pillars of Hercules. supposed to have been placed at the mouth of the Mediterranean. too. in (with) which " he was accustomed to sail every nighty Here we seem to have a reference to the magnetic cup used in ANOiENT COINS OF TYRE. night sailing. Lucian floated. these Phoenician coins with the following repre- . we are told. 257). would doubtless affect vividly the minds of the people. and appear in their works of left art. tells us that a sea-shell often took the place of the cup.

moved as having H/e. " of Guatemala." . devised the mariner's compass." and p.) reverse presents a serpent coiled around a fruit-tree. Ouranus. and causing . the first god of Atlantis. perhaps of crocodiles. I find in the " Report of United States Explorations for a Route for a Pacific Railroad" a description of a New Mexican to Indian priest. The mountain is a "culhuacan. which appear to defend the entrance to a mountainous and wooded country. We tliat find in Sanclioniathon's first Ouranus. the figures on the same side representing a kneeling. hill. M.VL AMEEIOA. bearded. turbaned man between two fierce heads. 445 sentation of a copper coin. contriving stones that were supposed to fall from heaven. an eagle on a (Bancroft's "Native Races. who foretells the result of a proposed war by it placing a piece of wood in a bowl of water. which These stones were prob- ably magnetic loadstones in other words. leans to one side: it iv.M OESTE. the "Legends of the Phoenicians" god of the people of Atlantis. two inches in diameter and three at the city found nearly a century ago by Ordonez. Dupaix noticed an indication of the use of the compass in the centre of one of the sides.. Baetalia. The 118.ANTIQUITY OF SOME OF OUR GREAT INVENTIONS. " devised COIN FEO. lines thick." vol." or crooked mountain.

contained a piece of magnetic iron hidden in temples squarely with the cardinal points of the compass. supposed to be the Phoenicians. whose huge ships are propelled by sails. 50 broad. p..440 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WOULD. and the America. This incomprehensiUe. these were precisely the proportions of Noah's ark — 300 cubits long.) The proportions of the fastest sailing-vessels of the present day are about 300 feet long to 50 wide and 30 high. " In the wanderings of the heroes returning from Troy. —Navigation was not by any means in a rude state in the earliest times: toricus vol. holds a bowl or dish upon its breast. Could 'they have done ? this Mound Builders of without the magnetic compass The Romans and the Persians the globe cardo.. which would be attracted or repulsed. . Divination was the ars Etrusca. and 30 high. by a piece of iron held in the hand of the priest. . 29. unless the wood. Arismakes Menelaus circumnavigate Africa more than 500 (" Cosmos." years before Neco sailed from Gadeira to India. i. Now ''Cardo was the name of the mountain on which the human race took refuge from the Deluge the primitive geographic . 144. on the outside If so. and it called the line of the axis of was to cardo the needle pointed." human From Navigation. so did the Egyptians. The reclining statue of Chac-Mol. this trick was a remembrance of the marof the bowl." ii. 145. left." vol. point for the countries which were the cradle of the (Urquhart's " Pillars of Hercules." p. iner's compass transmitted from age to age by the medicine men." (Goodrich's " Columbus. as he directs it. The Etruscans set their compass. turn to the right or is or sink or rise. race.) this comes our word " cardinal. of Central America." as the cardinal points. the Mexicans. like the ancient Chinese it.) " In the tomb of Rameses the Great is a representation of a naval combat between the Egyptians and some other people. p. or even drawn downward. .

a vessel which consumed in its construction tlie material for fifty galleys.d. fish-ponds.AyriquiTY of some of our great INVEI^TIONIS. A Roman ship of the time of Trajan has been recovered from Lake Ricciole after 1300 years. is commonly in credited with the inven- 1257 at the siege of Niebla. and thrown in the form of fuses and exIn plosive shells. and an engine to throw stones three hundred pounds in weight.) inlaid with scenes from Homer's Iliad. under the superintendence of Archimedes. — Berthold Schwarz. 811 the Emperor Leo employed fire-arms. The outside was covered with sheets of lead fastened with small cop- per nails. It was employed A. It is not impossible that even the invention It was certainly of gunpowder may date back to Atlantis. bringing the In a. gardens.' " ' The fleet of Sesostris consisted of four hundred ships. and when Semiramis invaded India she was opposed by four thousand vessels. said that Hannibal the rocks. a temple of Venus. who tion of it. known in Europe long before the time of the German monk. reason to believe that tlie Carthaginian (Phoenician) general. It is probable that in the earliest times the vessels were sheeted with metal. The Romans. 668. baths. 31. Julius Caesar tells us that the galleys of the Veneti were thus equipped. " Greek-fire " is supposed to have been gunpowder mixed with resin or petroleum. 30. It was described in an Arab treatise of the thirteenth century. 447 "Hiero of Syracuse built. knowledo-e of them from India. who were ignorant of its made his way by making fires against use. and arrows The floors of this monstrous vessel were thirty-six feet long. it contained galleries. 80 the Chinese obtained There is from India a knowledge of gunpowder.) Gunpowder. 690 the Arabs used fire-arms against Mecca.d. and pouring . Hannibal. mills. used gunpowder in breaking a way for his army over the Alps. in Spain. Even the use of iron chains in place of ropes for the anchors was known at an early period. In a. (Goodrich's "Columbus.^ p. stables. {Ihid. It was introduced from Egypt a." p.D.d.

an " earthquake . say the Roman historians. and vinegar would have no effect on masses of the Alps great enough to arrest the march of an army. how could Hannibal be in danger of starvation when he had two thousand oxen to spare for such an experiment? And ed on all by the Romans. because thunder and lightning resist its assailants. As Maginn well asks. William Ma- ginn has suggested that the wood was probably burnt by Hannibal to obtain charcoal lated . by two thousand oxen. upon the heads of the Romans. and sendinor them rushins: at nio-ht amono. between Hannibal and Flaminius. came from its walls to . The same author suggests sides that the story of Hanni- bal breaking loose from the mountains where he was surroundin danger of starvation. Earthquakes do not cast rocks up in the air to fall on men's much as if the Carthaginians into a pass where they heads And itself that this is not all surmise is shown by the fact that a city of India. defended by the use of gunpowder the attacks of : it was said to be a favorite of the gods. the terrified Romans. a fog or and the rocks very fell smoke covered the scene. Dr.448 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. we have another curious piece of information which goes far to confirm the belief that Hannibal was familiar with the use of gunpowder. and fastening firebrands to the horns of why should the veteran Roman troops have been so terrified and panic-stricken by a horns ? lot of cattle with firebrands on their At the battle of Lake Trasymene. It is evident that fire vinegar and water over the ashes. a tremendous crash was heard." the earth reeled under the feet of the soldiers. simply refers to the use of rockets. and the word which has been trans- "vinegar" probably signified some preparation of nitre and sulphur. and that Hannibal made gunpowder and blew up the rocks. This reads had decoyed the Romans had already planted a mine. and had exploded it at the proper moment to throw them into a panic. in the time of Alexander the Great. In the midst of the battle there was. the earth broke open.

