jif{ M @, cª\s ^, k'; @)&

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;'lhk|sf btf{ g+= M !#*÷)^*÷^(



Joj;flos prfO
a9fpFb} dlxnfx?

dlxnf Jofj;foL
 Joj;flos prfO a9fp“b} dlxnfx?
 hflu/ 5f]8]/ pBddf /dfpFb}
 klxnf] Jofkfl/s dlxnf g]t[
 ;Dklt gx'Fbf ;j} 6]l9G5g\
pBf]u
 lgufn] l;d]G6nfO{ u'0f:t/ k|df0f lrGx
s[lif
 Ps;o %) jif{kl5lrof v]tLsf] cg';Gwfg
 df5f kfngdf /dfpFb} df]xg

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 gub nfef+z / z]o/ lb+b} ljlQo ;+:yfx?
 lsi6 ;lxt kfFr a}ª\s 3f6fdf
cfot lgof{t
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;'/Iff
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cGt{jftf{
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 s[lif a}ª\sn] ;'gsf] sf/f]jf/ ug]{
 wg k|flKtsf] cb\e"t M uhs]z/L of]u

k'; @)&)

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1

aif{ @ c+s ^, k'; @)&)

;'lhk|sf btf{ g+= M !#*÷)^*÷^(

cy{la6 k|sfzg ;d"xsfnflu
;Dkfbs÷k|sfzs M s[i0f e§/fO{
;Nnfxsf/ ;Dkfbs M s[i0f clj/n
M cljhfn lai6
cltly ;Dkfbs M ;'dg/fh kGt
;xof]uL ;Dkfbs M ladndfg >]i7
laif]z ;+jfbbftf M /fh]z a/fn
;+jfbbftf M dl0f/fd bfxfn
;u/dfyf k|ltlglw M /fhg k/fh'nL,
emfkf ;+jfbbftf M nIdL pk|]tL
cfj/0f l8hfOg M ljj]s ofbj
sn/ l8hfOg
M laSsL s0f{
leqL k]h l8hfOg M bfdf]b/ cfrfo{
ahf/ k|aGws
M u0f]z sfsL{
la1fkg ;Dks{
M (*%@)%%&)%,
M (*$@)%*(*$
M (*$@)@*&@%
sfof{no M O6x/L–%, ;'g;/L,
kqfrf/ 7]ufgf M
cy{la6 dfl;s klqsf
O6x/L–%, d~h'>L 6f]n
kmf]g M )@%–%*@^!*, (*%@)%%&)%,
zfvf sfof{no
M lj/f6gu/, a/uf5L
M w/fg 5ftf rf}s
E-mail : arthabeat@gmail.com,

j]e M

www.arthabeat.com.np,

O–k]k/ Joj:yf M k|sfz OGkmf]l;;, lj/f6gu/
d'b|0f M c/lgsf] ckm;]6 k|];, lj/f6gu/
cy{la6 kfOg] :yfgx? M
d}gfnL a's :6f]/, la/f6gu/
dsfn' k':ts k;n, O6x/L
;f]gL k':ts k;n, O6x/L
d}gfnL a's :6f]/, w/fg
b'uf{ :6]zg/L, ul5of
>]i7 a's :6f]/, bds
lhljsf OG6/k|fOh]h, latf{df]8
2

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;DkfbsLo

dxf]T;jx? ;fy{s x'g ;s'g\
rf8kj{ ;lsP/ lxpFb ofd ;'? ePb]lvg} d]nf dxf]T;jsf] nx/ a9]sf] 5 .
bds, O6x/L / lj/f6gu/sf pBf]uL Joj;flosf ;+u7gx? d]nf dxf]T;jsf]
tof/Ldf h'6L/x]sf 5g\ . lj/f6gu/df df]/ª Jofkf/ ;+3sf] cfof]hgfdf
cGt{li6«o:t/sf] Jofkf/ d]nf x'b}5 eg] O6x/Ldf k"jf{~rn Jofkf/ dxf]T;j x'g]
ePsf] 5 . k"j{sf] csf]{ zx/ bdsdf eg] k"jf{~rn ko{6g dxf]T;jsf] tof/L
eO{/x]sf] 5 . To;kl5 w/fg nufot cGo ;fgf 7"nf zx/df klg dxf]T;j
nfUg] rrf{ kl/rrf{ a9]sf 5g\ .
dxf]T;j nufpg' cfkm}df /fd|f] s'/f xf] . To;n] Joj;fo k|j{4gdf
;xof]u klg u5{ / dgf]/~hg klg lbG5 . t/ kl5Nnf jif{x?df d]nf dxf]T;j
pTkfbgsf] k|j{4g eGbf snfsf/x?sf] uLt ;+uLt / g[Tosf] a9L k|j{4g ePsf]
xf]sL eGg] b]lvG5 . s]xL ;do cl3 ;'g;/Lsf] vgf/df nfu]sf] dxf]T;jdf
/fli6«o :t/sf snfsf/sf] Go"g ;xeflutfn] Jofkf/ k|j{4g / dgf]/~hgsf]
;d]t Tolt pT;fx b]lvPg . ljut jif{df O6x/Ldf nfu]sf] dxf]T;jdf ef/tLo
hfb" tdf;f / /fli6«o :t/sf snfsf/sf] k|:t'tLsf] al9 k|j{4g ePsf] u'gf;f]
gcfPsf] xf]Og . To;}n] dxf]T;j cf}krfl/stfdf dfq l;ldt x'g] / pknlAwd"ns
/ ;fy{s x'g] eGg] ljifodf ;j} kIfsf] Wofg hfg' h?/L 5 .
/fli6«o snfsf/nfO{ af]nfP/ dgf]/~hg dfq} u/fpg] xf] eg] Jofkf/Ls
pT;j geg]/ dgf]/~hg pT;j eGbf a]; x'g] w]/}sf] ;'emfj 5 . To;}n] d]nf
dxf]T;j h] p2]Zon] nufOG5 Tof] p2]Zo k'/f x'g] ultljwL klg x'g'k5{ . xhf/f}+
ef8f lt/]/ /fv]sf :6ndf lbge/L j:bf klg af]xf]gL ;d]t geP/ Ps ÷b'O{
lbgd} clwsf+z :6n vfnL ePsf ljutsf 36gfnfO{ d]nf cfof]hsx?n] a'em\g
h?/L 5 . d]nf dxf]T;jdf cfof]hs tyf :6n /fVg]x?n] ;d]t pTkfbgsf]
k|j{4g ug{ gofF k|of]u / k2tL nfu' ug'{kg]{ cfjZostf 5 . tfsL dflg;x?
vfnL gfrufg x]g{ dfq dxf]T;j gk'u'g dxf]T;jdf /flvPsf pTkfbgx? s]xL g
s]xL vl/b u/]/ kmls{pg\ eGg] p2]Zo /fv]/ ;do ;fk]If u|fxs cfs{if0f ug{
;Sg] snf / cjwf/0ff nfu' ug{ ;Sg' kb{5 . d]nf dxf]T;jdf ;j} vfnsf
pTkfbs / pkef]Qmfsf] rfxgfnfO{ ;d]6\g s;/L ;lsG5 eGg] ultljwL hj;Dd
x'Fb}gg\ . tj;Dd Jofkf/ k|j4{gdf ;xof]uL x'Fb}gg\ . o;sf] dtnj d]nf k"0f{
?kdf c;kmn x'g] u/]sf] eGg] rfFxL x}g . olt;Dd xf]sL d]nf ;lx cy{df
pkef]Qmf / pTkfbssf] k"n eg] x'g ;s]sf 5}gg\ . o;df d]nf cfof]hssf] dfq
sdhf]/L x}g . :jo+ pTkfbssf] klg sdhf]/L x'g] u/]sf] 5 . lsgsL pgLx?n]
klg cfk\mgf pTkfbg k|lt u|fxsnfO{ cfsif{0f ug{ ;Sg] snf b]vfpg ;s]sf
5}gg\ . s]xL pTkfbs eg] o;df w]/} cuf8L 5g\ . dxf]T;jdf hj;Dd :6n
;+rfns, pTkfbs / pkef]Qmfx?n] ;d]t of] xfd|f] nflu klg xf] eg]/ j'e\mg
;S5g\ tjdfq ;j}sf nfuL pknlAw d"ns / ;fy{s x'g ;S5 . 7"nf] nufgL /
w]/} hgzlQm kl/rfng ul/ cfof]hgf x'g] x/]s dxf]T;jx? cfk\mgf] p2]Zo
cg';f/ ;fy{s x'g ;s'g olx z'esfdgf .

Joj;fodf dlxnf

Joj;flos prfO a9fp“b} dlxnfx?

cy{la6 8]:s

dlxnfx? k'?ifsf] sdfOdf 3/ l;+ufg]{ / r'nf] rf}sf] ;dfNg] dfq xf]Og cfo
cfh{gdf klg k'?ifeGbf cAan eP/ b]vfpg ;S5g\ eGg] pbfx/0f vf]Hg cj
6f9f hfg' kb}g{  . tkfO{ xfd|} jl/k/L klg o:tf Ifdtfjfg dlxnfx? 5g\ .
h:sf] sd{af6 cGo w]/} dlxnf lbbLalxgLx?nfO{ pTk|]/0ff ldNg ;S5 eGg]
7fg]/ xfdLn] o; k6s k"jf{~rndf ljleGg Joj;fodf ;lqmo x'Fb} cfPsf dlxnfx?sf] af/]df pgLx?sf] Joj;flos
ofqf cg'ej / ;kmntfsf] syfnfO{ ;d]6\g] sf]lz; u/]sf 5f}+ . oxfF k|:t't kfqx? pbfx/0f dfq x'g\ . k"jf{~rn
If]qdf cem} w]/} lbbL alxgLx?n] cfkm\g} g]t[Tjdf Joj;fo rnfP/ ;dfhdf pbfx/0f b]vfPsf 5g\ .Ps} k6s ;j}nfO{
;d]6\g g;lsg] ePsfn] o; k6s xfdLn] k|ltlgwL d"ns ?kdf s]xL dlxnfx?sf] Joj;flos ofqfnfO{ ;d]6]sf 5f}+ .
o;/L g} cu|0fL eP/ nfu]sf cGo dlxnx?nfO{ klg cfufdL lbgdf ;d]6\b} hfg] xfd|f] nIo 5 .

