2.9K views

Uploaded by purijatin

chapter4,mechanics of solids by crandall,dahl,lardner

- Introduction to Solid Mechanics by Irving Shames
- Mechanics of solids by crandall,dahl,lardner, 3rd chapter
- Mechanics of solids by crandall,dahl,lardner, 1st chapter
- Mechanics of solids by crandall,dahl,lardner, 2nd chapter
- An Introduction to the Mechanics of Solids Solution
- Mechanical Vibration 3rd Edition SS Rao Solution Manual
- Crandall - Introduction to the Mechanics of Solids
- Chapter 5
- Book Offshore...Offshore
- Chapter 8 PVR
- Chapter 6 ACKulkarni
- Chapter 7
- MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
- 4 Shear Force and Bending Moment
- Theory of Elasticity by Timoshenko and Goodier
- Advanced Mechanics of Solids
- Ntpc Summer Training Report
- r05010302-engineering-mechanics, JNTU btech I year ME group question paper august 2008
- Fundamentals of Engineering Plasticity
- Mechanics of Solids Crandall

You are on page 1of 79

BITS PILANI GOA

Objectives

STRESS

• To know state of stress at a point

• To solve for plane stress condition

applications

STRAIN

• To know state of stress at a point

• To solve for plane stress condition

applications

STRESS

Let’s considered that the body is cut in two halves by a

plane passing through point ‘o’

Stress vector can be defined as

(n)

∆F

T = lim

∆A→0 ∆A

whose normal is ‘n’ at the point O.

Characteristics of stress

1. The physical dimensions of stress are force per

unit area.

2. Stress is defined at a point upon an imaginary plane,

which divides the element or material into two parts.

3. Stress is a vector equivalent to the action of one part of

the material upon another.

components with respect to the coordinate axes in

the form:

(n) (n) (n) (n)

T =T xi+T y j+T zk

Body cut by a plane ‘mm’ passing through point

‘O’ and parallel to y-z plane

Rectangular components of the force vector ∆F

acting on the small area centered on point O

Stress components on positive x face at point O.

3-Dimentional State of Stress OR

Triaxial State of Stress

σ x τ xy τ xz

τ yx σ y τ yz

τ zx τ zy σ z

A knowledge of the nine stress components is

necessary in order to determine the components

of the stress vector T acting on an arbitrary

plane with normal n.

Definition of positive and negative faces:

If the outward normal points in a positive coordinate

direction then that face is called as positive face

Negative face of given section

If the outward normal points in a negative coordinate

direction then that face is called as Negative face

Stress components acting on the six sides of a

parallelepiped.

PLANE STRESS CONDITION

PLANE STRESS CONDITION

For example: Thin sheet which is being pulled by forces

in the plane of the sheet.

X

Z

PLANE STRESS CONDITION

Stress components in the z direction has a very

small value compared to the other two

directions and moreover they do not vary

throughout the thickness.

will only depend upon the four stress

components.

σ x τ xy

τ yx σ y

Plane Stress Condition

then σ x , σ’x , σ y , σ’y , τ xy , τ’xy , τ yx and τ’yx will be

the only stress components acting on the element,

which is under observation.

σ’y

τ’yx

τ’xy

σx σ’x

τ xy

τ yx

σ

y

EQUILIBRIUM OF A

DIFFERENTIAL ELEMENT IN

PLANE STRESS

EQUILIBRIUM OF A DIFFERENTIAL ELEMENT IN

PLANE STRESS

terms of partial derivatives.

ΣM = 0 is satisfied by taking

moments about the center of

the element

τxy = τyx

Equality of Cross Shears

This Equation says that in a body in plane stress

the shear-stress components on perpendicular

faces must be equal in magnitude.

