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# Fluids Statics

Fluid Pressure in a U-Tube
A U-tube is filled with water, and the two arms are capped.

The tube is cylindrical, and the right arm has twice the radius of the left arm. The caps have negligible mass, are watertight, and can freely slide up and down the tube. Part A A one-inch depth of sand is poured onto the cap on each arm.

After the caps have moved (if necessary)

to reestablish equilibrium, is the right cap higher, lower, or the same height as the left cap? Hint A.1 Pressure at the surface Hint not displayed Hint A.2 Evaluate the weight of the sand Hint not displayed Hint A.3 ANSWER: Evaluate the pressure applied by the sand Hint not displayed higher lower the same height Correct Although one inch of sand on the right cap is much heavier than one inch of sand on the left cap, the pressures exerted by the sand are the same on both caps. Since the pressures exerted by the sand are equal, the pressures at the base of each arm due to the water must be equal. This requires equal heights of water in the two arms. Part B The sand is removed and a 1.0-mass block is placed on each cap.

After the caps have moved (if necessary) to reestablish equilibrium, is the right cap higher, lower, or the same height as the left cap? Hint B.1 Evaluate the pressure applied by the 1.0- blocks Hint not displayed ANSWER: higher lower

how much total mass must be placed on the right cap so that the caps equilibrate at equal height? Hint C. ANSWER: 4. which results in a greater pressure at the base of the left arm.-mass block is on the left cap.0 Correct Part D The locations of the two caps at equilibrium are now as given in this figure.1 Meaning of equal water levels Hint not displayed Express your answer in kilograms.the same height Correct Although the masses of the blocks are equal. Part C If a 1. the height of the water column in the right arm will have to be greater than in the left arm. What is the mass of the water located in the right arm between the dashed line and the right cap? Hint D. ANSWER: 3. the pressures exerted by them on the caps are not equal.0. There is a greater pressure on the left cap.0 . The dashed line represents the level of the water in the left arm.1 Pressure at the dashed line Hint not displayed Express your answer in kilograms. To compensate for this increased pressure.

00×105 The weight of 1 5 . Which of the following statements is true? Hint A. Which of the following statements is true? Hint B. both the atmospheric pressure and the fluid pressure in the ocean decrease. the external pressure is the atmospheric pressure. Tropical storms are formed by low-pressure systems in the atmosphere. The density of seawater is about 2. The pressure is equal to the weight per 1 cross sectional area of a . .1 Variation of pressure with height Hint not displayed ANSWER: The pressure is twice that at a depth of 10 . Part B Now consider the pressure 20 below the surface of the ocean.00×105 .00×105 .1 How to approach the problem Hint not displayed ANSWER: The weight of a column of seawater 1 is about 2. In this case. in cross section and 10 high The weight of a column of seawater 1 in cross section and 10 high plus the weight of a column of air with the same cross section extending up to the top of the atmosphere is about 2.Correct Pressure in the Ocean The pressure at 10 Part A below the surface of the ocean is about 2. When such a storm forms over the ocean. of seawater at 10 below the surface of the ocean is about 2. The pressure is the same as that at a depth of 10 The pressure is equal to that at a depth of 10 plus the weight per 1 cross sectional area of a column of seawater 10 high. Correct The pressure at a given level in a fluid is caused by the weight of the overlying fluid plus any external pressure applied to the fluid.00×105 times the density of air at sea level.00×10 .

Assume that the width of the dam (the dimension pointing into the screen) is . and it could cause the dam to collapse. What is the magnitude reservoir? located a distance above the of the force on this layer due to the water in the . Eventually. Pressure on a Dam As the reservoir behind a dam is filled with water. The material has to be strong enough that the dam does not snap (shear strength). This means that the material of which the dam is made needs to be strong enough so that it doesn't crack (compressive strength). where is the density of the water behind the dam. There are two significant issues to be considered: First. The water pressure exerts a clockwise torque on the dam. is its depth. Part A Consider a horizontal layer of the dam wall of thickness reservoir floor. the force on the dam becomes substantial. and is the magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity. the base of the dam should be able to withstand the pressure . as shown in the figure. the pressure that the water exerts on the dam increases.column of seawater 20 Correct high. The foundation of the dam should be strong enough so that the dam does not topple. A reservoir of water (density ) behind the dam is filled to a height . To study this phenomenon. consider the simple model of a dam depicted in the diagram. The second issue has to do with the strength of the foundation of the dam.

