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BITS PILANI GOA

Objectives

STRESS

• To know state of stress at a point • To solve for plane stress condition applications

STRAIN

• To know state of stress at a point • To solve for plane stress condition applications

STRESS

Let’s considered that the body is cut in two halves by a plane passing through point ‘o’

**Stress vector can be defined as
**

(n)

∆F T = lim ∆A→0 ∆A

**Here T is force intensity or stress acting on a plane whose normal is ‘n’ at the point O. Characteristics of stress
**

1. The physical dimensions of stress are force per unit area. 2. Stress is defined at a point upon an imaginary plane, which divides the element or material into two parts.

3. Stress is a vector equivalent to the action of one part of the material upon another. 4. The direction of the stress vector is not restricted.

Stress vector may be written in terms of its components with respect to the coordinate axes in the form:

(n)

T =T xi+T

(n)

(n) y

j+T zk

(n)

Body cut by a plane ‘mm’ passing through point ‘O’ and parallel to y-z plane

Rectangular components of the force vector ∆F acting on the small area centered on point O

Stress components on positive x face at point O.

3-Dimentional State of Stress OR Triaxial State of Stress

σ x τ xy τ xz τ yx σ y τ yz τ zx τ zy σ z

A knowledge of the nine stress components is necessary in order to determine the components of the stress vector T acting on an arbitrary plane with normal n.

Definition of positive and negative faces:

Positive face of given section If the outward normal points in a positive coordinate direction then that face is called as positive face Negative face of given section If the outward normal points in a negative coordinate direction then that face is called as Negative face

Stress components acting on the six sides of a parallelepiped.

PLANE STRESS CONDITION

**PLANE STRESS CONDITION
**

For example: Thin sheet which is being pulled by forces in the plane of the sheet.

Y

X Z

**PLANE STRESS CONDITION
**

Stress components in the z direction has a very small value compared to the other two directions and moreover they do not vary throughout the thickness.

The state of stress at a given point will only depend upon the four stress components.

σ x τ xy τ yx σ y

**Plane Stress Condition
**

If take the xy plane to be the plane of the sheet, then σ x , σ’x , σ y , σ’y , τ xy , τ’xy , τ yx and τ’yx will be the only stress components acting on the element, which is under observation.

σ’y σx τ xy

τ’yx τ’xy σ’x

τ yx

σ

y

EQUILIBRIUM OF A DIFFERENTIAL ELEMENT IN PLANE STRESS

EQUILIBRIUM OF A DIFFERENTIAL ELEMENT IN PLANE STRESS

Stress components in plane stress expressed in terms of partial derivatives.

ΣM = 0 is satisfied by taking moments about the center of the element

τxy = τyx

Equality of Cross Shears

This Equation says that in a body in plane stress the shear-stress components on perpendicular faces must be equal in magnitude.

It could be shown τ zy = τ yz and τ xz = τ zx

Definition of positive and negative τ xy

τ xy τ xy

Positive Shear

τ xy τ xy

Negative Shear

ΣF = 0 is satisfied by taking moments about the center of the element

Three-dimensional equations in the form of indicial notation

STRESS COMPONENTS ASSOCIATED WITH ARBITRARILY ORIENTED FACES IN PLANE STRESS CONDITION

STRESS COMPONENTS ASSOCIATED WITH ARBITRARILY ORIENTED FACES IN PLANE STRESS

σ

A

y

τ yx σx σx

A

τθ

σx τ xy

B C

σθ θ

C

σ

τ yx

B

σ

y

AB = AC cos θ BC = AC sin θ

y Resolve forces in normal and along the oblique plane

ΣF = 0

σ θ AC − σ X AB cos θ − τ XY AB sin θ

− σ Y BC sin θ − τ XY BC cos θ = 0

**σ θ = σ X cos θ + σ Y sin θ + 2τ XY sin θ cos θ
**

2 2

σ X +σY σ X −σY σθ = + cos 2θ + τ XY sin 2θ 2 2

**cos 2θ + 1 1 - cos2θ 2 cos θ = and sin θ = 2 2
**

2

τ θ AC + σ X AB sin θ − τ XY AB cos θ

− σ Y BC sin θ + τ XY BC sin θ = 0

τ θ = (σ Y − σ X ) sin θ cos θ + τ XY (cos θ − sin θ )

2 2

σY −σ X τθ = sin 2θ + τ XY cos 2θ 2

MOHR'S CIRCLE REPRESENTATION OF PLANE STRESS

σ

y

R = [(σx - σy / 2)2 + τ xy2]1/2

OC= σx + σy / 2

τ xy 2θ τ xy

x’ (σθ , τ θ ) σx y’ (σθ+90, τ θ )

tan 2θ1 =

2τ xy

σ x −σ y

θ 2 = θ1 + 90

σ2 2θ 2 2θ

1

σ1

σ 1, 2 =

σ x +σ y

2

± (

σ x −σ y

2

) 2 + τ xy

2

τ max

2θ smax

2θ smax

τ max

σY −σ X τθ = sin 2θ + τ XY cos 2θ 2 dτ θ d σY −σ X =0= [ sin 2θ + τ XY cos 2θ ] dθ dθ 2

tan 2θ s max =

σ y −σ x

2τ xy

) + τ xy

2 2

τ max = (

σ x −σ y

2

Example: For given plane stress state find out normal stress shear stress at a plane 450 to x- plane. Also position of principal planes, principal stresses maximum shear stress. Draw the mohr’s circle represent all the stresses. and find and and