It could be shown

τ zy = τ yz and τ xz = τ zx

Definition of positive and negative τ xy

τ xy τ xy

τ xy τ xy

Positive Shear Negative Shear

ΣF = 0 is satisfied by taking moments

about the center of the element

Three-dimensional equations in the

form of indicial notation

STRESS COMPONENTS

ORIENTED FACES IN

PLANE STRESS CONDITION

STRESS COMPONENTS ASSOCIATED WITH

ARBITRARILY ORIENTED FACES IN PLANE STRESS

σ

A y τ yx A τθ σθ

θ

σx σx σx

B B C

τ xy C τ yx AB = AC cos θ

σ σ BC = AC sin θ

y

Resolve forces in normal and y

along the oblique plane ΣF = 0

σ θ AC − σ X AB cos θ − τ XY AB sin θ

− σ Y BC sin θ − τ XY BC cos θ = 0

σ θ = σ X cos θ + σ Y sin θ + 2τ XY sin θ cos θ

2 2

cos 2θ + 1 1 - cos2θ

cos θ =

2

and sin θ =

2

2 2

σ X +σY σ X −σY

σθ = + cos 2θ + τ XY sin 2θ

2 2

τ θ AC + σ X AB sin θ − τ XY AB cos θ

− σ Y BC sin θ + τ XY BC sin θ = 0

τ θ = (σ Y − σ X ) sin θ cos θ + τ XY (cos θ − sin θ )

2 2

σY −σ X

τθ = sin 2θ + τ XY cos 2θ

2

MOHR'S CIRCLE

REPRESENTATION

OF

PLANE STRESS

σ R = [(σx - σy / 2)2 + τ xy2]1/2

y

OC= σx + σy / 2

τ xy

2θ

τ xy

x’ (σθ , τ θ )

σx y’ (σθ+90, τ θ )

2τ xy

tan 2θ1 =

σ x −σ y

θ 2 = θ1 + 90

σ2 2θ 2 σ1

2θ

1

σ x +σ y σ x −σ y

σ 1, 2 = ) 2 + τ xy

2

± (

2 2

τ max

2θ smax

2θ smax

τ max

σY −σ X

τθ = sin 2θ + τ XY cos 2θ

2

dτ θ d σY −σ X

=0= [ sin 2θ + τ XY cos 2θ ]

dθ dθ 2

σ y −σ x

tan 2θ s max =

2τ xy

σ x −σ y

τ max = ( ) + τ xy

2 2

2

Example:

For given plane stress state find out normal stress and

shear stress at a plane 450 to x- plane. Also find

position of principal planes, principal stresses and

maximum shear stress. Draw the mohr’s circle and

represent all the stresses.

σy

τ xy

σ y= 50 MN/m2

σx σx σ x=110 MN/m2

τ xy τ xy= 40 MN/m2

σ θ= 450

y

σ θ = 120 MN/m2 σ θ+90= 40 MN/m2

τ θ = -30 MN/m2

σ 1= 130 MN/m2 σ 2= 30 MN/m2

θ 1 = 26.560 θ 2 = 116.560

σ2 θ1

σ1

σ1

σ

2

τ max= 50 MN/m2

σ’y

σ’y

σ’x τ max

τ max

σ2 σ1

τ max

Y

σo x σo

σo x σo

σo

Y

σo

x

Y

x

σo

σo

σo

Y

σo

σo x

σo

Y

σo

σo x σo

σo

σo

Y

σo

σo x

σo

Y

σo

σo x σo

σo

ζo

ζo ζo

ζo

Addition of Two States of stress

Y Y

σo σo σo σo

x x

Addition of Two States of stress

Y Y

σo σo σo

x σo x

Find the principal stress directions if the stress at a

point is sum of the two states of stresses as illustrated

ζo

Y b

2ζ o a

x

2ζ o

ζo

30o

Find the principal stress directions if the stress at a

point is sum of the two states of stresses as illustrated

3σ o

Y b

2σo a

2σo

x

45o

3σ o

3-D State of Stress

General State of Stress

σ x τ xy τ xz σ x τ xy

τ yx σ y τ yz σ y τ yz

τ zx τ zy σ z τ zx σz

Mohr’s Circle for 3-D state of stress

σ2

σ1

σ3

Analysis of Deformation

Strain Analysis

ANALYSIS OF DEFORMATION

Displacement Components

Displacement Components

Deformation without Sum of all the displacements

rigid-body motion.