k'; @)&)

3

cfj/0f

dfs]{l6ª\n] Joj;fodf
k]|l/t uof]{

sf7df8f}+ a:bf /f]huf/Lsf] nflu u/]sf] lsrg cfO6d / vfg]kfgLsf]
dfs]{l6ª\sf] sfdn] lah'a}gL >]i7nfO{ cfk\mg} Joj;fo ug{ pTk|]l/t
u¥of] .
P;Pn;L lbPkl5 g} :j/f]huf/sf nflu lah'n] l;nfO / Ao"l6l;og
tflnd lnPsL lyOg . t/ k|df0fkq tx cWoog k'/f gub}{ ljjfx
aGwgdf jfflwPsL pgn] cfFkm\gf] l;knfO{ ;b'kof]u ug{ kfPsL lyOgg\ .
>Ldfg\ nf]rgn] ldn] j}bl] zs /f]huf/Ldf hfg] gePklg cfk\mg} Aoj;fo
ug{ sfd nfU5 eg]/ sf7df8f}+df s'ssf] tflnd lng] eP . 8]9 jif{sf]
5f]/f / >LdtL;Fu} lnP/ sf7df8f} uPsf nf]rgsf] tflnddf klg vr{
ug'{kg]{ / ufF;af;sf] k|aGw klg ug'{kg]{ cj:yf lyof] ljh'nfO{ . To;}n]
pgn] ToxfF lsrg ;fdfu|L / kfgLsf] dfs]{l6ª\sf] sfd ul/g . pgn]
To;j]nf u/]sf] ;+3if{sf] syf klg sd 5}g, …dfq 8]9 jif{sf] gfgL
csf{sf] 3/df 8]/fsf] jf; cfk\mGt sf]xL gePsf] cj:yf . d}n]
lah'a}gL >]i7
gfgL;Fu} s;/L sfd u/]+ xf]nf < dnfO{ g} crDd nfU5 . Ú pgL
;+rflnsfM :jklgn Ao"l6 kfn{/
elG5g\ . t/ ToxL ;+3if{n] pgnfO{ Aoj;fodf pTk|]/Lt uof]{ . s]xL
-n]l8h P08 h]G; ;]n'g_
g s]xL Aoj;fo ug}{ k5{ eg]/ dge/L ;kgf a'gs
] L pgnfO{ sf7df8f}s
+ f]
O6x/L rf}s
ps'; d's';df eGbf cfk\mg} 7fpFdf plrt xf]nf eGg] nfUof] .
df]/ª\sf] uf]7ufpF 3/ ePsL pgn] l5d]sL pbodfg zx/ Aoj;fo yfNg] k"FhL cefjn] pgnfO{ uxgf /fVg' eGbf sdfP/
O6x/LnfO{ cfk\mgf] Aoj;flos sd{ynf] agfpg] nIo /flvg . kl5 lsGg' g} j]; eGg] pkfo ;'Hof] / 8]9 tf]nf ;'gsf uxgf
c?n] u/]sf] eGbf km/s 9+u / Aoj;foLs ?kdf sfd ug'{k5{ a]r]/ cfPsf] @) xhf/ ?k}ofF nufgL ul/ w/fg /f]8df Pp6f
eg]/ To; aLrdf pgn] cfFkm'nfO{ yk l;ksf] s;Ldf kl/is[t ;6{/ ef8fdf lnOg clg Ao"l6 kfn{/ z'? ul/g . of] @)%(
;fnlt/sf] s'/f xf] .
clxn] O6x/Lsf] d'Vo rf}ssf] k"j{ pQ/ kl6\6sf]
3/df Pp6f l;+u} k\mnf6 ef8f lnP/ Aoj;fo rnfO
/x]sL ljh'sf] Aoj;fodf xfn @) nfv ?k}ofF eGbfjl9
nufgL k'u]sf] 5 . pgL Aoj;fo /fv]sf] 3/sf]
ef8fdfq dfl;s #% xhf/ ?k}ofF a'emfpFb} cfPsf]
atfpFl5g\ .
pgn] rnfpFb} cfPsf] Ao"l6 kfn{/df dlxnfdfq
cfpFb}gg\ . ;+ejt dlxnf k'?if b'j} hgfnfO{ ;]jf
lbg] k"jf{~rnsf] Aojl:yt kfn{/ g} pgsf] :jklgn
kfn{/ xf] . pgn] dlxnfsf] nflu dlxnf / k'?ifsf
nflu k'?if Ao"l6l;ogsf] ;d]t Aoj:yf u/]sL 5g\ .
Ao"l6l;og ;]jf dfq x}g tflnd rfxfg]nfO{ ^
dlxgf cjlwsf] u'0f:t/Lo tflnd ;d]t lbb} cfPsf]
atfpg] ljh'n] xfn;Dd &) hgfnfO{ tflnd k|bfg
ul/ ;s]sL 5g\ eg] xfn pgsf] kfn{/df #) hgfn]
gofF tflnd lnO /x]sf 5g\ .
lgs6 elj:od} 6\of6' ;]jf ;d]t ;~rfng ug]{
tof/L ul//x]sL ljh' of] Aoj;fodf ;kmn agfpg cfk\mgf
u/fO ;s]sL lyOg . t/ pgL;Fu k"FhLsf] cefj lyof] . >Ldfgsf] e"ldsf klg ;xof]uL /x]sf] atfpFl5g\ . xfn pgsf]
Psflt/ au|]NtL Ao"l6kfn{/;Fu k|lt:kwf{ ug'{kg]{ csf]{lt/ Ao"l6kfn{/ tyf tflnd s]Gb|df % hgfn] /f]huf/L kfPsf 5g\  .
4

k'; @)&)

ldlxg]t / cfTdljZjf;n]

Jofkf/df
cu'
j
fO
Ifdtf,lg/Gt/ k|of; ePg eg] ;kmn x'g ;lsb}g,

ld/f e§/fO{

k|f]= ld/f km]G;L :6f]/,pnf{jf/L -df]/ª\_
df]/ª\ pnf{jf/LsL ld/f e§/fO{ h'g;'s} sfd ug{ klg
cfTdljZjf;,d]xgt,kl/>d / lg/Gt/tf x'gk' 5{ eGg] ljZjf; /flV5g\ .
olx ljZjf;sf sf/0f Aoj;fodf :yflkt ePsL pgn] kl/jf/nfO{
;d]t Joj;fodf ;lqmo agfpg ;s]sL5g\ .
@)%# ;fndf k'vf}{nL ;DkQLsf] ?kdf /x]sf] Ps s6\7f
hUufaf6 cfwf ljlqm u/]/ cfPsf] #% xhf/ ?k}ofF nufgL u/L
pgn] z'? u/]sf] Aoj;fodf clxn]] b'O s/f]8 ?k}ofF nufgL
k'u]sf] 5 . @)%# ;fndf pnf{jf/L jhf/df pgn] z'? u/]sf]
ld/f km]G;L :6f]/sf] ;kmntfn] pgsf] kl/jf/d} Aoj;foLs
pT;fx hfu[t ePsf] 5 . ld/fn] cfk\mg} gfdsf] pnf{jf/Ll:yt
ld/f km]G;L :6f]/ / pgsf >Ldfg l8NnL/fdn] O6x/Lsf] ;+uLt
rf}sdf Go" z'ed\ km]G;L :6f]/ rnfpFb} cfPsf 5g\ . b'j} k;ndf
/]l8d]8 sk8fsf] ;fy} h'Qf rKknsf] xf]n;]n Aofkf/ ;d]t
/x]sf] ld/f atfpFl5g\ .
…d}n] ;fg}b]lv ;kmn Jofkf/L aGg] sNkgf u/]sL
lyP . To;}n] ljjfx u/]bv
] Lg} d Aoj;fodf nfu]sL x' F . Jofkf/df
>Ldfg\n] w]/} ;xof]u ug{'ePsf] 5 pxfFsf] ;xof]un] klg xfdL
;kmn ePsf xf}+ . 5f]/f5f/Lsf] eljio /fd|f] agfpg] cfzfn]
klg d}n] Jofkf/ ug{ yfn]sL lyP,;dod} Aoj;fo yfn]sfn] g}
clxn]sf] cj:yf;Ddsf] ;kmntf ldn]sf] xf] .Ú ld/f elG5g\ .
Joj;fo :yflkt x'g z'¿sf lbgdf Tolt ;lhnf] lyPg, w]/}
uf¥xf] eof] . sltko ;fdfgsf jf/]df 1fg gx'"bf w]/}sf
u'gf;fx¿ ;'Gg' kb{Yof] . z'?sf lbgdf w]/} 3f6f vfP/ ePklg
Aofkf/nfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbOof] olb Tolx a]nf 5f]8]sf] eP xfdL
of] cj:yfdf cfOk'Ug ;Sg] lyPgf}+ . Jofkf/df w}o{tf, ;xg