σy σx τ xy σ

y

τ xy σx

σ y= 50 MN/m2 σ x=110 MN/m2 τ xy= 40 MN/m2 θ= 450

σ θ = 120 MN/m2 τ θ = -30 MN/m2

σ θ+90= 40 MN/m2

σ 1= 130 MN/m2 θ 1 = 26.560

σ 2= 30 MN/m2 θ 2 = 116.560

θ1

σ2

σ1

σ1

σ

2

τ max= 50 MN/m2 θ smax1 = 71.560 τ max θ smax2 = 161.560 θ smax1

σ’y

σ’x

σ’x

τ max

σ’y

τ max

σ2

σ1

τ max

Y σo x σo

Y σo x σo

σo

Y x Y σo x σo

σo

σo

Y σo x

σo σo

σo σo

Y x σo

σo

σo

Y σo x

σo σo

σo σo

Y x σo

σo

ζo Y x

ζo

ζo Y x

ζo

**Addition of Two States of stress
**

Y σo x σo Y σo x σo

**Addition of Two States of stress
**

Y σo x σo σo Y x σo

Find the principal stress directions if the stress at a point is sum of the two states of stresses as illustrated ζo Y x

2ζ o 2ζ o

b

a

ζo

30o

Find the principal stress directions if the stress at a point is sum of the two states of stresses as illustrated

3σ o

2σo

Y x 2σo

b

a

45o

3σ o

**3-D State of Stress General State of Stress
**

9 stress components 6 stress components

σ x τ xy τ xz τ yx σ y τ yz τ zx τ zy σ z

σ x τ xy σ y τ yz τ zx σz

**Mohr’s Circle for 3-D state of stress
**

σ2

σ1 σ3

Analysis of Deformation Strain Analysis

ANALYSIS OF DEFORMATION

Displacement Components

Rigid-body translation. Rigid-body rotation about c.

Displacement Components

Deformation without rigid-body motion. Sum of all the displacements

Uniform strain

Non Uniform strain

STRAIN

Normal (ε) Shear (γ)

**Definition of Normal Strain
**

Y Δv Y

Δy x Δx Δu

Δy x Δx

**Definition of Shear Strain
**

∆u tan θ1 = ∆y

Δy Δx Y Δu Δv

x

∆v tan θ1 = ∆x

Plane strain (Biaxial Strain)

RELATION BETWEEN STRAIN AND DISPLACEMENT IN PLANE STRAIN

PLAIN STRAIN CONDITION

STRAIN COMPONENTS ASSOCIATED WITH ARBITRARY SETS OF AXES

It could be possible to express these displacement components either as functions of x' and y' or as functions of x and y.

By Chain Rule of Partial Derivatives

Stress Formulae

σ x ' = σ X cos θ + σ Y sin θ + 2τ XY sin θ cos θ

2 2

σ X +σY σ X −σY σ x' = + cos 2θ + τ XY sin 2θ 2 2

**σ X +σY σ X −σY σ y' = − cos 2θ − τ XY sin 2θ 2 2
**

τ x' y' σY −σ X = sin 2θ + τ XY cos 2θ 2

MOHR'S CIRCLE REPRESENTATION OF PLANE STRAIN (Center & Radius)

M’Circle for Principal & Max. Shear Plane

M’Circle for any arbitrary Plane

Example A sheet of metal is deformed uniformly in its own plane so that the strain components related to a set of axes xy are ε x = -200 X 10-6 ε y = 1000X 10-6 γ xy = 900 X 10-6

find the strain components associated with a set of axes x'y‘ inclined at an angle of 30° clockwise to the xy set, as shown in the fig. Also to find the principal strains and the direction of the axes on which they exist.

Location of x', y' axes:

**Orientation of Principal Planes (I & II)
**

II y I

θ1

x

**Orientation of Max Shear Planes (D & E)
**

y D

E

θ1+ 45

x

**Orientation of Arbitrary Planes (x’ & y’)
**

y’ y x’

θ

x

**Ex. 4.21 General State of Strain
**

• At a point in a body, the principal strains are -6

εI = 700 x 10 εII = 300 x 10-6 εIII = -300 x 10-6

• What is the maximum shear strain component at the point? What is the orientation of the plane, which experiences the maximum shear plane?

Electrical Resistance Strain Guage for uniaxial loading

**Strain Rosettes for General Loading
**

y c

θc

b

θb

a

θa

x

Ex. 4.22

**45 Strain Rosette
**

o

**y εc εa = 100 x 10-6 εb = 200 x 10-6 εc = 900 x 10-6
**

Find the principal strains in the plane of rosettes

εb

O

εa

x

Answers to 4.22

εx = 100 x 10-6 εy = 900 x 10-6 γxy = -600 x 10-6 εI = 1000 x 10-6 ε =0

II

γmax = 1000 x 10-6

chapter4,mechanics of solids by crandall,dahl,lardner

chapter4,mechanics of solids by crandall,dahl,lardner

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