since the water exerts a greater force at the bottom of the dam than at the top. What is the magnitude of the torque about the point P due to the water in the reservoir? Hint B. ANSWER: = Answer not displayed Express your answer in terms of .3 Find the torque on a horizontal layer of the dam Hint not displayed Hint B.4 Some helpful integrals Hint not displayed Express your answer in terms of quantities given in the problem introduction and the magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity . . Therefore. and any quantities from the problem introduction. correct answer displayed Part B The force of the water produces a torque on the dam. the dam would pivot about its base (point P). The . A Water Tank on Mars You are assigned the design of a cylindrical.2 Definition of torque Hint not displayed Hint B. ANSWER: = All attempts used. In a simple model. pressurized water tank for a future colony on Mars. the magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity .71 meters per second per second.1 How to approach the problem Hint not displayed Hint B. where the acceleration due to gravity is 3. the net effect is as if the force were acting at a height of from the bottom. ANSWER: = Correct Thus the average moment arm is .1 Find the pressure as a function of depth What is the pressure of the water at a vertical height above the floor of the reservoir? Express your answer in terms of and any quantities from the problem introduction. if the torque due to the water were enough to cause the dam to break free from its foundation.Hint A.

Part A How tall would your million-dollar cube be? ANSWER: 15. Many of them teem with exotic creatures.pressure at the surface of the water will be 100 .20 and air inside the tank and the air outside the tank. of area 2. At the time. ANSWER: 1.3 . The vents range in depth from about 1500 to 3200 below the surface. to three significant figures.60 per troy ounce.2 What is (a Pascal)? Hint not displayed Hint A. .4 Find the force exerted on the tank's bottom by the air outside the tank Hint not displayed Hint A. and some biologists think that life on earth may have begun around such vents.6 = Correct Exercise 14. The pressure of the air in the building outside the tank will be 95. assuming that the density of water does .3 Density of water Hint not displayed .0 Part A Find the net downward force on the tank's flat bottom. gold is selling for 426.5 Find the force exerted on the tank's bottom by the water Hint not displayed Express your answer numerically in Newtons.8: Black Smokers Black smokers are hot volcanic vents that emit smoke deep in the ocean floor.1035 . Hint A. and the depth of the water will be 14.28×105 Correct Exercise 14. Part A What is the gauge pressure at a 3200deep vent.0000 troy ounce equals 31. exerted by the water Hint A.4: Gold Brick You win the lottery and decide to impress your friends by exhibiting a million-dollar cube of gold.1 The net force Hint not displayed Hint A. and 1.

03×105 = Correct Part D What is the gauge pressure of the gas in pascals? ANSWER: 5330 = Correct below the free surface? = 3. in pascals.00 . ANSWER: 319 = Correct Exercise 14.00 ANSWER: 1.07×105 = Correct Part B What is the absolute pressure in the open tube at a depth of 4.25: Hydraulic Lift II The piston of a hydraulic automobile lift is 0. Atmospheric pressure is 980 millibars.not vary? Express your answer in pascals. is required to lift a car with a mass of 1200 Express your answer using two significant figures.9a in the textbook is mercury.16 The liquid in the open-tube manometer in Figure 14. What gauge pressure. and = 7. ? . .30 Part A in diameter.03×105 = Correct Part C What is the absolute pressure of the gas in the tank? ANSWER: 1. Part A What is the absolute pressure at the bottom of the U-shaped tube? ANSWER: 1.00 Exercise 14. ANSWER: 3.23×107 = Correct Part B Express your answer in atmospheres.

