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Shoes and Pattens

Shoes and Pattens

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SHOESAND PATTENS

OBITTARY ]largrethe de Neersadd, Fn Hr
n ,^@i 19s7,d Virye$e de Neelqad dred tbe hd.:iy ear\ 4e or 34,ju* as $s bo.k il ror sev.ralyeds, andn h r dbde i. her bnvery, dekhiidloi rd sheer 4ihusi$m lor the sbjEd thd dApire pati,r dr$birity sheMs,ble ro bhns$ose sections respons'ble for {hi.h shesas ctue0y shamtiw ard Cat,ttn4 ai Shu: in An atu Lit rdLutu

MEDIE

ST

\

c

2 IN LONDON: EXCAVATIONS FROM FINDS MEDIEVAL

SHOESAND PATTENS
FrancisGrewandMar$ethe de Neergaard
Mitford lllustrationsbI Susan

PRISS THE BOYDELL

urcurolLondon @ rt33,200r
l.gillanon ,1/ R(r' -erdl.r. ff,dp, r P.rmiticd ddd flff. ttijeval noRd in a tdcE no p of rhn work nrl be phoo@picn, pdlomrd i'rpubli. rdaFtd, brcad@i ptr6LL5hcd, msmiftcd, (did€d or (Pioduced in uv rdm or bv nf nsnq {irhotr, ilrpriorPcmrsion of thc !oP)iigbI ow!&

Fn$ puunhedlt33 Hd Maie5.IsSbdon.ry Ofll< Nsv <dnion2001 2004 Repin(d 2002, Th. Bolde[ r(s, Voodbridse

333 2 rsBN o35rr5
o! rubln on A Nlu$uDofL I ondorVtll. NtuRum of London, l,!dd,ECItHN olg uk w.mNunoflondon 'r]t Bovdclllre$ n in iDpi'n ol Boldrll & Brew{ Ltd PO Bo\ 9, \Uoodbidgq Sullolk lP r 2 3DF. UK ,t oiBoldcll& Bre$fht USA Ro.hen(,NY 14604-4126, PO Box41026, wwboticll.o uk

i anil,hle AdRlogucrt.od aorrh; 6ook aron dr Brni5hLihflry Libdryof Corgr.$CrhlogcardNuDbo, 20010i2'r20 Ths pubkrtiooir princdona.idlieePiP.f lrinad in Ct{ BiGin by Sufiolk Edmund5, Lihnrd. Btr.ySt P'e!5 Sr Edmundstu4

Contents

i'3 netho&, archiv€ and conEntions &!n Lo.don sites,1100_1450 ..'t lzhtdtlry - kbr 12k dntua 'a t/n1d lsh dnt@ - ldt. 13k ond.ub l,lh flid t4k drtn4 e'i:
.h@,oL 4c litlsd dttnc l1u?a d am airadn *Lott, b'r'a14Pirho'd a atiFtd tF d.a4nH.havd"^ b-br.n' to' lurts tb) rtdn Edd\ ' '$ai'ond4u' ;n* i,,-'dr10'w.d t. r.. 'atu'.

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and lit'fta t nlkts

of tu!.€s a.d.dn.oidance

o) c,agn ri,, (by Kdhdine sbniq)

Darie 'n Frenchrd Geman

Acknowledgements

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Key
Fe nnld spleadon of d. cc wd e clNry, pp. r2].5

Grain/flesh stitching

Edge/flesh stitchirg Birding-stitch

Tmel-stitching

Introduction

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rrly r.de ii the lms tr vilass vhm they weE sold.rd !sed, ; r idther indistid of s. hl!fuiioBl cll'mtd oJmrtLwest Europ. h mdi*altim*'pnendr.fieexch,'georides at€venthe hnhlestlcv.lvas hcljued lry Fide, s$dbiE snd@ass !wel. h thir f.r, d€ srudyotfoo!{€d in L\elre&nt olldidn 6 b. resarrled 6 a snhluiim nd o.ly b ilE iistory ofLndd burb tnebi*ory olEnropes a whole.

Recording methods, archive and conventions used in the report
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Shoes fromLondon sites,1100-1450
I rrtrsd'iprer n,oe h$jo^s jn i_o on Dytr a Egi*otion iu,bG {d;dividnLddes, aie to 6eian\dnnheL tnI/t$q odn,ard'"attp. 126 30) iod.,"\pLoded dn\unesotn yshoes, and frrNnB.h.prripp. 51 71). lhe eaitinid 121h.elrury ([ig 3) rb. Lzth .enn'n rnd rlert lound ln jui ts! drpor6. { Scr Ho$e xnd tsilljngsgde Tlre respedLvPl' ) bf !i id Lnihe jnu*Etions ro d.mre hn ind nshl kom rhe$yles?ndt.hiiquei of theDre&ding

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oDeot lbe sboes tromBilli.gsFte is r in*nc indii'on mcoaoDting man]orthe.hr4tenstic rcdurcs or London rootsetr or rhe rxh .enlury (rig. 4). rt \€s :r,io{ cetuidt ?n anueshoe, onri:llr rulju$.boye theankLe bone, ed the r refr tmt.r Irn,tu p 47) shoeGeeberow and usins {ool n(her lo$iblr

noh,L ? q-mz4in on theeper aid , ro{ ol ruiner$jr.hes onrhesole,nset srishdy fron the edgeGeealsoFE.3, e p. s1).'fhe s.le n irrghr sided s yet wirho4 the ruif rhar rypilies m/Ly :l r:rer nediev, ?nd noder. sboes,aidhasakpeniB,Finledheel*hi.hnses shaped cm-om Lntlrl qurde^. Trreupper is .r , sroupot sevendosety paf ol deposib $se$ Norldhave.ontaned: (Parhed forh.oniq) shodinteNoyenthones Theserhongs wert prGun:bry onuneibr - or d no* helped to holdrheloperin +apert the qftteG - :id ii h tr r kD.$n hos rheshoe itselt All the other items in the e t lzi]]reiturt respeds. The nod obviors is rhd the sotes, aL$ough sr qdte suaigr,r,sided fe invaroblt rlardd rouideda! the heel.The qnden $ere sone!fusdrenlthenedonlhensde$1tnati 'r,eer$iffen8r' {hose rom my id tad hare $nps oroids warefomdin rhepresenr deposirs - rnd the fact no0eoI these ath.hed to a shoe thdthehnlgmginsnonanyhaveverysnd doselyapaced eithes Gee belov o. ,13)is a Edly l2th.centdryshoessen either to haye beenpoft .s slip.onsor to hayebeenhiened {ilhaleatherthoq- dnwnriq' suppofredin heisht betveei $osecut di.bht onthelne ofthe ,nlde la g Ft. 6) .id thosensing t oi 2 inches (25-50 m) aboreit (e{. Fus. 5 & 3), w{e by rar the mon pop'nr s$le. Th8re ee ody $o (FiF. 7 & l1), and he shoes only oie booi: &is h of a distincrie typero bedescribed i, rhen,axt (pp.r!r5&Fi$. t5-16) $hereby se.rion the

sole(F. Pnthad, pns. .omm.). At rhe srme tina the bsic .onsh.tion of shoes *A t?.slomed by dis.eding

Ior ther? i aid early l3rh.enruncs, {hei ve!.' low slth ioob:.ds havesuflved, olner exp]?fr rt .ortd hrE been osed ro serre a fabn.tr tur rhinsshi.h is nov misine or tr4mlr hile been*ufed to Eiain thcn sMpe, it maybp &t tbe edges:s meieh boDd {irh dnsr,.o $jde^.erorrhn suniyesThis{as a tbread The,tu4emen6d th. froar oIthesr,oe nle sblrh fldier Londor6nds md hinondl m uideu, butrbeposiron or$e sifubiljl(Fi3 $urcs sho{ !, ru! o.rdod D ihe hr rxh 33) sqsens thd d'c i'isi's i.sen an nsht (Parclrrdronh.ominsr, rd(! Lu! \'hi.h is fr$ lbe in$ep dd mtryelen h?!r orertapped tund od, nreryin dep.sirs Do{.ddi0s.ll50 rhe siun fl:p oa lje olhs side.ln this ':y the |dhshmsacla'gesollutlh{NeIepmb?bl! drosesyLnrdnolthe ao.i aid rhei.losed ro niudiod {nh i i14,.:t mainseam otrrlE iin4 rolm a snug doubleahnkies se,l. The kcond 5de OneG.omplcr. builor a sdlLi.5e( d rhe iikre shoerequned io insers?ndzppem ro lunp ihro* aDd {s rareiedb! quire r brord bzrt beei ., sriFn IFe Mh .o adduioial dnrEtrne ({id$ oarqtre$jd 6 mm) pasing lzneut OB 0) ln ilns ssc, th. ,bsei.e ol rhtuughasinsrarovotslor(Ft 5) Asonmtr) niidios Gis. 34) lhocs ord'is'he (ql Figs. 7, 3):.d larer, ibeie openq d lbeump trmar, add, A oi n.$ shoes d rhndde,$e leainer hrsbeen.urand se?med edle Fromthe lar813$ .eitufy o.eads rhi: rms ,r idcp t, p(ryidefleibitih * the point i mon inva.ablr sc. b n{k rhelomer pre {hfte ir baids slrarpry ftom the hoazonbr ro irE sen.e or? ledhered!ru $np. or topbmd , bd

Ilo{ shoes {er poinr.d d rheroe,bu1 nieLr {n rhF hzre beenso essse red .s on ls! a.ue sho4 ron sear Hruse (Fts 5 6). The

Mey of the fedurts des.nhedre.ur on o$cr 3hoes{ thi\ pcnod, thoud the toes de odl pninted A r:rge nmber, hostver F sliEhtLy de.onted vlrh eFbrdide.) iormally {ith a btri in dnpcrmingdomthe.e re ofihevamp, oie iiid.e alsouth ? b?ndoi rle qndcA Gc. helos, i ?5 9. nns is a lom ol orabeii oI ihe $b.h r 6r* re.oidedin Loidon deposiis Lre 11th cenrury- thoushdsawl'u. pcrhaps popuh Ior .bo!t , .eitury, brely odlrws the {npcs *ere mrde 12thanttrq.Shoesdi vanp ii . rrso ofsizcs(tbelourthd are'io* .omprete ne*Ure ..177(Fig.3) (Fis 7), .orcspoMing to the moded stes l0 (.hiro r1 Gbird)I (aduu) 3 (xdtrLt) ad. probably, respedllely) and as been ixunntiomGeebelo{ p. l13l munbave lon by both mei lnd woner, drouehthet re{aded to those o(high{,ixlshr$ li'.om' *iri rho larscr boo6ind ankkr,oeslcr. Frisoi q relsht!!ndE ol rlis kndseem Fis.5) sboes mriDly rnd jt is po$ible thd ilq rer. inrended pie.es in th. o'rly one ol rbe embrojdered presedgroups r cedai'nrtroD a d'oe ntl'.r tha

\

anan*leshoe(F,g.7). In mrnyftspecGit is rery olese]:]]Ioigpie.e.oistructiod:]beil*'i'h a shU d;! insen (Do{ ni$ing) toig lbe dpper edse ontheinnerside- ind h i.s r smalvediul tened *lrh drapsrid8s vhich Dds tkoush a siisle, or in one cAe i double.tus oI slot usuany o.e sLot oneitber side ol therrep. The illu*Eted exmpb (r,g. s) hd a *npe made upoI

:irt. nr$ rr e'iLr.ldefl, :\rAo,il,e +oe

rarher rlun : rqle

'tssered,<hr$). As rn th.6r$ hallol the.en ..i{ diotr. bd tr'.i oi rhe iLes rme ol

sibh|smpl.J'dqblein.s|[66F.nrr' lhe rll]; sho,"rotlh5d,e.xnle i'mmrised lifrlr lse [!Ldr, duiebi.rdsijlhl po,r6 i./ Frs r2), Frn uy rrri kb rrhi eerequitebtu:d md tumded(liss.13.16)

uJe : $:ll

rnaqulaL i$str ("o'y trrsiig) r rhe 9) rbjsrs 'he jlai rnie\ d Seil lloule. $ggeiln! Ibd iher h?d

-iBju m rheiiier sida([(

-.relshof

teredh on,"ndr uliiredrhida

trbsaft lro.i nnre,ipodfl irruri:riois (see belo\. ! r,r)iil 1lr mfre nqa:ln! - bnr rhe,e

.-imr t) lrve lr.,d., ile

tii^{!lu

rtir(o(.

fu d!t.e]r!r} ceelelo{ p 13) :'dfud:;ad i! u\e rrr.tun!r !nir rhelerl ed '( ihe medLeyrl lenod AF D! ,e iri$$rnD! +ori rlremelres.

rrt \iDp, h{e(d rhr rin shoen, be dlsru*ed i\ qrne d ieieit

b! i dn\diD!

rni.h rNed DL.s

'flr{e slot (rI FE J) m d LeFrIir eii

. rri

thnil\?srr{flred[]rdirnni!ormf

ir{ iin+

lnrc beei N),, Lf; Fr! !.uns.hiLi Il is md lord rr't uo! jm b! joiiiag 'rr

', edmvhrr Geereror, r6-r7?ndFi!: |)0

::r.\

sl[4, oie tom IIlk streer(3 re{is frq! ser House o0

r. dre sme de!.sirs, bo*eyer, ft ar teAt twelvelrasnen$ ot . ftther diterent siyle, a bx (fi8 'Dkle{hoe or tunboot The mo{ compreie 13)is a nn\ boot,ecryromdedd i[e im, qhilh orisin:nysmd ro a heishiof . 200 nn ind thus rcached nea y ro uid olt rr G oI,{np{rcund constd.tiodBth:sm,ntda4rnainsgdalihe sboesnd booc of ihh pe,iod- .nd rso more iisens $e topind.bove rheindep. rheresa to $ilchiq doq the DFr edse,lor binding or a overtheopedngflapsaldE'onliJd'si(e sti.bnu ms ashi acro* $e insrer. .lmod ce. biilytheress a torsle 6oushrbs itselihmnot sudlvedandns fom is un.enain.The boothA

susivtug fragneft wheiner &is was a stnste stiq sound.ortinmusly rouid $e l* or seren sepute srints lied tosetherat the liont On a s.ond, sbdler .id mu.hmoreiragmenbl_r boot remins in prz.. (Fig.11). irere re &ree ri.s of har been delrtsately ivlsred, perhaps for de.ontve ared, is kioned d the rd{en sbt on the outer side; this s@eis thd n wA then {ound ontinuousiyuprrds i. concenriccides on $e exmpres:lready dennbed rhe dw*dngs pAseddroush slob cut in the upper but aftangenentvheftbytheypasgddYotrghloops -fhes upvrds. $ongs nere themsehes L\readed l@*ly 6rou$ paiF or slob, ud erh hada spad.shzped lemin:l {hi.h vas mchorcd againntne bve{ slot on the jislde T}e mo$ complet!booiol il'is rypaco@s lron a deposn oI the 13thcenrury butis bes .onsidered herein rhe $ieal dh.6sion ol the sb'le (F,s. r5). ft is ol zo'dal insenon$e im{ side,a ropbodadda loig tmrqxh edsinc $np $hi.h w6 se{n to the rdp thro.t attheb.seand lorned m overlapping a.! ro! opening. The boot hs only one veni.:l thoq on(heoutersde overinc anlde, vhere ii rd &ree senesoI

heel, io suppon $e dia{striig, Theslring itseuis posiblethd it oily Dafrly in ph.e, butn seems str se.ured byaknot tied4ainn theinside oithe
o.iirudslyupwaldsdtrdgljth€sldshdtbdg

'nre purpose of the snalL sudivinsknotii the ot[er end oi thedfts$nns is uncleai.

) \i." tflt'4 r',rtt)

urn

oder exanphsol lnis !'pe badnore !b& one reni.?l thons.Tne moi .ompreleof thesehm rhreeremaining oneoneithersideand thethndin $. middleor $e in{ep (Fis 16). Ii n an:nue .hoe.nd robibly sFivas io ih oridMr height, dthougheren this is not .ediii becadse n h6

:

0I tle sidatlonss hG lor. L@ps bul rhe.edtrJ h..s oily Lliee it h likelr thd 6i bootrlsos^ hled.onunuously withr jde dn{fing Th€ erlr/nid r3.h cenrq (Fig l7) h is b the6rd h? oIthe13thcentu4rbattlre r Sd flo$e (t{o strresive deposiis.oirainins r1 dd s redsbied sho$ respe.liveL, ,id b3en d$,nbred{Ir @ds, rd rhesotes haye (hree deposits, sillligsgac 3, ti, and24 rc&$ quiie. prond!rceds?istedshipe geneElly{ith rred shoes) These ue smmadsedin Tables i tuund or oul sh?ped toe Gee, ror ex,mplc, nLss 21,24)Asw.s;lindly thepncti.en the r2th.entuo,theupp*sm mostiy oroncpie.e 'vcp.areund .onsddion, uth insers dded *hcrc nc.cs4 but incr m ror rle fi6r time dlrerei.e ii rrieryDes topleseded. sever:r exafpks ol shoesrode in rro main li k lmmediately obriousthd the Sel House se.riods- vrD ai{i qude^ - {ith seznx on (r'ts. 25,?3). {d B iqscare asemblagesm very sinil,r both sides ol thefoo( This B a typ! lables t 2). flic ol.onnnd'onloundspondrdxydYotrghofiine

Ig!=-

be.ome,i&spread und rhe se.ondhatfot rhe pp 3r-3).De.ontion 1,1$.eniuryG3ebelos, is passd otrt or fashioi though shotrtd iot be lor$trei rhd the concendcl,.ing .irdes on otL may have had some otumenhl,N *ellas tundional !:he @ by lir the no{ .onmonro.n orfoorwer, :..o!iting ior overh:tf ine tobl iumber of i0diliduany regi*ered 6nds r-2)'fbere aft !d sn shoes.ur rTxbras betow 0re ankre,?nd three or i]jese nay h:ve beena spehl typeoI ndoor slrpper siellar to rhd found in one of the eadyr?th.enry lrodps(F!qs. 13) The t{o vlnch are pnces mos comprete wer. bdh irde f.D singte orr€r) thin,soitrearher\ith ? 6nely nitch.d b& seamjoining'he sdLa td the upper, 3t'nos .erir,ny {ithour ftnds. Theresas bndiis or x rorb,id (noL strrtjling) bd noree ot dJl fa{ening one (Ft. 13)n conve.iionaly{yred, hjshar ihc in*ep. {hereA thoodpr (Fis 19)G.ul rery lo$

.