and the noise of the trumpets the thunder of the gunpowder. and And there came out a fire from the Lord." (Numb.ANTIQUITY OF SOME OF OUR GREAT INVENTIONS." set against his fellow. Moses separated the faithful from the unfaithful. the re- but we cannot otherwise understand how the breaking of pitchers. . too. cense. . If was a miraculous interposition the Lord could have scared the Midianites out of their wits without the smashed pitchers and lanterns. When Korah. and the host in his place fled to and all without any attack upon the part of the Israelites. where Gideon captured the camp of the Midianites with the roar of trumpets. that the noise made by the breaking of the ers represented the detonation of pitch- an explosion. had reference to the use of gunpowder. and the host ran and cried and fled. xvi. all their goods. was of vii. . in this wise. Dathan. . sults that followed .. But on the morrow all the cono-refration of the murmured against Moses and against Aaron. and the earth opened her mouth. 449 As the Hebrews were a branch of the Phoenician race. the crash caused by the breaking of innumerable pitchers. and thereupon " the ground clave asunder that was under them their houses. 31-4L) This looks very with gunpowder. and Abiram led a rebellion against Moses. until " every man's sword was Beth-shittah . and the clangor of trumpets would throw an army into panic.. for "they stood every man around the camp it . We can understand." in behalf of the Jews. and the flash of a multitude of lanterns. Ye have killed the people of the Lord. and consumed the two hundred and fifty men that offered in. who himself rediscovered gunpowder. children of Israel saying. opinion that the event described in Judges much as if Moses had blown up the rebels Roger Bacon. and and all the men that appertained unto Korah. and certain it is . the flashing of lamps. it is not surprising that we find some things in their history which look very much Hke legends of gunpowder. this. . the flame of the lights the blaze. and swallowed them up.

on the ad- of Gsea. w4iile the latter advanced on his side with force equal to the shock of an earthquake. The earth trerahled down to lowest Tartarus as Zeus now appeared with his terrible weapon and new allies. secret of this powerful explosive. we are not surprised to find in the legends of Greek mythology events described which are only explicable by supposing that the Atlanteans possessed the up in Atlantis (see Murray's . was known as " the thunderer. . have invented gunpowder and is it unreasonable to attribute it to that " great original race " rather than to any one people of their posterity.'''' Do not these words picture the explosion of a mine with a " force equal to the shock of an earthquake ?" have already shown that the Kyklopes and Hekaton- We clieires were probably great war-ships. the pitchers and lanterns would not have done the work with- out a miraculous interposition. Zeus set free the Kyklopes and the Hekatoncheires " (that is. the king of Atlantis. armed with some ex- plosive material in the nature of gunpowder. " of whom the former fashioned thunder-bolts for him. and to the different races which were descended from Atlantis. Zeus. hurled into deep chasms." and was represented armed with thunder-bolts. Mythology. and partly the sea. did . until. Old Chaos thought his hour had come. with rocks and hills reeling after them. during many thousands of years. all the might which the Olympians could bring to bear being useless. Some ancient nation must. in the most remote ages. brought the ships into play)." 30) against Zeus :" it is known in "Manual of mythology as War of the Titans "The vice struggle lasted many years. Having traced the knowledge of gunpowder back to the most remote times. who seem to have borrowed all the other arts from them and who. A the " rebellion sprang p. as from a continuous blaze of thunder-bolts the earth took fire^ and the waters seethed in The rebels were partly slain or consumed. .450 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.

a beautiful paper was — . —The manufacture of a woven fabric of originated great beauty out of the delicate fibre of the egg -cocoon of a worm could only have among . the presumption very strong that was borrowed by the nations." As we it find this metal known to man in the earliest ages is on both sides of the Atlantic.ANTIQUITY OF SOME OF OUR GREAT INVENTIONS. of their tongues. plements out of meteoric p. Paper. fragments of iron have been found in the oldest pyramids. i." able. from Atlantis. p. and books were common in the earlier ages. as I have shown. a people it who had attained the highest degree of civilization implies the .. the remains of iron implements have been found. as I have shown. in Chilian 2m?z///c. 1791) it is stated that " anciently coriames. 201. 451 not add a single new invention to the Atlantis Iron. "that iron. on the west shore of Lake Titicaca." In official Peruvian had particular names it was called in some quillay. In like our own. rio In the " Mercu- Peruano " (torn. The Iron Age Northern Europe In the far antedated intercourse with the Greeks or Romans. The Mound Builders fashioned imiron. Peru a paper was made of plantain their paper resembling our volumes in quarto. Humboldt mentions books of hieroglyphical writings among the Panoes. 333. east and west.) (Foster's " Prehistoric Races." Silk Manufacture. mounds of the Mississippi Valley. The oldest Egyptian monuments contain pictures of the papyrus roll while in Mexico." says the Peruvian sovereigns worked mao-uificent iron mines at An" It is remark- Molina. which were " bundles of manufactured and formed into books shaped leaves. which has been thought un- known and to the ancient Americans. ? list they received from —We have seen that the Greek mythological legends asserted that before the submergence of the great race over whom their gods reigned there had been not only an Age of Iron. The same argument holds good as to paper. Bronze but an Age of Egyptians in the This metal was known in to the earliest ages.

c. artistic people. tinued in the "free cities" of the Middle Ages in Europe. Baldwin shows ("Prehistoric Na- tions. vii. and that this system was perpetuated in the great Phoenician com- munities." or rather of the Dynasties. The "Babylonish garment" 21). with the right of the people to govern themselves. skilful. at the time when we find them first possessed of civilization.. — Mr. they imported them from India and sold them along the shores of the Mediterranean. which con- down to our own day. were the first to establish independent municipal republics. In the intro- duction to the "History of Hindostan. and a wealthy and luxurious class to purchase such costly fabrics. is was rated above and not a violent presumption to to the suppose that an art known Hindoos 3870 b." p. a sense of the beautiful. it is stated that in the year 3870 ent to the an Indian king sent various silk stuffs as King of Persia. silver (chap. silk.c. by b. and for secreting which Achan was probably a garment of gold It in value. a dense population. The art of making silk was known in China more than two thousand six hundred years before the Christian era. of weaving by delicate instruments. It was woven in the island of Cos in the time of Aristotle. a patient. The Cushite state was an ag- . it referred to in Joshua lost his life. the successors of the Atlanteans. in the "village republics" of the African Berbers and the Hin- doos. and in the independent governments of the Basques. We medan trace it back to the most remote ages. and to the Chinese and Phoenicians at the very beginning of their history so curious. The Phoenicians dealt in silks in the most remote past. Mohama pres- Mohammed Cassim. so extraordinary — an art — may have dated back to Atlan- tean times.452 art ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WOULD. Civil Government. It is probable that the Egyptians understood and practised the art of manufacturing silk. whose very ancient empire extended from Spain to Syria. in "the fierce democracies" of ancient Greece. 114) that the Cushites.

and extending back as far as 2234 B. there would be very little left for the granaries or the tables of the shall give us flesh to eat? in . oats. but subject within prescribed limits to a general in other words. —The knowledge of the ancients Callisthenes.. Greek traditions of " the golden apples of the Hesperides" and "the golden fleece" point to Atlantis. it was precisely the form of government possessed to-day by the United States. and the garlic. as to astronomy Alex- was great and accurate. recorded on tablets of baked clay. and the field and garden vegetables possessed by the Egyptians at the very dawn of history. if we were to take away from civilized man the domestic animals. who accompanied ander the Great to Babylon. chap. In fact. and could foretell their reappearance. in the the x\tlantic Ocean as xVnd when we turn to Egypt we find that remotest times many of our plants were there cultivated.. remember the Egypt freely the cucumbers.ANTIQUITY OF SOME OF OUR GREAT INVENTIONS. it was an inch and a half in diameter and nine-tenths of an inch . etc. " Who We fish which we did eat world. When modern garden and field the Israelites murmured (Xumb." Egyptians also cultivated wheat. civilization. 4. Humboldt says. be another perpetuation of Atlantean Agriculture. Aatronomy. and the onions. barley. the cereals. 5). "The Chaldeans knew the mean motions of the moon with an exactness which induced the their calculations for the foundation Greek astronomers to use of a lunar theory. —The The allusions to the golden apples indicate that tradition rein garded the "Islands of the Blessed" a place of orchards." The Chaldeans knew comets.C. sent to Aristotle a series of Chal- dean astronomical observations which he found preserved there. 453 gregation of municipalities. the true nature of " lens of A considerable power was found in the ruins of Babylon . each possessing the right of self- government. in the wilderness against Moses. and the The melons. flax. It is a surprising thought that the perfection of modern government may authority . and the leeks. hemp. they cried out xi.

