Casing & Cementation

around 20% of the cost of a completed well . its necessary to line the walls of the hole with heavy steel pipe  The total length of casing (of uniform outside diameter) which is run in well during a single operation is called casing string  Its one of the most expensive parts of a well.What is a Casing  Large-diameter pipe lowered into an openhole and cemented in place  As the drilling of a well progress.

Functions of Casing Following are the important functions of casing:   to prevent the caving of hole to prevent contaminations of fresh waters in upper sand   to exclude water from the producing formations to confine production to wellbore   to provide means of controlling pressures to facilitate installation of subsurface equipment .

Classification of Casing The classification of casing is based on primary function of the casing string. There are four types of casing  Conductor casing Surface casing Intermediate casing  Surface casing  Intermediate casing  Production casing Production casing .

) It is required for offshore operations locations and other conditions in which extra wellhead support is necessary Its principal function is to keep the top of the wellbore open and to provide a means of conveying the drilling fluid returns from the wellbore to the mud pit The depth to which it is set varies but is usually 100 to 400 ft The part of the wellhead on the top of the conductor string is the base plate.Conductor Casing    Conductor casing. or drive pipe. is a short string of casing of large diameter (16 to 48 in. which is either an integral part of the casing head or a fabricated (welded-on) plate of steel connected to the casing head by gussets   .

which is either screwed or welded onto the last joint of casing . from 200 to several thousand feet  It is set at a depth sufficient to protect all fresh water bearing sands and to prevent an underground blowout  The cement is circulated to the surface on this string  The part of the wellhead at the top end of this string is the casing head. outside diameter (OD)  The length of this string varies greatly in different areas.Surface Casing  The surface casing is the first string of casing run on a land well and is generally thought of as the foundation of the wellhead  The size generally ranges from 8 5/8 to 20 in.

but generally it is cemented back to the end of the previous string or far back enough to isolate a particular formation . outside diameter (OD)  Setting depths vary to meet regulations and geological conditions in a given well but generally ranges from 3000 to 8000ft  Its purpose is to allow for deeper drilling by isolating weak formations that could either cause the hole to cave in or lose circulation  The cement is circulated to the surface on this string  The part of the wellhead at the top end of an intermediate casing string is a casing spool  The intermediate casing may be cemented all the way back to the surface.Intermediate Casing  The Intermediate casing is the second string of casing run in a well  The size generally ranges from 7 5/8 to 13 3/8 in.

OD  The production casing isolates all the other formations from the producing zone or zones and is generally cemented. It is usually set to or beyond the formation that is to be produced  Production casing typically ranges in size from 4 1/2 to 9 5/8 in.Production Casing  The final string of casing is called the production casing. back to the end of the previous string  The part of the wellhead that works over the top end of the production casing is the tubing head . like the intermediate casing.

and the bore size of the tree is sized accordingly.Production Tubing  The final string of tubular goods that goes into the well is the production tubing  Tubing size may range from 1 to 7 in.  Unlike casing. and it can be packed off down below with a packer  Tubing can be replaced when damaged and also the well can be deepened or plugged back and a new tubing string used to accommodate the new depth  The annular space between the OD of the tubing and ID of the production casing can also be used to lift the fluids artificially from the well or to inject chemicals when the well is being produced  The parts of the wellhead at the top end of the tubing are the tubing head adapter and the production tree. OD. It is supported and sealed by hanging it inside the top bowl of the tubing head. . it is not cemented in the well.

Primary Oil Well Cementing Cement that is pumped down the casing and into the annulus between the casing and Wellbore is used as a sealant to help protect: • Casing and Wellbore from external pressure that could collapse the pipe or cause a blowout • Oil.and gas-producing strata from extraneous fluids • Casing from possible corrosion and electrolysis caused by formation waters and physical contact with various strata • Drill string against loss in a key-seat or sticky hole • Down hole production and drilling equipment • Pipe from the stresses of formation movement .

• API Classes D. . and in some instances the set retarder is not compatible with materials added on-site. H.Classification of Cements • Most oil well-cementing operations worldwide use slurries based on API Classes A. and F are intended for high-temperature applications. and F are not widely distributed. Classes D. and C (high-earlystrength cement). E. E. and each contains an organic set retarder added by the manufacturer. G.

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