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# CHAPTER 4

## STRESS AND STRAIN

BITS PILANI GOA
Objectives
STRESS
• To know state of stress at a point
• To solve for plane stress condition
applications
STRAIN
• To know state of stress at a point
• To solve for plane stress condition
applications
STRESS
Let’s considered that the body is cut in two halves by a
plane passing through point ‘o’
Stress vector can be defined as
(n)
∆F
T = lim
∆A→0 ∆A

## Here T is force intensity or stress acting on a plane

whose normal is ‘n’ at the point O.

Characteristics of stress
1. The physical dimensions of stress are force per
unit area.
2. Stress is defined at a point upon an imaginary plane,
which divides the element or material into two parts.
3. Stress is a vector equivalent to the action of one part of
the material upon another.

## Stress vector may be written in terms of its

components with respect to the coordinate axes in
the form:
(n) (n) (n) (n)
T =T xi+T y j+T zk
Body cut by a plane ‘mm’ passing through point
‘O’ and parallel to y-z plane
Rectangular components of the force vector ∆F
acting on the small area centered on point O
Stress components on positive x face at point O.
3-Dimentional State of Stress OR
Triaxial State of Stress

σ x τ xy τ xz
τ yx σ y τ yz
τ zx τ zy σ z
A knowledge of the nine stress components is
necessary in order to determine the components
of the stress vector T acting on an arbitrary
plane with normal n.
Definition of positive and negative faces:

## Positive face of given section

If the outward normal points in a positive coordinate
direction then that face is called as positive face
Negative face of given section
If the outward normal points in a negative coordinate
direction then that face is called as Negative face
Stress components acting on the six sides of a
parallelepiped.
PLANE STRESS CONDITION
PLANE STRESS CONDITION
For example: Thin sheet which is being pulled by forces
in the plane of the sheet.

X
Z
PLANE STRESS CONDITION
Stress components in the z direction has a very
small value compared to the other two
directions and moreover they do not vary
throughout the thickness.

## The state of stress at a given point

will only depend upon the four stress
components.
σ x τ xy
τ yx σ y
Plane Stress Condition

## If take the xy plane to be the plane of the sheet,

then σ x , σ’x , σ y , σ’y , τ xy , τ’xy , τ yx and τ’yx will be
the only stress components acting on the element,
which is under observation.
σ’y
τ’yx
τ’xy
σx σ’x
τ xy
τ yx
σ
y
EQUILIBRIUM OF A
DIFFERENTIAL ELEMENT IN
PLANE STRESS
EQUILIBRIUM OF A DIFFERENTIAL ELEMENT IN
PLANE STRESS

## Stress components in plane stress expressed in

terms of partial derivatives.
ΣM = 0 is satisfied by taking
the element
τxy = τyx
Equality of Cross Shears
This Equation says that in a body in plane stress
the shear-stress components on perpendicular
faces must be equal in magnitude.

It could be shown
τ zy = τ yz and τ xz = τ zx
Definition of positive and negative τ xy

τ xy τ xy

τ xy τ xy
Positive Shear Negative Shear
ΣF = 0 is satisfied by taking moments
about the center of the element
Three-dimensional equations in the
form of indicial notation
STRESS COMPONENTS

## ASSOCIATED WITH ARBITRARILY

ORIENTED FACES IN
PLANE STRESS CONDITION
STRESS COMPONENTS ASSOCIATED WITH
ARBITRARILY ORIENTED FACES IN PLANE STRESS
σ
A y τ yx A τθ σθ
θ
σx σx σx
B B C
τ xy C τ yx AB = AC cos θ
σ σ BC = AC sin θ
y
Resolve forces in normal and y
along the oblique plane ΣF = 0
σ θ AC − σ X AB cos θ − τ XY AB sin θ
− σ Y BC sin θ − τ XY BC cos θ = 0
σ θ = σ X cos θ + σ Y sin θ + 2τ XY sin θ cos θ
2 2

cos 2θ + 1 1 - cos2θ
cos θ =
2
and sin θ =
2

2 2
σ X +σY σ X −σY
σθ = + cos 2θ + τ XY sin 2θ
2 2
τ θ AC + σ X AB sin θ − τ XY AB cos θ
− σ Y BC sin θ + τ XY BC sin θ = 0
τ θ = (σ Y − σ X ) sin θ cos θ + τ XY (cos θ − sin θ )
2 2

σY −σ X
τθ = sin 2θ + τ XY cos 2θ
2
MOHR'S CIRCLE
REPRESENTATION
OF
PLANE STRESS
σ R = [(σx - σy / 2)2 + τ xy2]1/2
y
OC= σx + σy / 2

τ xy

τ xy

x’ (σθ , τ θ )

σx y’ (σθ+90, τ θ )
2τ xy
tan 2θ1 =
σ x −σ y
θ 2 = θ1 + 90

σ2 2θ 2 σ1

1

σ x +σ y σ x −σ y
σ 1, 2 = ) 2 + τ xy
2
± (
2 2
τ max

2θ smax

2θ smax

τ max
σY −σ X
τθ = sin 2θ + τ XY cos 2θ
2
dτ θ d σY −σ X
=0= [ sin 2θ + τ XY cos 2θ ]
dθ dθ 2