The Greeks as- sociated the origin of astronomy with Atlas and Hercules. to within a few years of the Deluge. He earth circling around the pole (which extended through the universe) he made to be . says and — "The — "Dialogues. 142. Bailly and oth- ers assert that astronomy " must have been established when summer solstice was in the first degree of Virgo. Timseus" is that these revolutions produced day and night. and which carry back the antiquity of the science of astronomy. which They suppose the ized people. At- lantean kings or heroes. they are supposed to have come from Egypt and the East." " There are actual astronomical calculations in existence. Plato knew (" Dialogues. as the originator of both astronomy and the alphabet . with calendars formed upon them. 16. whom the their country was originally colonized. Plutarch speaks of optical instruments used by Ar- chimedes " to manifest to the eye the largeness of the sun. originators to have lived in about the fortieth degree of north latitude. together with the constellations. and to have been a highly-civilIt will be remembered that the fortieth degree of north latitude passed through Atlantis." Miracle in Stone." he even understood that it revolved on its axis." pp. doubtless he represented a civilized people.454 thiclv. or ^Miotes. 17." would be about four thousand years before the -Christian era.) Nero used optical glasses when he watched the fights of the gladiators . The Egyptians regarded Taut (At?) bj'- or Thoth. Phsedo. while Origen affirms Enoch that in the time of it was asserted in that patriarch the con- stellations were already divided and named." ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. which eminent astronomers of England and France admit to be genuine and true.) ("The Josephus attributes the invention that of the constellations to the family of the antediluvian Seth." p." a " globe . the son of the Book of Adam. (Lfiyard's " Nineveh and Babylon." 108) that the earth " is a body in the centre of He speaks of it as a "round the heavens" held in equipoise. and that the solar and lunar zodiacs were of similar antiquity. body. even on the longer chronology of the Septuagint.

Misor and Sydyk. Amynos and Magos. Phos. and Phlox. Village life. beyond Chaldea and China. Phur. The bow and arrow Chippeway. The Race. Only among the Atlanteans ventions which have raised dition. We rests. barley. which. we cannot rememand ber that the origin of oats. The lyre Hermes.ANTIQUITY OF SOME OF OUR GREAT INVENTIONS." All this Greek learning was probably drawn from the Egyptians. rye. . in Europe and America do we all find traditions preserved as to the origin of the principal in- man from a savage to a civilized con- We can give in part the very names ni the inventors. . to and the hog had been reduced to subjection man in ages long previous to written history. dates far back beyond the beginning of history all . as I have shown. Argos and Agrotes. 455 the artificer of night and day. ) The use of The use of Navigation salt letters u The art of music Metallurgy. the sheep. Taautos. without having the conclusion forced upon us irresistibly that beyond Egypt and Greece. cannot consider all these evidences of the vast antiqui- ty of the great inventions upon which our civilization mainly including the art of writing. Autochthon and Technites. The Cabin. Jubal. such as wheat. . the horse. the ass. is and maize. ) Greek Pan. or Taut. and the ) Manaboshu. and the use of iron The syrinx Hebrew ) Tubal-cain. The use of flint The use of copper The manufacture of bricks Atlantean Agriculture and hunting. the ox. . and following with the Bible and Phoenician records. Starting with the Chippeway legends. I . of which these states were but the broken fragments. lost in the remote past. that all the domesticated animals. or Corybantes. . we make a table like the appended The Invention or Discover}'. Atlantean The Inventors. the great food-plants. rearing of flocks. the goat. there existed a mighty civilization.

We come now to another question : " Did the Aiyan or if Japhetic race corne from Atlantis If the V Japlieth was one Aryans are if tlie Japhetic race. Aryan migrations (according to popular Here too I . informs us that even Aryan roots are mingled with Presemitic in some of the old inscriptions of Assyria. and Japhethites are varie- one aboriginal speech. the Dodoneans of Macedonia. the inhabitants of the Morea. THE ARYAN COLONIES FROM ATLANTIS. 43.Europeans — called also Aryans.) all have shown in the chapter in relation to Peru that tl>e the languages of ties of Hamites. then assuredly. the dwellers on the Cilician coast of Asia Minor." p. the tradition of Genesis be true. " we obtain fur- ther information respecting the early dispersion of the Japhethites or Indo. centre of the The opinion) within the Historical Period was Armenia. These are all now recognized as Aryans. the Aryans land. except the " From non-Biblical sources. All determina- tions confirm the Biblical account of their primitive residence in Rawlinson the same country with the Hamites and Semites. The precise region where these three families dwelt in a common home has not been pointed out. the Cyprians. the descendants of the Japheth who escaped out Noah are the lonians. Iberians. Atlantis. and the Thracians. Semites.456 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WOULD. Chapter X. the Iberians." I (" Preadamites. came from the drowned the Flood with According to of Genesis." says Winchell. and of the sons of the patriarch who escaped from the Deluge. to wit.

from the West. And these Iberians were originally. according to tradition. Celtse." makes 20 . is 457 Mount Ararat. in his and became their great "Antiquity of the Celta3. at the eastern end of the Mediterranean. and the language of this people. along the shores of the Mediterranean. was placed as ruler over the divinity.c. before the first Armenian migration of the historical Aryans. The Mediterranean Aryans They are knowm to have been in South- eastern Europe. at that early date possessed the 2000 b. then. there is no reason why the original population of Armenia should not have been themselves colonists from Atlantis. plough .THE ARYAN COLONIES FROM ATLANTIS. But these ships need not stop at Syria. the Atlantis ships are then but two hundred miles distant from Armenia. silver. rye. Titans) that " Mercury. it is now admitted." F. that it was from Arof Armenia itself. is Aryan. as we have seen. painted four thousand years before the time of Christ. where dwelt a people who. where it is said the ark rested it — another iden- tification with the Flood regions. menia the Aryans stocked Europe and India." art. and Noachites on the coasts of the Mediterranean Sea. Carthaginians. Now turn to a map : Suppose the ships of Atlantis to have reached the shores of Syria. they can go by the Dardanelles and the Black Sea. to the shores If we admit. used the Central American Maya alphabet . gold. a people went from Iberian Spain and settled in Ireland. also wheat. Pezron. Basques." (" Ameri- can Cyclopaedia." art. and bronze. as represents the usual trans- fer of the Atlantis legend by an Atlantean people to a high mountain in their new home. " Aryan faces are found depict- ed upon the monuments of Egypt. (an The conflicts between the Kelts in date to Aryan race) and the Iberians were far anterior the settlements of the Phoenicians. Greeks. by uninterrupted water communication. But we have seen that in the earliest ages. barley. one of the Atlantean gods.) There is reason to believe that these Kelts w^ere originally part of the population and Empire of Atlantis. are told (Rees's " British Encyclo- We ptiedia.