;

;

rJ:l in thd it h.s . lois $rip iisen round th. ..ss pd ot rhe quafrers, lo$lblt destDedror $sy rcpla.ement in ihe eventol selere wetr io as in d'e 12ii c.nrury thc mo{ comon sii. rs the low boot or:nue sl'oe f,*emd wnn a ia{sting vound onc. or t{j.e rtuDd t$ leg, :.imallyju( belowihe rnlle fl.bles 1-2; Fts. 10 23).lrpre$'oc md the sueolthe sloGsho{ roro r 5 nnaro$ T[e 13$.enIu4 eianples :.ndtonsemu.hhuherur 6e h3th,ithe[ 12r]! :Jdtrded at th. toe, but againthen ?pperan.e :he imrft$jor $ar rlris was a style lavored :ii. tun booG and sideli.ed shoes(descabed ?low) :Inoi al rem Io h?!ebeen{om by nc..

ad..n.:nl'sSnnniMslldinsen*inebaf di,,!!eD.efrdo ertei erdpres js lne absen.e of e olen?ppingfirp optnjns (4 Figs 5, 3) ln

but mat h.ve retuined opedat the top. This dafpjcsddcdinFig eiii|e|yhthelzih.enfu4'ilmerJdeveihA '}ose id Figs, 21-23 ftpb.nds andotherreinrorcefterlple.esde not .hird\ shft illu*Eted (Fig.23),rhepresen.e ora

The tull bootldamd wiil' a drtrsstridssound mt tines rouddrheles h tr lurher *yle Fhlch codinuedinuse inio6e edly r3th.enhry.The elab.nte tFe, in rhi.h the$tug pNsedLbroush (.1 Fiss. 15 1O, n 4asp|4olt}esinplereren,The|lNtled bool (Ft 24) h very si'iil:. ro ore found li the edlier srolps (Ft t3) - eeei to the extentol vlnchLLyee afeshoes cui belostheanl]edd rvo ee,nue{boes (T.bles I 2). All saeh!o h.!e beenh.ed on the mer sde. Anois the shoes, ue .v0 *hi.h m mo* complere de ahon idenqunehighd rheinnepbui verr licarin rom, beins dnrub$$d2 6marcs l! h,lso refr(kable lo{ at L\e heelibo$ roy orytrxy hale hadrop. Ior the iumbn ,n,i compbrnyol lhe iisens on buds(./.Fiss.27&e0) thoush ireseio loiler - rnd ftinforcnenrpie.o oyerthelace the nner side, a ledure +ded {iih oneoI the strruive anue shoes desnbed bero{ (Fu. 27) and boleson the mde. om €t 25) h?selaborde open{ork de.orarioi b:*d on tun*e, cnc'rtd, of suff.ienr sDe rd quariiyd ds be Gee rectag d dd cfrdlom moliis. ed n or ivoft thoselaed d $e side.This style oI lastenAsenblases od, .o eftelt, has beerfound o'ny spoddi.all! iDlitr onesbelor enelqi.s as the lsu cc.tury Gee belo{, o. 43).There m slxeMnples ii all,of inbd but. smzllinfni whi.hloned rre vanp on lie hrer side ed .mied oia serof lace.holes, is iow mising rhe o$er shoe(Ft. 26) is mde entnelyin onepiece,aid on the yrmpihrod h , rough k,,ire.dt wilh I panot holesonerher side, vhichpo$iblr wasmade by thevee.r to relieve

oneol thr r le-+oas tbre spmt inseis (Fi! ,t) o.e L:4e p'e.e

..ideds ii to tu h.el4d.onhiis jtr{ tr si"sl. l:.e roh, rd a d'ird (.'isrd n.p pe ips m ,ory $e ep dse 1oiorn a lap ope@ !m]I ro rzdi.e u4:hos (d Fis. thGesetr on some ramiix in postjon.It t) ln thissse (helr.e irselr $6 rA knot.d tuhindotred rheLonon hoLes. easknod.dd dmadcdupwds od pres mrbLr,

v.ry tidd! onthe ldi Th. sc.ond heldtheshoa .omdete aDheshre n ndi.:ny didered i" mn mh joined by jdeDli., sds n the $me posilon oi bod,sidc ol the loot o.jg 231 There{as i . rtinrorcmcnLp'ece topbdd,a he.l stilieier ?Dd owibel,.ehoks,shichdehlgeddMgft' '1he hoLes de ueven n number(lblec on one beenr sde, iou oi the o$d) rd scn io have hEt palily de.ofttive, ror inpresions shos 6d dieyh,veb.enpuledod orrh.peb! a snrll romd |.&aL\eriheaboadthmg-pfubablyasDg|e ]..elkeadedupwdsinthemneri||lstdedin or The lererenaniig sho.sn Lhssoup de aLL rd meniodt bnei types disdsed ekevhere onglmlly l:r.ned *irb a buckle.bd h seneDl

3 ; ,

;

;

t

;

;

i

;

;

I n ..nrhbl! :ppeu?n.e?ni unuri{D n.il,rto r.ommonedy l5th.enlury trle (./, ioi esnpla Fis 63)z alnion.enajnly shourd fanems., iobllr..{ nriejhoes $nh a rossle iltrm.l nrLevhi.h reff k)hiFoniMrd 13$ .cntury ad beume in reNi.slt hshioi.ble ,i ns s.ond h3lr Tbe nion .ompleteoI rhese

d[koftrhe{y|4!ldPgivmedf€lFriod totl'oscol rpinNu,thedilNnaisr:{eiiis kofr r.f *es, s{:r rh.latemedrrl. croups 'f^ble Rlliosssr. (10regin.Fdshoes; Lane 3). (26 (rTshoen 16shoct TrigLane rnd,-udgre :bocs: Table'1) ilrnrarerrrese derdf0med5

<=--

---4

..-'

L

nyb n sertr kr, ror ilimrle Ft :I) rh! rrll boot..iiinfd to b. T!du.ed,burit seems thd $e l.v b.or or bn rkl. shoe$brb{rsooooulreelier. ne.dly .lioeor![oe.Thnlad E .ot immedirtelr obriots r shouLd be rtn€dLeredrln E a'lJr:ho.s iuntd in theformer & xLhcriLL orllie lo{ rggLe ranened type uia(ed jn Fjts :l-3 rb.reas rhose in thelrrq tre miinryol lhe hlf r4vsrins rypedennb.dabor€(pp.17 13 & rrrE {s me mijor m dion in nmurador rs ecbnique h the e^rua., $cuseol?$out.ordsathedDsinside : r{ ed3e,o reiiorce ole ig nros add oihft pp 22, r.as ol pdeitial{c,knes (seetuther, m:!b.flBiihcsuppriesofiileno.krotheLondon n,. ,\hon \liihod e\.eptionshlesol lk;ds nErkd wereieorsdsed .onsidenbly d thn iime ;nh i irn scam on theiider rde. but t aooeirs a sho'vfasl'ionsind'elate13$ & Tibles 3 nnd :id no* ilEs {m murh sreds unifo.mjr! ir ind.a y l4th.edonessere doniidedby il'e :trdruhr, by iie avodmceof iresrhny sbaped rosglehnenjng (Fts ,9 3r) Ii is rena*rble thd this $a &e ody Iypeor tuneniu definirelt :.d iniep 3ndibar u. r+ns d Ihe sjdes :.nurt This .oin.ided anrL a srat.r nse oi 33 ie&neied shoes.r'd the rgures ror Bilinss 3{e re broadLr.oF!n?[le (9slioes*irl' lo]qrlcs ind rEt 4 .ciaiDl! Ii{ened in.iotha 'va}, .{t

.L15 f thel2rhrd edy 13th redqn.: rndn

Tft Lue $ere is a seakr mge or hdedis. but roggtas$in accout ror vel .!er hril rhe ttpes e.orded. Ther {ae trsd oi booh ud sboesrude in ? vmeiy ol $yles. The simple*, hv.ri.bty a shoe or mue+hoe.ut klow or oi thelineoiih3 anlle. hG a Danoi identi€l raps, e(h *ih a 'buroi. hole'foi hne.ing to a silsle los1e in $e cefte The &st inu*nied exampte (Fu. 29) is nde anurelyin one pie.e - 6oud rery oft€n (r'. ril. 31 and F1g.36 nom a subsequeii asa sioupl oneof the fl,ps w6 made sep,nre iised - md ihere n a Loisseni.ncuhr ion&e {hi.h nG nghtacro$ rhevamp $rod io providene$ iiy over ihe inieD *hite d $e sme hme covems be op€i rcm b€hiM rhe fl?ps.The rroii ot rhe shoeis atmo{ .onpletety lod, ed onshanydere Ms a topbad sriiched to alllneuppnetues exceor irle toigle rreroggte, dsoiov brsry. MUtd h,ve beentomed lion a reather k.e {hose end*x tuled backon itse[ p66ed though a slr rd pulledrighr; dre oder endrA thenthrsd-adlnrolsh ihe p.rroraiioi in the vamp rhroat dd ifuhed down otr rhe on ai ha{ odesh@ol this iype ine lahp hA beenllashedrh{ugh viih a knife.-fhe toe oi ihe illu*frtd exrmplehA b.etr sli.ed o( and r]]e sl6hes, {hi.h hks $e lom oI etongated lozeqes, seemonsbd] ro havebeenrmsed rousHy D t{o brds doss the foot (Fia. 30). This{A prob:bry donetoi decontiveor pra.ti.d purposes, ro (ede r tum of opa sidd, but it mighrposib! be .ompmd $iih &e proce$ or ntuardeh.ement{hereby shoes are phed as a gdod.lu.k offerins in the .hinney or dtic oI a nc{ bundiq. rn her discssidn of . simitarlr-stAbed Itom rhe ^usiin Fna(, l-ci.end, clare Allln (Menor& Fede 193t,

l55i lolosiis svm) h.s tE.ed this pn.ti.e werr dGned n edry noden times b4! intothe rTrh ceDbrybd io! deiniretyinb $e medieEl aj'ue sho6 nsi4 sltndy Nsheroverthe:.ue (Fiss.32-3). TheyreE very simih in stie;nd .onshdiod to the shoes xlftad! desnbed, e\. .ept trraron the im.r sideFs m insen which dmedasjnsle bftoiliole andei$er oneor rHo iosres pasins $rorgh sloh ad sdched doM oi the m'de. To dose rhe sho., ihe ltaps*ere 6rn ssred iidependeny to die rode on ihe ts,r be tush{ Fns of dre i\hD (Fii 32r In some .a*s $e etuesot &e laos yeE sre.s1h. medw'u. .od; nomly uis ian aton!theiiside sd(e and{m h3ldin pla.e bv a se.otrd.6ner dread stjrcheddoss ir kee ftniner p 5r dd Fie 31r,bd oi oneof,he 'nu.hrede$mDles nqemi lhd th€.ordnalr!x shhhci |Fls.IJJ lbroqh &e redher, b{ause tnere n ? rov or shod bui brdad $irh impresiois tumiq in $e

-

anemmple rom Inero su.din?!i?n York) Here
.i.dy up rhemer sider on ihe.der:'dc $tr r r.spodins sct of sloted uss {l'i.h 'v.re .:{rudolerthctogg|esdihe|roiLollljoboot' . :. mo{ .ohpleie eimple ol ttus rtDe (Ft 3,1) &ont.lt ropeds .\r.ndLngtoihe tuLLheisl'rarih. , I'ychdnotonee,bulvhereih.yn'eetdthe rlp $c sides {ere ed3ed{ith Lirq naps. one ..n iLbeit id much Les exaggeuted tishioi mal : : bootfom,D erkr dcpcr (Fig.l3J ?n1l '.,. b.en rtnnded to bods oI L\s genecl rom r?ni slarciis, not kan beause iL +ems to :'. been iFlosible ro adjun the Lensthoi rhe . {lehgslo6ltheitrd'!'du,lroot.lnmoncAas .:.k ir susiye! c! bs n !o big thd the flxrs jdh|Edcedtighilyotrthein*{md

arlea{200ra*,'*or.o*lderblesisiijidi.e ' $e derelopmenr rl medje{l sho. hshion shoeeros the iniep by meam0l tso oovable

l'4eidrtrn$iredtor,*e#g $i{ia*$.i^g.r Nilh lrcesd tie side.Tossk hnened shoes ind i*Lejhoesappear to harebeermrde in a cnge (Fis.31)E drndrenT[e sm:le* ii irF co]recrioi ror$e andbpbind ?ninsen{hj.h.anled the rco0d bdtonhole is alsomj$ing fromtheliner

:uns of fas@nirg shoes ihe roggle hffi r -: srr iirelmjtkd I'isto4, d lca* in London clild s ste 3 The orher 6!ee !,F!ler solcs ' ,: i6r ?ppem on a hre sdotr :nue shoein $e ?10 ?nd ?46mm (noden (PritclHd lodh ::.le?l ukun coLLe,lidi _iis ,f lkccr*or 1982,Fig 72No.62710r

a

.

i

'*:'l_it_l

lroD Tac La. (6r.rqi*c'.d shmt. these.ond r lron Dorsra (9regsteiedshoes) ad ue Lbnd r (1r.$l.rod sr'o.s) truDcu{oF House Th.,B:liJds.is!!. Asenl]L4eisolespe.h| neier, Le-ur il sbo$ i tudh* n?ceinthe delerq,Fedoi rhereDdrfiFr d ni.prbed in Flinsio.bersei.ontheoneh d,belordie

i:. :M .oihdin 10those mrdein rheedt :lthtedu.y (./ Fts.20-23) b ir seems rhat .,d urrDi,se,bre. Theoiryakh.rrroe ot rhG :blel) ue ol similrdrm.nsioN. TheLudgda lrr booh.r xike{hoes Nnh dh€inns lrs :rg5: n possible tht rhese {ere yeq old

,Dd,on$e od,er rtrLLbooc asi.gto ieftr mid .:rriershi $hi.r, a:(rud fori ri(h Gee Table t. Lor boos rhindi.s jun aboyethe :nuc, so

!oLe!$rr nom r30 r! 245nn io leu1h.md ihe fou.omprere boor

lni! beisht{orLd b! $ibbre roflro* andoddoor .fupatidr,wh!re]sll*s]iAnilbtltmue

rlcd irLes lanedsrjdnL) rromone!1aa ro rd, id n.o.d.n.e $i.h $e dem?nds ?od ':r/jrs ollhe ( inhdi(mG. fte mid l.lrh cenrury(Fig 35) _:: p$oJ i5 Fony rtpresenred b! 6nds fiom :roo 'rhere is i0rr one rarse grotrp llom : .i D. 5 cmfle , but iorlundel! ii n .x.epron -; \et r.s.acd t4l -rD' rldll siD.erhe! tomeftumthreeqdo . r:lisqDntdsiiesunbeeipeded to orovida de.erdA id.

:iJ erl! 13rh enrurl rre Neurt rr lbe rhoes we f:*ened

Eoors*irh loggle lanemss ol ihe type

|i!e beenglrn no loiger, lrcept b! yer:/sn' $tdren (.r: Fis.33i, r'd d€sinlsr rqD 10 haF dieppe red codDLe,etr Th6e ;Iern.es itum rhe B?tnads Cmtle

(

and side lor shoes bei{eetrtoggk.fsrening lacing for bmG tu ioi so prt.Ge: lmni borh bcre lor ex?Dpre, cusomH.'sc ud Dowaate, A 'i sidc laced shoes renrins de lragnenury at .ll tliee sites, as d 'B?t!rds C?sde.tlE bAi. Jodns rc sinnld rond neih.dofcoi*ndion vth.mdsean i! s chd ihd oi rhcimer side ad Iromrhesoles ih. rehned io lashion.lier the ovalroeshapc d the endor bnervope ol a nor. poi.tedsiyLe the 13th .enluci some ol the tosslerasered shoes.in odnuLd, roMdedioesbut quitepronou.ed \r:idJ d llre Table 5 sho$s Lrrat,d BaYruds CGde d re ol shoes lea$.tr.d! rlliltr togsleJAcned togg|e ni lha in(ep ., $e lwe sith r siigL. singl;'[ftonbo]e'oi &e [rp d erh side (he fnrce|abolatcy*sjoi'wL$addnion.|ioggleSon one oI the laps had avidlndt pssad Mion br thn dde. The sl'oes .ofplelelt od ol lashion larel3(h.eiiury,butoned an.ato ihoseofihe ihe inuinred evnples lFis 3ri)Gmmu:l n thd

{cre veo smlLd neds onborhsides ol thesboe abole tbeoder{irb. saa attheheelA ropband Th€ im{ sideihell .onhins n iiseted sedioi 'md. up of three sran pie.esol harhcr, oneoI Hi,lmg $e rPFred*\ rd q?;nde m'". {1tr.h hs ? 'bnonhole , .d and slthed io ledrer in such? n(y rhd the krge* p€ct [es d i u l e a ( h e f o l d e d o l b et o s i \ €i r o o b pitlr bebId the othertvo (Fig.37; ./, Fig s5) edse wheretrthe {rontsedionis orsotrl sinde or thjs Ns to providea vdenrght si.knEs leather {l'i.h olfered.mu.hrougher The purpose sei hehind , novable buto"ole'fla!. ed il !l rhe anish,irdisriisishrble rrom &e mderial Jlap ihelJ ro be t.nsleiied lrom the d eiabLd the rppFn rJ m!!hu' Ttu. slro? \^ ulDcrifll loser do*n ihe top edseorthe shoeto a position br Losna ror: ruuph.ewr iir hBlto ' probably proyLded , have in ttrm {ouLd side This !'e 61. snce and nore .onronable n rhe um!, mu.n dshrer grotrps krt made oI incisions mrjor b.nd, flaps Nould have acted 6 a continuous i..ome badryslo en or d.fomed cee belov. excndins lrod rhc mh ol de loot md '3h1 A siFi6..nt deklopmert in the dsign or r ! ! ! l ef a n . i . J\ 4 c ; s ; h o \ n b Jt r o t u n l e s b; Dowr*e rnd i{o hom E!/'r d' cstLe ol thce is ilLtrstded (Fu. 1he fo* .omDlere n lhollr 0cseflcd, but odL) inc mer side 37) equ,u lhiLd lri.*mr$*r09ni'dd'esole lor s i* 2 lalLo{Lng lenrh the iodar chird thd rr r0 pft.cn0. ?nd s i r0$ boot shiik?se

sh@\ Itun Lrn10, sits ||aa utu

g
33'39,40Erly]ddld{eitrq

heiqhr fromthe in$epi the honzonbl*am which loinid it to the vamp*ould h,vs pmvidedlen shoe,hannsr horizonklsean bllity d m abnpt chanseor ansle,snce most dn{{nng ankLe littedthelootquE b.os ol $k ryp. sem b have !i de innep and: tianslar in*d ier &e bse doselv and$e staighr vedM! se,n nav tuve o dr. inn{ sideGl FiF. 2r & 23l but it {* gilganther.igftrappeamnceo!e!ttresM nnlded by rhreelogsLesThe bu&iholeJ rc or diredlv in the llao on &e outer !de, rather esDe.ialysin.e tle bmi {s gene4lly a ltde $an beiig on sepdde uss andthe edgeor ihe klier d $e liont th.i d $e brk. 0n ved l2rse or, to mse &e tdp ed8e, hoos a dip wA oltenused rrao wd reiiJored eitheriith d appledband (./ ju* tr onb.o6 ol the lzth ard l3in cenrunes {ith plaindit.bins. moreorobabLy. s r ennre oi one ekmple thcre rhe nde hled booE m all ol sinihr relaave Fig. 131,and $Er sedion shi.b en.nded the qu.nere ud the bootby A nrh as 30 mn (Fis heishtened Ilre! aie roqNy A klLr thel ft lons,ind plob opbadsseenbhavebeenprovidedns.' abLv re.chedabouta third or the dnhn.e .. the 40).T kn;e (Fiss.39 .40).Theupper wereinvan?b!or ?bh, md lhe sunivingex.nplasre Lrir stips 0, trrap round rype(./ Fig 97),andon the'nner leatherloldeddoubleover the edge.Tl]e lace' holesrcre Einlorcedurh ledher fa.iigs on &e holes this inside(.1 Fig e7), bur rhe.e sere no eisnei r.fl i]]esoletothebodompanolh.e elei tlnrqh the holes leacheddno* !o ih! *aE, shi.b heldthe vhole bootin sh.pe,fld pdeid:lpoini weaki$5, or beei: J$x s h,!e rund; resretably, the la.es dcmselveshave lFia5 not remained ii place on ay of $e b..h in rhe rd serer u i,s! !r orknbe+ei h€re {A mrdt a rddrtionalpje.e 39 ,10) The onLy c*tle Th. 'Bayn.rds loig recbnsh insen $hnb exteidad the tull ryles iornally lon by adulh (FE. 33) ln.on

0, ,Jr ro:. r srs.(

r

d;de]!iih rrr B mrds ciiL! ririds 1: {n b. r.i ir.d Tirr ri 8,r\n.ds

.'dtiL

rkr: drrre:h!!: rNUn niun riEr ! rlr.r

rrt.e rnNtl! bnaNd xturr rre iin.r

5:r 1) bft Jtirns rP

il:
.
;

'il, .," L.l'

;,,i,

l

r
.j

't:].I","',. ',illl,, '*
'

.r,nf

vm

r

Drnrrr cdL! lr: ligs ;f ,0.n.,.r '\,e d:ru

26) N nrld lr

b'.rd

r hrr slrghrLt

].nnr!1.|

TiLl!! 5 md ll]

'lr drt.D en,,rt,:r,.dtrdd,ofi.r Lon(oi!lF\

8i,i,wd,rtrtre s.Le,,\ r,rnN.

ri,h ir

LeJtl)!th!haso l,rl.rrlr iod rhent.ntabu nirthrbef.rnsDrsrlp6 rtd rirn.,n(4 Ioot L!iqrl,s ..ilenei h 1r,etncdcn srrt !2

rniFr ri bDb o! r'liLe rxt' D N 1,. d(!n.i\e Dr deorll,!F{nrhl?scl:

U Dr aq,r,l

ide ri.ed bob {d rronrli.rd :hr* o' aMe

. !J{LLLru'|trrrrvrlt . r!!h,'r b*irp:fti : il,.

nd drr vrflleNotrhe

Lonion !n)u|x tr

lftl d,. LDsen (Trb ! sr) ]n{.iur.ajd Ci{le \itr .hLLd.ar:shos hll(ur oronofic.d o.d: (.1 F,!, 3l ,. n ,ough. h Di(l'r bee$eded, tb. bllN LLL[tdifis (see pp ll; ')

:i rl[

iorth fl thr

'Dr!n,,nr

nL,nLe:.rorLdh:f. been?r(trdeJqrLr L! (h.

A
(l

tl

n
l,l

0 0f
1 l

Fron Lece

i
;

F.on Latc

; ;

i
;

i
;

. rli 'Tibe 3t

oc.sioia||

lhe Douih.

L,i

,idtrrruuem

JDdMs

$rhA,+d;bisrb

tFronlLaced Side. taced

Front Latchel
],

side
Lalchot
-,

Euckle Latche Toggle

t3

l, l. l,
,|'.

ShN:t d ?ttu": rioiai ,{,p.uoud Fdhqr r, he ?b?idoned ror mic joii.d bI !m('fabGs 6 7) .id lere yery sinllr in {y!ng {Figs.1217: i9,5r).',rhet wereinydrbrrol exFpr ror one oI $. Larchct rypcs (the side. alegadt .urre belo$ lhe rdkle o. rhe outer rde hdlefihonbnt ontheintr{. Fo'&nyenieile

ad qudm sm sprdc

oneprte. md thd n for ? very sni,n chird(!iq. 53) AnkLe shoesandbooc, horerer, c.niiued rdioi {* theidditioiol r tonee sin rtothd ']j|dt. rhs \us Nurry ${, rLoil jd{ me eds (r oL' hive m?de (., Fig 93),,,dd uourd rtre nore u00er $hrrroot bur$ourdh?!eprereDrd the la.e IFm .hafing on tlre Lnnep.As d :ll p.riods, dcmntionn a!. ntrre n t!{ me errnple oropetr{orkdemmiod- rb. quinen of a Lov.li ditu GlE ricro{,F 30-r ind Fig 115.)- L{ Irofr BirDdds Ch e therem (FLgs s0 slr below so * io proredshoes LLr! rhey thd \Dden pp 91 6) senen oseceeberor!.