Uniform Non Uniform

strain strain

STRAIN

Normal Shear

(ε) (γ)

Definition of Normal Strain

Y Δv Y

Δy Δy

x x

Δu

Δx Δx

Definition of Shear Strain

Y

∆u

tan θ1 = Δu

∆y

Δy

Δv

x

Δx

∆v

tan θ1 =

∆x

Plane strain (Biaxial Strain)

RELATION BETWEEN STRAIN AND

DISPLACEMENT IN PLANE STRAIN

PLAIN STRAIN CONDITION

STRAIN COMPONENTS ASSOCIATED

WITH ARBITRARY SETS OF AXES

It could be possible to express these displacement

components either as functions of x' and y' or as

functions of x and y.

By Chain Rule of Partial Derivatives

Stress Formulae

σ x ' = σ X cos θ + σ Y sin θ + 2τ XY sin θ cos θ

2 2

σ X +σY σ X −σY

σ x' = + cos 2θ + τ XY sin 2θ

2 2

σ X +σY σ X −σY

σ y' = − cos 2θ − τ XY sin 2θ

2 2

σY −σ X

τ x' y' = sin 2θ + τ XY cos 2θ

2

MOHR'S CIRCLE REPRESENTATION OF

PLANE STRAIN (Center & Radius)

M’Circle for Principal &

Max. Shear Plane

M’Circle for any

arbitrary Plane

Example

so that the strain components related to a set of axes xy

are

ε x = -200 X 10-6

ε y = 1000X 10-6

γ xy = 900 X 10-6

x'y‘ inclined at an angle of 30° clockwise to the xy set, as

shown in the fig. Also to find the principal strains and the

direction of the axes on which they exist.

Location of x', y' axes:

Orientation of Principal Planes (I & II)

y

II

I

θ1

x

Orientation of Max Shear Planes (D & E)

y D

θ1+ 45

E

x

Orientation of Arbitrary Planes (x’ & y’)

y

y’

x’

θ

x

Ex. 4.21 General State of Strain

• At a point in a body, the principal strains

are

εI = 700 x 10

-6

εIII = -300 x 10-6

component at the point? What is the

orientation of the plane, which

experiences the maximum shear plane?

Electrical Resistance Strain Guage

for uniaxial loading

Strain Rosettes for General

Loading

y

b

c

a

θc θb

θa

x

Ex. 4.22 45 Strain Rosette

o

εc

εb

εa = 100 x 10-6

εb = 200 x 10-6

εc = 900 x 10-6 εa x

O

Find the principal

strains in the

plane of rosettes

Answers to 4.22

εx = 100 x 10-6

εy = 900 x 10-6

γxy = -600 x 10-6

εI = 1000 x 10-6

ε =0

II

- Introduction to Solid Mechanics by Irving ShamesUploaded byM Uzair Shaikh
- Mechanics of solids by crandall,dahl,lardner, 3rd chapterUploaded bypurijatin
- Mechanics of solids by crandall,dahl,lardner, 1st chapterUploaded bypurijatin
- Mechanics of solids by crandall,dahl,lardner, 2nd chapterUploaded bypurijatin
- An Introduction to the Mechanics of Solids SolutionUploaded byLucas Bannister
- Mechanical Vibration 3rd Edition SS Rao Solution ManualUploaded byNischay Kumar
- Crandall - Introduction to the Mechanics of SolidsUploaded byMartin Riquelme
- Chapter 5Uploaded bypurijatin
- Book Offshore...OffshoreUploaded byn73686861
- Chapter 8 PVRUploaded bypurijatin
- Chapter 6 ACKulkarniUploaded bypurijatin
- Chapter 7Uploaded bypurijatin
- MECHANICS OF SOLIDSUploaded bySuket
- 4 Shear Force and Bending MomentUploaded bymuhamadsaidi
- Theory of Elasticity by Timoshenko and GoodierUploaded bymahmut4600
- Advanced Mechanics of SolidsUploaded by1861969
- Ntpc Summer Training ReportUploaded bysatender_kumar86
- r05010302-engineering-mechanics, JNTU btech I year ME group question paper august 2008Uploaded bySRINIVASA RAO GANTA
- Fundamentals of Engineering PlasticityUploaded bypragerspole
- Mechanics of Solids CrandallUploaded byGabriel Badiola
- rr220304-mechanics-of-solidsUploaded bySRINIVASA RAO GANTA
- Solved Problems on Ch4[2]Uploaded byMichael Measho
- Beer Mecanica de Materiales 5e Manual de Soluciones c04Uploaded byribasbarrios
- Basic Computational PlasticityUploaded byadnanhasanovic
- ENGINEERING MECHANICSUploaded byTushar01
- Associated Flow RulesUploaded byShahram Abbasnejad
- EquipmentUploaded byMohamed Saeed
- Beams on Elastic Foundation 2Uploaded byMauricio Gomes de Barros
- A Brief Review of Elasticity and ViscoelasticityUploaded byagboolac
- Modular SteelUploaded byGeethy Sobin