pgn] elgg\ . cg'ejn]dfq dfG5]nfO{ ;kmn Aoj;foL
agfpF5 . lg/Gt/ !* jif{sf] ldlxg]tn] olx cg'ej
u/fPsf] pgL atfpFl5g\ .
;kmn x'g rfxfg]nfO{ pgsf] ;Nnfx 5 .
u/] gx'g] s]xL 5}g, gkfp"g] j:t' x"'b}g . c;Dejsf]
gfd} 5}g eGg] s'/fnfO{ dgg\ ug{ cfjZos 5 .
Joj;fodf w}o {tf, kl/jf/df plrt ;/-;Nnfx
d]nldnfk ;do cg'sn
' sf ;fdfgsf] 5gf}6] u|fxs;Fusf]
ld7f] jf]nL- jrgn] dfq ljZjfl;nf] aGg ;lsG5 .
k};f gx'g]n] klg ;fgf] k"'hLjf6 cfkm\gf] Jofkf/ ug{
;S5g\ . To;}jf6 lj:tf/} cfkm\gf] Joj;fonfO{ a9\fp"b}
n}hfg ;lsG5 . h;sf] Pp6f pbfx/0f d} x' F . Ps}rf]6L
sf]xL klg ;DkGgzfnL aGg ;sb}g pgL elG5g\ .
clxn] pgsf] O6x/L / pnf{jf/Ldf h'Qf, rKkn, Aofu
/ 5ftfsf] xf]n;]n Aofkf/ 5 . lrg, yfO{n0} 8, O+lG8of
/ sf7df08f}+jf6 ;fdfg NofP/ xf]n;]ndf ljlqm ug]{
u/]sf] pgL atfpFl5g\ . …k|foM ;a} sDkgLsf] h'Qf,
rKkn, xfd|f] k;ndf kfOG5g\ . ;fdfg lng d /
>Ldfg\ ldn]/ kfn} kfnf] hfG5f} .Ú pgL elG5g\ .
pgsf] k;naf6 xf]n;]ndf ;fdfg lnP/ Aofkf/ ug]{ b'O;o
hgfeGbf a9L Jofkf/L 5g\ . Onfd, t]¥xy'd, ljtf{df]8, O6x/L,
w/fg, ef]hk'/, pbok'/ nufotsf :yfgsf Aofkf/Lx?n] ;fdfg
nfg] u/]sf] pgL hfgsf/L lblG5g\ . klxn] cfFkm'n] k;n yfNbf
yf]/} dfq Aofkf/L ePklg clxn] Jofkf/df w]/} k|lt:kwf{ /x]sf]
pgsf] egfO 5 .
elj:odf ;kmn dlxnf Jofkf/L aGg] nIo /fv]sL
pgL 5f]/L dfG5] eP/ Jofkf/ Jofj;fo ug{ kfp"bf v';L nfu]sf]
atfpg] pgL ldlxg]ts} sf/0f lgDg :t/af6 cfly{s cj:yfnfO{
;'wfg{ ;s]sf] atfpFl5g\ . Jofkf/jf6} b}lgs Aojxf/ wfg]/
3/-hUuf ;d]t hf]8\g ;kmn pgL pnf{jf/L / O6x/Ldf 3/ agfP/
cfkm\g} 3/df k;n /fVg] of]hgfdf 5g\ . tLg 5f]/f 5f]/LsL cfdf ld/f
Aofkf/ ub}{ 5f]/f5f]/L x'sf{Psf] atfpFl5g\ . pgsf] sfG5f] 5f]/f] sIff $
df, h]7f] 5f]/f] lj1fg ljifosf] !! sIffdf sf7df08f}d+ f k9\b5} g\ eg]
5f]/L :6fkm g;{ cWoogsf] tof/Ldf 5g\ . of] ;j} ;+3if{ u/]/ g} ;Dej
ePsf] pgL pNn]v ul5{g .
pgsf] ;'emfj 5 …dlxnf lbbL alxgL sdfpgsf]
nfuL vf8L d'n's hfg'eGbf olx a;]/ s]xL sfd ug{' /fd|f] xf] .
csf{sf] b]z eg]sf] ;kgf dfq} xf] . ;fg} k"FhLaf6 Jofkf/
Joj;fo klg x/]; gvfO lg/Gt/tf lbPdf 7"nf] / /fd|f] agfpg
;lsG5 . slxNo} lxDdt xfg{' x'b}g . b'Mv, ;'v lhjg xf],
rln/xG5 . cfkm}n] u/]/ b]vfpg' k5{ . sfd ;fgf] 7"nf] x'b}g .
csf{sf] e/ kg{' /fd|f] xf]Og . OdfGbfl/tf, d]xgt, c6'6 eP
;kmntf cj:o xft nfUb5 .Ú
 dl0f/fd bfxfn

k'; @)&)

5

hflu/ 5f]8/] pBddf /dfpFb}
dfnf b]jfg

…:jf:Yo k|fljlws x'g kfP . Ps
t lj/fdLsf] ;]jf csf]{ sfd kfpg
klg ;lhnf]Ú eGg] ;f]r/] cfk\mgf]
cf}krfl/s lzIff;Fu} O6x/LsL dfnf
b]jfgn] cgdLsf] tflnd lnOg .
pgsf >Ldfg rqm yfkfdu/n] klg
e]6g] /L k|fljlws k9] .
k|fljlws tflnd k'/f x'gf;fy
b'jn
} ] ;/sf/L hflu/ kfP . kz' ;]jf
sfof{nosf] k|fljlws ;xfosdf
;/sf/L gf]s/L z'? u/]sf rqm;Fu}
>LdtL dfnfn] klg ;/sf/L
c:ktfnd} cgdL hflu/ kfPsL
lyOg .

dfnf b]jfg
k|f]k|fO6/
dfnf s]ldsn pBf]u,
O6x/L

dlxnfn] rnfPsf pBf]udf s/ 5'6sf] ;'ljwf lbg'k5{

of] @)#)÷)#! ;fn lt/sf] s'/f xf] . t/ b'Ohgfsf] dfl;s
tnj hf]8\bf % ;o ?k}ofF k'Ub}gYof] . hflu/ vfP/ kl/jf/}
wfGg d'l:sn b]v]kl5 rqmn] s]xL jif{kl5 g} hflu/ xfkL lbP .
hflu/ 5f]8]kl5 rqmn] s'v'/f / a+u'/ kfng z'? u/] ;fydf
e]6g] /L cf}ifwL / bfgfsf] l8n/ klg rnfP . dfnf eg] hflu/d}
lyOg .
b'O bDklt, b'O lt/ jfFl8g' kbf{ Aofkf/ / kz'kfngn]
ck]Iffs[t ;kmntf xfl;n x'g g;s]/ lbgrof{sf] d]nf]dfq
ag]kl5 pgLx? ljsNksf] vf]hLdf lyP .
;w}+ c?sf] eGbf km/s jf sd dflg;n] dfq ckgfPsf]
k]zf ckgfpg vf]Hg] dfnfn] c:ktfndf sfd ubf{ c:ktfnsf]
zf}rfno, e'OF OToflb ;kmf ug{ k|of]u ug]{ 6\jfOn]6 SnLg/,
lkmg]n OToflb s]ldsn sxfFaf6 cfpF5 / To;sf] Aofkfl/s
;+efjgf s] 5 eg]/ >LdfgnfO{ cWoog ug{ ;Nnfx lbOg . tL
lrhx? ;j} ljb]zaf6 cfpg] a'em]kl5 :jb]zdf pTkfbg ug{
;Sg] ;+efjgf b]v]/ rqmn] ef/tdf uP/ sl/j Ps jif{ tflnd
/ cg'ej ;d]t lnP/ kms]{ . To; qmddf pgn] s]ldsn
pTkfbgsf] k|ljlwdfq l;s]gg\ sRrf kbfy{ kfOg] 7fpF ;Dks{
;|ft] / g]kfndf ug{ ;Sg] jhf/Ls/0fsf] ;+efjgf ;d]t cWoog
u/]kl5 pBf]u} vf]Ng] lgisif{df k'u]sL lyOg dfnf . t/ ;d:of
6

k'; @)&)

lyof] k"FhLsf] .
lhljs} grNg] hflu/df !& jif{ ljtfO ;s]sL dfnfn]
hflu/ xfk]/} pBf]udf nufgL ug]{ lg0f{o ul/g . pgn] hflu/
5f]8\bf kfPsf] sl/j !) xhf/ ?k}ofFdf afFsL C0f u/]/ !^
xhf/ hDdf kf/]kl5 pgLx?n] dfnf s]ldsn pBf]usf] :yfkgf
u/] . of] @)$& ;fnsf] s'/f xf] . pxfF k|fljlws x'gfn] Aoj:yfkg
/ ahf/Ls/0fsf nflu c? dfG5] /fVg} kb{Yof] . …c? dfG5] /fv]/
tnj lbg' eGbf cffkm}n] v6\g' /fd|f] xf] eGg] lgZsif{n] d}n] hflu/
5f]8s
] L lyP . To;j]nf u/]sf] lg0f{odf dnfO{ k5'tf] 5}g . h] u/]
l7s u/] eGg] nflu /x]sf]5 . o;df :jtGqtf 5 . Joj;fo;Fu}
;fdflhs sfd klg ug{ kfPsL 5' .Ú dfnfn] egLg\ . …pBf]usf]
;~rfnsdfq x}g sjf8Laf6 vl/b ul/Psf k'/fgf l;;L cfFkm}
;kmf ug],{ lgM;+qmd0fo'Qm agfpg], Koflsª\ ug]{ / ahf/df nu]/
ljlqm ug]{ ;d]t cfFkm} ub{Yof} + . Ú
>Ldfg rqmn] k|fljlwssf] ;j} e"ldsf lgjf{x ug]{ / dfnfn]
pBf]usf] k|zf;g, Aoj:yfkg, jhf/Ls/0f / a}lª\sª\ nufotsf
;j} sfd ub}{ cfPsL 5g\ . rqm eG5g\ …dnfO{ jflx/L s'/fsf]
hfgsf/L x'bF g} Tof] dfnfn]g} ul5{g pTkfbgsf] sfddf eg] d}n]
sb]vL 1;Dd cfFkm} nfu]/ ul/ /x]sf] 5' . d cfFkm} k|fljlws
ePsfn] jhf/df pknAw ljb]zL pTkfbg eGbfjl9 u'0f:t/Lo