" says Persians. Max Miiller — " the Hin- Germans. but they seem to have likewise preserved a mass of popular traditions which had grown up before they common home. and ten or den. man. people who were destroyed by ." And it will be remembered that Plato uses the same phrase when he speaks of the race into which Poseidon intermarried as " the earth-born primeval who rebelled in Atlantis. slightly modified in each country. nations "The doos. Max Miiller has given this subject great study. they possessed the institution of marriage. and other students of the ancient IndoEuropean languages. who are Aryans. son. or earth-born. and hence the Greeks very properly also called them terrigiiice. the who are comprehended under the common appellation of Indo-European. or the seeking out of the words common to the various branches of the Ai-yan race before they separated." " Bonfey. have recently advanced the opinion that the original home of the Indo-European races must be sought in Europe.) By the study of comparative philology. Celt<'e out that the were the same as the Titans.458 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. and availing ourselves of his researches the progenitors of the Aryan stock we can determine the following facts as to They were a civilized : race. the giant race and " that their princes were the same with the giants of Scripture." ("American Cyclopaedia. Ethtology." He adds that the word Titan "is perfect Celtic. we are able to reconstruct an out- line of the civilization of that ancient people. mother. Romans." The Greeks. and contains names of seasons that are not found in tropical countries or anywhere in Asia. as did other races clearly Aryan. men of that country. L. and Slavs — do not only share the same words and the left their same gram- mar. the Celts. Greeks." art. they recog- nized the relationship of father. traced their descent from the the Flood. daughter. because their stock of words is rich in the names of plants and animals. grand- I . Geiger. and comes from tit^ the earth.

the hog." occurs only twice in the "Rig. they possessed the dif- "water" also meant "salt made from water." .Veda. the sheep. if the x\ryans were from time immemorial an Asiatic race and " when it does occur. They divided rived the year into twelve months. and cooked and baked their food they wove their from it . They used fire. it is in such a way as to show that he was still an object of wonder and terror to them. mestic animals we now have —the ox and the cow. they had mills and millers. and had separate words for each of these relationships. in the different Aryan languages cannot be traced back to this original race. the only wild animals whose names can be assigned to this The parent stock being the bear. They possessed family -law. . They lived in a country having few wild beasts.THE ARYAN COLONIES FROM ATLANTIS. the goat. 459 mother. barley. It is ferent metals. . the wolf. brother-in-law. They were farmers. . brother. including flax. They were not hunters or nomads. name of the elephant. daughter-in-law. even iron: they had gold. " the beast ^vith a hand. they spun wool . and the goose. and sister-in-law. They dwelt in towns and cities. sister. on highways." p. The word evident they manufactured salt by evaporating salt- . the name as a race the dog. They were a peaceful people the warlike words less. or "the husband- They lived in an organized society. they were. son. they used the plough (Aryan) was deploughmen they raised various kinds of grain. The presence of millers shows that tliey had proceeded beyond the primitive condition where each family ground its corn in its own mill." from which it might be inferred that the water with which they were familiar was saltfor water. and wheat. and ground their corn. They possessed houses with doors and solid walls. son-in-law. They had wagons and carriages. governed by a king. 26. cloth and wore clothing. which only able to express by adding. father-in-law." (Whitney's " Oriental and Linguistic Studies.) They possessed nearly all the dohorse." a singular omission . the donkey.the words "in-law. and the serpent. par excellence. hemp." we are They recognized also the condition of widows.

a hundred. there were In the Peruvian colony the decimal one hundred Nereids. .) The same division into tens and hundreds obtained among the AnWhere. glo-Saxons.460 water. The com- munity oflBcers cer. ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. fifty. and yet conceived." And herein we not tell find another evidence of relationship the Aryans and the people of Atlantis. which existed be- \ . nevertheless there are which point to that conclusion over ten provinces . Slav. Roman. quantity. the great ditch or canal was one hundred deep and ten thousand stadia long. at large was registered fifties. heads of ten. . the total force of the whole country was divided into mili- tary districts or squares ten stadia each chariots was ten thousand feet etc. under the control of (Herbert Spen- over tens. in it- says ments of Max Miiller." chap. or Teuton. " one of the most marvellous achievethe human mind. system clearly obtained: five "The army had in groups. nurtured. and finished before the soil of Europe was trodden by Greek. : many things in his narrative " There w^ere ten kings ruling way. and so on. hundreds. so far as to perfect self. could this ancient nation. . regulated by a philosophical classification." "Development of Political Institutions. x. a thousand. "a decimal system They had progressed of enumeration. ." hundred. between Although Plato does us that the Atlanteans possessed the decimal system of numeration. based on an abstract conception of ANCIENT EGYl'TIAN PLOUGH." They possessed boats and ships. we ask. ten thousand.

in a climate colder than that of St. Europe. tude fifty-two degrees thirty minutes. still A "The tiger. hyenas. in Armenia or Bactria. 461 fore Greek was Greek. —a country so civilized as to possess no wild beasts save the bear. or Africa. and isolated from the attack of the savage tribes that wild beasts that they at . Savage nations cannot usually count beyond This peo- had names for the numerals up to one hundred. without bearing the tongue. long-civilized land. when would any people have altogether left their civilization had spread to the cease to exist in the peaceful region ends of the earth. in lati. and serpent ? life No people could have its been developed in Asia without bearing in of century -long battles for races around language traces with the rude and barbarous them existence against no nation could have fought for ages for "man-eating" tigers. of combining these to still higher powers. why have not their monuments long ago been discovered and identified? Where is the race who are their natural successors. did where ple originated? five. lions. But where in Asia conld they have found a country so peaceful as to know no terms for war or bloodshed . Hindoo was Hindoo. elephants. Celt was Celt. memory of these things in their of Bengal. in Asia last tiger from time to time it is seen in Sikilled in 1828 was on the Lena. where they knew no human and scarcely any ? animal enemies such a Why it home ? it Why. and all words descriptive of them and where could this have been possible save in some great. identical with that exists around Lake Aral. in Asia. and . Petersburg and Stockholm. beria. surrounded by the sea.THE ARYAN COLONIES FROM ATLANTIS. wolf. or Goth was Goth. have been located? The common opinion says." The fathers of the Aryan race must have dwelt for many thousand years so completely protected from barbarians and last lost all memory of them. doubtless. and who must have continued to live after them in that sheltered and happy land. occupied the rest of the world ? And if such a great civilized nation had dwelt for centuries in Asia. and the power. as .