00 atm to 2. In which tube does this cause the greatest pressure increase at the bottom of the tube? .00 atm. whereas the liquid in tube #2 has density .7×105 = Correct Express the result of part A in atmospheres. Express your answer using two significant figures. Being careful with units.00 in diameter and 50. . we find the following masses for the five objects: Cube: mass = ( Sphere: mass = ( Rectangular solid: mass = ( Cylinder: mass = ( Cone: mass = ( )( )(3.2: Pressure in a Fluid Two identical vertical tubes.0 tall.20 )(3. are each filled with a liquid. from largest value to smallest value. The liquid in tube #1 has density 1500 2000 Part A The pressure in the air above the two tubes is now increased from 1. Hence an object's mass equals its average density multiplied by its volume.00 )( )= )(1 )(1. ANSWER: 1.1: Average Density Part A Rank the following objects in order of their mass.ANSWER: Part B 1.50 )= )(1 )= )= )= Test Your Understanding 14. ANSWER: View Correct The average density of an object is its mass divided by its volume. each 1.6 = Correct Test Your Understanding 14. The top of each tube is exposed to the air.

ANSWER: = Correct Part B What is the difference in height between the liquid columns in the vertical arms if the tube is mounted on a horizontal turntable rotating with an angular speed with one of the vertical .ANSWER: tube #1 tube #2 the pressure increase is the same in both tubes not enough information is given to decide Correct Pascal's law states that an additional pressure applied at one point in a fluid is transmitted undiminished to all other points in the fluid.83 A U-shaped tube with a horizontal portion of length (the figure ) contains a liquid.00 atm is applied to the top of each fluid-filled tube. Problem 14. but that's not what the question is about. Part A What is the difference in height between the liquid columns in the vertical arms if the tube has an acceleration toward the right? Express your answer in terms of the variables . It's true that the value of the total pressure at the bottom of tube #1 is different from that at the bottom of tube #2 (because the liquids have different densities). and appropriate constants.00 atm at the bottom of each tube. In this situation an additional pressure of 1. so this causes an additional pressure of 1.

The test tube spins in a horizontal circle in an ultracentrifuge at an angular speed . Essay answers are limited to about 500 words (3800 characters maximum. Problem 14. cross sectional area does not appear within the expression for rotational or linear motion. delta y is independent of rho due to cancellation in the derivation of delta y expressions. Essay answers are limited to about 500 words (3800 characters maximum.arms on the axis of rotation? Express your answer in terms of the variables ANSWER: = Correct Part C Explain why the difference in height does not depend on the density of the liquid or on the cross-sectional area of the tube. As expressed in poth part b and a. including spaces). ANSWER: My Answer: The density is identical and constant for both ends of the tube.85 An incompressible fluid with density is in a horizontal test tube of inner cross-sectional area . ANSWER: My Answer: Similar to considering the effect of density. including spaces). Part D Would answer be the same if the vertical tubes did not have equal cross-sectional areas? ANSWER: Yes No Correct Part E Would answer be the same if the horizontal portion were tapered from one end to the other? ANSWER: Yes No Correct Part F Explain. and appropriate constants. .

r is the variable and p and p_0 are the endpoints of integration. Essay answers are limited to about 500 words (3800 characters maximum. Part D Explain why the object will move inward if and outward if . The pressure on its inner surface is and on Apply Newton's second law to the volume element to show that Essay answers are limited to about 500 words (3800 characters maximum. I will complete them in writing and submit them to you directly. including spaces). ANSWER: My Answer: I'm sorry i ran out of time for these last two questions Part E For small objects of uniform density. including spaces). and from the rotation axis. ANSWER: My Answer: Newton's second law States that F=ma cp. Show that the net horizontal force on the object is . and F=Ap. including spaces). but I didn't have time for these two. Essay answers are limited to about 500 words (3800 characters maximum. A cancels and we have p=rho(w^2*r)dr Part B If the surface of the fluid is at a radius where the pressure is show that the pressure at a distance is . . with angular velocity v=wr replacing v. In our situation. . ANSWER: My Answer: Integrating the given formula from part A yields results in the formula from part B. What happens to a mixture of small objects of this kind with different densities in an ultracentrifuge? Essay answers are limited to about 500 words (3800 characters maximum. Consider a volume element of the fluid of area thickness a distance its outer surface is Part A . where rho amd omega are constants. Part C An object of volume and density has its center of mass at a distance from the axis.We now have m(w^2r) m=Arho*dr.Gravitational forces are negligible. Essay answers are limited to about 500 words (3800 characters maximum. acceleration is substituted with acp= v^2/r. including spaces). Arho(w^2*r)=F. ANSWER: My Answer: I'm sorry Professor. where is the distance from the axis to the center of mass of the displaced fluid. including spaces).