Joj;fodf dlxnf
s;/L agfpg] eGg]d} Wofg lbO /x]sf] 5' . Ú
…ljb]zLeg]kl5 /fd|f] / :jb]zL ;j} v/fj eGg] dfgl;stf
xfd|f] ;dfhdf 5 . clxn] gfkmf gxf]; t/ u|fxsn] Psk6s
k|of]u u/]kl5 ?rfpg] k|8S6 xfdLn] lbg'k5{ eg]/ nflu k/]sf
5f} + .Ú dfnf elG5g\ .
!^ xhf/ ?k}ofF nufgLaf6 sfnf] lrn 5fk ud, d;L,lkmg]n
/ 6\jfOn]6 lSng/ pTkfbg ub}{ z'? ePsf] dfnf s]ldsn dlxnfn]
;~rfng u/]sf] O6x/L If]qsf] klxnf] pBf]u xf] . xfn o;
pBf]uaf6 #% k|sf/sf pTkfbg jhf/df uO/x]sf 5g\ .
xfn &% nfv ?k}ofF k"h
F L k'us
] f] pgsf] pBf]un] !! hgfnfO{
k|ToIf /f]huf/L lbPsf] 5 . k"j{ d]rLb]vL dxfsfnL;Ddg} ahf/
k|ltlglw dfkm{t pTkfbgx? ljlqm ljt/0f ub}{ cfPsf] pBf]usf]
jflif{s sl/j !* nfv ?k}ofFsf] sf/f]jf/ eO /x]sf] dfnf atfpFl5g\ .
g]kfndf zf}rfno k|of]ustf{sf] ;+Vof j9];uF } zf}rfno
;/;kmfO ug]{ pTkfbgsf] ahf/ klg lbgfg'lbg jl9 /x]sf] 5 .
t/ ljb]zL pTkfbgs} jfx'Notfn] ubf{ :jb]zL pTkfbg k|fyldstfdf
kl/ /x]sf 5}gg\ . dfnf s]ldsnsf pTkfbg d"No / u'0f:t/ b'j}
lx;fjn] pko'Qm 5g\ . ljb]zL pTkfbg eGbf u'0f:t/Lo / em08}
!% k|ltzt sddf d"Nod} pknAw u/fO /x]sf] bfjL pgsf] 5 .

nfdf] ;dob]vL pBf]u rnfpFb} x'gx' G' 5,;d:of s] s:tf
5g\ <

:jb]zL pTkfbg k|lt pkef]Qmfx?sf] ljZjf; j9\g ;s]sf]
5}g . ;/sf/L gLlt klg :jb]zL pTkfbgnfO{ k|fT] ;fxg ug]{ vfnsf]
gx'g' k|dv
' ;d:of xf] . ljb]zL eGbf :jb]zL pTkfbg u'0f:t/Lo
agfpg} kg]{ x'G5 lsgsL u'0f:t/ ljgf
k|lt:kwf{ ug{ ;lsb}g . u'0f:t/;Fu} d"No
klg ljb]zL eGbfsd x'G5 t/ pkef]Qmfn]
jl9 d"No lt/]/ ePklg ljb]zL g} vl/b
ug{ ?rfO /x]sf 5g\ . ;fy} csf]{ ;d:of
eg]sf] ;fdfg afFsL lng] / e'QmfgL glbg]
xf] . ahf/df xfdLn] #) nfv eGbf jl9
/sd p7fpg ;s]sf 5}gf}+ .

cfpg' ;kmntf t x}g t/ klg pBf]unfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbP/
kfl/jfl/s u'hf/f rnfpg ;s]sf 5f}+ . / k|of; ubf{ cem}
a9fpg ;lsG5 eGg] ljZjf; a9]sf] 5 .

dfnf s]ldsnsf pTkfbgx? rfFxL s] s] 5g\ <

zf}rfno ;kmf ug]{ sfnf] lrn 5fk -6\jfOn]6 lSng/_,
sfnf] lkmg]n, ;]tf] lkmg]n, ud, d;L ,nfOhn, P/f]d]S;
-jf:gfbf/ lkmg]n_ lg/, l6Gr/ cfof]l8g, lnSjL8 ;f]k
-emf]n ;fj'g_ OToflb pTkfbg ub{5f}+ .
To;}ul/ g]n kf]ln; l/df]e/, UnL;L/Lg,kmdf{lng, tflk{g
t]n, Njfª\ t]n, DofUg]l;od ;Nkm]6,jf]l/s Pl;8,l;l6;L
-Kn]g Pl;8_, km8\ls/L, lgnf] t'yf],JnLlrª\ kfp8/, sfl:6s
;f]8fsf] Kofs]hLª\ u/]/ ljlqm ub{5f}+ .

dlxnfn] ;~rfng u/]sf pBf]unfO{ k|j4{g ug{ ;/sf/n]
s] ug'{k5{ <

kl5Nnf] ;dodf r"nf] rf}sf] ;DxfNb} dlxnfx? pBf]u
Aoj;fodf ;+nUg x'g] qmd a9]sf] 5 . t/ ;/sf/L gLlt
pBf]u k|j4{g ug]{ vfnsf] 5}g . dlxnfsf] gfddf hUuf vl/b
ubf{ ;/sf/n] s/ 5'6sf] Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 t/ dflg;nfO{
/f]huf/L lbg] pBf]u rnfpg] dlxnfnfO{ s]xL ;'ljwf 5}g .
sd;]sd sRrf kbfy{ cfotdf nfUg] s/ / pBf]u gljs/0f
ubf{ nfUg] s/df 5'6 / dlxnfaf6 ;~rflnt pBf]usf nflu
lnOg] C0fdf Aofhsf] 5'6 lbg] ;'ljwf ePdf dlxnfx?nfO{
Aoj;fodf nfUg pTk|]/0ff ldNb5 . o; tkm{ Wofg lbg h?/L
5 .

pTkfbg u' 0 f:t/Lo 5g\ eg] /
ljZjf; lbnfpg g;lsPsf] xf] sL <

xfdLn] 3/ 3/df uP/ lgMz'Ns lbP/
cfk\mgf k|8S6sf] kl/If0f pkef]Qmfdf
u/fpg kfP x'GYof] t/ l;ldt ;|f]t /
;fwgaf6 z'? u/LPsf] pBf]uaf6 To;f]
ug{ ;+ej x'Fb}g . olb pkef]Qmfn] xfd|f]
pTkfbg Ps k6sdfq} k|of]u u/] eg]
klg u'0f:t/ yfxf kfOxfN5g\ / To;kl5
pgLx?sf] dfu xfd|} pTkfbgdf x'G5 .
hltnfO{ xfdLn] cfk\mgf pTkfbg b]vfpg
/ k|of]u u/fpg kfPsf 5f}+ pgLx?n]
xfdLnfO{ ljZjf; u/]sf 5g\ . Tolx cfzf
/ e/f];fn] xfdL afd] ;/L /x]sf 5f}+ .
kl5Nnf] ;dodf xfd|f] cfzf w]/} j9]sf]
5 . @@ jif{sf] k|of;kl5 of] cj:yfdf

lkpg' pkxf/ kfgL ==== :jR5 x'G5 lhGbufgL ===

pTkfbs

lxdwf/f sDkgL k|f=ln=
b'nf/L–%, ul5of, df]/ª
k'; @)&)

7

klxnf] Jofkfl/s dlxnf g]t[
@)^) ;fndf ePsf] pBf]u jfl0fHo ;+3 Onfdsf]
;fwf/0f;efn] dlxnf Joj;foLnfO{ klg sfo{ ;ldltdf Nofpg]
gLlt agfPkl5 dlxnf ;b:odf dgf]lgt eP/ g]tT[ jsf] cg'ej
ug{ yfn]sL ;'lznf ;fksf]6f clxn] pBf]u jfl0fHo ;ª\3
OnfdsL cWoIf 5g\ . @ xhf/ ! ;o #% hgf pBf]uL
Aoj;foLsf] g]t[Tj ul//x]sL pgL g]kfn e/Lsf (^ cf]6f
pBf]u jfl0fHo ;+3sf cWoIf dWo]df Psdfq dlxnf cWoIf
x'g\ .
@)^) ;fndf Ps sfo{sfn dgf]lgt eP/ ;b:osf] sfd
u/]sL ;'lznf @)^# ;fndf eg] lgjf{lrt} eOg . @)^^
;fndf ;b:oaf6 låtLo pkfWoIf ag]sL pgL @)^( r}q #
ut]sf] ;fwf/0f;efaf6 cWoIfsf b'O{hgf k|lt:kwL{nfO{ kl5kfb}{
g]kfns} klxnf] dlxnf cWoIfdf lgjf{lrt ePsL x'g\ .
b]ze/Lsf ;fgf Joj;foLsf] tkm{af6 cfFkm" g]tT[ jdf cfPsf]

;j} Joj;foL;Fu xfQ]dfnf] ug{] rfxfgfz'l;nf ;fksf]6f
atfpg] pgn] lgjf{lrt x'bF } ubf{ w]/} 8/ nfu]sf] ePklg g]tT[ jdf
k'u]kl5 ;a}nfO{ ;d]6]/, ;a};Fu ;xsfo{ u/]/ hfFbf c;lhnf]
eg] s]xL klg /x]g5 eGg] dx;'; ePsf] cg'ej ;+ufn]sL
5g\ . …;a}nfO{ ldnfP/ ;xsfo{ ug{;s] ;xof]uL xftx? k|;:t
x'Fbf /x]5g\ / ;fgf] 7fpFaf6 klg g]t[Tjdf k'Ug ;lsg] /x]5
eGg] nfu]sf] 5 . Ú pgL elG5g\ .
kxf8L lhNnfsf] jfl0fHo ;+3sf] g]t[Tj ;Dxfln/xFbf
r'gf}tL klg plQs} /x]sf] pgL atfpFl5g . jfl0fHo ;+3nfO{
aflx/af6 cfly{s ?kdf ;DkGg ePsf] b[li6n] x]g{] u/]klg
Onfddf pBf]u, snsf/vfgf sd ePsf] / ePsf klg ;+3df
cfj4 gePsf]n] cfly{s ;d:of /x]sf] pgsf] egfO 5 . ;j}
vfnsf Joj;fo ;+ul7t u/]/ ;j}nfO{ ;d]6]/ nfg gLltut
r'gf}tL /x]sf] atfpFl5g\ pgL . olt x'Fbfx'Fb} klg r'gf}tLx?nfO{
;dfwfg ug{ lhNnfdf /x]sf ;j} pBf]ux?nfO{ cfj4 ub}{
hfg], Joj;foLx?sf] juL{s/0f ug]{ tyf ;j} Joj;foLnfO{
afl0fHo ;ª\3 5ftf ;+u7g xf] eGg] efjgfsf] ljsf; ul/
;+u7g lj:tf/ ug]{ of]hgf /x]sf] pgn] hfgsf/L lbPsL 5g\ .
@)#* ;fndf df]/Ëaf6 Onfd gu/kflnsf-@ sf kz'{
;fksf]6f;Fu ljjfx u/]/ cfPsL z'lznf ;fksf]6fn] s]xL jif{
ljtf{df]8df k"jf{~rn kf]N6"L kmfd{ rnfP/ al;g\ . t/ Onfddf
;;'/fn] rnfO /x]sf] ls/fgf / xf]n;]n k;n tyf 3/-Jojxf/
klg cfFkm}n] g} x]g'{ k/]sfn] @)$^ b]vL Onfdd} kmls{P/ sfd
ug{ yfn]sf] pgL atfpFl5g\ .
@)$& ;fndf kl/jf/sf] c+za08f x'Fbf ;'zLnf /
pgsf >Ldfg\sf] efudf k'Vof}{nL ?kdf rNb} cfPsf] ;fgf]
ls/fgf k;n / 3/ k/]sf] lyof] . 5f]/f-5f]/L k9fpg'kg]{ /
Jojxf/ klg rnfpg'kg]{ ePsfn] k;nnfO{ Joj;foLs agfpg
8