even as the existence of words for boats and ships has already implied necessarily an alphabet. of iron. navigation. ten hundred. that great island " in the in the . is and an orderly We have seen that Greek mythology really a history of the kings and queens of Atlantis. the Aryans had reached such a degree of development : that they possessed a regularly organized religion they wor- shipped God." remote west. and the Incas worked in iron on the shores of Lake Titicaca. midst of the Atlantic. they believed in an evil spirit. and spun and wove as we do. tbree hundred. In the past ten thoulist except one fowl adopted from America. while the nanie of the metal found the ancient languages of Peru and Chili. Their metals are ours. " If any more proof were wanted as to the reaHty of that period which must have preceded the dispersion of the Aryan race.462 A TLANTIS : THE ANTEDIL UVIAN WORLD. five hundred. When we turn to that other branch of the great Aryan . must not be forgotten that Greek mythology tells us that the god-like race who dwelt on Olympus. All this presupposes temples. we might appeal to the Aryan numerals as life irre- fragable evidence of that long-continued intellectual characterizes that period. wrought in iron and we find the remains of an iron sword and meteoric iron weapons in the mounds is of in the Mississippi Valley. they believed in a heaven for the rifices. and trade. the triumph. etc. as we had supposed. sacstate of society. before the dispersion from their origi- nal home. priests. just. except that we have added some mechanical contrivances raised They to produce the same results. they had already discovered. sand years we have added one bird to their animals ! of domesticated wheat and wool. Says a high authority. A is still further evidence of the civilization of this ancient race in found the fact that. And it Even more modern times." which Such a degree of progress implies commerce. In what have we added to the civilization of this ancient people? Their domestic animals were the same as our own. . writing.

continued to our trace their descent in Attika. founded Athens. At-iW^ and ^^-hens are reminiscences of Ad. the place of the birds that through the sky of who on the waters knows the ships. Christian days. month that is engendered afterioardy This verse would seem to furnish additional proof that the Vedns were written by a maritime people. with its ends far apart. and we are told that Poseidon. The two contained also in the drop of water. and afterward added six days to complete the year. sky. who fraternity back to "a Dionysiac which originated And just as we have seen the Saturnaliau festivities of Italy descending from At- . show the closest relationship to Atlantis. in which kings and emperors begged to be initiated. was. who also divided the year into twelve parts of thirty days each." own times in our own Freemasons. the king. and in the allusion to the twelve months we are reminded of the Peruvians. In the Veda we find a hymn to "King Varuna. it is claimed. in their teries" an Atlantean institution. family. it race. The Egyptians and Mexicans also had intercalary days for the same purpose. above all. god and founder of Atlantis. who was the founder of the royal family of Atlantis. He. their influence during the whole period of Greek history down to the com-ing of Christianity was extraordinary and even then this masonry of Pre. an mythological traditions. too. belongs to in this Varuna. the Hindoos." Again " Veda we find another hymn to King Varuna: fly He who knows . 463 of Atlantis.THE ARYAN COLONIES FROM ATLANTIS. We find in the " Eleusinian mysBut. Aryan must be remembered that the Greeks." in which occurs this passage "This he is earth. who knows the twelve months ivith the offspring of and knows the each. the upholder order. we find that their gods are also the kings The Hindoo god Yaruna is conceded to be the Greek god Uranos. and this wide seas are Varuna'' s loins.

Eiimolpus. sinian mysteries. he represented the great Atlantean tion." (Murray's "My- thology. however. so these Eleusinian mysteries can be traced back to Plato's island. "When he arrived at manhood. whose tomb at Crete. even into the remotest parts of India. 119." all "he set out on a journey through known countries. was " a son of Posei- don." and the ceremonies were associated with seed-time and with Demeter or Ceres. as God the among the Greeks we have Zeus-pater. The roots of the institutions of to-day reach back to the Miocene Age. " All the legends of Egypt." or sys- tem is shown in the case of the in We have seen Hindoo god Deva-Nahusha. India. is He called " Dyaus-pitar. the chapter on Greek mythology that Dionysos was a son of Zeus and grandson of Poseidon. reaching into civiliza- "the remotest parts of India. the first all hierophant. daughter of Chronos. being thus identified with Atlantis. he was converted in later times into the dissolute god Bacchus. an Atlantean goddess. Bat everywhere the traditions concerning him refer us back to Atlantis." In other words. as the " Carnival " is a survival of the " Saturnalia. with the Atlantean doos as Dyaus." and "to all In conseparts of the known world.) mankind. harvest -feasts. quence of the connection of this king with the vine. besides teaching them the value of just and honorable dealings. who first taught the Greeks to use the plough and to plant barley." The strongest connection. And. instructing the people. practise how to tend the vine. and . was shown in like was transformed into the Greek god Zeus find manner we him reappearing among the HinFabe*' ther. and how to many other arts of peace.4G4 laiitean ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WOULD. the king of Atlantis. We and have seen that Zeus. Poseidon was at the base of them and . He was praised every- where as the greatest benefactor of p." which came among the Romans " Jupiter." from America to Asia. as he proceeded. Asia Minor." so Masonry is a survival of the Eleuharvest. said the Greeks.

was the son of Amon by the beautiful Amalthea. Dionysos succeeded his father " became the greatest of sovereigns." p. and 465 the older Greeks describe him as a king very great during his life.THE AHYAX COLOXIES FROM ATLANTIS. deified. For a time he had sovereign control of affairs in Meru. he conquered the seven dwipas.) When we king. . according to the Egyptians. who has been identified by scholars with Dionysos. deified after death. He gave much attention to the Cushite colonies in Egypt. and we must remember that Theopompus tell us that the island of Atlantis was inhabited by the " Meropes . Amon. p. 287. intelligence. ." turn to the (Baldwin's "Prehistoric Na- tions. Chronos and Amon had a prolonged war.'''' (Ihid.. 283. was see that the great god Indra. He extendall ed his sway in the neighboring countries. greatly increasing their strength. chief god of the Hin- formerly king of Meru. Dionysos defeated Chronos and captured his nobly. and that Deva-Nahusha (De(va)nushas De-onyshas) had also been king of Meru. de- throned him." and Lenor20* — . He is connected " with the oldest history and mijthologij in the loorldP He is said to have been a contemporary with Indra. Sicily.'''' Dionysos. and prosperity. and who appears in the form of representation of the Supreme king of Meru^ who was also Veda Being.. sister of Chronos. . married Rhea. Italy. and led his armies through all the known countries of the ivorld by means of matchless wisdom and miraculous heroism he made his empire universal. and put his son Zeus in his place. king who of Arabia or reigned over and certain countries of Northern Africa.) Here we doos. and capital. .. Ethiopia. and a great fame. as a principal " The warmest colors of imagination are used in portraying the greatness of Deva-Nahusha. Hindoo we still find this Atlantean In the Sanscrit books we find reference to a god called Deva- Nahusha. and completed the conquest of India. Zeus reigned won Amon.

we can almost fancy those hymns preserve some part of the songs of praise uttered of old upon the island of Atlantis. that this same civilizaArmenia and Atlantean kingdom was indeed see traces of the to "universal. and attained the sovereignty of three ivorldsy (Europe. Many of them seem to belong to sun-worship. he was arrogant to Brahmans. Nahusha. Pururavas was a king of al- great renown. Nahusha. lived at the time when Indra ruled on earth.466 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. He was the one born Lord of all that is. He established the earth and the sky. together surrounded by inhuman (or superhuman) personages. and perished. .) The Egyptians placed Dionysos is." (Baldwin's "Prehistoric Nations. and America?) " Being intoxicated with pride. Africa. and in many legends. and might have been sung with propriety upon the high places of Peru " In the beginning there arose the golden child. and even dared to touch one of them with his foot" (kicked him?). We . as famous for hostility to the Brahmans. "whereupon he w^as transformed into a serpent. (Osiris) at the close of the period of their history which was assigned to the gods. that the first mant has reached the conclusion ancient world were " the people of the men of Mero. who ruled with justice a mighty empire. who ruled over thirteen islands of the ocean." " can see in the legends that Pururavas. Who is the god to whom we shall offer sacrifice? . When we remember that the hymns of the " Rig-Yeda" are admitted to date back to a vast antiquity. 291. he engaged in a contest with Brahmans. compelled them to bear his palanquin. that toward the close of the great empire of Atlantis." p. mentioned by Maull. and others had no connection with Sanscrit history." and extended through the "known countries of the world. He was a very great king. and are written in a language that had ceased to be a living tongue thousands of years ago. when we tion extendino- from Peru and Lake Superior all the frontiers of China. . They are referred to ages very long anterior to the Sanscrit immigration. and must have been great personages celebrated in the traditions of the natives or Dasyus." We can well believe.