14 You are designing a diving bell to withstand the pressure of seawater at a depth of 280 Part A .) ANSWER: 2.130-m layer of oil floating on water that is 0. The density of Exercise 14. Water is slowly poured in on top of the mercury. .00 above the bottom of the cylinder.83×106 = Correct Part B At this depth.ANSWER: My Answer: Objects with larger densities will move away from the center of mass and vice versa for objects with less density Exercise 14. the surface of the mercury is 6.0 is partially filled with mercury.0 in diameter if the pressure inside the diving bell equals the pressure at the surface of the water? (You can ignore the small variation of pressure over the surface of the window.235 the oil is 610 Part A What is the gauge pressure at the oil-water interface? ANSWER: 777 = Correct Part B What is the gauge pressure at the bottom of the barrel? ANSWER: 3080 = Correct deep. What is the gauge pressure at this depth? (You can ignore changes in the density of the water with depth.) ANSWER: 2.14×105 = Correct Exercise 14.18 A tall cylinder with a cross-sectional area 12. what is the net force due to the water outside and the air inside the bell on a circular glass window 31. and the two fluids don't mix.12 A barrel contains a 0.

is the density of the fluid.21 An electrical short cuts off all power to a submersible diving vehicle when it is a distance of 26 below the surface of the ocean. and all of them appear to weigh less. and weight 200 Part A If the pressure inside is . what downward force must they exert on the hatch to open it? Express your answer using two significant figures. some objects may float in a fluid. It states the following: When a body is partially or completely submerged in a fluid (either a liquid or a gas). and is the volume of the displaced fluid. Assume that the object either floats to the surface (settling so that the object is partly above and partly below the fluid surface) or sinks . The crew must push out a hatch of area 0. Archimedes' principle is a powerful tool for solving many problems involving equilibrium in fluids. the buoyant force can be found as . the fluid exerts an upward force on the body equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body. This is the familiar phenomenon of buoyancy.0×105 = Correct Archimedes' Principle Learning Goal: To understand the applications of Archimedes' principle. where is the force. As a result of the upward Archimedes force (often called the buoyant force). ANSWER: 2. you will be asked several qualitative questions that should help you develop a feel for Archimedes' principle. In this problem.Part A What volume of water must be added to double the gauge pressure at the bottom of the cylinder? ANSWER: 979 = Correct Exercise 14. is the magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity.750 to escape. Quantitatively. An object is placed in a fluid and then released.

) Part A Consider the following statement: The magnitude of the buoyant force is equal to the weight of fluid displaced by the object. (Note that for Parts A through D. Under what circumstances is this statement true? Hint A.1 Consider Archimedes' principle Hint not displayed ANSWER: for an object that is partially submerged in a fluid only for an object that floats for an object completely submerged in a fluid for no object partially or completely submerged in a fluid Correct Part C Consider the following statement: The magnitude of the buoyant force equals the weight of the object. you should assume that the object has settled in equilibrium. Under what circumstances is this statement true? . Part B Consider the following statement: The magnitude of the buoyant force is equal to the weight of the amount of fluid that has the same total volume as the object.1 Archimedes' principle Hint not displayed ANSWER: for every object submerged partially or completely in a fluid only for an object that floats only for an object that sinks for no object submerged in a fluid Correct Use Archimedes' principle to answer the rest of the questions in this problem.to the bottom. Under what circumstances is this statement true? Hint B.