k'; @)&)

cWoIf
pBf]u jfl0fHo ;+3, Onfd

nflu k/]sf lyP pgLx? . Psnf}6L Joj;fo yfNbf b'O{-c9fO{
nfvsf] dfq sf/f]af/ lyof] . pgL elG5g\ æxfdLnfO{ Joj;fo
a9fpg a'jf / h]7fh'n] w]/} ;xof]u ug'{eof] . xfn jflif{s #%
b]lv $) nfv ?k}ofF;Ddsf] sf/f]af/ ug]{ u/]sf 5f}+ .Æ
…aLrdf ;ft-cf7 jif{ s'rf] / cb'jfsf] klg sf/f]af/
ug]{ u/]sfn] jflif{s tLg s/f]8 ?k}ofF;Ddsf] sf/f]af/ lyof] .
t/, xfn cb'jf / s'rf]sf] sfd ug{ 5f8]/ ls/fgf tyf xf]n;]nsf]
Jofkf/ dfq 5 .Ú pgn] elgg\ .
;fgf] ls/fgf k;naf6} yfn]sf] Joj;fon] Pp6f 6\ofS6/
lsg]sf] / 5f]/f-5f]/LnfO{ pRr lzIff k9fPsf] pgn] atfOg\ .
3/vr{ ug{ ;d]t Joj;fos} cfDbfgLn] k'Ug] ePsfn] a'afn]
lbPsf] ;DklQ xfn;Dd g36fPsf] pgsf] egfO 5 . pgL
elG5g\ æ@)$& ;fndf c+zdf kfPsf] ;fgf] k;naf6 xfdL of]
cj:yfdf cfOk'us
] f xf+ } .Æ pgLx?sL Psdfq 5f]/Ln] :gftsf]Q/
;s]/ Pglhcf]df sfd ug{ yfn]sf] tLgjif{ eO;Sof] . 7"nf]
5f]/f cWoog l;WofP/ cd]l/sfdf sfd ub}{5g\ eg] sfG5f]
5f]/f klg cd]l/sfd} sDKo'6/ OlGhlgo/ 5g\ .
dlxnf hfu/0f ;+3sL cWoIf lji0f' bfxfnsf] k|]/0ffn]
;]tLb]jL art tyf C0f ;xsf/L ;+:yfdf cfj4 ePsL ;'zLnf
xfn of] ;xsf/Ldf klg cWoIf /x]sL 5g\ . ;xsf/Ls} cg'ejn]
ubf{ pgnfO{ pBf]u jfl0fHo ;ª\3sf] g]t[Tj ug]{ cfF6 cfPsf]
xf] .

OlGb/f l3dL/]

cfj/0f

pBf]u vf]Ng]] of]hgfdf lalgtf
a]/f]huf/L ;d:ofn] ef}tfl/ /x]sf] ;dodf pgnfO{ Aoj;fo
ug{ ;Nnfx / k|]/0ff lbg] AolQm ;d]t cfh pgL;Fu} yf]s
;fdfg vl/b u/]/ ljlqm u5{g\ .
sfd geP/ s] u/f}+ s;f] u/f}+ eg]/ cj;/sf] vf]hLdf
/x]sL O6x/L % sL lalgtf a~h/fnfO{ w/fgdf v'ns
] f] s';gsf]
se/ agfpg] tflnd g} Aoj;foLs efUo rDsfpg] dfWod
ag]sf] xf] . ToxL tflndaf6 s';g se/ agfpg] Aoj;fo z'?
u/]sL lalgtfn] s';g se/sf] Aofkf/ ubf{ub}{ 9fsf sk8fsf]
xf]n;]n Aofkf/ ug]{ k|/0ff kfPsL lyOg . …O6x/Ldf 9fsf
sk8fsf] k;n 5}g,ltdLn] vf]n] /fd|f] x'G5 .Ú eg]/ Aoj;fo
ug{ k|f]T;flxt ug]{ lj/f6gu/sf Joj;foL kz'{/fd >]i7 clxn]
pg};Fu 9fsf sk8f lnP/ ljlqm u5{g . kz'{/fd bfOn] lbPsf]
;Nnfx gdfg]sL eP ;fob clxn] d of] cj:yfdf cfpg ;Sg]
lyOg pgn] elgg\ .
@)^) ;fndf w/fgdf Ps ;+:yfn] lbPsf] s';gsf] se/
d]lsª\ tflnd lnPkl5 cfkmGtx?;Fu ;/;fk6L dfu]/ pgn]
@% xhf/ ?k}ofF nufgL u/L s';g agfpg] Aoj;fo z'? u/]sL
lyOg . pTkflbt s' ; g se/sf] ahf/ vf] H g] qmddf
w/fg,lj/f6gu/ tyf bds;Dd k'Ug] pgn] Psjif{df sdfPsf]
Psnfv %) xhf/ ?k}ofF nufgL u/]/ @)^! ;fndf O6x/Ldf
u'0f:tLo g]kfnL 9fsf 6]"8;{ z'? u/]sL lyOg . s';g se/sf]
sfd ;fem]bf/Ldf u/]sL lalgtfn] ;fem]bf/ ;fyLnfO{ Tof] sfd
lhDdf nufP/ 9fsf sk8fsf] Aoj;fo yfn]sL lyOg .
To;j]nf Psnfv %) xhf/ ?k}ofF nufgL u/]/ z'? u/]sf]
pgsf] Aoj;fosf] k"FhL clxn] em08} @% nfv k'u]sf] 5 .
Unf]jn cfOPdO a}ªs
\ af6 C0f ;d]t kl/rfng u/L Aoj;fonfO{
lg/Gt/tf lbPsL pgn]
clxn];Dd cfOk'Ubf
Joj;fodf /fd| f ]
km8\s f] dfg{ ;kmn
ePsL 5g\   . Psn
k| o f;df ;~rflnt
pgsf] Aoj;fo clxn]
O6x/L / cf;kf;df
dfq l;ldt 5} g  .
/fhwfgL sf7df8f};Dd
pgn] xf] n ;] n df
;fdfg ljlqm ub} {
cfPsL 5g\ . dlxgfdf
$÷% nfvsf] ;fdfg
xf]n;]n g} ljlqm x'g] pgL atfpFl5g\ . s'g} a]nf s;/L /f]huf/L
kfpg' xf]nf eGg] lrGtfdf 8'Ag] lalgtf cfFk'mn] clxn] # hgf
dlxnf lbbL alxgLnfO{ /f]huf/L ;d]t lbPsL 5g\ . …dlxgfdf
sDtLdf Psk6s sf7df8f}+ g} hfg'k5{ To:tf] ;dodf d}n] g}
u/]h:tf] e/kbf]{ sfd d]/f ;xof]uL lbbL alxgLn] ul/ /xg'

ljlgtf a~h/f
;+rfns
u'0f:tl/o g]kfnL 9fsf 6«]8;{, O6x/L
ePsf] 5 d w]/} v';L 5' .Ú pgn] elgg\ .
k"jf{~rndf x'g] ljleGg d]nf, dxf]T;jx?df ;lqmotf k"js
{
:6n ;~rfng u/]/ cfk\mgf] Aoj;fo / g]kfnsf] df}lns
kf]zfssf] k|j4{g ub}{ cfPsL lalgtf z'?sf lbgsf] ;+3if{
;+emFbf clxn] ;kgf h:tf] nfUg] pnn]v ul5{g . z'?sf] ;do
;fx}" ufx"f] lyof] . k"FhL km:g] kf] xf]sL eGg] nfUYof], lsg eg]
ddf Aoj;fo ;DalGw cg'ej ;'Go lyof] . t/ klg cfTd
ljZjf; /fv]/ lg/Gt/ Aoj;fodf nflu /xFbf ;kmntf ldNg]
/x]5 . of] Aoj;fonfO{ cem} gljg 9ª\uaf6 cuf8L a9fpg] /
elj:odf 9fsf sk8fsf] pBf]u g} ;~rfng ug]{ nIo /x]sf]
pgL atfpFl5g\ .
Aoj;fodf ;kmn x'g kfl/jfl/s ;xof]u / ;dGjosf]
7"nf] vfFrf] kg]{ pgsf] cg'ej 5 . s;}n] klg PSn}n] s'g}
sfddf ;kmntf kfpg d'l:sn x'G5 d}n] klg kfl/jfl/s
;xof]uaf6} of] :yfg kfpg ;s]sL xF' . dlxnf lbbL alxgLx?n]
To;} a:g x'Fb}g s]xL g s]xL cfo cfh{gsf] sfd lg/Gt/ /
;do ;fk]If 9ª\un] ug{ ;s] lglZrt ?kdf ;kmn x'g ;lsg]
pgsf] ;'emfj 5 .

k'; @)&)