&nnndio.rl deuis ,so th.y {de vntu:llt iden..:l ihe! hzdno topband or heel.rtlnforce. YinosIu6|hetrlsiDdderl.j'.kd$e ledher fromskt.hing md chdng d the weake$ poinc kt Fis. 10? l0'1).As TabLe 9 sho{s. order d'irdren ard aduh.nnd b,udserroo rhe ud tu meirremeil.it saefrs rhI lMkhd sboes

-

Lr.liershoes ilirLir4eridulrs?$ Fron rhf il

Lr abre3r) xnd tlj. jid5r e\rmDles oi deonrioi F;$ 50 5l) }e r5o aso.iardlrlit sbo.! ot The adulrb!.kted sh.os \+i.h r. rtLun(rd tsd|'l[t.ruLILdki6oftinPdilo^{hiim r.LdD pt?ce by tuldjng or.r ilr tedrr{ $np .i ifh.b pAser oy{ rh. iinqr ir a s.rrr. i^!.r oi. srrc (Flg.12)tn oiLf: n.d!\j r{ xin< Lrr orher. hs bEendr do*i b?reLy.ore( the ro.r i] lerh:os N l one or

Frgs ,t9 r)

r onrtu sdon lrulanc_(Fr! la) th. bjturded ir d' rhe n desoondrrq Fir ot troL.str ,hide D oa! ( is 0asiste rhi.kiesr but riedh.r :dtrhrmr laidPr shG (r'is 16Jn dt

rre,n..uFDc 'riou n. umJj I ihuesi rirr md r ioinihe yrnp ind qkr.n oi rhr r fL , d.d dorrk lnLr ktrn ro!rLh.. rr dr! r!e- Th€ eiLl i juFlsiosthmugh the hoLeiDiljg n'nf oJ;

.hed!ir

r reD?n: lllssen\r!! d h?!ebeen

.on[.son 'rth d]e.y{?llsn. olr|t +re The (F f.:0)is slighdr one dnlFddrtreqm'lfls rd :rdrhee.dorrre lu xinehs bc$.uloti Both

the i]lnnkd sd. h[h.l +oer eDml$ise +i hsli f:s|ion *so.i,kd }nh $s nr[ iFj^ rs n) Al]redr {d!loi {rcs dr r;s m;d

!r Tric Lrrlhd snp nrlt\m mari:Ll! m:d. rFnrery. rnd br:u\e ol tlje leigrh or rheshoe .:ie (r.rs. c9)r,isoneotrheo0Fr.oolLrin.a Ln

rnd zrc.( \h{c

tu sf(r!

hr rrc.n smp.d or {Fig 50Jir

lie,4reds re lrry difiird

en

oped rhe \hoe ot th! lidedde ro the nnusurl

dher rFLgn) i: dnided LJ jurdr'trnd\nba *aes ordirl iedrsu.{ pine5 retieEd oilr bf

upper. Thn rc.ounb lo. rhe nth{

r i . r y d t h e l m d p r o v i i i n g r f i m e r 6 t o f { r l r e sh?pl.solthequii{s

h thl5ase belo{ bo$

Mr r.rlhe hr! h iefrrii li\ed.i..e sid!.rlhe yrmpDpe0inFmd roberhrtaded rhroqhrrores n (d bero",id F,s 3n bd; hdE b!5 pr.!rd.,r nrroN *np ot Gith.r the ri.e ras I sinqrc rd!d, : toque \€: seNnedgeto edse:lois d'e

torhose\om bidoeleihxdd

adulc.,hhors!

ei,ggnde d poulaincJ l.t Tablesb). Or re 19 ..Dphleso|es'vl'nr|'eadfilfooile.!ihcanbe eniFded n hs dai t70 nn (miomlr equn! dioes belongtobeLowihe{nkleshoes,6to,ikle :M ? to inddeniinde iyFs Eur 6 is eideir diieied 10the ere'r t|a alnos i"varobh lney 'flieie \ere lanened bt l,.ios d rr'e ltu is,

thd /, dto,dM

it, u00 har

(Fi!. 47) {hi.h apperre single rront lithet shoe io h:ve beenrepaned d thc qudreG arrerit hrd {om bt r.brrd{ho wA plsed.hed md been pbose iootptrshed n abnomdl!outrurds Gee - and: sqle shoe 107-3) (Fig. tu$ened*ithabu.kle 11).Thebuckie, now nostl] ro$, h orre.d aloy rarherrra noi, burin !(e 0f rheadrft lersiotrs.The nonrta.ed shfts (.1 Figs.5?-,1),althotrs[ shoes discusedabove noneor lne suflrv;s e'imples seemro hava bad loi$es. one ol those ituinred (Fig 53) h hL'iue Ln lrreEesentcofe.bonn $ar ir is of on. pie.e.on{rudiotr. TheLa.e, which G knoned at erh end,pases froh ibole rhrcushrhehotes on r]le sidewr,efeit h L*ened, not hom betowas

:E

rhe ie.oid illu$rtrred ex,i'ph lFig. i,ll hA a titry Douhine {uffed Niih hi; hi thn in*a..e the li.e is or the bild.ted [.ds \rlrli re : sm:lkr d ud' L.s dn lindile 0e1 d lcAl oI ie Balmds cArlr' jn verysmallnmb*s (TibLe6)?0daredernrred dftnbebr{p. 41),sin.etbeyanh.ipde?Lshion 0r ibe othert{o o,in io h:!e mdhodsor ri+eiiis sde La.iigappean bes negii.rr! rls .otrtrioi ('f,bles 6 l) rid ibe exrmples ol rhi: d& ue 50 slmllir ln cofr htd tiiB ei.ept i.sof:. d they may bzre

rbesr,oe hadbeei ^sembL?d bul rheorhq n mu.b 'nore s$*addr ,id n :DinreFiLDdt oithe
rlrd frcnth. ru *ens t.st to hale deveLoped is :. nponani methodror l6tnios rkle+hoes :M A wiib h.nt lacedshoes,a modifiution oi rbe li that prii.ipla{A :dopied. 'fhe illu*rtd ,ikLeilioe (Fis.5s)rd rhclo\r bool (Fig 53) shde i slmllrr onerece \*aD \!irhr dglrd mrinseio on siound'con$ndion,

biturcded laichetrypehgs \r bl.hremrinii kd 0. tl'emd side: rhebq!!, $hj.hro\e i0lhe fun [e4ht orllre5hoe, {s seM edee ro edge:]o.s rhis ide ilyi (Flg. 55). The fas?ms :nrye (Ft. erenry soard.Tr,. s.:Id,jrd's nkh.shoe 56) ad rhe.hLLd r [oor(Ft 57)rcrrmo$idetr

the h.e hohs 0i the boorths €i Le seanodLl rainfoftmenb suflilt oadnLLy in ph.e kl !jg.

:he€&J}IslhGnh4!Ts'50| ,m hEd iks bom the tmdoi qderemr Ercig rc h€ 0r blr or L\e Lrh csr6 and lerc rcbd r bre€ dlFsnr 'Ihe odrdon ot rhe sm. ur bqe re r& rels mnprete ,hF. ihar sefliq dr m,ny r.re at,e:d) r pi{slnough rct ap,'endJ deltqde]J atuJ whe' 'n.; iw,) uie d dre srouF ,om (vr Lde r 5Bm'y eekr hj th. ode^ and^ bfn ^. sds€d rp:Ekh I' r lts br rr i,\e snrl*t ,€rr hae udd s..s md roar,ryoi,ehDnt.-. rsg trs*e*d

'r-'.;1

be obq, LomTrBLim

lhse ' tiltle perc€pdh djqsa n.oo p.\ lor b€L$c€irhe err,er ot rh€ ssd lde qtui pftcded tr Gs "bde @.2B %) Tie

59F}lJ|5dend^betddafu'si&som Fer rrt hd bdbn id. qai&d,r dE+ doq|[ME+N!s'ori@|lyn[direr9h.

{ilh quiteex,sgeEtod pnulamsI lo\r cu shoes ou.'unb( akr. shols.Ddh(ns; a^dhrrheb andbckles re lhe oilr linenins typesderDit.Ly a rarceankre sboe $itr, , b:sgr" no$ $uned pouraii. (Fq. 60) rr hasm hpbiDdor heet-

rjmes sin nsed r, gie ? mok eyen pn,ii e ,nd i o

md SNm LrDebrk ed orlarhe!finenql nres

'tr*op tu di ode side$ thr dher 'frrG lotrr ol

'Bric
$as{onj as: s|jpotr ,||'end,] fit;gs' oneof ron, rbeorher .r r.dr a)o!, Nhi.hrc nlered ttuougl'the rerher, re b?dtr.orcded brt fen ro hlve beei omimenld Dunq &e iseny or dMl Ien rh ahp*d deporiloiorlhe hEr Ss?nLde rnd'1.ie hne

Fro

Lac

Sid
lacl
60E{Lys6educd|e$elde

every kiid

,rhough mo$ {uf6'B w?s some-

Fro Latc

Sid L!tc
' ; ;

B{c Lrtc

Iot Xno
;

an.esty' :]bei| ii a les sbD{j,trdised |0F rDd ::,-i.ed inpd bva neNrlpeor:ll r.dherparen {iL\ slighrdileieocesir con*rudio.. Tbe other. .inrh.rEsugg.(cdkl bdo*. p. 101 x Figs. i]]e fron!qHlns buckled ankre shoe or ro{ boo(. :r3 10) {{e mr ron A ora^boes bui sifrpLf $s an eniirel! neq slle shouLd beresd.d A a repLa.eDEd lor dE ftonr I nirce js m?de lor the rzrgenumb.rof uncff oie, the side ]]ced .:lklssrrr.rLoi (h({s re!.hiDs ?bonr i $nd ot ,onoo hshion){m a nrk {hih hd a lons *hi.h n sh&d nii! Ieduresol deslsn iid cod

Burit {m the re.bni.aL deleropmenb oi ihe

Front Laced
Side' Laced

l'' l''
]'.

Fronl Latchet
Side Latche

Euckle
Latchet llot

l'. l'. l', l'.

(rrher so rhar the quae^

{ere hide n tro

the nroden seNe - ,id joined {ith a rrlcal fanat rhc r,eeL(F3567 ind 107) Thjs:dded impona.. of tlf heer{ilietr{, F?kiis ( ?n ntesnl .onsh.tionaL eremeni, ind mti.rpdcs 'I. (Dhisiiftted .on nndion or ]?th cenu!- and hr{ shoes rt r nobc.abl. rhd vheD &mpred nth 13rh aid

rr f.*u eady lsrh. ,!duw upen have be.n.ut upIor subsequenr (..10p.r.ent,.otriprld {ilh 20-45per reuse .entinedieisroupsr.l, beroN, Table 16).z.d

mqor?dvancesDsoremudacrui!,rrhoushihe elrends np{ads of.r lne in{ep (Fis 61).nn ge*s rhattr'ed'r'ses Narehriq DLa.e d jus orh{ !?np hasb! roys of tonBirudLmt iuiml beiq deposiied. oae dv?n.e. *eoptifi.d b! od}5ollbe359legl*{edsho.sfron'T4l-ne and.one fromS*anLane, trratrddir,.i Dta sepmte nsob to ttu mrn,r"F run sboesore The i6oLelarsnin lidewN,idsrodmuih:Eadded mNideiblyblhe.omlonolrheshoe Th.orlF. adlaice {s the introduction0I &e tlrn Nelr melhodot co.*nchoD (for ru[.r dr$us].D, see 74) ThG invoLved the ove^aiLed theedse ol theshoe ad could b. swd or ire shore shoeaid irs sedry rbe durabrrity iun {ch r[oes ,nonl rhejndividu?\ relrsered [nds :] iorsh*lrialrnpsortum weLi t,rJ ersiry ru..snned b! the doubterow ot nilch. bores.Nere ro.a(edin the bulk ndani $.hen round sepmt.lr'.$e iower sohsm?rbedi6.uu ro drsrjnpishfton ren,nnde ,dumps it dreyare tuiie Lstjt.hed andItom theboton conp..eis pattens ormurllr?yer below, ras r3q-10Jjl Gee Deconiionis spme oi Londonshoesof rhs le.rfe ,D{i merLt*o* ot $e dna ([ig ]trid TooLiure orrheupp..sunrves ror.eruinre.on shd'on, burit see4sr eryrh il {n ? lor .ur sr,o. wi j btr kLe or L{.ber tajeoine Disurlle rou.hes eere somehoesaddedro x shor It ms'ng be enp ro ftare z :lrghdy *epped, (Fig 6e ResrerhbLr rarherlrn nNided. pror'te liltleorlhGshoe suFres.butrlieiede kods or i (np pAlng llroughi pe.fonrion d ibe qmoihnd:l|'isJggen\i|rdi'hadab$le I so ir NouLd be rhe .Dr! .oiillr lo$ndiis

-J

!..n $orn bul rtrfar) ii th! fint hrLJ ot dr lsrtr .amy (T.Lres r0-rr). r rhenodr by v4y .o rr .hirdren t,t lrbk rr Lupres dr$us.d abov.(!. 36 rflr F,s. 56). \u.h oo,t popuh, sisni[mndro'ny , :id d,{enD8 lrltL aikLe.+oe rTibl* l0 11) r\! T,i|e 12

Thissrsgersrh{ il iune.brldren pfthaps be-se oritsesea.allr

topband. The tonses tudy strivile, ld rrr6e rhd do(.1 Fig n{) seen to hale beenrit.hed io onesideody orthc m)p q*D;s; on the other lde {s probablra ren Iotement cord Th. bu.klc, whid,vas li{ed ti x ledher tho.s, dd iis .oirespotrdrt nnp p6sed dnoushsLo6di lir,er sjded rher.mp openjng aid $ee se.urtd nsde Geetunbcr, p. ?5) In rheLile l4rh.e urybu.kres had madyanbeeiof rmed mn bd m$ rhcy*ort :rm.slts,r ,f Lead ad noie otuneiut. sone {ere de.onted wi$ baading r rheetue.rnd spedrle,bu.ktes tude thetr6rn ?pperece G.. bcro{, pp. 7s 6 nrFt Lr 0). rvhertas thechrrtuen s sdne shoes *ld0mhzdmorcL\aasngl.bu.kle'dje:dtrli lt6ion IA oIt.n proridedwn|': pair (Fig (jo i\n unusuar i.arur. oailtr R'led eximDlers rhd r dd nd liarr a ddrn'l1di3!e, burinierd, to edges or tu vanp.pe ! (q/ Fig.106), thert vas e insense{i iru+ h m,rke theshoe enrrely eidosed aid {deoroof gather oD,rrecourd r iishdy overrrf [,nep wnh

sofaud,.s. si4te!te.e (Fig 63), but moieolien ri hader ws suriLiedr . ni,ll ins.d vrs requned b nise the innerside L (s lunheuht(Figs 6.1 5) Thercs6 rqcncr:Iy

)

.aa
"./

8rt rsrh{nbry bob, Ssb 1,3Dd.

:l

69'dyr5m*furyalrlld€'s6leL3

shk: tnh Loda, :it5, tLn

u50 r.f quF to4 anlJe+c\ G!. 6rr h M, k n''ng l . ,, ' mh - nd.:l h.uht but .;; rmea.Fjotuqs \ mrarb,hordij€rllu. tra.! Dmr tr q r0r 5armhlrlebeei dF Do{ spr4 hnud n3 morathr r0 pjFm die blh4r

4 n,nher tJF of b! rded fodqer, rtu rne : o{ 000r hs 50 rrrblen tomd onlr h rhedddf :tr4 N.ne o h. aruiviq e. impr6 hasd !,m pere $F dr |re qppts dll.4n rr h:\e bem rtro qu:dec ioiicd d rhe h{rhd Mdr 5\n ftrnd 0n n3 $,ms m 4dre !d. LF{.;71 rie€ h€€r.{tflsqrd d i4b4d. "a: evrtuuy.oibued dostr fllh ?dpc^f th€frlnt "Mb opems n 3i d dre innlp {d rhseafts o,J! dong MP dge d irrr olkr de d Fp rmi rddbrhe mssd.,:.hofrd {mc m;de rhe . . { h m d b e b p o f r h e b o d4 i s r u l r r k e nt dod 0rh\ sne E 'he prc\,.bnoIo,J! uie

,Nmrb.q4rdr

r rq , h e ) u + , a n e i e d

mflbd ss: a rr. ii+n d drem{s (f !.63r ,umondh.remiidcrsh4_: I ns r;ral th rtrree pr. _ rno o,e p€( qu?ners ed jnsen d rF tmit {E; L!(eJ.*dbyylin4n!?hpl]rd'ean.ol oF{ ! de,idn u, inj!!. \ h€Fiireier",: " 3 ib I h_F L' m bip. b.",{ rha .

ni:ps d rr poinilh€re ,he rrm0 L "ndci snrp I hm rh€honrcd: bderedatrh.e\

ror ra{cmp nerrodrions

ene( or ,.8n4 se b.or ,tsh!! r ureinkte byEse mo.rtunrnin form.rrod\nrr Lrr?

tc'hob.T|esde!pm4l*rrn6fn{,< Dveb@n: piii' if .4trc {etna_5 belrlf

I

hrdD rnf .ide {ed bods f rr" fe deotr p. it3& F,s t5cr To udpe b, rh. yres.hdip.uM\ed roirpr?re &d mry n.o hn€ d:md€. n re prt.qr ote{rn rhi\ tre. noh mry dJom bJ reo )u!ic lhrtdreibu rh bcr Lsrhrd r6rh4dh_s. r $eLrri:;;. dFrufw&eplodfrd'}Iuushodtheshoh meir!. m, as. $hlhftp^u j relA{reLt;l

rrr riir

tra< { : b e 1 2 ) T h eh e ' s h ' ! v , D . o i l d € n b j ,

Shoemaking andcobbling
tn n6t utbps .liht ph k4. n stu eaq { w^s4 bdk ttu srtg rl'ut 6 bw Nt, tb.
624 k 't rf Md it N4 sdttu^

I
I t
;

t4tu,

de!, bui {e ae not yet atuii ol L\e dhsiosii. 'D,eE{ere prdesks {hi.h had seveiaLlong to pdien ol $e lafrel (.1 Reen 1972, 235 Lr bc soncthrcushbcrorca shoeiEker.ou!dbesin simibrnjesbeiweensheep/gct ud deet. C.lJ buicher wlh hooves Id h.ns sln ilk.hgd, ,rhe sklis were ihetr $Ahed, rin@d, hid lhe h?n remoy.d .dd, lintly. {ere kDned (or tull l t l h j l y u s d i o r d 5 p u @ f 6 : l ] s c o ' c ! a { ] b e.ounh oI the pro.es. $lzman l9z3). lf,ather identf.ation lby tjlyN Edwedsof ir,e An.eii MoimeiG L,borabry), whhhh,s bee domm N6 si{y sh€s spimiq the tull dde Rnseof the .ole.tion (Table13),as d s l a s h l r p F F b b ' o & t r ( o n l h e h 5 t i 4 {e[ ?sle$ paise visua] rnd Iactileffirion, n{p d Meq rn &nddd a nirdr G N|LE ii.desthdihele*A,ch&geintheiyp€sof hidesukd for d,e upprs prob:hryd sore tift rtrscrd .t .:rite hide. the bil(bfushadlJysndeds|]GIis@$bh biised tvdds sheep/god d e 5 F i l g a Y 4 6 e F ! 3 [ d e s o l l b e L l s h g (.ord*ain) - alihouh ii shouldbe nored tlut ru'ioAFtro'kls|Fshin&oo6evd| (Nueeed, '5'h Ed{rlds ndes in h* rcpon (1936) rhd tone .l rFen '& M.iderHq*bd rhosede{nbed as sh€elgod nay h,ve beeu

I
; ;

i
.