. his power is the one God of the breathing and awakening ivortd. loaters. with the He through whom the sky is bright and the distant river. trembling inwardly. standing firm by His will. paradise was the other side of beyond the waters. thence arose He who is the sole life of the bright gods. He also created the bright and mighty ^Yho gives life. their invoker. so the Aryan's some body of water. man. . . whose greatness the sea proclaims. .THE ARYAN COLONIES FROM ATLANTIS. . Wherever the mighty water -clouds went. their messenger. . It was the call hymn of a people living in a vol- who upon their god to keep the earth "firm" and not to destroy them. the righteous. He who governs all." The fire (Agni) upon the altar was regarded as a messenger rising from the earth to the sun . rousing every living being to go to his work. " Youngest of the gods. look up." When As the Egyptians and the Greeks looked to a happy abode (an under-world) in the west. May he not destroy us. canic country. God and man) like a friendly messenger between two hamlets. be- She shines upon us light like a young the wife. . . goest wisely between these two creations (heaven and earth. He who measured out the light in the air." . whose comthe bright gods " (the stars ?) " revere whose light He who through is immortality . . . . she made the fire had to be kindled by by striking down the darkness. ple near the sea. In the . He to whom heaven and earth. where they placed the seed and lit the tire. . or to a It is the god whose most glorious representative was the sun. part came also a god " of the sun-w^orship. The dawn of the day (Ushas). as the sun rolled up the sky over an " awakening world. it hymn of a peo- was not written by a people living in the heart of Asia. 467 He wlio gives strength. It was sung at daybreak. whose shadow is death. . O sage. For thou. man and beast. .'*'' This is plainly a hymn to the sun. . . who created heaven. He. earth firm. He. the creator of the earth. He whose greatness these snowy mountains. "He mand all .

or the great continent which once filled the whole bed of the present Atlantic Ocean. . located upon an the Atlantic which was destroyed by water." It was pure sun-worship. there bility that races of is men may have found their way there from the three continents of Europe. delight where joy and pleasure reside. where there is . America. occupying different zones of climate." at the bottom of the Atlantic. There are many indications that there were three races of men . a "the worship of idols in India is a secondary forma- degradation of the more primitive worship of ideal gods. is de- scribed as " where King Yaivasvata .) This is the paradise beyond the seas the Elysion the Elysian island Fields of the Greek in and the Egyptian. "The Dolphin's Ridge. . and from whose debris geology tells us the Old and New Worlds were constructed. or the high land revealed by the soundings taken by the ship Challenger. where the mighty waters are . . tion. another con- — necting with the north-east coast of South America. during races of immense periods of men. and Africa. where the secret . may have been the scene of time. 7.Veda ." says Max Miiller. living ruler of may there be to us a strong son. . place of heaven is." . It does not follow that a strong proba- the island of Atlantis.468 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. (Rig. who is a men through whom we may cross the ivaters . Maruts. food and rejoicing where there is happiness and ix. and a third near or on the west coast of Africa. Veda gods : 56. actually reached these coasts. at any time while inhabited by civilized people. of a three -pronged form one prong pointing toward the west coast of Ireland. " The religion of the Veda knows no idols. 113. on our way to the happy abodes This happy abode reigns . (vii. is. as will be seen. 24) we find a prayer to the Maruts. the storm- " O. such It as prevailed in Peru on the arrival of the Spaniards. One great chain of tradition binds together these widely separated races. of diverse the development. accords with Plato's description of the religion of Atlantis.

Kelts. the Hekatoncheires and 3. 2.THE ARYAN COLONIES FROM ATLANTIS." the great original progenitor of " Their king or leader was Porphyrion. the whiter men. had three sons represented three different tell — Shera. and the Berber and Cushite stocks 2. hence the legend. One race of beings sprung from the blood of Uranos. Slavs. the Phoenicians. We and had three families: 1. India. powerful champion Alkyoneus." Their mother was the earth this probably meant that they represented the common people of a darker hue. these was a rebellion of the Giants. but were conquered by Zeus. the sons of Shem. the Greeks. in fact. lions of the Titans. a reference to the three races: 1. and Japheth— who races of men of different colors. at different and perhaps widefrom some of which the Aryan families of Europe proceeded. . p. The Greek legends "a us of of the rebellions inaugurated at different times in Olympus. that Adam of the people. the Aryans. If this view is correct. the Titans. They also were of " the blood of Uranos. earth). . and I have shown that their mythical characteristics were probably derived from the appearance of their ships. : . 27). which is found Europe among them. They made a desperate struggle for supremThere were also two rebelacy. maritime peoples. the red or sunburnt men. We should conclude that the last two were the Kyklopes. Ham. possibly the yellow or Turanian race and 3. Goths. whose descendants inhabited Persia." the read. From that they were once forced to dwell where the summers were only two months long. 469 Noah. in a country in the the earliest times two grand divisions are recognized Aryan family " to the east those who specially called themselves Arians. The Titans seem to have had a govern- ment of their own. according to Genesis. the Basques. Uranos married Giea (the etc. I think. then we may suppose that colonies of the pale-faced stock may have been sent out from Atlantis to the northern coasts of ly separated periods of time. and the names of twelve of their kings are given in the Greek mythology (see Murray. Here we have. dwelling on Atlantis. their most the stock. . like the Egyptians.

This is the name (Javan) found in the tenth " chapter of Genesis. Iberia. Lenormant says the name period.. Latins. 5. There are seven branches of the Aryan family: 1. ii. and Celts to have left it at a later would indeed be the " Young Ones" of the family. But we can suppose the Bactrian population to have left Atlantis at an early date. Slavo-Lithuanic. in Asia are within the Historical Period. if not before it. Italic. ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. and that corner Aryans. of a different race. could not be the " Young Ones ." they if would be rather the elder brothers. or the Young Ones. and the Greeks. who first emi- grated westward. then they of Erin (Ireland) is derived from Aryan . Sanscritic or Indian five dwell on the soil of Europe. occupied by the All the rest of that great continent has been filled from immemorial ages by non-Aryan races." p. in Europe have dw^elt there apparently since the close of the Stone Age. except a small corner of Spain and a along the Arctic Circle. came from We strip find all Europe. following on the heels of the earlier migrations. and Atlantis. Europe.) But surely those who first emigrated westward. Greek. Aryan but when we turn to Asia. while the movements of the Aryans . and the other two are intruThe Aryans sive races in Asia /ro??i the direction of Europe.470 etc. . occupied by nations recognized as . and yet we have seen distinctly con- this island populated and named Erin by races nected with Spain. 3. 2. there in the part nearest is but a corner of it." the earliest to leave the parent stock. Chevallier. Africa. There tions is another reason for supposing that the Aryan naAtlantis. and they appear as intrusive stocks. . Germanic or Teutonic. forming a high caste amid a vast population The Vedas are supposed to date back to . Iranian or Persian and of these seven branches 7. 6. 4. Celtic. the Yavana. to the west. "Ancient History of the East. and from whom have descended the various nations that have populated Europe." (Lenormant and vol. 2. and herein we would find the explanation of the resemblance between the Latin and Celtic tongues.