/fh]z a/fn
9

gl;{ª\ 5f]8]/ pBf]u xfFSb} gldtf

d]6flns ¥ofk/df cfkm\gf pTkfbg ahf/ k'¥ofpFb}
cfPsf] pBf]un] lj/f6gu/ / cf;kf;sf em08} %)
pBf]usf pTkfbg;Fu k|ltikwf{df ;kmntf kfpg'n]
gldtf nufot ;~rfnsx?sf] /fd|f] tfnd]n /
;lqmotfsf] pbfx/0f lbPsf] 5 .
Ps 5f]/LsL cfdf gldtfn] ljxfg j]ns
' f u[lx0fLsf]
e"ldsf lgjf{x ub}{ pBf]usf] k|zf;g / n]vfsf]
lhDd]jf/L ;lqmotf k"js
{ ;+xfln /x]sL 5g\ . d]rLb]vL
k;f{;Dd !) cf]6f l8n/ dfkm{t ;of}+ Aofkfl/x?n]
Psf/; j|f08sf pTkfbgx? ljlqmljt/0f ul//x]sf
5g\ . dfl;s @) nfv eGbf jl9sf] sf/f]jf/ ul/
/x]sf] pBf]un] k"0f{ ?kdf k|fs[lts sRrf kbfy{ k|of]u
gldtf ltlD;gf -;~rfns_
ul/ /x]sf] gldtfsf] bfjL 5 . …ahf/df s[lqd :jfbsf
5\ofk 5\ofKtL /x]sf] cj:yfdf pgLx?s}
;/:jtL :kfOl;; P08 km'8 k|f]8S6 d;nfx?
d"Nodf xfdLn] k|fs[lts d;nfx? k:sL /x]sf 5f}+
lj/f6gu/
h;n] xfdLnfO{ u|fxssf] dfof kfpg ;xof]u u/]sf]
5 . xfdL elj:o;Ddg} olx u'0f:t/ sfod /fVg]
gl;{ª\ k9]sf w]/} dlxnfx? hflu/sf] nflu bf}8w'k ul/ k|ltj4tf ub{5f}+ .Ú gldtf elG5g\ .
/x]sf] ;dodf lj/f6gu/sL gldtf ltlD;gf eg] 5Fbf vfFb}sf]
u[lx0Lsf] ;Dk"0f{ e"ldsf lgjf{x u/]/ ljxfg ( jh];Dd
hflu/ 5f]8\b} lyOg .
pBf]udf k'uL ;Sg] gldtf ;fFem % jh];Dd Tolx x'lG5g\ .
lj/f6 gl;{ª\ xf]ddf s]xL jif{ sfd ubf{ hflu/sf] cg'ejn] pgsf klt klg lj/f6gu/sf] Pp6f k|ltli7t a}ª\s zfvfsf]
pgnfO{ nfdf] ;do hflu/df ljtfO /xg' >]o:s/ nfu]g / g]t[Tj ul/x]sf 5g\ . klt a}ª\ssf hflu/] ePsfn] pxfFn] klg
hflu/ Toflu lbOg . hflu/ TofUg'sf] p2]Zo lyof] :jtGq 3/fo;L sfddf ;do lbg ;Sg' x'Gg t/ ;f;' cfdfn] gfgLsf]
k]zfdf nfUg' . Tolx :jtGq k]zf vf]Hg] qmddf s]xL cg'ejL /]vb]v u/]/ d]/f] sfddf 7"nf] ;xof]u k'¥ofO /xg' ePsf] 5 .
Joj;flo;Fu ;fem]bf/Ldf sfd ug]{ ;Nnfx ldNof] . Tof] ;Nnfxn] kl/jf/sf] ;xof]u ljgf t s] sfd ;+ej x'G5 / pgL elG5g\ .
@)^( ;fnsf] h]7d} lj/f6gu/df ;/:jtL :kfO;]; P08 k"m8
dlxnfn] u[lx0fLdfq eP/ gj;f}+, ;j} u[lx0fL dlxnfx?nfO{
k|8S6sf] z'?cft u/fof] .
pgL ;'emfj lbg rfxlG5g\ . …u[lx0fLd} l;ldt eP/ ;do v]/
k"j{sf PkmPd /]l8of]x?df lg/Gt/ u'lGh /xg] Jofkfl/s gkmfnf}+ . cfTd lge{/ x'g s]xL ub}{ cl3 j9f}+ . Ú
;Gb]z Psf/; d;nf clxn] w]/} u[lx0fLsf] dgdf
a:g yfln ;s]sf] 5 . xf] Tolx d;nf pBf]usL
;Grflnsf ag]sL 5g\ cgdL Tofu]sL gldtf .
ev{/ jfd] ;g]{ 8]9jif]{ pd]/df k'u]sf] Psf/;
d;nfsf] pTkfbs ;/:jtL :kfO;]; pBf]un] eg]
km8\sf] dfl/ ;s]sf] 5 . pgL ;lxt rf/ hgf ;fem]bf/
/x]sf] ;/:jtL :kfO; pBf]udf % hgf dlxnf sd{rf/L
/f]huf/ /x]sf 5g\ . e'lhof, bfndf]7, d6/ k|mfO,;AhL,
ld6, lrof / dMdMd;nf tyf dl/r, j];f/, v';f{gL
nufotsf] kfp8/ ul/ #! cf]6f pTkfbg ahf/df
ljlqm ljt/0f ul/ /x]sf] pQm pBf]usf pTkfbg clxn]
lj/f6gu/ cf;kf;df dfq l;ldt 5}gg\ . k"j{sf]
d]r Lb]v L klZrdsf] aL/u~h;Ddsf efG;fsf
kf/vLx?nfO{ nf]Eofpg ;kmn pBf]un] 5f]6f] ;dod}
:yflkt pBf]ux?sf pTkfbg;Fu k|ltikwf{df ;kmntf
kfpFb} cfPsf] 5 .
z'?df #) nfv nufgL ePsf] pBf]udf clxn]
%& nfv gf3L ;s]sf] 5 . k"0f{ :jrflnt pks/0faf6
10

k'; @)&)

cfj/0f

;Dklt gx'Fbf ;j}
6]lcGh'
9G5g\
v8\sf
k|f]k|fO6/
afaf xf8{j]o/ t/x/f,;'g;/L
t/x/fsL cGh' v8\sfnfO{ ljut ;+embf clxn]sf] hLjg /
To;j]nfsf] hLjg ;kgf / ljkgf h:tf] nfU5 . pgn] ljt]sf
lbg ;+embf clxn] klg cfFvfaf6 cfF;' em5{g \ .
>Ldfg ef/tLo ;]gfdf sfo{/t /xFbf vf]6fª\sf] b'ud{ ufpF
dflQddf ;+oQ
' m kl/jf/df j;]sL pgn] cfFkm' lg/If/ ePsfn]
5f]/f 5f]/LnfO{ k9fpg jftfj/0f gkfpg] b]vk] l5 7fpF 5f]8g\ ]
lxDdt u/]/ Pp6f gfjfns 5f]/f] Rofk]/ ule{0fL zl//d} ef/t
tkm{ nfu]sL lyOg .
t/ hflu/df a:bf Pshgfsf] sdfOn] vfg nfpg g} ;d:of
b]vk] l5 pgn] ToxfF j;]/ klg 5f]/f 5f]/L k9fpg] pkfo b]lvgg\ .
g]kfnd} kms]/{ s]xL ug]{ ;f]r cfof] . cfk\mgf ufpFnx] ? ;d]t
a;fO cfPsf] 7fpF ePsfn] e/ ce/df ;xof]u kfpg] cfzn]
pgL ;'g;/Lsf] t/x/f cfOg / ToxfF e};
+ L tyf s'v/' f kfNg
yflng . :s"n k9\b} 5f]/f5f]/Ln] klg ;3fpFy ] . e};
+ L / s'v/' f
kfng Joj;foaf6 z'? ePsf] pgsf] cfTdlge{/tfsf] cleofg
# jif{bv
] L xf8{jo] /df k'u/] cl8Psf] 5 .
To;j]nf Ps s6\7f hUufsf] e'mk|f] 3/df b'Mv hLnf] u/]sL
cGh' clxn] # tn] 3/df jl:5g . pgn] rnfPsf] xf8{jo] /df
dfl;s ;of}+ dflg;n] sf/f]jf/ u5{g . eft vfgsf nflu k'Ug]
v]tL ;d]t hf]8s
] L 5g\ .
ef/tLo ;]gfaf6 cjsf; kfPkl5 cfPsf] /sd lt/]/ C0faf6
d'Qm ePsf] cGh'sf] kl/jf/ pgsf >Ldfg\ dn]l;og ;]So"/L6L
uf8{df sfd ul//x]sf] ;do Pk]lG8;fO6sf] SofG;/ eP/ d[To'
ePkl5 emg} lkl8t eof] . of] @)^$ ;fnsf] s'/f xf] . >Ldfgsf]
lgwgn] jh|kftdf k/]sL cGh'nfO{ tLg 5f]/f 5f]/L k9fpFb} kl/jf/sf]
;Dk"0f{ ef/ yfDg' kbf{ 7"nf] sl7gfO dx;'z ePsf] lyof] . To}klg
lxDdt gxf/L 8l6/xg] pgsf] :jefjsf sf/0f cfFkm' n] ub}{ cfPsf]
s'v/' f kfng Aoj;fonfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbb} 5f]/f 5f]/Lsf] k9fOdf
ljz]if Wofg k'¥ofOg . geGb} pgsf ;j} 5f]/f 5f]/Ln] k9fOdf
/fd|f] :yfg kfP . ljljP; cWoog k'/f u/]sf h]7f] 5f]/f o'j/fhnfO{
!^ nfv ?k}ofF C0f sf9]/ b'O jif{cl3 yk cWoogsf nflu
pgn] cfo/n}08 k7fPsL 5g\ . lj1fg ljifodf !@ sIff plt0f{
sfG5f] 5f]/f lzj/fh tLgjif{ cl3 la|l6z cfdL{df egf{ ePsf
5g\ eg] 5f]/L zfGtf ljtf{df]8df :6fkmg;{ t];f| ] jif{df cWoog/t
5g\ .
…h]7f] 5f]/f o'j/fh sf7df8f}+ a;]/ ljljP; cWoog ubf{ub}{
p;sf] a'jfsf] lgwg eof] . p;nfO{ k9fO vr{ / otfsf] 3/
Jojxf/ ;d]t rnfpg] ;d:of ePkl5 sn]h k9\b} /Tgkfs{df
rgf r6k6] a]r/] vr{ h'6fP5 . ToxL sfdaf6 p;n] 3/df