:_ : : : = -:

eAi\' predon'inds amoic$ lne saopleduppec oaNloit exanohsoI sheep/soat vere loundin arrsoups. Tosre rnd ra(het thoA+ *i ui coftan4 {jth Goubitz s sqse$ion rhr lhese verc norc rikery ro besr,eep/god beftuseoI rhe srensrh,id fleribiriry orlhd tedh{ (o. coubrz, pers. .omm.) Heel- ffenen kre bothdll and sheep/go*,the latel not ortUrringafierlhe nid lrth cenrury.^t lea{ t{o s[oes (Ft 13, t.te mid 1,lrh..eirury) my hrve had dllskii upp.6 md sheepor sodskitr heel.stlffenen- rn indsin! .ommenb!- on a .kuse in some ordimnces or i]je r-otrdo. cordvaine^ conipany (dded 1303 Maider 1931 33 4) ihd eipre$ry torbade shoerokec One theory thd hm been advanced lor the change in the 6'!es or Intus trred is ihd rhe &lLds,btri,otrihe other,nay have been theres'it methodof tuse had beenchansed: bu! Roy oiade(e6e inthermuitolin'ponedcodsbn, Tho,npsoi, hinslrabiier. betieyeslhdhnning or.ordMin from Spaln lollowiry.he expulsion ol re@ined hrsely un.h.ised tdm the Sdon thevoois'Iiglish penod b ther6rho.rith.entunes. dth bmes n nnyusnuGr (thourqh srrppnu n vbarevereLse (heimpoded.ord\ai. $th.:lfhide $hih ilFy fl,e) thotrshrthey ourd ser trwl) wi.h). The in dr€d a reddish coLour dlie S{ain, pec cofrn) deaseduseoI calf may, on the one hand hr€ ductioiinrhelatel4&.entq olorsmsd dnves of cdde !o rl'e Londonrolk.b rhis Mll hr€ hides in ihe ensEd a con$.ntsllply ol cadLe city vhereaspreiouslt the Loidoi shoem.kes
o(6be[Yhldedgdle$strkk5eev6ekI

(PhilipAinitaga,pere.com.) Thelsrh{entq ma@n ii the preseii .olledion shows, de ftaf both in the tumber oI uppersth:t have beenrepanedOabb r5) andh tbe nufrbei rhd h,vebeenderibeEtely cut oplor rcuf fl rble 16), rads th* night be dhbutable to bete.qualjt able10shoetukererd mbbles. The tmed hidesoI pd, deeror call shjch hid b-"enpuchAed by the shoemakqsould be laid number{ith the njllmuf {Abse. fhere r eridence fom Ssedei dit dtring patens wefa uscdto pide the knile thrcushthe thi.knes of ihe lea$er ouneSwm, peB com) :lthoughit pedom rhehsk teehand certniily rhe quotjty

.r rongmro$ tri,.lliig pieles thd hzre been shoertmaied:ehrivdl.rn:istenr {iib dr. m: I Leaving:ide ihe eden !lio. (Fir 3l). Nhjfh l:*lis mgin $d fto! he nre edgeGeetur .br a Nooded r.rm rtu fncdr: i qle ,Jrhe :coi 1.r Fig rlt: for dlo.rmrte\ rron yo*. +e IJ,.Ckeor 1932 114 5.nd Fjg il) Ttr

trr{, Parl'rd tudh.rmins) rr'ri riw +ri hd 'hr ir. rd upperjo;ed

saLaft!r!fro. r,11 t

nrrcr ituldtn! rnd iirch

rvslhotuDedngh'sdedt:ltrm|dtrDDe

rrrn!ho.

Irrho,3h

nrdiiis a snrLL tnrnsk otrr ott.dtr, ! a buaei thervo main eL.'nem(fis i3). ti rbe d'ddre or ihe 15rh.. ! llt mdh ol .Dn nnr.on {A irered\nh thei.rodudion orrh. nD 'ydr rr ji F$rhre thd rhE onginftd rirr ;o1.,0. . uqi Gee

rid 20) rideedrrdi0:m*F$.dr r:i: rr. bddrrs .onr$,itneE ohnLr .rrd nDDers to drke$oesnpry itu frie ,rrb{s otitre.{t k]no{edthe$holepr..l$Ihl eblrombmiig rhe lndc r.nariisini sLingrbe nroer rMrider 1931, ls-30). Desorca setrrt, iheRi.e ro eirs Lnt..hriquas rrl Fdres bei{e.trom th. r,me kompae r0r Throush.trl rhe pen.d

rhluBh.F.ombffr n NouLd be L( x rrlt de 'dui'p to d,js. nrr rbesboe h:d boerrumld. ndi.r'6m rorhesoreor!pp.f(Fisi{J rDihi! kDin,onal*as.tuimr*(riirs mjlhrnL hrye (showi beeiNed0i rl'eoulr sola infE. i.1) as inde.d sflispfi rerb!dterr one1'th.eniuq afohthe Cjrvor Londor Bo]J SdriLlne (er r/vired Ln1936. ro. hre ior olb (rion h.'e) FULLy dcrcroped rtrh.,y.rshoes ho*ey( sem

sradflesh nrt.hes, ln the n:iier or thc boron unirs ol conportcsoled pdrens Gee, tor 1930,3 ad Fif 2 No t7rr13/9, e'l! r6th.ertufy). orobabty Tl'e ro$ impotr,ii *,m $s that ot rhet.$ins nesii. Fmc rhesoleto thc !p!.r Du6 (FiF. 72 3) The n le $?sarrhed r. lbe k*.d uppe usns a etue/fl.sh slrh (F]$ 2 3), whi.h o(er sain s|lr. orirresole.subjedrorhemo{ ner.'l*o tkeirls {ere rob,bv Ned. fioles sourdb€made {ith ,n atr1 lFts 7rb) &d $ei the thrsds,dosc ends seem rohave been 4h.hed h i bndk s drq Jr bd,. hFpi. €d h r o ! 3 h h 0 m . | f u s i j e s i d e".utd sIJo!|!diqhlIJ F 3 . 7 r : n d :+ ! r m , k s . \ t d r h e l : n o k r e r olth! r51h.enrury Gvrtrtrre36 5) vhi;hlns bnslesc@1ofhnkD Il hA.ot beeipo$tble ro dentify thl $n.hiu md{i,t oi ihe ealier shoes. butoi rhelarel4rh{edr!^ shoes r vA iound to beplied, *ded itix (F p;rh,rd. Deij. .onh ). The{,xing.l rhetkead 'nade !h; ioin noe{*edgbl'ind3]some|tthdtbeupp.r andsore herdro&ther, erci r oi[ bne0y,Nh€r

smrrer rebroren.ni pierest. pbce. Tnanqutar p,cc( orierrrer sere *nn inio rlf rreer se.iror p/ticlrady i. dE hishertoins oI too$ed. b n .nen ymed rlhendousty Gonrmt ror cramrle, Figs.93 lorer edg. or rlie rrirngte*?s serr inroihe h$ ,ns.magtr Mh FD/IEb (ii.lres dr .rhert{o edcslere ?icrrred to rhefieshrde of rheuDDer Nnn a sh:ltov bindins.jirch{hi.h dtd nor pene. ra@ rhe full thi.kde* ot rhe tedher (ne 75). rbe useor diis iir.tr on the heel*ifiei;. md reDror.emeirs. E evidedr ftomthef$en.e ot: slighdy $aloped edxewherethe r]riead hA beeD puned !e4 tighr L{e hole reintorenetu are on de ealier side.Lmed shoes oig! 39 90),and .lmonimli,btv ontha ber vnFs Frg.103r {! n rh€lEe ;d Fr{ 5r(hFdrtoihc 6i nsnrgn:id thei itnhed n pb.eotr theuDer{irh bindiry{tilch:loig borh
.ra-; rl *e.r Ih€!:add DpP i,h4e

a 6ne, sh:Ios ldse/flesh biidiig $itdr is pr$eni on mtr:/ shoesriom $e eaLy/.id t2!b (flun onkrdsrlongdreopeds?o'h€lopFr ]n.on e qVs lb' nly \ m!l\ h}r beeil! rein iorce lbe edge(Nhcc.*or 1932 140) steras ii oth{s it sefied io se.ur. , i.do{ nir oI da t ih" !o@r \L\ rclhed rt5osfc sm;Ll rerher of ropband,. Tbese toDba.ds. {trhh $ert drolr sdse/flesh *ir.bes ! mn xpafr?nJ2 nn some.mes single thi.kne$ 0.i9. 97) bui more ft om rheedqeof rhelearher The sh?norles oa o kr of rrri $,her futded dolbe (Fss s9 90 theseam.onpled *idi rhaeirem..loseie$ oi o 1 j * r | r J \ € c i v e ' l m o r e [ n + . r r T D s n i l e r the stircnes,nakes I untikety ihar rhesese.ms .onhineda rand(see.bo!e) This trpe of se,.r o(uE oi onlt a res e*nples, aid. sinceii o-m in thesame 6 shoes $ith ihe n re Broups conl€ntionar Frn/resh ri$ing mgin (.1 Fis. 6e i,r 6*rts d de sd$ ed $ {e ; sibh d prob.bLrbe reFded s ransirioml 33), shourd betveen rheearrier $onged.'d the latersesi hdnjons. Ar thistime, gari/fleshlastu! haqi. -.2 5 mm alsotendedro beonthesh:xow sida rron rhe edgeot the teatherwith sman.ncular .!trh€s r\eEging6 nm !p!d 4 gfune\h n rh onrheupper medni thr 'h..€,m lortdbe deeper and$e ihreds thi.keri lado4 Nhi.h?tso facirihredrhe indusionor nids bet*een L\e uppe Ddthe sole.lr the llrh{enrurysmtrps. ex.mDres $ere norcd orsdrch.holes 3 nm :&Fs Thc hsd,s,n4in atso seied to echor

rhe sboe.A third oprl.i, sugseied by tudndsoi 'h rit l, os 'ay luv! besl r19t9.l0t) |rhr sl'o. otr. .I dr r3'llrdtrn dr{rnq boo6

bItr rc.oded a .onhini^slbe iemaiis.l$1[r (Che Thorrs rrr irv posibl! be 3 Linmg

re md eloh.d 'do roiser co lnuor $.5 r$ered ,!md rb. emne .f.ufrreiefu. rr th! Lhiing mrp.

r.d',

The lie

\ns r'0.11! :nd ihrn lfrhed olr (nor tb. sni:rr dlref o, n r.hei oD.irher !de]. It ryA rhei runed nshr sid. our rnd Ih. {{rqr irlqr Fr\t1- (rom

sltl)enedF/lleshmfgoilojhed]eT]r

rnd mr b:!e t{l itld repa;s Gee LeloN.p r\(. 39i..oiried of r heerx^di'crtrr..id j,ftdarttu Nrisr $rb ar edger0erh bu! se,h 'fhe slde *amsjolnln!rhe +0e q{,er otei[( eere*ose{nrNetbeshoeusinsideoul The m:ii so:ms, nd iddo.d r Io{ Njor shocpie.es.

i l

l l

t;r r.uid wii[ io nrei r$ i one-ple.e addrtjonsor major m0di6.ition: io t.onfr.dtrre the faieoie. and me mjor fam d rhe lde i'ofe co'nplrcrcd .diiq ldrem5 beaoe nLghd! \rrh ihe jnrodudlo. ff (he to(gl. IidaiLig (p 43r, rhes. sldejolis {ers rulrcrablc, :nd I her

cL*bhe&lioDgdde

,l

(Fs rr

As 'vtrbi[e

LanngDI?'h[thEadsweFob?bLsed'

ovenapped seam{Fig. 73) ed a b t sem sx mhicvcdby.UtMlrheed]qesoI$elaa$eronI (ric. 7e)roobt,in a .roserfi 'rhesasems ansre {k mff,ly sed bioin theni; Pds.r ce 4per, bu. snaller pie.es, su.h 6 Ia.ings tl Fi3337,93) ortonses(,' Figs.91, r07) {ere (Fig 30) This oJten {h.hed fith a binding seam pos,bly trsiu a ieedra ,rher rhd .! awr ind ALdoqh n {6 @sibre to makea drawsring sboekom one p'eceoI learher{Fig. 33) there {0[e4oi{hm,ddiiio!:rfuighlwArearred roon anrde shoe or lo{ booi(.t Fiss 23aid40). The eianple sho{i ii Fig. 23 olleis 3 possible expladiioi lor rhe suonslru .bsen.e of hner pp. ll3-9), additoml pieces, bods Geebelow. ud.ould have beed Fig 40shox e6ilr reused a lo{ boo. b6ed round . one pie.e .uiq extEhe'ght'Erendththgdtap'ms.thde ee n o.! tuc edrqe/lesl' but sam joiin'c Figs 39 :id 90 rep6ent someoI the edies leisiom ol the side-lmed foot{er *hich, drh edy/mid l5th.ertry sroes ar r.s L,m (4 qirhboth Ft. 103)oneotthem Gu'usu?ly.u1. seG.l lrce.holes in the quafteE(Iig. 39).Thera hNins thelacins ona sepanteinset (., Iis. e0), srensrhei iha deas or ue shoemo$ subjedio {e&,id {e,kne$ Ms i' oblious impturemeni. whikt some of the Lrlershoes *ir shov eviden.e p'e.eottins parens ({. 0rbengbmedonsinsre !is.9D, Fis.ros hA: septrma vafrp andq!.i. res, urh a hrle re.Lisular imen covenq the rrod oI rherootandhking moi orthe la.e hoks down one side. The ra€ horeshavefiirore. mentpie.3s :rong ther tun kn&h, a iecessiry pci ineir doseias ,id $e righhe$ wirhsb.h rhe boot Ms evidenuy hced to 6t the werers ;hoes dDt oie sees shoemkeis besrnnins to

deliLest (asooposed ro raidon) $eds to bk. enhrt rossles or'bunodoles (F€5 9t 2) Th.

rej]fo(0etoig0{6Pdiuhi!olddb

rcns 10 h.ve beed a re$JoremeDt cord !l 'fhis i\ irrkcd b! a brord nr.gihen the edser desp dunncl *nddled b! liiel stithes, and a !h.etom'B,ynds CFiLe. on {hif}' ihe ilirad ra$ened shoesi rr'i.k iltraad or .ord ol rlns tlpe orthe {A oltm nrhedju( jiside iie dcr edrqe ieribillN A ihe shoes?s beins pd o, (Fig 92) It ii r.wu onepie.e.utiis p en {A zbandon.d ol a t{o.ple.e shoe rprdc qrde6. Thesebadrso min lo$ fli bdt krN on.ith{ sde o,lhe r..r {nh th. n,lDeDb e Latli.i or brtJc inps beld E phft Nirh a but *an aid reLntorme .ord (Fjss

)

33 oGt@ dnrelns slic,fth Fid b (dd/qdd r?rh4Nry, TlF be sds. d rheqts.
h36ftdcd!i6'b'di4{tjd'd!ard

edlexrBr bub dbn. a sdl Ed4uL. id.rl, .fu ri6 a e4e/&!r hd @, wddir6 tued de lnrui @ 1h 3ol! 0oG, 4hr! ade, ,rt !F, 0e,b !td. 4idr) E ynbrlr d4hr{id.d;

G{Yod r2rlr{.iuryr oie rictu vrp
aig]edcdgdlesh6d|eandde,deol

ssom.Pjecshc(edy/ddr,h. eni4) vi'h u e4de$ hr s'n d rhe (rusiad frd { edse/nsh bu( lam (,., $o's sdth8 6! u snio slde

(.a:t/nid 16 NlahFl orI eBd4,ir]}she uib€tod, ritl' a bi'd4.dbh &is d. rF edse&denge/dahbutsmdlhe!trordt hot',ftelhc@igi'[yhidhofud-1ti4fu iceddthesideofefuL'idrsdlEdryur' iN.d d th. tk€t held h rLe V d €d!e/04hbln 3m'Tdmkb''.hj4rulcdaF.i'oddi' kbdllin Hjddr tiiKiq), Th! sli !;de (rrt) Bbo% r enb@dded @ *i!. seb r:3.

b'4.ru1!iiud]rcL{DlhcvihalijlcLudh! slith,Th.qFIonpbEdfidain'gu{4rn

L

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,#
33 Dcesd3 a&r shoeGnry u6 edqt

39 Sn .bed ur. d@ (at l3s-@bry). Trelile.@fu'Bdi'3.bolk&tn!'aft dh.]aRbrb'theq!8fu'IteEi9. 6iodi4..t'ttd4hod'edFdebfoh Eibleldl oit ! r.2l sd@ ortu dDbd (Ede 6@ di! stio, loldld dabk 3!d *.md dG . bhdnedbi) t ltuhnld. sek 13,

de she Gdv l3s mtql eo sid.-la.ed adoushm&oFno dn tu. 3ed ot d'eeft M,tstyLe$hshcisoE!;{erj!\debchobs
llr4dedddasiigl..ojn@WleAenotr' @tollhe!4bed;ill$nEdsdht:3'

53

|\

$s

sr i4lAh@d lor drd*ne Gtdr3s c6tur). nD dh rie is-M.n d m. tube rft' r hiidiiFd, 3!dr riaubr dw, (!.tritr M
!d,s.tl.h€djolgiLAcdisnri!'!nd'n dd M bsd€ (d. Fa. 12)h di.!i.3 : rnbhoL 6!nth.o@!i4@,i4,Sd..

9:! Tordea.idd LT rfl!{ne oft $d' @td !!'r.hd dq tu), Ie !h. d.b,te*d th. .d& or 6. @&!tet! ,nd tr. Vd b th! lab ba*pud''gd!6hes'sgLlj'

oyn" ue lnp ed,. rrc @osdom;6 rq 3r reF herdhpr&. qria bud;s 5u(; :r. dF!h$lb]nd4$tis!*|3

ilru
/\* 9,t Tqde.€*!d lhe GndLn{.dql fiis i !t[ h|sd o . litrd. dEitrrice. but fid k r ,ddidodal.o@od ( q!ft4 e6dia frm fi. 3@ d dE h..l i! a !@/!dh hd @ ndr'.r €fu3t}u.dbylh!ovllF*nqorrhekd'.E' rn .d3Bifl. h.a eulib rbi"dia{bbn and rlED, rNiua tr d (o!ry ' 3d *did ihshd). A14ti4!h14!l,di6sdh|Eb *ndodg e tublsrhof 6e €4 ft d (d. Fi4 el) ie d3r;q8. Nd rE EF pi@ 6rdE sh iidEr,id.lv.!'@d@el{6bl's.selel:3'

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e? sd'bad bmi (nid r1d{ob4). rb ntu rcPeoudlidea'ddec*@kfsdv.r toied Eddy , rhebtep, FrA {i$ ai ed3e/re,hbdt $u dd ea{r ffi a bbdb8*am. Ms a rk r2c bh vde oriqiianysftqered niiJdcnor pise (Dissind, vhich ts dhdd fuBhotheds6dsbidbsstithes'ThebPbod 36*s'bdasmlti4fub*{'iebs6& m4b n Dv nistu. sere li.

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103 sile.Led td (edr rtudtry). Th fup:d'fi.i!&*!trdeos|l'e@ fu"d$0ede/iBbhhe$dth'6\eq4ad joiled ritr' 4 c&erlsh bdt *e. rlr qlfu (dsily losDw *vD ii bel'ob Eiihft.mt ri$hndi4sdbhodbothsns'NdlilE$rirr .ftdtr'fudy{p'dd'bks'sd.1|3'

s!a0n 09$rl ti.ei theinponri.e oldE June r00i); Dut 00bu.kl* hmrsho!i lz2DdJiDuiq. i2rir The rd Ldhim & vdther$ rcTi)-33,
FnL)',5,I.:djoihth.au{.tiirolll'.Pujjhtr

Comnrn\exrlh. bd rhiss i.r ro strJlbr he'll .d rhoe bLrkle\ d..omnk tr thebu.kles Lnris.ll0 espenrllt ahemral $d tens (rry Irb. r.n) Lndrmt. rl*t allrbe ht. l1th.eiiu[ oltinning(Txbbr{J snply notdetded bI rlrem llflLre.hnlqF: Naiearso ioud r rb.lsd, rdr{ groQs(6n Z,Jri,id,a rbr Fnn s Pnt.hrdl sh.es dri {cre Tli. .ol!.iLm .onbins nedl! :10 h*on! /nd Sroii:1,A 'vel s a.lftoLoF.,i somesoirhelruhnrf or.i'broid(cdshlesoJ \l:rr lboesdo merted$ b.iis enblLlthcd ol n!, iir eirmoe5 iDois vbrb m those bnhops oI crndlrlrti, llub.n \rrlter (d lr0t) zid hdmlid Ri.htl r:11) rcMni.1933. Cd Nos 16ad 29) frt{rl!.tembiord.nsilrd ten d rtr: n,lL.nrrd Nnh lj'ds bart ivishLf enl,eln$d oi ft ronhneir )u1 ns '-./

L! rartli! rrio.rr/ *em to l':vebpe. rhl5penod 1l'n!n orkid illr \irh nooiDs 12:c\r^|,Les) rlrougha sln r he[ to ftde : se.uF loop(ILg

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orrherb4d cmi.s usibG m i& $rJ,c {tiL Th€ inpes{ekimbrordekdr \irk. rh. be* re.en.d r\imr.-r o' \eitr{of! h.\najhr...hD6ol [ine rrrrs

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l14)i ro$er, ton Swan Line, lrasredandwhite shoesfrom Be4e0. Nosay has : iurber oI nore elabocielyembroidered shoesand rhese show rhd dirfernrbro.ks or.orour veie some tines preseit dong a single nripe (Inge. R. Pedeneihd Ane L.Gen,pers.com.). The reFdotre oI nitches ,]so emb€.ed d.ss.$jt.h and*tu sbrch.Irus &e tul nnge of pdremson the Lddon shoes sn odr be.oijeduftd in iev or the decay of ho$ ot rheembrcidery rhread. TheiechniqF ofdrii-$irh i:lls inroa dtesory ol enbmideryknoM ffi onym work, sonetims .aned,r'a 4r,rz,r' in rhe 13thcenrurybe ase I wtu a FNlar nsm ol desndns (chn{te1933, cushions 33).a.ushjoi rrom rhe gove oI d.hbishop Nauer de Gny (d [t5), whowx! r re&nt or Engrad dunry rneminonry ol Henq u, *tr couched in cord dread on a sround {orked n plaii sotch iid tros{tirch (King1971, 129),{hire the p4tefr of rhedshion lion the sped&ulir bmb ot Femandode la (d.1275), cerda in6e mausoreum oiihecdrirm roy:l famiLy d the mmeni or Las HFIgA in entnely in ptiit{rikh (c6me7[Ioreno1946, 36,Ph. d.iii-.rxiv). The d.le of u.nbishop Hubed walter is an edier embroidery n praii,siihh btri rike rhe de Gny .ushionit n in a fr.snenkiy .ondjtionsinceihe .av*rlike hdenal usedlor rheroundation h:s (ctuistie 1933,50, Cat. No. 1&. Tne L.ndon shoes mde rron redher,a nore res ied mtenal