where are the populations that then the men of the ages of stone and bronze? inhabited Europe We should expect to find the western coasts of Europe filled with them. and Japan.THE ARYAN COLOXIES FROM ATLANTIS.. Aryan race had its why would not ramifications all have extended into Siberia. which and that their traditions lies to the north-toest of that region represent that they came there from the ivest. that the Aryans descended upon India from the Punjab. China. direction of Europe and Atlantis. 471 while there is every reason to believe that the Celt If the inhabited Western Europe 5000 b. from the — .C. we know filled with Turanian populations. to wit. 2000 B. and over Asia? And if the Aryans moved at a comparatively recent date into Europe from Bactria. just as the eastern coasts of Asia and India are On the contrary.c. . originated in the heart of Asia.

on account and when we turn to the Tal- mud. wise. and others of the ancient races. who. Ethiopians. was probably resorted to in Atlantean days. The colonies that went out Europe carried the practice but not the disease out of which it originated with them and it was not until Columbus reopened communication with the infected people of the West of his allies to undergo the to . practised circumcision." as one has expressed it. and in these modern days The Western nations dewe are begin- ning to realize the dangers of this of the trichina contained in it . to arrest one of the of the human race —a scourge which continued and imposed as most dreadful scourges to decimate the people of America. " into a charnal-house. India Islands that the scourge crossed the Atlantic and " turned Europe. a religious duty. the Greek in a time of plague* god Ouranos. For instance. parted from this rule. Circumcision stamped out the disease in Atlantis.'* of a small insect which infests The Egyptians. arrested their growth. from the earliest ages. Chapter XI. nowadays. A TLANTIS RECONSTR UCTED. the He- brews. " because it." Life-insurance statistics show. and paralyzed their civilization. civilized race. compelled his whole army and the armies rite. more the evidences multiply that we are approaching the presence of a great. the It Phoenicians. we find the Egyptians. the Ethiopians. we read of one Atlantean king. and Israelites. refusing to eat the flesh of swine. The the farther we go back in time toward the era of Atlantis. article of food.472 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WOULD. we are told that it was forbidden to the Jews. that the average .

and the West India Islands and America in the other. Let us now. with the antediluvians. Below these. The : darker race seems to have been. and Scandinavians. again. south. that they were the metal-work- and navigators. Various battles and struggles followed between the different peoples for supremacy. with their tops covered with perpetual snow. and suitable at its different elevations for the grow^th of the productions of the tropical and temperate zones. akin to the Central Americans. reconstruct. and a white race. was " the great plain of Atlantis. as near as may be. as it great island. a smaller race.ATLANTIS BECONHTRVGTED. the condition of They dwelt upon a stones. Goths. the Berbers and the Egyptians." There were four rivers flowing north. forming stepping- were. upon which were the royal establishments. and as the races who possessed the ships and gunpowder joined in the war ag^ainst the Giants. the lighter-colored race was much larger hence the legends of the Titans and Giants. . races were the ers men more civilized. and west from a central point. toward Europe and Africa in one direction. near which were other small- er islands. of the Canary Islands were The Guanches As the works of the Bronze Age represent a small-handed race. physically. the soil volcanic and fertile. east. There were volcanic mountains upon the main island. all the facts before us. like the Greeks. life 473 and health of the Hebrew is much greater than that of men and he owes this to the retention of practices and beliefs imposed ten thousand years ago by the great. The climate was like that of the Azores. of Atlantis. with small hands. The people represented at least two different races a dark brown reddish race. Celts. probably east and west of them. wise race other . rising to a height of fifteen hundred feet. Below these were elevated table-lands. gleaned from vari- ous sources. mild and pleasant. we mio-ht conclude that the dark of very great stature.

while the drier atmosphere of Ameroats and rye. may . and rye. barley. while a smaller quantity of maize. customs. wheat. was better adapted or Peru. but for- The fact that domestic cattle and the great cereals. arts existing on the opposite sides of the Atlantic will furnish an approximate sketch of Atlantean history. Mexto the ico. that the climate of Spain growth of wheat. 60. be. the emigrating portion of the population carrying getting the reason for it. .474 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. too. the rainy climate being unsuited to it. and that in the later ages communication was closer and more constant between Atlantis and Europe than between Atlantis and Ainerica. and none on the low coasts of those countries. than would be to carry them by way of the now submerged and Italy islands in front of the Mediterranean Sea to It the coast of Spain. in the open vessels of that day. Italy. fact tbat the The sides of the ocean implies identity of origin gued that the plies that the fact on both might be arthat the explanation of many customs existexist . im- primeval stock existed in America. barley. ante) that there is reason to believe that maize was known in a remote period in the drier regions of the Egyptians and Chinese. The people had attained a high position as agriculturists. it In the case of the bulky domestic andifficult to would be more transport them. imals. proportionately. is grown in Western Europe. oats. Spain. than maize Even now comparaica was better suited to the latter plant. and the rest of As science has been able to reconstruct the history of the fail migrations of the Aryan race. are found in Europe and not in America. tively little wheat or barley is raised in Central America. would imply that after population moved to Atlantis from America civilization was developed in Atlantis. from Atlantis across the wider expanse of it sea to America. AVe have seen (p. away the custom. by the words that exist or to appear in the kindred branches of that tongue. so the time will come when a careful comparison of words. opin- ions. same opinions and customs it ing on both hemispheres is to be found only in America.

and even . while the complexions shade into each other. they also had goats. rye. which we know to have been continued all through the Historical Period. and tiax. They raised cotton and made they probably cultivated maize. barley. must have been going on for thousands of years. the autochthones of the different lands where they and the same crossing of stocks. the Greeks. in ancient we may suppose times. . they possessed an alphabet. whereby new races and new dialects were formed . more ancient settled. and that was drawn by oxen or horses. sculptors. This was not the work of a few years. hence the association of Poseidon or Neptune. as Peru and Egypt and in Sweden during the Historical Period. and iron. During the vast period of their duration. oats. bronze. a sea- god. gold. race differences in the population the same plantation . and manufactured woollen goods. they were architects. so that we can pass from the whitest to the darkest by insensible degrees. In some respects the Atlanteans exhibited conditions similar to those of the British Islands : there were the same. hemp. dogs. tobacco. And Egypt and Peru implies that they as the horns and ox-head of cattle Baal show the esteem in which were held among thera. it that they had passed the stage in which the in plough was drawn by men. and there was an intermingling with the the Romans. and engravers. they spread out in colonies east and west to the ends of the earth. They first domesticated the horse. but of many centuries between these colonies may have been something like the relation between the different colonies that in a and the later relations age were established by the Phoenicians. and possibly potatoes they built aqueducts and practised irrigation. wheat. and swine. races.ATLANTIS RECOXSTIiUCTED. silver. they worked in tin. The presence of the plough in 475 possessed that implement. and the result of all this has been that all the smaller races of antiquity have grown larger. as peace and agri- culture caused their population to increase to overflowing. copper. hence the race-courses for horses described by sheep. with horses Plato. They possessed cotton goods. greater.