;d]t ;xof]u uof] { . p;sf] ljb]z uP/ k9\g] OR5fnfO{ k'/f ug{
xfdLn] ePsf] 3/ hUuf lwtf] /fv]/} ePklg ljb]z k7fof}+ clxn]
bfh' efO ldn]/ Tof] C0f lt/L;s] . …d]/f] b'Mv / ldlxg]tnfO{
d]/f 5f]/f 5f]/Ln] ;d]t a'em]/ ;fy lbPsf]df d w]/} v';L 5' . Ú
cGh' elG5g\ .
clxn] tLg} hgf 5f]/f 5f]/L 3/ jflx/ x'bF f klg cGh'n] sfd
ug{ 5f]8s
] L 5}gg\ . Psn hLjg ljtfO /x]sL cGh'n] clxn]
xfF;kf];fl:yt cfk\mg} 3/df afaf xf8{jo] / k;n rnfPsL 5g\ .
cfwf/lznf / hubDaf l;d]G6sf] l8n/ ;d]t /fv]sL cGh'n]
ev{/} cfkm\gf] 3/ ;d]t tLg tnf agfPsL 5g\ . pgnfO{ xf8{jo] /
;Grfngsf nflu pgs} lbbLsf 5f]/fn] ;xof]u ul//x]sf 5g\ .
ljjfx u/] otfsf] @% jif]{ hLjg ;+3if{df pgn] a'em]sf]
;dfh eg]sf] an]sf] cfuf] tfKg] /x]5 . pgL elG5g\ …d]/f >Ldfgsf]
lgwg x'bF f Pstn] 3/dfq lyof] . To;sf] nf]Ug] d/L xfNof] cj
Ps tn]dfq 3/ ePsfn] 5f]/f5f]/Lsf] ljjfx ;d]t ug{ ;lSbg
To;n] eGg];Ddsf] cfnf]rgf d}n] ;'g ] . geGb} To;j]nf s'g}
;fdflhs ;+3 ;+:yfn] sfo{qmd ubf{ d]/f 5]p 5fpsf l5d]sLnfO{
lr6\7L sf6]/ lgDtf uy]{ eg] dnfO{ ub}g{ y] . To;}n] d]/f] dgdf
klg Ov a9\of] d cem} s]xL u/]/ b]vfpF5' clg 5f]/f 5f]/Ln] cfdf
ca tkfOFn] sfd ug{ kb}g{ eGbf klg d}n] To;} a:g' x'bF g} d of]
sfd u5'{ eg]/ xf8{jo] / rnfpg yfn]sL x' F .Ú
pgn] elgg\ clxn] ;j} ;+3 ;+:yfn] ug]{ sfo{qmddf dnfO
lgDtf cfpF5 hfg gEofpFbf klg tkfOF cfO lbg' k5{ eg]/
cg'/f]w x'G5 o;af6 dnfO nfU5 …5g\ u]8L-;Dklt_ ;j} d]/L
5}gg\ u]8L ;j} 6]8LÚeGg] a'9f kfsfn] agfPsf] pvfg ;fRr} g}
l7s /x]5 . t/ cfdf ;d"x xfF;kf];fsL ;+:yfks cWoIf sdnf
v8\sf k|lt pgL w]/} cfef/L 5g\ elG5g …sdnf lbbLn] dnfO{
ljifd kl/l:ytLdf klg ;fdflhs sfddf ;lqmo x'g k|/] 0ff lbg'
eof] pxfFsf] k|/] 0ffn] klg d clxn] of] :yfgdf cfO k'us
] L x' F .
Úcfk\mgf] ;+3if{sf] cg'ej ;j} dlxnfx?nfO{ atfpg rfxg] cGh'
elG5g\ …>Ldfgsf] sdfOdf dfq e/kg],{ jflx/ /fd|f] b]vLP/ leq
vf]qmf] x'g] k/Dk/fnfO{ TofUg' k5{ . cj;/ cfFkm} cfpFbg} , s;}n]
af]nfP/ lb+bf gL lbb}g cfFkm}n] vf]Hg' k5{ . ;'vdf gkflQg] /
b'Mvdf gcflQ cj;/sf] vf]hL ug'k{ 5{ c;n dflg;sf] ;+ut
ug'k{ 5{ ldlxg]t, kl/>d / artdf Wofg lbg' k5{ .Ú
 PnkL k/fh'nL

k'; @)&)

11

Joj;fodf dlxnf

l/;f]66d{ d
{ f } dfdf
dfdf // ;;'
fnL 3/
3/
l/;f]
;;'//fnL

nfdf] ;do /fhgLltdf ;lqmo x'Fb} cfPsL O6x/LsL ldgf kfF r hgfnfO{ lgoldt
>]i7 b'O jif{b]vL /fhgLltnfO{ yfFtL /fv]/ sf7df8f}+sf] skgdf /f]huf/L lbPsf] 5 .
lsdfyfª\sf l/;f]6{ rnfpFb} 5g\ .
;f9] b'O /f]kgL hUufdf
…/fhgLlt;Fu} cfly{s ;d[l4 klg rflxG5 . /fhgLltnfO{ km}lnPsf] pgsf] l/;f]6{df
dfq k]zf agfpFbf of] dof{lbt ePg . /fhgLlt ug]{ dfG5] lgs6 elj:od} xfF; sf]
cfly{s ?kdf ;jn gx'Fbf kbdf k'u]/ cfly{s clgoldttf / 5f]onf, a6\6fO / 6«fp6
k|nf]egsf s'/fx?n] k|;o kfPsf] b]Vbf xfdL o'jflk8Ln] df5fsf] kl/sf/ ;d]t /fVg]
/fhgLlt;Fu} cfly{s pkfh{gsf]nflu klg cu'jfO ug'{k5{ eGg] of] h gf /x] s f] p gL
dx;'z u/]/ d}n] Joj;fo z'? u/]sL x'F .Ú ldgf elG5g\ .
atfpFl5g\ .
sf7df8f} lhNnfsf] ;'Gb/ ufpF skgsf] a+unfd'vL eGg]
ldgf >]i7
cfly{s qmflGt cfhsf]
7fpFdf pgsf] l/;f]6{ ;~rfng x'Fb} cfPsf] 5 . @ jif{cl3 #! cfjZostf xf] lsgsL ca
-;~rfns_
nfv ?k}ofF nufgL u/]/ vf]n]sf] lsdfyfª\sf l/;f]6{df pgn] ;w}+ c?;Fu rGbf p7fP/
gofF k|of]u u/]sL 5g\ . pgsf] l/;f]6{df d"n 3/, dfdf 3/,
lsdfyfª\sf l/;f]6{, skg
;;''/fnL 3/ h:tf s6]hx? /x]sf 5g\ . km/s km/s s6]hdf /fhgLlt ug{ x'Fb}g /fhgLlt h:tf] dof{lbt / gLlt lgdf{0fsf],
km/s km/s kl/sf/sf] :jfb lng kfOg] ldgf atfpFl5g\ . /fHo ;~rfngsf] g]t[Tj ug]{ dxfg sfdsf] nflu c?;Fu
d"n3/df ! ;o ^) hgf Ifdtfsf] ;]ldgf/ xn 5 eg] xft km}nfP/ rGbf p7fP/ cfk\mgf] p2]Zo k'/f ug]{ sfd eO
;;'/fnL / dfdf3/ :jfb cg';f/sf kl/sf/ vfg j:g] s6]hx? /xFbf /fhgLltsf] cf8df d"No a[l4, sfnf] jhf/L cfly{s
x'g\ . ;;'/fnL 3/df !@ hgf / dfdf 3/df !^ hgfn] Ps} clgoldttf eO /x]sf] a'emfO pgsf] 5 . To;}n] cfly{s
qmflGtsf] nflu cfFkm'n] h] hflgG5 h] ug{ ;lsG5 To;nfO{
k6s j;]/ vfg ;Sg] Ifdtf 5 .
gofF k|of]u u/]/ Aoj;fo ug'{ kb{5 eGg] ;Gb]z lbg klg
dfd f 3/df
j+ u ' / sf ] df ;'
d"n3/df ! ;o ^) hgf Ifdtfsf] ;]ldgf/ cfFk'mn] Aoj;fo z'? u/]sf] pgL atfpFl5g\ . b'O
6]jnd} j;]/ cfFkm}n] xn 5 eg] ;;'/fnL / dfdf3/ :jfb jif{sf] cjlwdf cfFk'mnfO{ Aoj;foaf6 ;Gt'li6 ldln
kf]n]/ vfg kfOG5 . cg';f/sf kl/sf/ vfg j:g] s6]hx? x'g \ . /x]sf] hfgsf/L lbb} ldgf elG5g\ … /fhgLlt ug{
o; 3/df sf]l/og ;;'/fnL 3/df !@ hgf / dfdf 3/df !^ rfxfg] x/] s o'j f lkl9+n ] Aoj;fo u/]/ efjL
vfgfsf] kl/sf/ - hgfn] Ps} k6s j;]/ vfg ;Sg] Ifdtf /fhgLltnfO{ rGbf cftª\s ljlxg :jR5 / dof{lbt
; f ª \ u ] k ; f n _ , 5 . dfdf 3/df j+u'/sf] df;' 6]jnd} j;]/ agfpg kb{5 eGg] d]/f] a'emfO 5 .
sf ] l /o g h' ; , cfF k m} n ] kf] n ] / vfg
sf] l /og dlb /f kfOG5 . o; 3/df
nuf ot
; j} sf]l/og vfgfsf] kl/sf/
k| s f/sf sf] l/og
-;fª\u]k;fn_, sf]l/og
kl/sf/ kfOg]
h' ; , sf] l/og dlb/f
Aoj:yf 5 .
;;'/fnL 3/df nufot ;j} k|sf/sf
a:g]n] eg] nf]sn sf]l/og kl/sf/ kfOg]
s' v ' / fsf ] df ;' , Aoj:yf 5 .
kmfk/,sf] b f] tyf
ds}sf] l9+8f] vfg
kfOG5 . l/;f]6{df sf7sf] efF8fdf /flvPsf]
lxn]sf] tf]ª\jf, sf]l/og /S;L ;f]h', d':tfª\sf]
skmL dfq x}g nf]sn jfOgdf skmL ld;fP/
;d]t vfg kfpg] ;'ljwf 5 . l/;f]6{df ;fdfGo
vfg]s/' fx? d6g tf;, lrsg tf;,;]s'jf, lkHhf
ju{/ nufot ;j} vfnsf vfg]s'/fx? kfOg] /
jf; j:g] @ cf]6f s6]h 5g\ . pgsf] l/;f]6{n]
12