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L5!n.dEs, tnusei,bre a Fp ro be 6led in $e tunon.arre.ord of this foh orembroidery, iidi. stins thai ir vtr nounshing on a coNide{bte sde 'n be lzth centurya *€ll as in su(eeding ye.is. The lide exrd or rha pacrice cm per broidered shoes, ,rbeit matnlr ta.L4r in any sewing thread havebeen eravated in Encl,ndin Durham York, Lin.oln, coEitry, OxJord, wo(e*er, cro&asrer .nd wincheder. yampfipes, rhisis rhehon AJterembroideed connon rom of de.ontion on the sbo6 in rhe .olle.tion.Al 6e upF^ virh thisson orde.ora il.i tuy be seenin Iirqs. 115 11? The de.oE rion seemsto haveb.en sfieded afiei rh3 shoe p'e.es hadbeencul out aid tdore &e sh@*xs $itd'ed rocether 'fhe {ork s*ms ro havebe.n doie fleehand,{ithout the ssisbn.e ol gllde fith some sod ol .uttiq pden.}lthoqhsonciimeslhedasignscoddb€ .ombined$rr sed skil dd efed, mosdytne shmos{ere i,npressd in $r4hi tines,cdetuly spmedro miiinj* the possibilityol reas be. The edtst evmple, Ft. l1sa, daresro the ft* baLI of rher3th .entnrr. conpded pirh lakr eximpres, the {o.k *cm vary &trijous, *.irh a v,nett or 4 snd roffs ,ven8id8 3 by 2 mm

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Frsio viftor mvLrcsLlar.dFsTrp dFniqs eeLyimid L3d, tdu!.. sroe i i.ding ihd $e rnestr:rlhtLynoi.dE\dqedi l iarq.ad ur rr,csr,oadkeD rr.e mort tanJrrt sntr die limihrj.Ds lmFrd br thn iyo. otdelondon doseryspred The snitkr moirs $Li.h re mor {idet !,,ft{i, bordrhe shao. ot rltr ii. (r\lor_ rlbp i!, ir,€ lluseun.r Loddoi .oLL.diiJn 1674)*hi.h afu/Lly!0mbin6 opeNorksnh cnsaecd hrice {ork) b\rured(he {rhqro*rerchrddsrorthffe Tlre shoer Fre. n5. r* $drsr ,6 lbe qn?rtenoiry ths rine de.oiled \i1b elongdcd

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b€enplred venj.ally d 6e lwow eqes to u] tbe spre fore evedy.As in $e oinerexanrDles, theie is noiidietion ollhe useorsudelnes.The shoes ii Fu!. 117, b oiiy h.ye opeo{ort deoErion einmins $en bw.4r vmp L\r@ts. Fis.ii7: h:sRooi.enrri. to*sof o!,tpdon. ho6, vhisr 11?bha fou prns ot lons iam, The hs exmpre b $is sedion (Fis. x6d is :lso rhe6nen, ad is refiiisent oitbe fne open. work ,tecomrioioi lhe sh@s depicted h a paiit. ingbon sr. sbphei\ chaFl, wesl,Thster(FL. ns). The p.tten k both.ompfsbd od liasit€. T],e strrt ce ot ihe v,mp n divided ine ,zm{d dd pjder panels by the ditreent rotiG dd con biiatioft oI mbls The widestro{s ft 6lmd by semred lozenses edsed{ior plainriusuta! sraps. Besids dleseaft naaof rmverse ross of snall dosesL $ wellas *ids pmeh of dte.mrios ri:nstes. The sbmpsh,rc been@e6rly -4 m apd buritnprcb md.rosely spa@d ablethat $e ?Ieaating nmow b*s of smans sbmpsheb fte {jds pdels rer.in then shap.. sdehftd $tr Garry 13d cetu$ forE@6rru.dm $e Fig.,9. Fhshsid.(iisideJ $oh. rhe isd b bk'bopsiBl{e|iohsisdsbg'fu.em cnb sid.(dcder.r aurt{s dbrrde dhri€r ra$4cdshoe (]ft !$.adury). cai Me. $&

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rig rtga, drkbleto rhe lah r.tih.eituo r r\eEd qrh shaLLowLf r'ld. clo$LfsD:.ed rfti.c No.k. rhe p.nersorio. sd deordj;i {e s4e4ed by phjDnripsedsed b! o?m$ ines 'tr.re rher(rrer surhe hs been$rap€dbak
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Fig l2ld h?s beende.onted aith a.oi$in niii ee6 ot de.oiation qhi.h on slmmetn.dh.prr.ed rhrterealdesigns

bsedonade{gnorsrfrrrehn.eohieterts Nnb eigrljig, the outidr bire tlblei deLideted muling our oI de.oDtive mas in advan.e is
il*!bdst?entD*ingb:ckgdidOlo[' Tbe shoc in Frs. gnled, i. $ouldhir beenpo$ibLe to rdjun rhe liia.I dre birder b fir rhe leaftip, nther thzD :ltrio{ geooetniN ibnid

l1o$ rrom lnnl al difleEni stras {A ex nmned.:id n is .Gr rhd onespr.ias, ?rdifu,r l4dl4.4ld{'\bjr?'t|remo.tP'ruI'bFrc ibtrds or rrrenmpl.s 123er:o et tr n : pio, '!ry5mir FprnG!krve. $ hnhn at€ r!pnis r d d e zr l o r! . e , . : r , r l F s t 2 2l d I r rour,r have, besrdes. sisili.er :bs.beot pro pen'cs tr poleirnny duabre dinbure ror rlE nu6is of i shoe ody ts. oiher noses, Rhliniu&bhf tnqtdn5 n^rrot, o(uf ii :i!- DunbeE(rj:M 7 eimples iesp{bfln. rhey hde Ethc'$jfi, si.r rems rooscry b rh. soil,andgenenny soN in .onsider,

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irrt orviers l,elorc tlry rtre 6n:lh disardcd Equxiry *.king rr rha kry ro,! !4oirion 1l4s rad 10 ler.en() in tlie latc l4llte ury stir,ls cisd.'qrouD sji.e, theoreiiftl\ at lcmi thisSbN|djfplylhd'h.lolmrdFdsdhe n6h+ dn.nhd Lnihe iile!.ouid xttud r.{ rdediied Derhxrs,bdd,eyhidrlienr.panedbf rlm agrid Gee above.r 23) k .ord{;ds. mjghl{eshtthdlhrsepoJtieFeacm r.p,n.d 0rb1e 15) o(d'on' been seehto l,ave ally,addiri.ial*ii.h ii$resions s,gs€s dDt a tvoe ofteDiir is : Dd.h seNnin on the 'nsideor ntr 5i;e {i&bi iisjrii.h (i. the 'idmer olr heel stitientr or lr.e lmle ianloi.ened) to corer I o.e orthecleuer 4amplesol Nornneaorbole. rlns is sboM n Fig. 10r, here 610 su-e$"e iltr side ;fr, Fd@s dtr die slrce b?d srlir 4:n Reoansor rltrs |rd seen iot ro ba'e been siLLhire \rorn ihroqghlois betort the Dpp.n

be tun soLes 0f the irp. ibat shoLrld 4!ded:i bded odr t! .obbler. These thLmDs '. rtrrk inesula y shrped ieles oI hr$er rnd rere (Iig 123) NoF dM.hed vtrL tunneLjtilchins srflxltogeiher(FLss 91,93)bulmo&otetrr'c ,ir evdeme rhir a dn has been douled s (Fl3 prolidld by nith mdks. a$er on rhesoLe (fla\. s,l 106).As 33i or Lo{ dou on the uDDer

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'rlli[!i

rded D Fr3s. 126 i br ro&in!rrorion. radle , r r o ^ sr ! a F s m;r Nrs rreb:Ll!s rbd ther srtd b. \sn bde

ur s.3 r?drd.Lan.LTih, rr ll, !,.\ $ e n h r d € F T . ' s 4 H ! u _ e - \ f L p r !h i u J . ' e ; l p e J f r o m o r e h l o 4! s t r ! d ! $ i , . , tr hrchoir rhe grouid diE rri. yd ir is trrh mor di!(rLf ritrhed r ro jldre n m lhe $Lqor!haFenfldcdotoa].rypou|#e't.

ro!.d,ar ThE]!i hzrr rltoftdiheod,qLroaoi

d fh var .p w,ri$,poDhr. nar h:* h?da c.opletaledhcf sdem@! rsrs lb. tFetmdroFFn hd * ' tunse md r lbe eme tinr, b n:ke r bqe

F-@* l;"/
123 Pzb t-4ldr (bjdr'r. r4i'+dq). Tn I.:s.rsu@!md4hkfuiddklm oflldvldaocEdrit]'.Ed.Fid€d56Pe (mrr.n N h dd.d lh*): !'.F vr robrbryD bidiis d ii! .deJ, haup i\. 'Eilsck:rt Fg @! dr srldida (l])4M It. 1zr. Ttu hsbt4 *s eft*d si@t lirl a Lonia[. soL

u7

1/.rO er@denFrh!

(ddrte

!6

.sb4r.

oon s!

5lnfrebaj

pisrs toid

, 6c c(e

(ore

sm]x {ere oroded fo. rhetu* tim. Th. rr4.
d redber oneoI $ln.h is no{ n0nl! b$ sevn ioscder ions rhe .dges Lrilh : bDdi4 To protcd rlr ledh{ fromduftr! uid{ thc .ar

Dicp a.d rlm ta*ened \rnh: bu.h., as o, i BoyJSchoolsite litrrs36 roo larcrobe;dudei Hiryed{oodei D.trens $rh 1l,r!o es.oniinued robe {on' the6i{hrtofttf151h.e ury Trje rypeDred .i wedsGis vo,isingty able.t trom borhr.3 Lme andswa Lae, thd]lh ns en porary'nunEtions and{ Niying llahrles in ihe e*abr(hed .onedions 0Irtre}rusam.r t_oiiii (& belov,p. nO Eadr lsitr &nbry pdr..s hd exrlr.el! Misted sotas ind nthor btu^1

:

4t

--.'{"i

t:t''

ttro]ghut'dtr(dh}!d.il.,i(${ll]"ldj.

.t z.l
:'

li

lrrerre ei r h e r o e ( ! i g s m Nlr rlre broad brds.onmoi r llD r4rhanrun n r:l siniLdb thr:e lsei $ith thecontem pd;dlerhd niredpdtensGe.bdo{r.adi[e

0aflE r.or xid rt hre dufd les iE$

oyer

rdgeorth.:oh behiidrh. ixirh?,ds0de(ed

rl

t.d r! Ro\em(nlc.vhorc.mlllons k {,. miNd m Tabbri T[sshoNslli]r i|!r liom the b.dr i:4tun detrioNd.rhde.jun N, r Feseir dd{ (.r,6 s ) FouprrP definile :id (o,,r! orrhr i.rrilt srrnrftl TLr hrn ir r Mer rrorlr rLoq rj,rn {.) ind p.d' O,l(llJ

;

F! tht s easity sorked Resitienr rnd c!_ rehdy duuble whe. wr, it h6 bccn rhe h\olrEma.rrforlros mikfs I F4t:id rirhr up,orcrFsei,dI 0rleonlqr :).rimodem

spr bul th. ceiemoDnotbediirflhhed an aron.iny Ahe. n sofred tishr,*1,i a smoorh

soe\ rclstor rhln ih, {md n sbllsFfl ro P,vehojodryou'Jdl]rtf,'olomoereth< dj ;init shrinkre b.tr o!.u red A 'mrrr meiloLl ! asprobib !;sed rn '.tred trdmrheduiErjn ii rheMendejHo!y

m8h tr $ ' rbre rorprFn m!Mc.srr a/ia4d ,,r! 'uer,i re igrr,{ergj rd riush, hrh l re!n,n!e ro sprirenr]t. \/rtr0uah norseier:x! an rnd€ $q uil hi:lndr dehtuFlj tr mor. re.endyto nake paddtes ror rdeRheel\ ed {eaneft. P't,r6 'id, nowfai.t, rre bur

'\.:7

:1

red eitensirelr by medievdr,|trnetr is hrd bd penshibLe Yet mther rhe|reseii iieds rc ol asp.r, ,,r ,J iu,,ra usad lor sabds, bui Inmoden Fiai& n hd Leetr Lnmedield Englindil \6 !H 6{aLly r.r,iLiiad (,!,'l, , ...1. The puDose Law ol 1416 or ihrs lor nd{a arc{s addto lreen(bepnceor,rows jire lelied .i doM, sin.el*l thebundred-slrir|;s

is iot:p! sufi.ient, ior codreilentobe mide j^h (rFoNshilb)(r t.l! t.9 hldeind on m.t kte r4tb .enturypat.ns mr ofdoubreihi.\nes(Figs.123 9) ThetwopFcA reshfa.estogdhe id sonedhes,i rhtnteilher edris tr sive 3 re\s D3sedipF{ince rn the

F ] e t h e 6 N { | l y f i f r ! P | a t e r ' n 1 4 6 1 5 . torembellishned Nerl!:ll.rdri some decoc rior r,otr4erJ3r,1. one (Fi3 123)hA,nrm{ \ertj.rl *noe. on.e piin(edin bdlliint Ed. fh. roker $ho dained!tu Asptinb{ bei[e ben p,@ed h m.re Pdie :id andlthti Tjmber,rh{eor n:ed \A lermnrn Gentified by s. Dmar. Britsh ilu:eum) nlnch {s v.l kioLvtr pnndoaLoLe orrheNblnerury othes hiye

60,diEmopsdi

i liirdri!fu'

(o:

(frs r2l :nd .B:!iids c$de (nor iihncrd),

I

rnidenij.:r,l.oyerfiomlpdren Themotitibex, .onssMt or tour r4cr pdets beseer pj6 or sdh. peids, vas :pp& ty nadc wiill x siryle punhdrnp!dr rin,i m for4!eprnrhredpcs bm,; o!d,! Thethird,omped tl@ert (Fa

orwxvredsedsqures, btrrit is roomrn rd dis. fte mon &,nmonmees ot de.oftion s4 by sbkhine,bn sii.e ler ot rhe drreds h?!e su! nved tr is i.r.enain ho$ the se.msmotd h've looked o4in:nv. it is p.$ibte rbd 3 sinple nmig.sbrh {A used bu.noreDrobabb 6d ir {A a type or bak*ii!.hing (Fig. 133),Ior ttus vodd h?!e Drodu.-ad a.ontinuous raitrerrhai { nrem .ft rne 'fhe $itch hotes.ie reety cir.

ric P6E ons, r d e'y naN G. Fis rljn, re drtE ed turod{'thd du qrcdir s

cur&r norn:rry .het m st,nri!. redansurai stjls ;o rDr be rhre:dsould ' h?je &i,n! 5rlistrr " pulled bc blr { trtd h}€ beei npht r d dqre il,e nexl - a lom oI semi or.deitaL serm com ionr! usedtodayb! hames make 6 ind saddle4

(saran,otr 1936, ?73 4 ud nis 9.61) v:nos rmprepfums $eE devnedto ft inro rhed!k. {trd shapeol the inrs: Enidl or honzonbl llies (Fis:.12330),enher singl) or:nrcssad p?rhap.oi!ehshrshiedb] rhreld!otronGsMr .oro!E, ro$+ Fg. jrTbr {d tori.€! oi Ieaves {irhn arcaded ni.hes(Fjgs.137cd) More .ohpl.ared sries oI nfth holes tFiss. 137e-0 roy be in€ refrianr or rcry elabor;i." dessns,nov hcaoabG of reconsrrtlon.

\____

-))

sortucs oribe 14, rflr bdrim r,itersresFdlrelt (!iss 139 40). ]\tr :ddiiiomLlald $I 'JkD :. r ro aie ir hklrd oft {ri. srouid.rhe {aD! wie mrre rior siide pGcs ol plxin Ledher.5ometimes biturded rt 'he!frFis 110J xni {ere ind{i.h.d be$er

anda rlthlLr Fi ed roe. beenrry litlle rcomu.dq rheroe*mps, vould

e\psed!o drmp onrhe unde^ide oI thesoLe ?nd

!.r.r:l o(a!.'s. om llig 112), {hi.li h e! ri:!e h.d ,, uflhclie n,ireio! rs r riid rcFir.
llir afflh * oi,!(oDr{eldrro. Tlre soles rr,e'isahr!eernrdeitumLry{sorrh.k.at . togerber {iih, patr0trhfads lfig r4L), ehirh

L ,

I

ll

Sizes andwearpatterns: social inferences
Fmhrer G$mbtagEsm ltuse A lhof &on .hu6 andlni?ns rblur 'rtr iri !( medifldl Thn dr,. d rlm !r ' ir, n Do.,be n !.:{ som!.oict0sions abodlhense of ro.rNertnrhe ciiy hd, ro so'neerenr, ?bout rhephysi.at dD. 4&nnicsoI$e poDddroD. TtEprernr *ud! n, fesetably, .orlined 10&e .onseFedresisiered sboes.The unconsesed bulk araem€m*ould dinoned jor m.urare appmiiy be.ause liey bad stnik d diiteEri .T:ble t9, vrncr ern dE toli tirsst smps Irom neAuremenb b*e. .(oss rhe (orepd, *rn iid heelol shorsir.,i S$?nt-mo rd Tir L:ie, does it seen rhd shos kre 'mdeii; nnse or {idrh 1i!t4s: rhe $drh ot rhe shoe nornr:llyla.ied in dned pmpoftion ro irs tensrh, a[boug[ s obsesed*ith ih? shoestrcm ]rngs rym (clde & cder19??,3ra) r aDDers itut beNeenihe 12$adirrersrh.entunei$e\uisr le(me qoglesirery 4ros.r. simpleno5urtmenbaeunf0dliate]'o.r'a '.ug[ arronroton to ilie orisinrt size of an beendiiodld by rhetonspeaodot buril]. blr ir m?t:rsohave sh4ik sin.e r..oy!ry, borh dunng ed drer rhe pm.e$es ot cotr*nition. Snc! ft e n s. hr kno*nabouti€|olenrialchaqes n rdNime h$ beennDdefor rhis,burshn k3ge doq beimed hA beeiqriftiied ad c& n) some e$enr.be prednied: keezedned terhd

Ldtth,A mrnum oyeran bi31h of the shoesores Eqll hShlnsuesole.(Table lsr lD'heo-.d shoes$rh 'po'raines, rhe ,podaine iis.lt re dsouded andd'a &ehureneir hken ro a poi.t otror !s beyodd rheestinr@dexrenity o( rhe ba roe Gee ibove pp ?9-313nd T:bre3). Ntodern shoe stcs eDreseit lhe i,s,i,r, meAurenenr ot 'e shoe $ithin r]tr !,Der. ra$er L\d ihe teqrh or rtre sole ba sinc;ium dft esFa:lly at rlreheel,meAlreme.t or itp sojeis kely to prodtr.ern onder.qrher rh,i in oyer e$'mab .i lhe equfttent sne. 'fhe pu@f or lbe .onvesion to modcnj tudiry inierisl[h ed pd]t io ta.itiiaG..mran (Fsp.Ne) or, rortss:t *Gk wirh!* $tfi.

cdomer to sared a s&bte pajr by tn.r ?;d e&r. Th4e is no re*on to suppose rhd rhey ohened sPe.if. sDe $mdrds, ,id the ft:s neda.y ft.ords or rhe Loidon cordsaiE6 LonDiny make io menhoior {ch Nor, io jud.e