The object would float submerged less deeply than in the first container. filled with a denser liquid. What would you observe? Hint E.Hint C. More than one of these outcomes is possible.1 Density and equilibrium Hint not displayed ANSWER: The object would sink all the way to the bottom.1 ANSWER: Forces and equilibrium Hint not displayed for every object submerged partially or completely in a fluid for an object that floats only for an object that sinks for no object submerged in a fluid Correct Part D Consider the following statement: The magnitude of the buoyant force is less than the weight of the object. The object would float submerged more deeply than in the first container. Part E An object is floating in equilibrium on the surface of a liquid. The object is then removed and placed in another container. Under what circumstances is this statement true? ANSWER: for every object submerged partially or completely in a fluid for an object that floats for an object that sinks for no object submerged in a fluid Correct Now apply what you know to some more complicated situations. .

where all the symbols have their usual meaning. Given that the two objects have the same volume. then the object will sink all the way to the bottom. 14-Karat Gold . so it must be heavier than block T. Part G Two objects. More than one of these outcomes is possible. fully submerged. They are carefully placed in a container filled with a liquid. have identical size and shape and have uniform density. filled with a less dense liquid. since the weight equals the buoyant force. What would you observe? Hint F. The object would float submerged more deeply than in the first container.Correct Part F An object is floating in equilibrium on the surface of a liquid. Correct If the fluid in the second container is less dense than the object. The object is then removed and placed in another container. From this equation. If the fluid in the second container is denser than the object (though less dense than the fluid in the original container). . closer to the bottom of the container. the object will still float. the buoyant force in each case is equal to the object's weight. Both objects float in equilibrium. one can see that the density of B must equal the density of the fluid. but its depth will be greater than it was in the original container. The object would float submerged less deeply than in the first container. and B is fully submerged. Block B displaces more fluid. block B must also be denser. which floats. In fact. 18-Karat Gold vs. Correct Since both objects float. Both objects have the same density. Which of the following statements is true? ANSWER: Object T has a greater density than object B. Object B has a greater density than object T. T and B.1 Density and equilibrium Hint not displayed ANSWER: The object would sink all the way to the bottom. Less of object T is submerged than of object B.

what is the overall density karat gold? Hint A. 75 percent of the total mass is pure gold.5. ANSWER: 15. the higher the proportion of gold in relation to the total metal content.45.2 Find the volume of pure gold in 1 gram of alloy Hint not displayed Express your answer in grams per cubic centimeter to three significant figures. Part A In a sample of 18-karat gold. while the rest is typically 16 percent silver and 9 percent copper. Round each to the nearest integer. A karat represents a proportion by mass of one part in twenty-four. Hint B.2 Find the volume of pure gold in 1 gram of alloy Hint not displayed Enter four answers as percentages.Gold in its pure form is too soft to be used for most jewelry. ANSWER: 39. Pure gold is therefore 24 karat. Therefore.11 = Correct In a sample of 14-karat gold.5 percent gold. 31.3 percent zinc. the gold is mixed with other metals to produce an alloy.2 percent copper.0 percent silver. while an 18-karat gold alloy contains (at least) 18 parts (by mass) of gold out of 24 parts total.6 = Correct Part B The percentage composition by mass of the less expensive 14-karat gold is typically 58. separated by commas. Find the percentage composition by volume of 14-karat gold. while the densitites of silver and copper are respectively and .1 How to approach the problem Hint not displayed Hint A. If the density of pure gold is . The composition of gold alloys are always calculated by mass.1 How to approach the problem Hint not displayed Hint B. using the karat (kt) as a unit of measure. The higher the karat value. The density of zinc is . 4. and 6. less than 50 percent of the volume is pure gold! of this alloy of 18- A Submerged Ball .

increasing the density of the liquid. as shown in the figure? Hint A. Assume that the object would sink to the bottom if it were not supported by the string. ANSWER: = Correct Buoyant Ping-Pong Ball A Ping-Pong ball is held submerged in a bucket of water by a string attached to the bucket's bottom.1 How to approach the problem Hint not displayed Hint A. Part A Salt is now added to the water in the bucket.1 Equilibrium condition Hint not displayed Hint A. the magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity.2 Find the magnitude of the buoyant force Hint not displayed Express your answer in terms of any or all of the given quantities and .2 Determine the effects of a density change Hint not displayed .A ball of mass and volume is lowered on a string into a fluid of density . Part A What is the tension in the string when the ball is fully submerged but not touching the bottom. What happens to the tension in the string ? Hint A.