- algorithm makingUploaded bypurijatin
- OpenJUMP1.0.1_Tutorial_englishBetaUploaded bypurijatin
- Chapter 8 PVRUploaded bypurijatin
- Chapter 7Uploaded bypurijatin
- Chapter 7Uploaded bypurijatin
- Chapter 6 ACKulkarniUploaded bypurijatin
- Chapter 5Uploaded bypurijatin
- Graphs Lect6Uploaded bypurijatin
- Graphs Lect7Uploaded bypurijatin
- Graphs Lect6Uploaded bypurijatin
- Graphs Lect5Uploaded bypurijatin
- Graphs Lect4Uploaded bypurijatin
- Graphs Lect3Uploaded bypurijatin
- Graphs Lect2Uploaded bypurijatin
- basics of graph theoryUploaded bypurijatin
- first order differential equationsUploaded bypurijatin
- differential equationsUploaded bypurijatin
- Pspice FinalUploaded bypurijatin
- Programming 3Uploaded bypurijatin
- Java & C++Uploaded byKarthik Tantri

- grade 9 mathUploaded byapi-260659194
- Suggested+Solutions+to+Selected+Problems+I+MaA4000Ch3+GeometryUploaded byEpic Win
- 11 Physics Chapter 7 Assignment 2Uploaded byNeural Spark Physics Cie
- DPP_RESO_12Uploaded byvivek
- Moment Map - Symplectit GeometryUploaded byIulian Danciu
- 8th Grade Geometry NotesUploaded byMatt C
- hw02Uploaded byShubhankar Gautam
- 02 FT PbmSheetUploaded byboiroy
- Numerical ExamplesUploaded byBharat Bhushan
- Section 1.3Uploaded byseetha_thundena301
- 4MCAD-EN ManualUploaded byolgf
- 9709_s10_qp_11Uploaded byroukaiya_peerkhan
- Problems 4Uploaded byvmsgr
- Aerial Robotics Lecture 2C_3 Principal Axes and Principal Moments of InertiaUploaded byIain McCulloch
- Experiment 3: Conditions for EquilibriumUploaded byKuku Rikapoo
- 4024_w14_qp_12(1)Uploaded byHad Moe
- Mesh-Intro 14.0 L-04 Meshing MethodsUploaded byJuan Enrique Troncoso Castro
- 302-1ba-chapter3Uploaded byJiyu
- formulas of Area Moment of InertiaUploaded bywiggly18
- Optimization--Teshon DurairajUploaded byjeffrey luis guya
- MCR3U Final Exam Review(June2010)Uploaded byErin Guerrero
- EllipseUploaded byKamalesh Shenoy
- Second Order Beam TheoryUploaded byIr Ayen
- Appendix Dirac Delta FunctionUploaded byexicial87
- Calculus 277Uploaded byfriends_is
- ContoringUploaded bysipilPI12
- Converting UTM to Latitude ...Uploaded bygirish_jagad
- Tutorial 3Uploaded byIrfan Suhaimi
- Tutorial Avion CATIAUploaded byBuzz_Jeter
- add mathUploaded byfafadilil