:ier trt tn, tunn:: !.dr nthr\ $ nejirrednilhstesri 9 a.d. 60@r.efi ofaduLr - rheotdermethod Gi *rE.es soLleDl.dryiq dNatrredrdionorupto..t0pcr.c.i(pp. 133 I Tabreaux 1 5: rJorn,tion rromchra s) honds). and'fal,Le 22) To predu.e Table 19,rhererore, ,\I these ftiisti.s, b.rr, imdrc,ir iDd moden. *ourd thusbecomhreit in iididlidt . di(ere..e or2or3srosbeiwe.dirr oireandfemitepeaks. ff this E so, it na] be possibte to Foeed tur oerhod used torerh bddr GeeTrbre rl) ili!.;.dt,usehisronslddrtoslibEiemediev,l lu remrins quii! inoo$ibLe ho!e!er. io {.ouni ror atrr sbri,,k4r rhi.h m?! hav. onred6t aIonfmlioi. Ntren iheobjed $3s ducred byclarks Ltd oyerrho9a{r,oredre?rs sbl buned J.lii rbofrron bes:na cxpemeri nr 1959, irNhi.hhebnnedin{ersoil:sene!oroakEte orone sre eve.t20re,s or so(iitormarion biied lenh{ srips rhd.ourdb! tuboyed ntr fromNeiL M:cD..lrd) 20rh .enknes 5tes 2-7 md 123ycm GeeRhodrs 1030, r0r-r. Thn wrdrh orrhelod h?sinneakdin proporiotr. so rap'dly d firn bul1hdthente decres.stbcrc F Lvere no$ immon in :tui (l'e n;ps sh nk by ..7 @r .cd sler 1 (Chrk Lrd 1972Tabte s,s B r itr 1929 D, .ed:ftr 16teas), pdhaps lmt xi.!ed re. {itr' addtrioit rliese figues rom hle vdonan dudionol .10 p.r Eislrd nrrespo btudy h ihoseimm nedi re.endr,ho{ev4, crot lin DneL.illurny h?s ev,l Loidonas{ded in TabLe 19.and represent '.!.h less dun4 burirrlban tter re.orcry Lot|t cto|t Nuttun, 2 G4n6thtt.tt winrer193617). : hypotbesis rhn seens10be iecenins rqepr:r trceohi(e od rhd rcrtd the 6sres ilreadr adjNed for po$ ercrvd'on sbrinkagen ri'uLdlaadr. rlF ne\pedad m'tr|u $eie litlledirtereii li son thd medieval shoes Yer lr*clcr muclr rbesh.s mry hrve sbrunk in /rrrlt rms, tr pems dMt thctr/dd'y stes ciden€l thd the threeLarsen tfoupssl'oM n Table 19(froo'E.yirds cArla . sMi L e md Tne Lane)shre a disinbuio0of stes thd tu { Lo$rr d ddli ste\ I mon popuh sizes or:drLrnei's:rd $orai s rhe sidala.ed shoe !?s popuLrrion vem shoes male rmsinslrom sDeslj ro I l andme tentlrsol rh. xdurlremxre !h. $,n s rikre sh.e $trsrrie otren\ om by somen rid shoes m.FDg lrom4 to 3 (Clarks Ltd 1972, dd'iLdreiGeexbore. D.r7) burihesroup:m rits 12 131.Fisuresfron' moden Im.e m ddr nies {h,.h.m retromblr ba de ifi?dis ejLmate :s :ny ol d'. *fula ol lhl nediev, popuraloi dd or r o.igiiit ste ol lhe shoes sd4, ol omboRdle evidence. ir isioposrbre to ordrook the infom{io. eom rhe late lstied! 3rd-.edunRoman rodsand drirn s.tlenatrs d s,rbuiq, zusnnnel ad Kreiner retdburs (Tablel9r ,ftd cmrm,i'v ludennge t974. FiA. rr; li$res.onyened h modem stes byM. Rhodrs ,id ;djunad L! r0 per .eni rorpresumed nhe.e r yery simirrr soLqed.dsing). nnge or Ar'houshii ma! be posibre ro idedi! die !,trral r:4qe or sr6 befirDs nedGaL men3nd dlldratr s n !e Gee[?loN) mrkesn mu.hmore dirfi.uhr0 ddeloiDe rlherhd .n uril idlal shoe rusNohby?minorrsomrn'thismiumrns,

.= : =

. l 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 l r 1 2 ' 3 . 12 3 4 v 5 6 7 O

rti 1r, tar 1)\

rt 1r1 t : !ur dcspir. r pr)rtleFs oriire@f EtiotrdE:e

!r

-fh!se, tr sbrurd benored,3eFnlfbN: th. d r.st b judge bl

'rrr

roe!

0r (be 210 sbo.s iro'n rrrird! or rh. 65 ton Tng Lrie lTibte t9).

2e Frred ed,rnd

13ln&dGer

m.! ir*lJ, it.onobor

:durlt, 'ylFruthe:dJt nr dirnblrjd^orrr peaks. nuddd m,Lle ud lemLe ? miro6 rh. rlrbLe12) soo?r hd06 coddb. b.rdar ha{
i!r.; orhdr, hoNers, $eE to{ r.uc shors rl'ougl' tro{ f:Jaied \ri.h i \ur i, e I'n.hidrei 'ydp baiig dereLoped In ihe

\eri, id rM' n r .il! anoit lhe shoe5 ol lbe
l h &en : shoes

bery..i.hrrdie.:sre:3id

! afrrrlel2)a0d:o

rhildren s shoer ft:

siliLiihr ..r,potr.d oi

lidlrd. (fur|o ns rd rh. oodem.lr drens izer I -3 l'f ,Le s sne5 and io moDly nrd. todrr & ordtrLdrer 6r rlildtn ?!ed?bour L nortis (cLllls.Lrd 1972['g ]4) Ih,i d,nrpx^q oj aLod{ iz.s

Elen so ib! soanai dr lb! dimFlire soted pdt.rs ,..:\rie5 rn r'8 mm (nLghtyequiva $r mn Lo.s(.rjirdr.isr! rr PnGs\u.h,j5

iul.n

ndrul

sho.: see simih r qrm tr

{ber. h jnur b} nmlln, {rn'nr, Doin'

d.
110 / ?14 Dn Lol'g. noddl]d!Ll \k '), Nlri.h rrur the nmpLe (lun :.1

rinire5 rhell[.lih.odor c'oe; b.Ds h:nded '.gsttud &(ros Nth tompLete sol.t is io. Ni(hin doNn rie ruoiLl
iv.ar panems and deldmitics ofrbe fccr 'fhe poibirlr' dr reint4 rhour the lrefLrh ot L..d.r \ oelierr ojiul?ron ltuo rhe*!ar pd B,i!,ri\ CAle :rsem

t4

=2
ModenChild Snes

l.
ihe

Modem adtrll snes

th! shocs rouMsrt\equently hr€ beei !u{6 oenrr'sen prtfdtd to provid.der,tedel d.nc.. ar tsrn oi pdhologicl$iditions; bui ir

Ii iohil Nrfins ih. drn p.d t ((h

ide, inrbe stDdu.orrli.rre.{dresjoliris vef sorn notodLl t! ?dtrs burb! luhs.tritd ie0.voden reseu.h$8cens dd i.nr of rb. dnordcrNhi.hrr..om!.di.e:bteoit! m oLd or j!!r s nor runyroi,rcd betor rhe rge lJ ibonr q rhod caNiig ohilus dr$ohturt (cta*s Ltd TheGet* c.frrlei teyns,mideupot nmr sndrmNis rrds $hrli :fa subrded 10hfl$ rmdsFordi]sreEon Diryr.:.oisiDFnee lnsre of ?boui5 dsstuesb rhediFdion or q:lk mg d tbebesin trc.l ach nep (fl]l.1.13r. Fr.rL 'r!rslnvpiel! rros rr. n.iab6t heads rlre Li!r| d rhe r0d: :.d. (sellpmpehilil mu:desrrltrcrLildiilhe roor ointsn r r eL r - I r h r , o . - r d p e . ! i a , h er oI tde loes.d. llre Found,Thf !\]| is the N-.r @otrnslnrbb on Dur:/sores (Fic.141i

,)

i1

f-\ /

-l

1 i ^ r

f
{ )

i l .li r)

[i i]

,

:-'tl

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s

5t4 dtut 4 ?.t tut

h:: :tddt it.tu

:

r'6Mlti,g4('IE^]Te{!EhL|i l]Iioa!untn'mo|j!dFjlDlii]!

:,a:an

utl,tr,r\

tr\ii

itr,h,

lon is a sri in th. umo rbrortt!_,gs.25.50).In
ji{ep\ $ou|d ljtr'l nbLad ujdil.4ibL' esF.i

o(ur ndurary {i$ ace .r be the rcsun ot ftuiu ,rpcd.d*ubb[( dihe r]e, tor exmple a!

Oth{ delibei te nirsii the ,mp f0d ib0omrl is rb. butrion turJrr L?n ThE.od'riotr ofrl'e jr Fd !,! (,',rr:i) o(trs sb.i 11i.iddrJ .{p.rjojrl h rrL* .,rqr,rs r,,rirr se.i !r (Fl! llri) The vrD,4rmererenoy{r.urjDs'her

joint irsLfnay bEd,e !i nled aid I svdLn* rrqn rr,j\ uirjon, bemNe rh.! lnp I i.ll

lie ini Dosir,oD ro.orspoM,rnh rherb !frbc Fext to. (Fis 1J?].Orlltr itlrrtrd eMftples

onLrbliuse then lld ft

iloropodrmt.lr
rvhrrh oroyLd*nsunddn d{r [o dri!'s rri

onthe nier side oIuDri !,.h b rhd jnnrmed 14 !is. !{e) \'ere
Oncrtrre n.n.Niitrs rrsuL\.Irr,e drnrd{r5 IFif ii,dd rr,.,.+dnk4r] {9./ j,in'

(mes imFiLlln , !{.,1r thtush I iirm oi 'fhi! o,ry 6Qoflind\ rrerru n$rls) eilber

Shoes in art andliterature

n feN

uilikt|| rhd r\er rhepoo'a! oeillr

ro {af th!. shlri rt|po iltr nilt h ns trd sone Ir !r nrs {.re Nom tlrdu{h (Fq rr0r r{'0e i{e!q,tr nsht go b?reri ur 0 LsiDr m.dpfr ni0rF{rDr\ f. {ays+d The 13d,. }riuif Frendrpo4 crnfuncdeLdis. r*ose or i.ei, rook i ilDn

tr

L!!r 4 ltnt

i,rtu tirtr4

ja

]rn\r' 'rtat4arettc\

clrlter hinE.Ur!\ i \ido{e $ithoLrsti!\,rs

r$ Iadtu t l.rb.

Bihk,exr xtnknn)

\trn rJlrrerrLrr.edL.!r.xilsip$

Eigh'd rLLd.F r nrlL r z r h . . i t r r \D r i d g . r j r L n r h e

ri drs i,trsrir! tdrp o1rhr unp. n.u

r|[

! rh. dtedim Gpe o.trloirL .rF l{.1?, ,r,ilnri(a.,r I uinritr r^r LLI !],:cLirrnd g?i \ii fnerims srrtr r!!*. Lo\r btuL. oi e.d.sianidlLf*!5 lnriL

\hldedr,\rd$Lrlrrdrlo*id.139t)

r.

;diid

on |r!

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d

o z.tron.r1ia r98{, iiN. i\o.llriJ

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Th. \trsn 11,^ :o \err s)o.: \irlr
h i n g J o r r bo n a N i , $ n

T,bl$L&!

fh.

This! b..r

\da rr

tu tr.ri b theoursid!or|l]! rree dd li..r.d or L u r k [ d d o l n r ] b r o r J 6 d ' f t r e! d r l , r i i D ? r r

cor. rx4 rdr. i! Jen.rr.d s tn$r rrJ r,r,j a(td ,nh 4i ttt:i i!t!!rnr') (.d skert
rLrrilsh rb! rrc! Lllunrrd A Nfined are

n .ut bd nrher n

\

:.d n s Fiirbr! m roiriden.. rhd br

d rh.

'r$i i',\

D s0 i) Theerisf

n!d r0ldn ri Litr,n rii r33i). jhds Ni. of t]L rv!!p*s \ih Nhrr

ri,qJlh f,{i,, p,ilio\

tid. (.!mi.!h

&

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i

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; ' ,

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n{rd q,,l,n!!!(,L

l

,

ir rlf d,JdL nln,r

lr I

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uLi,r,.i,ire

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l- -:.1', - \

l-'

I1r..h^a\ hotu h,,s \ r nn: !i 0? ;,: l {. i n!r?r 11.,edare 163 Nos 6:l-1). Thomron rc.on{tuded i +op

altt.! dtrdu46, ! tu tut :ia h. lttl al Rih-dtu2 tek, h. be. b d, ass doqhbl '/ r^dots K;4 't h6) tr hq unrh tul LEkr ErrI i,lld tM !!tu6, n d b tltn r,€s uth rkq k4', t .rw 4.t t:ttt

,^noa
di.es fion LoDdon, but rsxin it f ftnher a 'ooulaine nor eyen poiiad (Thornton ]e{i I !.8. 'P.!r,iies ! , sone elabontehde.o.at.d. doswiverromcoleds (ThoDsr$0). bdre dabbreonlyby$)le. Dorby mkxi -rhe fhroDid?r y,ho .ompiled the ,rr,4r,, .eil!ry spe.ijlftu! dtnbukd rh. fist rDreaF ad !f someorharequaur

oJth. cLn,nr: lt E4b^1 trsB)

But siice ihe tarcr resardinsthe iyitra oI rikes io rhe kneesurh .besorla.cs istnoscetui'Jyiditio'sceo Lelo{),t n,y be rhd dretr{;ad shoLld be souce bll moretjkety,perh.ps rhar ii $s 3n educted sues, nade tn rhe knowledce rhd the npon{r,dru rledraorKnto$ !h4$e lri a hundred 6lles

'c4hov\

to@ir\t: tutr; ltrarv

a4d(

whdever rhepre.jscdde ot rheintodudm or 'poLrrain4 , irch?eolosict:id hi*on.:r sources ft .ois$enr r denoinrahng thd popllanry @$iblr rhe1370s. Then hret ro. an)oF or sober b{€s $th rn de ro lnnd ad in the yees arohi ihe PeAaG' Revoh theiewerendyofrhese.wini:n L:i!. l d, Ior innaa, us ierer morerh,i r Do;r .hanrrypne* itrrh! cir! oflondor Herehemun monAt.nA {ee "hose bekr!re. r]]rre + trdde..nbe prold!nr{s r be .ompa.r'or se xnr chrd s neiingrr*d :ra e{ Ptourhna, r33rj,i590)rdd. evenif h! did nor sriic rr,e himsetfhevould trod.ubt h?!eagreed DAsase in .ond.rnDs rhe Fnn.isons in rbe toltowin! Fe4x4 tu tu btkt4.tund b utlht !r( i1ttht!i{d&ntu k,bb,yr.,lj!{rtus tanan, Itoq Phrttnu adt 24 3nr

6d. alttu trytnrnhb\4n

@eh

iad'

c|lhou|'h||ot||l!|d tue trt 446 t &'rs Eh- rtu tu ,qrri4\ ll 'fhee*kritude{ith$hnh$lsddeissiven

mmedErer!a.olsess$phror, especislty sin.e ii rhe $me )ads EngLmd Qs shake. 4 a sdrns re.ureme df rhe Bla.k rearh Deademe a.d in the cbronidors friid, iu( A ii Frace ti 1374 tueled by the feeling thar demon. presen.essere ponoiiig s..teiy Noth ns po'nbd nore surelv to $e Devtt hrdi*ork the pourriet vrricb aI h:d beed denomcedso ofien by de crers lTuchhan 1979, 260). sro$, on tbe othe' h,id, in his dh.usloi .t the cordw#en Han h Rrcad st.d *ard, traes n'e nrftdudion ol pouhjnet to 1332,$.tiry ihd

'Ponra.cJ rhiayed su.h ioi.ne$, ind $.f the bur or so muchddi.utc, rhd ir i5 otrenditi.trLr

rhd drcyrrad kr bered to rG rneetor *aj{) s ri

s..itr k, hrye beome poputarB! the middlc of lne I trh .enrufl ho*ocr. tr,.y asxin rerunedro sumpluq'lccislaljol"}Fjedtopmlnbittheil

r.rod b srnrt 1312jj236nore 3) aDDdenrLf 0 r r e r r ! f J i m 4 rnd (o .otr.irira rhe lniom.', d a lrft rlher rh. kiig ndralr rv, no* needed rhensuppon r6lrrierl! r7ib..enrury ari@dins. stow Gee Inn, rheni. t403itHs.irFd rh{,r{,ktt ?rroyc) ad aanden o614,23? 3).sto*sjyesDo tn,ttth, sftkal. La Lsttlrrt,G,nk,tah "t lr.ri.dtf arnb&t tus Rd: h.n4 !1ra tdswt th L'"e1h at ru) the Eutosith Htbntfl,t (3 rrir n. r r, the useoa.p.uhtneJ evei rhough{h.rj /,./trs o.p:r Gn (reproducd rbole)tus inDsldlon oithesrhepE c. mtrlp rh.i. r$s. eyrnrhnlrbeny{A$irhdn{n so rhd r[ lnrdrnin{srnd.obblon !nhinrhe c r! of inrcrp.hriors. lr m:! be rhd hjs c.s 0r rhe Loidf tr rs sufoundLqs l,ere io$iddcn ro bdditilthctaudrnrrai be.o t.nedir s.m\

rite llin.eriu4 bn$er orafllu!ddienheE ot

'pouhriei Ircmdi. sho4lhemselvcs tioi. d jn rbepfAed.onedion tbeshoes a*.nd mDre nnpped- either inp,id brkre or larchct rhai3-1mhesl?5-r00mm) beroid rhe bq toe ThjsimFssionr.ms -r:Lre Geeaboye 3). brt evai rht \!uld aopaf. h$. ntr'oitn rhe 1,1d' cedury shoes poi ed roes re commoi, il ior !ni!en3l butlherme mtud besrid lor rherryerrenior .r !hi5 n!L. 'Potrrdeshid pEsed our orfishjon r' 1100rf

aboy.T:Lre6andpo.23 Gee 9),butr.onra$s raced sboer a is! p:ns oI holes.:id lrcnt h.ed .nue{hoes wirh fi: paA 0r hotes lcroenoa yan lY?denq. pe6 .om.) orhod ra.ed shoes is siniLxr kt FEs.s6 Tsirb & rcit 1975,t03 Abb 5 4 a). fhe frod .nd sidehcedshoes in $e London.on.diotr ex.ept $hore there is .or onuous radis hlve p?iredholes$hib .oujd [e cLofd b! rtrrhes (.t Frs.5t); rhen tre feN cianpras \rh uneyen Dben ortz.etDe5kt F,s 53withi6id, rbb.5 3) Fir.27 ddedto rbe eurt r3rh .edu!-.,doflf resebbtes ? lc$ .e ur rurh shoe (r,t . Abb.s 2) boihueot o0epie.e aiapirou.d' .otr{tudlon,v(h tii By iie eadyrrdj cedud, ho$6er r s ov sde-Lrcedinkre boor lbd doDintu boih rhe nbieolog.:l ^reotlases a.d rhe bra$es. In ddrndLng exanpre of lsthced!ry too$r& r.!m o. rhebo$ot\icbohsc:ders (d 143rJ n Nrargd!.cr eys{eac lo* inkie-boohwiilj tr ioobmd,embroidered decomioi i .onlnlous ru.ng updE srde rbrour+ sae4pinsothe.holes lFig 159) Di.eor Io. rhede.raroi, the silte is 1rr) sfrLLd to rhe \boes ircn Tng L:ie jnus tr&d inFjgs.6970,rhe doruair-pe insoups t h 1tu dare. Thebns 0rThon* EokeihiD (d r,i60),trsr sreDhen s ctrmch, Nonrnh,:lso {ddseehsrobeapatrof siiltu.kles (Fjq. 100: .l Fls 66J The sfred nvl.! is sifriLr. drho!8b the:ho.sorrhe bras, pod ddingthe Finred and relred rhe Etun io frshto. ot ibe ii rhemidl5rh.e.tury Pour,De xe[] rid s.b]€beo9?2,32) $4e$ dd n $asdthistimeibarb.orlripi (aded io b! .ut rrP boor rtnfu predomi

r. rlfD$

Jd !chrdr rhqrc [.d He

oonunrrr the lrrrrnk r5th cenrur!sroupsrrom 'tus L:ie There rre .cnaiiry numbes or toN booG a elen boo$ raehins lldr $?! bdveen

rhennkle,idrheknee, pnoftorhet5th.ertury, bnt rbe iobr ,hsen.e of deiliiabte trrgmcft ol hEh.rboo( tsnorable, .ver fhenthefteq!er., orreabe!rur n bkei inlorcou.t. P.otuslr Groeihin-ve Warnige hA sussesred (pec. .aydion m! befr.o boocn !hi.h thevrv d

thebootlec $crc seprde Dieces. Ho*everLthe mdea,r fton ,Baymrds crd. , lnere ll,e.e quaran, conrndrcb nsth.ory, ifte onrhh sire Tter remains $e F$LbrL[t lrrd brod rear]E $rips {tu.h h:F beenro* of re'sed heishten ankre.shes rhd oth.Nhe appear robe .ofplete(.1 Fis 23 and dirusroi, p. r0), bur, ths isie, the absei.e .r ruu boo6 reroins Pttens $oodetr f?*ened ro rhe rooi wnh redher cm${inps ro dis.trs if the +oes de ,$ocided rvilhspecii. d$ellngsYet.ontmponrlinunntions seem to diferen.esbothn idus aid .ole. F.equently on

undecomied, uidyedankh.shoes Yerihe hish prcpotion ol shms $ith srcb de.onrior in the preseit .oLledloi niks n nnllkelt thd mu.b signilidnceshourd berkched (o rheprcsen.e or rrreseshoesii rhe Loidon soups Manusnp6

becmeldu:ry i daDLe etemenl in lsrb .eni4 ju$beLo$ Engrand GeeaboR.pp.91 101).Ni A ontha simpleshp onsl'oes.utenheriior rhe cotrbeii nifteenlh{enluryirhnmtiotrs,su.br anlde. Giei lne l4rh{edrury re&tion ro rhe rhr reprodu.ad hek {!is. 161) or rheran '5 pre$hpllous rlito ot rhemiddte d?s it is vie paintiis br qi E .k celebDtinsdF Aidol[i] m:ia:ce (iov D ih. \atjon,r c:rrerr London) li Fis 43 {r ?n indicdio. of somenatus. $ith 'vetues (./ F!q.127),i $yte ihsenttrcm?ll rh. tefl A pan of uide.onted side-h.ed shoes L,.don Foups or riis perjod The panens n rhe eiovded in $e Lcmsble churh in Noraf and vanEyckD.inliry. dted 1,131, drady h:ve loig dftd ro rhehte 12rh or edy r3th.enrq hav. pikes, ailher be.ausetne Low coundes beenidentiied b! S.lna(1977,lls) as the in.lciFred Engrand r its rcadoprroi ortrris*yle in de rfth.enruryor,perh,ps, besuse in turope sr,oes m vea"srfrihro ihof show0 tn Figs. po'JaineJ rfon the end oi rlre lrth cenrury 27 23 $hi.h, simDLr oi the b6G or sr]le ed ex.ard,ons in baE rounded toas,ro fn.h rhe ensid{ed obFds of pdcurft *ds bui sevenl in rbe e$rbrished nusum 0f Loidon.onedion n,v belons to rhetihe of thepiket reium io raror ii E.ehndiidier:!er450sor1460s. oiahA.iiIledhercom@site solelcuildhaLlMuseun 1s03, Fl lxivi?;.L ligs.139 40),b!! anorhq hasr hiisedEoden solewhi.hsho{s ,n ihprovenHt prain n rrre buradjoiil rourd d .Brynds cA e and Trig1,.. (Fis.133)ri !hd one se.hon otihe soleE lappedoy{ the oth{ to .Bke drejoiir morcsdenighr(;iid, Pl Ldri.s). 'flie hsue ofnatus B d iiing ngone,?nd.ould

inu*mions hd the pdren sho*i bv mren:l
fh{hTo|ogic|sitA i, rlre C rj d Londo' de!,ite er"F\" nudy.