Hint A. The tension decreases. Correct Force on a Goldfish Vector Drawing A fishbowl contains a single goldfish and is filled with water to the level indicated. ANSWER: View Correct Submerged Block A beaker contains a thick layer of oil (shown in green) of density floating on water (shown .2 Determine the effect of a volume change Hint not displayed ANSWER: The tension does not change.ANSWER: The tension does not change. The tension increases. D. The tension increases. Correct Part B What happens to the tension in the string if the Ping-Pong ball is replaced by a smaller spherical object of equal weight? Hint B. The tension decreases.1 Direction of the force due to the water Hint not displayed The orientation of your vectors will be graded. rotate the given vector to indicate the direction of the force exerted by the water on either the inside of the fishbowl (for points A and B) or the outside of the goldfish (for points C.1 How to approach the problem Hint not displayed Hint B. and E). Part A At each of the designated points.

until it floats is peacefully between the layers. one sees that since by assumption (the oil is less dense than water). Part A What is the distance between the top of the wood cube (after it has come to rest) and the interface between the oil and water? Hint A. so as not to disturb the layers of liquid. A cubical block of wood of density with side length gently lowered into the beaker. there is an implicit assumption that . In examining the solution just obtained. we must have (the wood block is less dense than water) and .100 and negligible weight is filled to the brim with a fluid . as shown. The only way that the situation described in the problem introduction (with the block of wood floating "peacefully") can exist is if .in blue).2 Find the buoyant force Hint not displayed Hint A.1 How to approach the problem Hint not displayed Hint A. What would happen if this were not the case? Submerged Sphere in a Beaker A cylindrical beaker of height 0. ANSWER: = Correct In solving this problem. or (the oil is less dense than the wood block). which has density .3 Find the gravitational force Hint not displayed Express your answer in terms of quantities given in the problem introduction.

00 . its weight is measured to be 1. .81 . When the beaker is placed on a scale. assume the acceleration due to gravity is Part A What is the weight of the ball? Hint A.94 = Correct Part B What is the reading of the scale when the ball is held in this submerged position? Assume that none of the water that spills over stays on the scale. The ball is held in place by a stiff rod of negligible volume and weight.1 How to approach the problem Hint not displayed Hint B. ANSWER: 2. Hint B.0 is then submerged in the fluid.2 Converting between cubic meters and cubic centimeters Hint not displayed Express your answer numerically in newtons.of density = 890 . Throughout the problem. A ball of density = 5000 and volume = 60. so that some of the fluid spills over the side of the beaker.2 Find the pressure at the bottom of the beaker Hint not displayed = 9.1 Find the mass of the ball Hint not displayed Hint A.

3 Find the pressure before the ball is submerged Hint not displayed Hint B.3 Find the expression for the net force Hint not displayed Express your answer numerically in newtons. Therefore. ANSWER: 1. the weight of the displaced water. ANSWER: 2.1 How to approach the problem Hint not displayed Hint C. that is.Hint B.42 = Correct The force does act upward as one would expect because the ball is denser than the fluid and would have sunk if it weren't for the rod. Hint C.2 Find the buoyant force Hint not displayed Hint C. your answer should be negative). Part C What is the force applied to the ball by the rod? Take upward forces to be positive (e. the ball is submerged and attached to the rod. if the force on the ball is downward. The rod is now shortened and attached to the bottom of the beaker. The beaker is again filled with fluid.g. and the beaker with fluid and .4 The force exerted by the ball on the water Hint not displayed Calculate your answer from the quantities given in the problem and express it numerically in newtons. the reading does not change..00 = Correct The "extra force" that the ball exerts on the water is equal to the force that the water exerts on the ball.