σ y −σ x
tan 2θ s max =
2τ xy

σ x −σ y
τ max = ( ) + τ xy
2 2

2
Example:
For given plane stress state find out normal stress and
shear stress at a plane 450 to x- plane. Also find
position of principal planes, principal stresses and
maximum shear stress. Draw the mohr’s circle and
represent all the stresses.
σy
τ xy
σ y= 50 MN/m2
σx σx σ x=110 MN/m2
τ xy τ xy= 40 MN/m2
σ θ= 450
y
σ θ = 120 MN/m2 σ θ+90= 40 MN/m2

τ θ = -30 MN/m2
σ 1= 130 MN/m2 σ 2= 30 MN/m2

θ 1 = 26.560 θ 2 = 116.560

σ2 θ1
σ1

σ1
σ
2
τ max= 50 MN/m2

## τ max σ’x θ smax1

σ’y

σ’y
σ’x τ max
τ max

σ2 σ1

τ max
Y
σo x σo

σo x σo
σo

Y
σo
x

Y
x
σo

σo
σo

Y
σo
σo x
σo

Y
σo
σo x σo

σo
σo

Y
σo
σo x
σo

Y
σo
σo x σo

σo
ζo

ζo ζo

ζo
Addition of Two States of stress

Y Y
σo σo σo σo
x x
Addition of Two States of stress

Y Y
σo σo σo
x σo x
Find the principal stress directions if the stress at a
point is sum of the two states of stresses as illustrated

ζo

Y b
2ζ o a
x
2ζ o

ζo
30o
Find the principal stress directions if the stress at a
point is sum of the two states of stresses as illustrated

3σ o

Y b
2σo a
2σo
x

45o

3σ o
3-D State of Stress
General State of Stress

## 9 stress components 6 stress components

σ x τ xy τ xz σ x τ xy
τ yx σ y τ yz σ y τ yz
τ zx τ zy σ z τ zx σz
Mohr’s Circle for 3-D state of stress
σ2

σ1
σ3
Analysis of Deformation

Strain Analysis
ANALYSIS OF DEFORMATION
Displacement Components

## Rigid-body translation. Rigid-body rotation about c.

Displacement Components
Deformation without Sum of all the displacements
rigid-body motion.
Uniform Non Uniform
strain strain
STRAIN

Normal Shear
(ε) (γ)
Definition of Normal Strain

Y Δv Y

Δy Δy
x x
Δu
Δx Δx
Definition of Shear Strain

Y
∆u
tan θ1 = Δu
∆y
Δy
Δv
x
Δx
∆v
tan θ1 =
∆x
Plane strain (Biaxial Strain)
RELATION BETWEEN STRAIN AND
DISPLACEMENT IN PLANE STRAIN
PLAIN STRAIN CONDITION
STRAIN COMPONENTS ASSOCIATED
WITH ARBITRARY SETS OF AXES
It could be possible to express these displacement
components either as functions of x' and y' or as
functions of x and y.
By Chain Rule of Partial Derivatives
Stress Formulae
σ x ' = σ X cos θ + σ Y sin θ + 2τ XY sin θ cos θ
2 2

σ X +σY σ X −σY
σ x' = + cos 2θ + τ XY sin 2θ
2 2
σ X +σY σ X −σY
σ y' = − cos 2θ − τ XY sin 2θ
2 2
σY −σ X
τ x' y' = sin 2θ + τ XY cos 2θ
2
MOHR'S CIRCLE REPRESENTATION OF
M’Circle for Principal &
Max. Shear Plane
M’Circle for any
arbitrary Plane
Example

## A sheet of metal is deformed uniformly in its own plane

so that the strain components related to a set of axes xy
are
ε x = -200 X 10-6
ε y = 1000X 10-6
γ xy = 900 X 10-6

## find the strain components associated with a set of axes

x'y‘ inclined at an angle of 30° clockwise to the xy set, as
shown in the fig. Also to find the principal strains and the
direction of the axes on which they exist.
Location of x', y' axes:
Orientation of Principal Planes (I & II)

y
II
I

θ1
x
Orientation of Max Shear Planes (D & E)

y D

θ1+ 45
E
x
Orientation of Arbitrary Planes (x’ & y’)

y
y’
x’

θ
x
Ex. 4.21 General State of Strain
• At a point in a body, the principal strains
are
εI = 700 x 10
-6

## εII = 300 x 10-6

εIII = -300 x 10-6

## • What is the maximum shear strain

component at the point? What is the
orientation of the plane, which
experiences the maximum shear plane?
Electrical Resistance Strain Guage
Strain Rosettes for General

y
b
c
a
θc θb
θa
x
Ex. 4.22 45 Strain Rosette
o

εc
εb
εa = 100 x 10-6
εb = 200 x 10-6
εc = 900 x 10-6 εa x
O
Find the principal
strains in the
plane of rosettes