Inm'cesind inknionca !i!e !,me ideaor{lh ihe v erLth'er n'-.mbes.I so.ieiyscrc No,n.c 6 NeLl r {hd tlE} serepayi4lorthenshoes. lor T! Robn h Fwt rNb.ttu at Fbbtr!, tt, r, tar al bh rtt b\d' ot 5& @td r/D: tl ,hvEin, bP atdd ,n, j|| :rtrq: h4nt h'fuxng':]6.nrnn1tlt'21ir|}'a!'

brd rry sin d b ftems in rhe F6d one.&( hrt othei\ - r p?d'cuh, rhe ![DD.is ard 'doppes trreid sorcadityientjfiedrrn*odb norDg rhd by lrreendoa$e r5th..ilury it *A pcsbk !o sodn .douLte sote. plesunzblr iu|i.$eri'olwelledshosaiJthdAfughl noad mh.B,toe.:t Asenb .ge

0310r)i !rr@?r44 sri o83djs-51 The shoes oithe peopt! .ommon donor seem to hrc beei expensre r.nB ro nile. $lzmrr h$ed,heori.eslor pFcerolk l. Bnnd in 1364 rs dreepenceror nukiis a p.n ot booh i' their entuety:$d n, i penny lor .utiis :id nvopence wA rhe Drymenr Ior

. L r ! . . i r i r o rt r l j l t r . h ! d b . i D r d e r e d , n re n!d! oI m.dioyal lodrlea lrca(ms n rhe ro{ns orDordfechr ind s fieflosenbonhti th. riethcn&dsholhyGLdedrheemetlposorrhoes, {are de.orated andb&l! {om Ntri dis.alded, {hLLe in th.larrt les iifluemto{n rhef {ere piinzndhe:d! r.m (0 Gotrbirz Dec..ond.) cdbiiz ii44F6lhe enis6 ofa e$ oir n !er. er 4 repreyrtiig ihe footwer or an *e& tound ii sizes

uppe6.nd a pen'y fof the soles, Nlh : tufher penn! IorhnDs 6rr2tun1923, ?s6). ri iher3rh addl4rh.e uries pa.eori rxn ot dong$rhother shoes rheayeDge ii the rme sres $ith tbe $oes, su.h A hrtbt be disribuieddinhb|y by q'iden rur otr \0 rhd rher .outd be eon 6 thekqq to rhepoor,seem! ro have been ?boui ilEpei.e or si\pen.e(yand{ 1931,5-7) ftu:?d b\ the rinLr '?rajid\ (0. coubrz Fc. rotrgdr equi$leni to a day\ wages lor I skjled rhe 5ho* in rhe oresetri
medon

TheRoy:rwdrobe rcolrG .onrai0 a number at a lree pmpodbi erhrbn rps ol reDan or sho.n,nes, 4ch presm.bty ideDtifabte ro espea:n!i0 the $hs Geeabor?.po 39 90,id prolde anider ol the vaidion thd s:s posstble. A requisition br Ed{Id Ivn 1130Io!lns.n.e, roe ,id heel Nih e\tu rhi.knssas ot ledh.r ra Pttt nnd ad\\nt 6, 4 pan ri :t!4 rtuut.drt !td6 hd( rd tid tn( | r: . hl t tiM lttu" lt stqltr L&t dd. lkt ! d 4.r !rn: /!' \j tatr iatlq k^rd h b4 , ta^ ttr ,!nj d rhur Hdtt. kt tur ut,^tbr{s rn4 at fin ujt .(.PesHenaa\ 1$ lj tt, fir,t tl tdt, tntt ih. tun \jd ht a tw./ Raft$ lj b!n4 st ys:r hht ht 'rt k' ln Ed Rd.4 ald@n& at I h rnQb4 th||r Nn

ue lrear r Mh

md di trp for ieNe

Trbles ls 16) The d.$nprjoi gEn b! rhe (crhlnglon & cuininsron 1973 Il) ac.ords $el $nh sho.ssu.r is rhese Nhirhhzreiepan

r! E Rrel! po$Lbh \hen eraniiinq shoes!o difieEniid. be.rlei tho* wom r\ romei and those$onbrmenexceprbrsne Geedstusbn ,bove,rip r03 5). \romenaregenrt,lt! shoryn D ontmpon( rllunniois either{nh rhenso*is vmp{err !o'enig 'her f€rof \nh nse! rhe ds.abes ihe \Iiie ol Brh in ?r. cdn tln

Armon .efraiJy sone of rhef. such s itE \hoon ine botewJ (btr.no(the boob rea.hiis aboEthekiee)iid theledher'pdyns , willhxve

h7 t6u wtr Fd!/eb!qtt

tt I," {hht tt t. q'd 4'N.ltd ulth hd Nt!

Trrecn4enrer's r! e itr The illiller s Tat. trb.e shoesradd ,,t i s. ]ir led. sked 1912, "

Irom the corii.ed, {.h s the ilusdion ro. Febdaq i L^ r,i: RihA H'xfls t! t?a,, Dt. ./, r,4 Hetr i shephedes Lvfmjng hcr tccr

rt sems lkely rhd in the 12i[ aid r31h.en anu.s and feei d:d ii frodenh shao.dLti.k (pre$mibl!und!.d)r,kts.*oes her mte,id tu..s*ont!dkDruebooGperb:FtheIngb akle shoes Ioundso fr.qu.iiL! t, &:lrieotosml lcndeQmpanions*erbuskDs. rb.;ili.rr21h. deFsilsorrhFpe.od.rn1200,liinsJohnorder.d pin: olboohforlii\ !jfe, oDe Iour olvlnch sA to b. rjnetrn\ {ey tu le|utw t 4itl btta4u,, dcnlcar i. eachorh.r (coiiin 1976 r.is t 1) ai lenin iqotunl u,., b0ltrl,4u, Do.umeikrysourc\ de ndimrhd yotrtrs.hild. si:: Lit,nb Rrtk,2loha cd H;idr1344,9) 'id x FEn.h {nrr oI simirddre ${es thd iie wo|elbemdsoefr!4ageas$ee.h:eo|ogi.zl 'fhe hoNe Duns t Ilontmaftrc *.r. illdrlel bods linedwirb !o& rmpry Gee:bove, Do 101 s) I'tr is i coicesion io lne$Ld (sind 13,12,19) bold a(ounE 0rPdn.eH.nn,30r orEd{ardt. rmood 0979 32) r,,is n,ssened dBr $.oen listthesh@sinduding ino!. vJn d rhe nDs s huMlo.s rhd lbis*as ind..d {r Therrns of Ladrde,Pole(.1330),fo..irDDre srro{slons 'pour,nnei peekre I' on uidarherdres (ch{or 106r.PL 7), rr r!!r, r]€ J,r,rrtems ot wlrtrs Ld rhemoun h:ve d{rlioLGd *hcn oie I'd rr m.?s. a irLLr.Dsih sktd6 {en. T[e vrlprure fromrhehht oi liin.h! d! taTorr td 1310) $bdi shos mr! rheradyt bs r.(ndi4 trd) js lrpi.itot rotryot derh{ skds (F,g. 162). soures, trbe.on!! o{$$q h look d lvidei.e fienryhimfLrtorhf \ nerEreanor, atrdror$en n!!n lohn or Bflrxny 0ohn{om rq22_3 dennbld as r44r (odtups usedherc as a gen{,r reh nth.r dm srllin.dt tor beto{ rbe .ikre \ho* ) r'd exceDr for th. iifonidi(r lnn someracesN4e Frchased sepmrel| ior Et anots \rne: tL n ttr dmt i trt nttta|: brtu Atidv. j run or* rro .edu..s hr!!. rn t473 I, sn s rtri sldoor{r seila h Lbf brsshoa.:ke! .tr b n\ ka) attd4t.44 rae. rft 4 dl

TheLq. N er!tshocs rhr ry{e pmhasod on a lqqre o(nri ror jun ror .hirdrc. ,4 sortrom LrdyEl?r[4h ! 6rn lltrr& rems Ja- IerinoD Lolhr rhef:rrN daiedievaffoot rv{r :d io di! r{djr $rh \rrit.h .hildErgro$ our or i,oas ArchreoLogLcat e!,ydio.s hrre lErdcd d,irdri ! sLoes ii .r, sidenbk nutr$lA rre abore. lablet9 Dvenvbe. tu :ll.ru.ce s '.:de ro.th.dtrbnionuNedbytrhlth nte or nrd mo'lalii) rherem ma.! oo*ibte Dn.timl rboutbtr.ehorcsp..:lty ;r the suDnei: thd

undesad ledh( thi.r, w,uld EieL), suF.il otr mh;edosiulsitA danLrarfrDcrs &nm.) dnr d'drti to rhelounger;or s'q, I Ihat rhedj]]d

nandad foollttu otrh.l,re t4rh Fdrrt

burE

tro, Iednrc ir trrru!.ft and Ie ih{.t0.. u4d! orcnooked b! cmtun. r,jnl;?is o(f exiensiycLyid i_ond ff I " h J p .L m d o m , .$ e - m q " 1 ! e p r l - r h ; d r \ ' haneri, 5lor lilhLon n.ir rhei's nrins seems ro rrie teen ab:idoied hercsoir rhe doseddjns sequ.ft.s l]f rhe Londorvrer

?ere rt&frty hsucdNirh shoe!alld. orhine. ti {ere ftcor.rd. no de.orred shoes tud hrdty 0y pdre's Hol$.r cunirtun ard tucir o965 23)r)d;ey.dui clltd.endrd$eaf r,ireis IndthesingLedild.s|,enjntb.p:sdl&[cc M,nnrn rlsfdions ad L'55es dier.on

or $n subr.r.r r ,. odrtidy ririe ristshi b:crNredclytrr.htds relred upor lrr I(Fr.y
poprLtjrn E r Nli.l!. l oneol e i!* titetjk.

mg! rl hieh booG nrM

jn nunurn$s

ir robltr

{nh $hjth thcy {eie {om.,nd upo, rhosenbo 'yo.erhem. The Erpe o.d{trrd,kr*mcd rlie&rkdmisnl;e srsren ihotd be dE dse, md thisi!:iD rrnigs b:tkmeisnrollltrdJFofthe{€*Andlhl

rlth c.itu{ i-(trelt Psltor rFi! 163r d.f1 'B:yrtrdr C?nk (Figs 53 1) x mebs ltket! rd sere {6 n p. ( oldrtsiq rhe.hid s l abs(f oI sho.sri rhe rmltd \tes rirtr ex i[ nn tjonsol d'iuren $eai4 rdrinei s..rB h iDdid. ilil .hildren $ef !\.mDrd r0'. rhe !drrbcage.f reD(oNrlr. td!NeeE:ard1935) Pr$uiubry,\hen MoNr.ler qrorc r{67 r bol5 lea.ing 'poura;e! ,, .r/ , r,ri' (l..anh.ll r335. r.r31). be,ss kter.insroolder rhtdreior

tonr Tli.o\e $ or

oiolnor.sla.jrlrtcs

E$

nshr rrep

laslrioN r.?.rred ovr rrk D6t hudrei lcais llw rrcen btr.d oi 4idei.3 fio oinm;ipc q&nunit! to.dorm ihissdli rirb suftrtnr ddrb|em|'}.Lof]cfinds'i61notbc.rq rooLed Thee!iden..0fitr sho$ Ln rberr*eni srcdioi !{e{s dui hin, orib. d{i!!ms nrurd bc inldi6ed, or

Glossary
IreD or rodtrer Nhid erlends to jtr{ itrk rhe:.Le

Lti'jAlnlLi]liiglelo.s

orF*r,i". rde rdi -dc i;"

leruLrrrDF (rrq r'

oddlrrrmirlr,r

ntLd

qlmLLf bma,q fe

I-q,s uoo! nn!. nonDll! ol lerlpr, ilraadad rbrollh @irsot hok N ert'jshjrir rbriirg sri0 or srher nirhed onto th.lleshsdeol rlp lpperIr nrtn!1hei diehehores (., !iF.100, r03) d mu.d ttu tr$. rxoodEibrr.{ Tb. p:{ .r rre uDo{ Nhi.hN pulled I rt'.ulirer,rrre !re 'rhe*?m nru?lr! lnd|des a md, drousri.o! iiq;tr[Lr b!fort rbe]3th.cnrury d !, dlnote. tnrnslrr spht thons {h.h is irn.ad.diltroush a pa; !r hi,re\ lltrhnenry. Iifi h{e E ? gen.r:r rem ior ri it .. ur!.s ! rorm ol open sidrl rroh i sdpooledty Polishongin, or.pk| . Eitoi'aly trrrdf 0, ded be sdled Nithnor or hanrohold rlr ltth.eiiury ad in rhemtddre oI hiriroir rh. ffD oneilher sjde or hc.r.burn rhe,edie Pnod mor zDd thesor.r '.akerhehnin!.mdgin moE {denishi cordk.ured by Liidii( nit.ht,{L prot.dLotr.ror ertrhrre on Lnenings?nd?lors th. yrnp ituod (FLs r,r!/, Johnadebr bunin!roge len Fr:id dojBthem q(h m edse/aesh seaD lFie.7?). o,jn,tu.d au nadeb\ aE tnr rh srai res[ s!rh6 (FLg 7ii) Itan ofr0o$?d$hi.h does mt exie f.derpanolsr'oeusurrrr rrihi.k{ledher rhm rheupper. r!mo* Ntrnbly hxde rir h rhesn Lnsid. do{n{3rd: lred con(rudom lq.y ). Usuall! .a,r,,i,k rmph d! sl! pedpj!.e {,I rhjlr hdher iit.hed by ioo! rumel*irchtrurodE mLnsol!tFt. u3). somctim.s kno{nA : cLrmp solc, whi.hisFn,05 r, te pretened, sin.e ii dp 15rh .eniury su.hsoles o.ctrsiotuLllr seem 10hrv. b.e. anonsii:lrrt1.r rheshoe

R€i.for.€,eDr .ord

,(.r.{dttu'g Sd.hing dorclnh a !ryr. rhiearrhrr r0trsrd5 h!r hdesrndbrk oF, !o rhd i tonrinuou: Er.i theroD surrecl!'s.133) olsimpl'roejiroieth..dg|

,irllrs-n dr4 arsled nil.hiq:rl (fr! 75), usedrorpthria rff rjningrqo h edF (!.is30) oe.n cdae

srhd hs,?n\ rlk nrsr, sjdo

tre q, , r ;!ide lFrlr ir :,r)

\r 'l' '1,! *i;!!d'u\u!r

J{Ed i

rrrt rr{r

c.rhr p.ni.l orrhe r

Ln/,,'lxs.sofll]!\ii!|\|n' 'ht trr,.{ b j0itr ,rF dJPr

orroNnd0i

(q.r I is rl

dr

Lrstol lrsures anoconcoroance
[x..pirorr]|krsrrds*N.inris 1r6 :]l1he illunnrd !ho$ m nlii rcun c\ iri ioi. Ar thd ihrcc ii.l.r oa iirirFdion a.e requned r. Ldf,tit a Frei.Ljed rhe5ir.,r, (TL ?4. Blrl r\ppo ix 11, the aI r d r I y I t a,t 6 t,t tt t t t.n\qr/r e \nt keis) erh !(.) Tr'edd e: ! pended t o. a b. tu l jr. i cfry.a\!. rrad,ier qhr.hrb. tayeiroieini0s $n .Ljed is thotrgbt to h?f. hen deDosired r\r,e i\r) l hDsenod Nr,nh $rrt rrbnft.d rlr Nooi or Ledher are mr or '! turrr Funherinrormrrlr rbld rhe Nhtrhs peiai!(]! l[dvrds 1936). n{.d Ln

i63rl rrli

Pqodvlr r .1tr5

.!N; rlft i!44) Pentrrnr?

ss r lr$l is8). 0l

Iric i? liorr 1118.) l1rllori) lvr..trorni . rlo
5hf!,a,r Brcy rirll5i3r ieprar P!d( \ru3,

lrulcos) s;!rtorr rr . r2r0 aeeplo, srr $6)i*r) rrde{ilir!. Jr(fsr' BrCulred li..ri&d EJC!ti$rcrft ).Pdodtx,

!! ru l5fl i4i). trr'rrurr r.

lrliru) rf,(rqi r .1!0 Adul ; +i( L:lA.: J4dt@ EIG3, 4&jl rel(s0) o( \'aknut nr oe. ur M!n\ irktr$4. Brr r, I616t 1r?0t s! tr ^di' s h!. z l4!t or3) Peo.i

tr6n(]r),\riretro^rfir r.[D sHir lr&l cs)
!@pk4'

lrde6o^t nJ . rr0.
$nenffrrlt.

Brc r ft271 (|sr)

sH i,li&lc16).

if

sL\ s

c!$ {lcc| olj l,dlhd sors: d[ Bc 2 Ii5] Bc2t33t

.io Adi' snp! sde:Qnelp*ca[ rq( 'f ! ! 1 e 1 2 0 1 1 ( r $ er)r.l e . 18c ar sHz 1316l ar ^ddfs $oe !m.i

!rehbLanLr Bc 2 tzl

!c 2 ptol (4Ge). d{k.orslrucrN r3! 50.

r5 J.ft rrd!{b s{.drefr:.{.

ldr tutru^ +fs

\,-; ris: $4prsnr r.fu.;Q[ Bc2lLstc$t drr

! c 2 l ! 1 1 ( 3 r t ir ) . ( i n

Lc lr:01 (3303) i'd ntr ilri :5h!+r!'r B. 2 erlt c[3),do.r

s[

DC 2 ttg BC z tat (r!!) do*

tllt i3!i) Gi!!pc1r..r3{ 2 rrslr36e3) dod-rj)rdotr L3o i tu Lhe 2@i !e0) bur rse se fj! m. n[. s\r.l & lr]!n {c0) l!$l i3rir) d!.( nd. l34ti*rn c@4cri,r lit mtr tsc7:J]jol3jqt odDi! D ror \[h r] p' !c 2 Fn (rr!r) a tr5riFro) cro@cr5.rj&. !xH. 4 4ir I rLr ndi rn pb rL ir [r6t uo{i .dr TL a a68l 1.r0!Dd.[ntu 13ii rro l!31 sorqli Fs6Lr a I BC2 soli3i0).6{ f chLdt rh Bc z ffiJ orn). d{( trl Ladr6 i (! rh u rb j\rA & cu2l .r@

t3FJ ir23)..r41r5 r lr4l

'tL

7! 275)<!i)

a
!i
]k4e[rq ht lrbnd.6hnas

et5l cmt
TL ru ],75]
4t Niftb{l.

,Pour6e$e.{!triigji!fuu,6eleBc

2 nsl ir66e). dotkfir, [?5-!00

BC 2 ni011372),&*ndr . 3 ? iL i o -r,cuthgFkn.held({trI$4'slel{

ir r.xdrri!!{irr'ir(r!ir.TLaLr[l(16:3). L: radrioJLr \ n(tu rr-r 13631(r60t

. I nd .qn s\\r3t tr,

c!0).1 !00
\inru]s{(D.]{oh,'Rsn*.tpyoght.