submerged ball is placed on the scale. is spun in a .42 = Correct Note that in this case it is not necessary to know the buoyant force acting on the ball in to answer the question. as shown in the figure. Part D What weight does the scale now show? Hint D.1 How to approach the problem Hint not displayed Hint D.2 Find the weight of the fluid in the beaker Hint not displayed Express your answer numerically in newtons. ANSWER: 3. Pressure in a Centrifuge A test tube filled with liquid of uniform density .

the cross-sectional area of the test .2 More on how to approach the problem Using the hints if necessary. The pressure in the fluid at the distance from the axis of rotation is . and . . You may ignore the variation in pressure with depth.centrifuge with angular frequency . Hint A. The pressure (or more appropriately. there must be a centripetal force acting on it.3. Integrate this equation to obtain the pressure as a function of radius up to an arbitrary constant.1 Find the mass of a slice of water Hint not displayed Express your answer in terms of . Part A What is the pressure of the fluid in the test tube at an arbitrary distance from the axis of rotation? Hint A. Determine this constant of integration from the condition . . . asume that it is much smaller than the variation in pressure with radius. derive a differential equation for the change in pressure across a "slice" of water between and .1 How to approach the problem The key to solving the problem is to find a relationship between pressure and centripetal acceleration. The test tube lies perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the centrifuge. the pressure gradient) is what provides the centripetal acceleration that keeps the fluid moving in a circle around the axis of rotation. What is the magnitude centripetal force needed to keep the slice of water between and radius with angular velocity ? Hint A.3 Centripetal force In order for the "slice" of water between and to move in a circle around the axis of of the moving in a circle of the centrifuge. Hint A. tube.

Part A . ANSWER: = Correct Problem 14.7 A helpful integral Hint not displayed Express your answer in terms of . .00 of the stem above the water surface. and a uniform cross-sectional area floats upright in a Calculate the vertical distance from the surface of the liquid to the bottom of the floating object at equilibrium.400 . Express your answer in terms of the given quantities. .2 . the hydrometer floats with 8. .) Part A Find the density of the organic fluid. (Note: This illustrates the precision of such a hydrometer.66: SHM of a Floating Object An object with height . When immersed in an organic fluid. When immersed in water.6 Solving differential equations Hint not displayed Hint A. Relatively small density differences give rise to relatively large differences in hydrometer readings. .ANSWER: = Answer not displayed Hint A. The total volume of bulb and stem is 13. 3. and .5 Rewrite the change in pressure Hint not displayed Hint A.4 Find the change in pressure Hint not displayed Hint A.64 A hydrometer consists of a spherical bulb and a cylindrical stem with a cross-section area of 0. ANSWER: 839 = Correct Problem 14. mass liquid with density .20 of the stem is above the surface.

and cross-sectional area of the object. The basket with gear and full propane tanks weighs 1500 . Calculate the period of this motion in terms of the density of the liquid. At the new equilibrium position. ANSWER: = Correct Exercise 14. Express your answer in terms of the given quantities. the object will oscillate up and down in SHM.28 You are preparing some apparatus for a visit to a newly discovered planet Caasi having oceans of glycerine and a surface acceleration due to gravity of 4.) Express your answer in terms of the given quantities. what percentage will be submerged in the glycerine oceans of Caasi? ANSWER: 22. Neglect the damping due to fluid friction. If your apparatus floats in the oceans on earth with 27.60 A hot-air balloon has a volume of 2200 . how much farther below the surface of the liquid is the bottom of the object than it was in part A? (Assume that some of the object remains above the surface of the liquid.0 of its volume submerged. the mass .1 = Correct Problem 14. The balloon fabric (the envelope) weighs 860 .ANSWER: = Correct Part B A downward force with magnitude is applied to the top of the object. . ANSWER: = Correct Part C Your result in part B shows that if the force is suddenly removed.15 Part A .

3%. what is the average density of the heated gases in Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 94.77 out of a possible total of 232 points.972 = Correct of passengers. breakfast.Part A If the balloon can barely lift an additional 3200 when the outside air density is the envelope? ANSWER: 0. You received 218. and champagne . [ Print ] .