hailstorms and rain. from their capabilities are sustained the kinetic action of the sun's rays. later days that science has realized the utter dependence of life all earthly upon the sun's rays " All applications of animal power may be regarded as derived directly or indirectly from the static chemical power of the vegetable substance by which the various organisms and and this power. representing one of the nationalities and languages of the mother-country In the same way we may suppose a race Atlantean in origin. find the worship of this Egypt. all In religion the Atlanteans had reached the great thoughts attained to the which underlie our modern conception of creeds. with peculiar languages not English. and Irish populations emigrating en masse from England in later times. Cornish. peopled by races from the same source. Hamitic emigrations to have gone out from Atlantis to Syria. Egypt. and America. nies We have seen colo- ries to settle from Great Britain going out in the third and fifth centuon the shores of France. Welsh. We One God in Peru and in early They looked upon the sun as the mighty emblem. Such a conception type. and Chronos and. we would have a state of things probably more like the migrations which took place from Atlantis. . "Winds and ocean currents. and the Barbary States.476 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD. omnipotent. pire of Zeus is repeating in these modern times the em. same carrying of colonies in Europe. great First Cause. with a civilization Atlantean in origin. sliding . in turn. so in later days we have seen Brittany and the United States separating themselves from England. and carrying to their new lands the civilization of England. and instrumentality of this One God. Asia. They had one universal. the of civilization to the ends of the earth. just as we have seen Troy. It is not until these could only have come with civilization. If we could imagine High- land Scotch. England. Egypt. in Brittany. and Greece warring against the parent race. the race characteristics remaining after the governmental connection had ceased.

in the expenditure and conversion of molecular movements. Professor Max Miiller. simpler. and purer as we go back in time. . 477 and falling cascades are the direct offspring of solar heat. and our watches. . All our machinery." . was pure and simple.ATLANTIS RECONSTRUCTED. life man was immortal. until at last. and. glaciers. . " The sun is the great source of energy in almost all terrestrial phenomena. and that he would live . inventions of mankind are the most wonderful that the race has ever made. flowing rivers. therefore. literature does not seem to be known. . in the very oldest compositions of human speech which have come down to us. again in his material body " the resurrection of the they believed in body and the everlasting. in ingenuity and in importance. — — The Atlanteans possessed an their religious worship established order of priests. The first use of fire. we find the Divine Being spoken of in the sublime language which forms the opening of the Lord's The date in absolute chronology of the oldest Vedic Prayer. from the geological to the biological. . all are wound up primarily by the sun. our clocks. the processes by which the various cereals w^ere first developed out of some wild grasses these are all discoveries with which. must be sought the motive power of all this infinitely varied phantasmagoria. whether driven by the windmill or the water-wheel. however. From the meteorological to the geographical." They accordingly embalmed their dead. they believed in other words. The Duke of Argyll (" The Unity of Nature ") says "We have found in the most ancient records of the Aryan language proof that the indications of religious thought are higher. and the discovery of the methods by which it can be kindled the domestication of wild animals. by horse -power all the results of electrical and electro-magnetic or by steam changes our telegraphs. no subsequent discoveries may compare. derived from the sun's rays. They lived under . They are all unknown to history all lost in the light of an effulgent dawn." — — But the people of that the soul of Atlantis had gone farther. considers that it may possibly take us back 5000 All we can see with certainty is that the earliest years. above all. .

and languages it would never . they built pyramids. They had and triumphal arches for their kings and heroes. What a wild consternation would fall upon her colonies and upon the whole human family The world might relapse into barbarism. they had their courts. their boats and sailing-vessels. and Switzerland. their grist-mills. the gold and silver of Peru and Mexico. their mines. the copper of Lake Superior. a kingly government records. In short. aqueducts. must have been magnificent indeed. Italy. and magnetism Deva-Nahusha visited his colonies An empire which reached from the Andes to in Farther India. electricity. their monuments covered with inscriptions. temples. the event left an everlasting impres- upon the imagination of mankind. processions. it would survive dynasties. the spices of India. their workshops. they were in the enjoyment of a tion nearly as high as our own. . the wheat and barley of Greece. creeds. and those inventions are used. Alfred the Great. in every land on earth. tlie amber of the Baltic. We are told that beneath the waves. in the midst of terrible convulsions. the bronze of Iberia. it would outlive the memory of a thousand lesser convulsions of nature. it . they knew the use of the magnet and of civiliza- gunpowder. Hindostan. with all its millions of people. In its markets must have met the maize of the Mississippi Valley. sion ! Richard Coeur de Lion. It is not surprising that when this mighty nation sank in which steam. William the Conqueror. and obelisks they practised . their looms. banners. round-towers. their judges. religious ablutions . the tin of Wales and Cornwall. . but the memory of the cataclysm in which the centre of a universal empire instantaneously never be forgotten went down to death would would survive in fragments. Cromwell. wharves. docks. deep and almost universal. and canals. lacking only the printing-press.478 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WOULD. nations. their highways. Let us suppose that Great Britain should to-morrow meet with a similar fate. if not to China. more or less complete. and Victoria might survive only as the gods or demons of later races. their tlieir founderies.

ATLANTIS RECONSTRUCTED. and all the terra-cotta fragments gathered from the great libraries of Chaldea. young. of blood and belief. May not the so-called "Phoenician coins" found on Corvo. in their cities. and they had passed away thousands of years before Babylon. they were first civ- the parents of our fundamental beliefs ilizers. first merchants. pre-eminent as a founder of colonies. than all up from Plato's island would would more strike the imagination all the gold of Peru. Portions of the island . first they were the navigators. and surely there is no study which appeals more strongly to the imagination than that of this drowned nation. They were the founders of nearly the all our arts and sciences . Rome. ji'ucse ? as they were when discovered by the Portu- . their blood flows in our veins the words we use every day were heard. the past and rehabilitating the ancient peoples. of mankind. and temples. Every line of race and thought. . courts. and have left them unpeopled. be of Atlantean origin visited those islands Is it probable that that great race. 479 man continued to inhabit the face of the Science has but commenced its work of reconstructino. but a few hundred fathoms beneath the sea liave and if expeditions been sent out from time to time in the past. or London were dreamed This . the first colo- nizers of the earth their civilization was old when Egypt was of. the . Nor employ is it impossible that the nations of the earth may yet their idle navies in bringing to the light of day some lie of the relics of this buried people. the true antediluvians. be forgotten while globe. the monuments Egypt. ? one of the Azores. why should not an attempt be made to reach the buried wonders of iVtlantis? single engraved tablet dredged A of be worth more to science. leads back to them. could have w ithin the Historical Period. in their primitive form. to resurrect from the depths of the ocean sunken treasure-ships with a few thousand doubloons hidden in their cabins. lost people were our ancestors.

nothing of . are but beginning to understand the past We years ago the world knew nothing tie nothing of the lingual one hundred Pompeii or Herculaneum that binds together the Indo-European : of nations. arms. the meaning of the arrow-headed inscriptions of Babylon noth- ing of the marvellous civilizations revealed in the remains of Yucatan. statues. throwing new light upon the past history of the human race. and all the great prob? lems which now perplex the thinkers of our day . while the contain translations of all its inscriptions. and Peru. nothing of the significance of the vast volume of inscriptions upon the tombs and temples of Egypt . and libraries of the shall implements from Atlantis. strides. tific We are on the threshold. Scienshall investigation is advancing with giant Who say that one hundred years from the world now the great museums world of may not be adorned with gems. Mexico.480 ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.

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