,: tsadrsd6rq6@rpu rLr !; Lair'hrbr {irlLi^pr 6 bdlndL,-{tr6,q!h
&rPi h , -l i r

lrin lrur),

TL r 13$ (3ar), siv:3i trDlislD
|]6811:rI) i: vl4 Bc ', 33]

rr I I r.r

I ri4 mdiirernh rfun t301tG36s). .! osd{\

3c 2

rsl

.i r Bc 7r lre ca3i) d!*fir

1r a nrts cjr Bc7179€$r).M&irrl

d BG M Ltoftt l$r9)

Peni Jri. rl.

ri R(i e

rTmrt (si)

Pend r!,.

h€

Dr: '4rieh

h

thldd{tu

z(nolia{

gi sqns l3o1t G32) @d]re12ftrru^

sHt4rlsrtcor r;'qionr J , rll
1: !ar![d]e^tu($G s< Fiq ,i

sp s! n

lrel

(sr)

,r Pn€n sirDdJurl (3i) 160 !00. 3rR 33 l15ut ct l3il cu6t l30l rror) D P ' i e r 3 1 v B $l o l l s ) . r . 6 ! e& M,

'. aui(ds cri Bc rr rrur(I33), d* ni

d,!k iit !!!

. ! : v a o r c d Jr L a e 7 5 l i [ ! ) . c r c u p c r s r: vi D crr Ec ? l33l(r55;) iel 0i B.2 rietc$3) &rl (5s)i B c 2 l 5 t i m o r )& c d e ) & r

130 Pz6. S4ri&e. TL 71E53l€m6), C@e P,na &rizu. rL 7r Basl{2M), crcut

shA dnnPalkns l5tD.deonBLRqJM6zA'flI'

Bc ?2lrsl G2a), dd hf[, 13?+l,r0o. Tr 74Ela (1O9), CGs mr, ..rs0, (s), 1360 BIyB $ t10€t uno. TL 7r 806l(w), C@ c[, ,13s0. aqrBB I@l {25$), 136.-140. BWB $ eet €0r), BG1{0o. Prb. rL 74t?r16t (979), crdp e2,arz?o. Ped. swae Pr0rt (168), Fe.1{3n. Prtu. rL 71ts3t o2r3), c@ c1s,ar4o.
TsiElfideoFtdishehionDl*lllj4' @rdsdbyI'(dmeiq'Fde*@' 115{e{penddsbdi0trhdby'a[d4g

$6 Dd non bnh of',olnotErde. wsdsb olfublnBfumhe'sr' Me&acaci@h'I{na,,Lym'N.fu. se Delr f64 ees ofrrdEts cokF. st Jorn3 s'.plq!cnnd,Nwid' ftr Deei sho"iisDdc6 hd,pootaimJ. BLMsjut

D.ii3e b lhe @€d by [,/&

'ttdr&'.

AddMs4130 fl96b.(D.M rdh Mnh!1932, 165PLoofrhsOrrdktrdotr, lh@tusd!bdmof

h^4HdEbedbJds'scdeo6s'35'

I APPENDIX

The excavations

ri{il,rjundddlun

^ r'tri r.srDtion or lidnld rYat.hriB b.ieJ. lDr.'i otr i,{!d ilre 5te or ?rd' s'.trp t'

ir ernDie tlui tlk.

ro ,.L '!L\ L" rtrLr

rs.rnt.d dd:b r .br$G (.oms pdrerf 0 Lsii' belo{, burlor i, Ldarih d'. r.ad{ s summinsad

::-_:Jf'\r

oHt

_

.

p@uyep@dnoMefu,(m'l.tmt@'

t2

rereiied ro vince 0935). Funher L.Jorhation :boui de silesrhensetves is ?latablef rtreDLrrl rl{tid c'aial,4. (Mrseumor lo|doi, r$6] or n the sepa*e publiilrions as lsred Tne site rode.appendcd ii !. renrheses :aer .hetunmne { eeh n., r r*d in th. ,ai o/ a@zr ,d t 6 otd Bdilq/12-6 Lunsak Hi , Ec1, t932 (LH7{rl|r 32;Fis.l6s 1) sevei;Lsedions{ere .r ridss rheciiy dtr.h d Ltrdl{e, shosingr ro liale beenE.ut svenl rnes in llre Late $xor nd nedle!?l peiods. The ,6 reenered shoes.r€ether N h a very l:rse orrhedrrhes, *hich h?d?pparendy beei hveued wlrh nbbnh h a s;ste opeotion .ert?tntvb! 1340, shen2 ro$ oIhouses *A btriLr onrop,,id *A L* $hei treshry nified Ba)tui, Auy, akb, vnbno srx!, Ec!,

pot.ry, lnreecoins lourretoA atrdseEnl pirsam s.ulenin sugge*$:r llh {m donc in rheb$ q!.ner ot thc l,!it' lrdury Tre pre smdioi of redheNork $A beserhercn,f oi deporG in th€ do.k andrhe Dresei.eof ex.eptomllyhrl]e quanriries orpurelrorsani. mdenar. Differert p:ns ot rhe litLiis Nere eianinedii ditferent *,!s, bui id rhose ecs {r,i.h ser mo* neti.uLorny ersvded pedaPsA mucb * h:[ $e tokl r is tikelr thit very .edr/ all rhe shoeson4n:lly Dre. Rntmd: cnthlcit aJ r,rdo, Ba$ srlhot, r]tkt ThdDcs shat Ec1, t93t tB\D 31: F)!. I1-urlon erposed seyer:t su.tesile hmber A !e4 .m,ris;!p d it jn hre4 reanered shoes and5 pdreis Ms tound derosited rlhen rhe HGtonftl anddo.umeikd somes sr spes the llns *?s Drcbab|v bedreo 14,3trd !h 2-3 TtiE 1,,t, Urrtt Thrrs s*x, Ec1. 1974 Tbeer.rdion eiteided oy* a ver- larcema or..430{mrdrereredammd* ;N;aor Evelients(cl cl5) nnging rrofrrhenrd 13rh Io thend lsth.edunes|bebj]qs a $lies .' as.ciaied buirdinss (MiLn!& r{itne 1932) Four n€d dtrhpsrhar{de pai o(ihs tou nain n4e (') Ille edie* Foup. .sso.iated dh rheC2lc3 revelmenb .onhins jrn 17 registared !"red qu(e exrmtre\, hd lalqe qu,ntiries 3ithe.he drnps wee.onposedot soilNhnh .onuhed tev tedherobiedsor rhd th. coi dLlons otpresrudlo. rere so poorrharreN nen6 *ere erecred soon arrer..1270. (ii) The ardupAso.i:rad with the se..id main (c7) is sihtadysnauand@on! rev4menr praenrd 16 rerinered stra) In rhe ab sence oI d.ndichronolosi:l eiden.. atrd .l
-

The ex.avarioi.onmonl! knovnas Bamads caire .olercd an enonousaea over rm n {ide to ine sodh oi upper ,fb.mes stie-4 ovebscr&chefyrgft,162 3&Fig 60) Thts n .oisldenbLf to the !oud, ol the onginat B?v. mrds cx{re, shi.h vas buitl bv wini:n r .Dd ,ppeen0y deiroyed inthehte r3th.eitury. No lft.e ol thI or aiy olher royal srtrdure *€s round.The pai.ip, su.iying reniins vere of r{rh.enturrd?c:onlbe$e$, asens orlmLer dockleading 10a publi Mre4de and,oi rhe eAr. the {:n5 or.m ddioinms p reprEd\. 1931Geebelos) $"s sub{anti:lly rtblih in the l5$ centu!-, aM i*li be.de kio{n ton thr hmeoiwdds6 .Brynrds&sde. The rootrlef de{ribed ti this volunc wA arl fouid ii lhe li.inity orrhetlrh-.enruq varercte iilet.nd maybedivLded i.to hyosroups (i) A sm:rL group or 4t reeieed shoes w3s round n dunpsdeposited d rheiine s,hsn lne inlei rsell NG .onnnded Tlis is dded bv porery andjerons Fob:Lr! 10the $dl (r) a lery k4e group(4r7 resi*eied sboes and r2 pdtens) *A round aong dE enomous quatilesotrubbjsh \lnnh{ere used to rtill the dock b DreprnrionIor lne southwd

-

nt.mnll!

drhble objcds a iid.oI..1310

1,000 sq 0. dunD{

1
ri) Ih. .xdiei.onsis6 ofru! lile 'tan.r.d
. sr o|er{$

(jn Tlt [NdhsrnDsbyhrrhebe*preser-.d.

the*me depor 6?r$rfkii:
forunaaxdked 'rn plilibr\ tr er!r rdre rrrloirr! lJ'he Fe.edlis d'ns ? iob oi dmosrlrflrerr$.onr.rd jcrotrs:trd.oiir

4enLnbn

(rr Tli. s.rordsoe (r0'tFi.'td sho.t crnl

l 6Jfiasfi r, rcz J9r6(uLK i6rFig 165 5)
r!dpil5rf3inNi^dn,"iorrhrqlhorr("hblrre

rhen Nse od l,rr re.rrnr

The shoes

ds \r Lk sreernsen(Rosk1ms * s.ho[eld ]9i3) Theonry6idsd$mbed iih s\oruncr.xeroup otrr(rtsl) hcdded br p.rtfl t rr,e*.o.d L..lt, LVpt rh,t^ sttxj. Lsetul o kmN I rllt honqeneryon(jnrr\

Ptrtit ctb^nq

11r Lbrook nrouih nerrhenedle\iisrerirdui lubrt rlrrloll)ow*te. r di! n!er b,ik. Drorl iron lnrh'se (l2ii1 r. Lrt.) ?nd seremL dunp5 behind iherr[e.]Qs re.o\ekdin rLqge rheDddre or(he1{rhftntr[ (..13J06o. Su, Ltn{ tilttr 1h,Dr\ l smrLl codrclled evrvdlo. erorsed i Lrl! ro r:ra or been dded[r da'drodroiologv
rder. F,!jd;Lg i rdrglL &,rtlr !^i 4?4

riry or ThoDA Be.kd\ nny oD (i I70) brng tu i',,,rs tdr q,r,, .oi,vrr, g'pi!isiii*rl {.iL06.agi!. lr )Theth;d t.Ed shos) rnd ..me tom red.mdon

Li'Tll|ie{gnlpl9FeijledJ]..nun.

(

rrt JitriL snir tr br tu lt, L{en r1rr9
Dde|]!.idthd.:r!\$fe\lnpl{a

EC], t932.81C E\.arroi ordnns 550so n shov.d rrnr il,e di!

sf.: I i,r[r:

r'!,xh

i ]rP rr Laise

rrnr! $nh th. buidiry ii x \rdetoded NE fiurbfltrlr freor trrr\

Th{.atr.f h.d

dln!(r(d [e l2th.nd L3rb.rrun6. lur the nc d orosre$ so'..iirtrs ytrr.d iotrronhirt

J uirennrfr ii(r rhe rlub

ot !

Borotrih r^d

r.!f.r.d lqli,r

11\lniofund.

rb.rior! llnrNnhi md se.D

rhet vnr p.o.LL rerned

drld.d ,.rsr,rr i^h (ou souF it Ti,r !traj.n(Penoi v|) run 13fegrft.ed nr!\. Foblrrt! ddcsto . nai dr,r tite
hPr reidm{hron.L.$ I's+drDlhdrbree Inob{snlD dr ss..nred relerme.r {.r riit |h. rbrd grotrli i:.ia 1)r'he mon mponin brd:dr! rl rhemidrht.l2ihcPdrn (iirTha:etond (r.riod!nl !Di*5'fr smup krgm..rary,\ dre uf. ns5tssoggenedby the6ndDs.ri( n otHenq n {1130 9r rd b! tri. dlk orlheroLLo$rg rcrerNd (q y J (rr Therhtd srcnp, b.ordLy dd:blcb llr 6rn hiilrrfrheL3tb Eru4...o ii0s. robl ot33 I sens ot tlrce

'tr...ertsif er i r2errtArrnotrif

1r$.

(Penods lnh jl5.onnrudion f,\, x, xr) A ddeoi. 1210 .r bcproposed rorrh! brjldjDs ol rhe revetn'en rseil ,id tor the pnmiry * devribed 'tr rhisvolu'ne(pp 93 100),bn lne (Penqjs dcposirs x, xJ; dendrc.hmmlosy \iere re.ov*ed $hen Nndq s?s ilieadr hr iinLe^ md thisseems.onsntent nth a.oii (120i 11j)A.oin of Heq- Ill issueorJohn 0223 a3), holger, sires r slighdylarer p.obably dde 1t thedeposibollcnodxl, in (iv)1h. 6ml gr.trp {16 rsi$ered shoen .ro$ Fnns Flt a tfl,rr &s 4!d of c,!a- Iate, nhrtQ/q, Ltu-1hd ^stt{t, lcl ?r7JlCLIS i3; Fjg.165.10) Dxftlation in 6frce. sm:I dispeised beatH 14rh en.lry rimber .cvdneft a,d.behiid them,lhe lounddions ot rhe hr ]4th.€ tr,,a cu$om lonse (Tdron BroNn r9.4 rgit The sboes haF be.n pub lsbed $nh lreiouslyUons lgis) and iosdher non or the oth{ 6.ds, cane rrom red.bitioi du,nps aso.iard hili!ieletmenr ont! one

or vri.li rriere we

94 examples in rhe

During subsequld {ork br buitdtn! res{ered shoesNhi.h .onrndon rfter rhefomarerallioi hid been.ompLered mdslEn0l!l]miled ro .ome rromdepcns (croDps c11c2)$hich {er. .oi&hp.nry rlnh a relelme.t dded by aM g.o!05 ot finds r.isienl .hronoroF.dry $eft srnsld ,i s"! m

APPE\DIXII

Conser-vation

Tmning hee ?rrof. p

'lible:t)

som. pi.c.s

lftrqDllkoi3]tr+i.

{.lIiJL|tionolrre.omftendedh'ngi.i'le ;odiu' oli'dplilill pb.d. (.0fl) mcpsar.r

brg rrur\irh onLf . smrr inrounr ot er { ind no

pros.ri some ii lli. ririir$ ad fic v Lhile b!s, r.in d dr;r! bL,'i , orh{s maf li:fe

(r5ii{Jt!Le:ssD(e

Free,ln{dtr5ndipo{r

rLs.bnrirrod s rsendh.objedr rorcd {.i IL6n:Pne.elI'xdutnnybedailc.dllmt

aos.nnirn

( mide m(ed,rin

rr! di. s.s

tu.snG oI dni@ ii 1,, methois shcr, re& r fl.rLh e. nrcns ard noi rolo,yiq rido^ ra8 !:rir ind finishes 1.hc coisidertd nh.r ev rd

The m€dlods cbos.o iTi])le,I)

(L) sr,/0i 14,{ (Redor r97J)
thev m:ke {udr rnd hrndhir ou.h eiier d

sunft rlDnrD (i..tone or rl.ohol) {hi.h M!

ind rrl'elbd llF !\iyrled !r {A :5 \hen buacd or \* enh{ $lollen or sltruikei s;e: !fl! 'he5edlmensions asdGEl\ r oosibL.

coisDiig The;ili nlirrtoud?!\Hssnaltbri too rqS0 freeTe-d ng rs ritrrAiryLv trld. 12) F{u. d4,,! rDayid 1$rr n:6.D re31) ThLis?ge repro.es. hhAbeaiiisrDde^. usLfn manr rabon.nA i. ltu rin 12lem lts h rrsopu6 njnjmrl nnitrotrdeLdr obirdi. Trirtssho$.d drr rhe dunos sollenr dnis rlabLe 22) li rhisrdhod theledh{s'iu.tr:idpLEd;ja\&!um,|h]5 , rhd is, the au$s i[e ne aomed 10subtime {dd n rtdorad 'iihoui goi.ettuough a L([d phAe TheiiiliiLeoit.rodrarro' treez. dryLnq ndhod sin.e1933 rl'evuseun o{Loidon h6

Dhntrises ba.khs

dyes and iitrsr,A sj\e dr(ere

efieds ot bolh

rt$Lr D a slde nige ofr0 0E

mcLtrdLtrsbls&

L'rher reated b! rtmoul orv&r itoie un { LLbe nth.,rifsid lbrr':id rheieDx!ijn be

ror{ ire. 5h?0. .o10tr rid ile bm .lso i.r

slriir,ge rr0ro.1930idrsirg {A:ririli.d ro \hie:pntr(RedorleTn ].hl5ksrLt.d 0lieiLbLe

\:lh.1dftin{niIhplA'j|JdJrt

scli.r ,

r

si
ridDlnril ind rj,drr ,:jjDh r" rrr;.l]ii orLl ne

nPij]h''iD]FjtD}dl,3l:q'{nD'!!rj

L rqi'

12%
rrsze Dred -rA*bm Dred

Bibliography
BrAir, J, d ar, r97 Owdng., k aMn B^ca,I l, rsdt Lit kwtid EEM BMs, J, 1399 Dtr Pameibser a cskrs. sia Die Pon'if,dsdei !!d Mi@o,z'ad"ia tucra d.E 8t,1o,2eL3a tdr7tutu. Etrbickl,q der scrur,mdeh 9500Jaini, ,t

196sfuboei4ibnMifuHb,ru&ud Abbitusen, zrd;, ,it Mriorqi'

d$

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Summaries
R6sumE
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plus Uredes importates.omlu nsdtrdedier.h.pite, Crl$yuid,,s illu$fttions de mmu{nG m,iditiv x, ie sdd Fs roujouG unpide sr t.qrl d ped mnprd o e qui coicemeres.hausures mddiivres. Parfoh,come pa exemple das tc os de h node desb.uh poinhsa h 6ndc dh6orogiqu.s ct brsbriqres do tes utunmrions.on.odent ms t. ptus

sur h .ontinentet cn crudc Biebsne, roi Fd fri. que des modesd-A .hausurcs senbl,bbs Jarrteniftp?Ddues da: lrmope dtriofd.o!e$.La mle.ti.D londmiemee{ $s d:t coi*irue ue des prus impotunre\ ..nedlons Toures reschisarsd€.riresdz.s.evolune sod aunus6edeLondres. .i drespeuven( itre eEmies sf dem.nde €.nre.

zusammeluassung
{uden kiir[.h beinahe1500 Schub. und Lb.n.huhe zus der Zen von ungeEltr 1100 1450 leluiden Die freisten hgei io schichtn. die zur Ledgesimutrg a Nordde der Th lultdlchte,{dsetomrlioseie L4enq hd die Funderu$*oidenfu.h pl D* e6t Kapilel.S.rrr.Z,d,,?r An:Enb{uu, u, Ilaa-u,1 e\t\ e tmls dae eig datiene, breite Eidfihdis ii die le6.hiedeied Aned Bkher w kein verglenhbuesNiai Schuhe in GroBblihnniei lorhanden(T?iel l) Der se$mte Zeihum ht mbnelt n sebenPhapnm. F{eirs uiserahr5oJrven nr diediejeveilisen Modetederren bes.hrieben itrden. Dieambe*en erh:uenen Beispiele sind ihre Gruppeabgebildd, ci Ln T,belei d* Re* DN u{eite xapltel, s.rilrtu.r,, rrl s.t!r&tu', satr shh fli den we $ofien auseinander: dem l-ed{, dem ;uebl dfl s.lrnanen und Riehmeneidei, demMoos,um Au$t?f6eren. Konshktionsmelhoden unddie Haupden dd N:il e siid nii debllli wddei sii.keElen Lo.homente trndCcrienngetr gezetl. Seitder Mtte de31,!.Jdlhhdeds *lrden s.huheii Nla*trprodu]|oi untervaN-enduns eiief rel.tiv kreinen Auzm vonshdr I mdriten K:pneL Ur^rrlrir, nird gerej31, dajlin r 2 J,hnimJen, weitr r{odakmei. rn rrdhen 15.Jatuhunded vude eine gai, neueAn S.huh mt einer zusmme4esetlei Lede(ohh

rL5 ortutrsddden [be, denSt.iimrreo ijb.Hhuhesehi lordhi, sieNurder e.i(h Rthvhliise,zeigl. Dm riere K4)ikr. c,&n od ?'q.rrtrt, nidgli.h iJ, die sen&a, oasiMl.n s.huhgrdBei leszu$enen,dxll dle arr'rrn crdrle u lEuennilenuitesd'i.denwden des15 J:Irhmdens eine besoidere Iucffdemeb-ies si.h,d?iumiie N{irft e In S$uh fir l{LeinkLidrt "rkrLt la$en auf Deloffijefliser von Fiillen,!'sE Zehei$}ljeile.. Entiinduosder sojls, TehE.d.r.in{adseca.btete lm dd {nhtignen S.hlu$olgenngenir\ leurei Kaotch. Sr,,,r , truni !,tt Lit hn ist, daB figulrclF musknpdlu{ndoiei, dre!:drtioFLreF seH :ls QuelenmitelrllerLirherI(1 sindin Bezus alr Schrbz$s J{ Mode dd Latrg.trSd BeGpieLrre Kun(ler no.h \Ldei l:hrlMdcns. drter hingegei (idi.hr d raba, Latrse $crholt vtrei \ eqLei.had( Fmde drFteulen,dieim '" l" rpJT"'nuoori. sodar rusdebnretr, da( :ihih.heS.hrhmoden sichiLer srz Nord*!s Etrropa genaoen Erh:ltungvushid Daten md l|ren dieLoidon* cole.iion nt ihr.n :i cnc der repriisenhriv*en und bede aid$ei Samnrluqenenclrei $erde Ale biefb.nhriebeneD S.hohe nd kiime. n&h *hnftLichernimeld

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