k'; @)&)

s]xL ug{ 3/af6
lg:sg} k5{

;GWof kf]v/]n
;~rfns
uf}/L u0f]z xf]6n Dofg]hd]G6 6«]lgª k|fln, w/fg

nufotsf ;j} k|sf/sf vfg]s'/fsf] tflnd lbg] u/]sf] tflnd
s]Gb|df b}lgs #) hgfn] tflnd lng] u/]sf 5g\ . tflnd lbg] #
hgf bIf k|lzIfs /x]sf 5g\ . Ps nfv %) xhf/ ?k}ofFaf6 z'?
cfk\mg} k|oTgn] w/fgsf] uf}/L u0f]z xf]6n Dofg]hd]G6 ePsf] pgsf] tflnd s]Gb|df clxn] % nfv eGbf jl9 nufgL
6|]lgª\ k|fln rnfpFb} cfPsL ;GWof kf]vn
|] klxn] lj/f6gu/sf] k'u]sf] 5 .
d s]xL ug{ ;lSbg eg]/ 3/d} a;L /Xof] eg] s]xL x'g] jfnf
Ps xf]6n Dofg]hd]G6 tflnd s]Gb|df sfd uly{g .
5}
g
 .
xfdL klg s]xL ug{ ;S5f}+ eg]/ lg:sg ;s] sfddf ;kmn
a]/f]huf/L cj:yfdf /f]huf/ vf]Hb} hfFbf xf]6n Dofg]hd]G6
gx'
g
]
s'
/} 5}g pgL elG5g\ . Joj;fodf ;kmn x'g kl/jf/sf]
tflnd s]Gb|df sfd u/]sL ;GWofnfO{ hflu/n] Pp6f cfF6
/fd|
f
]
;xof]
u / ;dy{g cfjZos kb{5 . cfk\mgf 5f]/L r]nLnfO{
lbof] . …tF csf{sf]df sfd gu/ tF;Fu oltsf OlG:6Ro"6
cj;/
;xof]
u / ;dy{g u/]/ Joj;fodf pTk|]l/t ug{ ;s] x/]s
rnfpg ;Sg] 7"nf] Ifdtf 5 . Ú
hflu/ z'? u/]sf] s]xL ;dob]vL g} pgsf] dgdf o:tf] jfj' cfdfn] cfkm\gf 5f]/Lx?sf] kf}/v b]Vg ;S5g\ pgL elG5g\
t/ª\u k}bf eof] . To;}n] pgn] hflu/df klg clt lbnrZkL …z'? cftd} s'g} sfdaf6 klg ;kmntf kfOb}g w}o{;fy nflu kg]{
nufpFb} To;sf] ;du| Joj:yfkg / tflndsf] kf6f]df ;d]t xf] eg] ;kmntf st} k"mTsb}g t/ cfFk'mdf k|ltj4tf, lg/Gt/tf,
Wofg lbg yflng . s]xL jif{ sfd ul/ ;Sbf;Dd pgdf ca w}o{tf / nuglzntf rflxG5 .Ú
d cfFkm} klg o:tf] tflnd s]Gb| rnfpg ;S5' eGg] lxDdt
cfof] / hflu/ 5f]8]/ cfk\mg} u[x gu/ w/fgdf o; k|sf/sf]
tflnd s]Gb| vf]Ng] k|lqmof z'? ul/g . pgn] To;j]nf z'?
u/]sf] w/fgl:yt uf}/L u0f]z xf]6n Dofg]hd]G6 6|]lgª\ k|fln
;~rfngsf] clxn] !) jif{ k'lu ;s]sf] 5 .
cNk lzIffdf clNemPsf o'jf hgzlQmnfO{ cw{bIf agfP/
:j/f]huf/ / /f]huf/df ;xof]u k'¥ofpFb} cfPsL ;GWofsf] !)
jif]{ cleofgaf6 b'O xhf/ eGbfjl9 ljBfyL{n] l;k xfl;n u/]/
cfFkm" nfO{ slx g slx Jo:t agfpg kfPsf 5g\ . xf]6n Joj:yfkg
tflndsf] nflu lj/f6gu/ jf sf7df8f} g} k'Ug' kg]{ jfWotfnfO{
x6fpFb} cFfk"mnfO{ klg k]zfdf cfj4 u/fpg pgn] pQm OlG:6Ro"6
z'? u/]sL lyOg . * sIff plt0f{ u/]sfnfO{ # dlxgfb]vL %
dlxgf;Ddsf] s"s tflnd, P;Pn;L plt0f{nfO{ @ dlxgfb]vL $
dlxgf;Ddsf] j]6/ tflnd tyf Ps dlxg] j]s/L, xfp; lslkª\
tyf @ dlxg] jf/ 6]08/ tflnd lbb} cfPsf] pgsf] tflnd
s]Gb|af6 tflnd lnP/ xfn;Dd w]/} hgf :j/f]huf/ ;d]t ePsf
5g\ eg] ;of}+n] j}b]lzs /f]huf/Ldf /fd|f] cj;/ kfPsf] pgL
atfpFl5g .
pgsf cg';f/ tflnd lnPsf dWo] *) k|ltzt j}b]lzs
/f]huf/Ldf hfg] u/]sf 5g\ eg] @) k|ltztn] cfk\mg} Joj;fo
ul/ /x]sf 5g\ . Ol08og, slG6g]G6n, rfOgLh, O6flnog,
g]jf/L nufot ;j} k|sf/sf vfgfsf kl/sf/sf ;fy} dMdM

k'; @)&)

13

pBf]u

lgufn] l;d]G6nfO{ u'0f:t/ k|df0f lrGx

wgs'6 fdf ;~rfng x'F b }
cfPsf] k" j f{ ~ rnsf kxf8L
lhNnfsf] Psdfq l;d]G6 pBf]u
lgufn] l;d]G6sf pTkfbg u'0f:t/Lo /x]sf] g]kfn ;/sf/n]
k|df0f lrGx lbPsf] 5 .
g]kfn ;/sf/sf] u'0f:t/ tyf gfktf}n ljefun] lgufn]
l;d]G6 pBf]usf lgufn], sf]zL nufotsf a|f08sf l;d]G6sf]
u'0f:t/ kl/If0f ul/ xfn} g]kfn u'0f:t/ k|df0f lrGx -PgP;_
14

k'; @)&)

k|bfg u/]sf] xf] .
:jb]zL r'g 9'ª\uf k|of]u ul/ cf]lk;L u'0f:t/
sf] l;d]G6 pTkfbg ub}{ cfPsf] lgufn] l;d]G6
wgs'6fsf] l;w'jfdf sl/j Ps ca{ ?k}ofFsf]
nfutdf 8]9 jif{ cl3 :yfkgf eO{ ;~rfng x'Fb}
cfPsf] 5 . sDkgLn] u'0f:t/ k|df0f lrGx
kfPkl5 cfk\mgf pTkfbgsf] jf]/fdf k|df0f lrGx
/fVg yfn]sf] 5 .
t/fOaf6 dxFuf] 9'jfgL ef8f lt/]/ l;d]G6
k|of]u ub}{ cfPsf wgs'6f, ef]hk'/, t]x"y'd
nufotsf kxf8L lhNnfnfO{ dWo gh/ ul/
;~rfngdf cfPsf] lgufn] l;d]G6\;
pBf]usf] b}lgs tLg;o d]l6"s 6g l;d]G6
pTkfbg ug]{ Ifdtf 5 . t/ nf]8 ;]l8ª\
/ lr;f] jftfj/0fsf sf/0f xfn b}lgs Ps;o @) 6g;Dd
l;d]G6 pTkfbg ub}{ cfPsf] pBf]usf ;~rfns lbg]z kf}8]n
atfpF5g\ . pgsf cg';f/ lgufn] l;d]G6\;sf pTkfbgx?
sf]zLsf kxf8L lhNnfsf ;fy} k"jf{Grnsf t/fOsf ;j} lhNnfdf
l8n/x? dfkm{t ljlqm ljt/0f ul/b} cfPsf] 5 .

lzIff

;]s]|6xf6{ !* jif{df

O6x/L gu/kflnsf j8f
g+j/ ^ df cjl:yt ;]qm]6xf6{
OlUn; :s'nn] ljz]if ;df/f]x
cfof]hgf ul/ !* cf}+ jflif{sf]T;j
dgfPsf]5 .
gLlh tyf cfjfl;o ljBfno
Pzf]l;o;g -KofA;g_sf s]lGb|o
pkfWoIf l6sf/fd k'/Lsf] k|d'v
cfltYodf ePsf] sfo{qmddf
ljBfnosf lgb]z
{ s hLjk|;fb u'/fufO{ / k|wfgfWofks l8ss'df/
tfdfª\n] ljBfnosf] jflif{s k|ltj]bg k|:t't ug'{sf ;fy}
ljBfnosf] eflj of]hgf jf/] k|sfz kf/]sf lyP . k|jGw lgb]z
{ s
u'/fufOFn] ljBfyL{x?nfO{ eo /lxt / b08
/lxt lzIffsf] nflu lzIfsx?nfO{ ;do ;fk]If
tflnd lbP/ bIf agfpg] cleofg o;} z}lIfs
zqb]vL z'? ug]{ hfgsf/L lbP . lzIfsx?df
ljBfno / ljBfyL{ k|lt ckgTjsf] efjgf
hfu[t u/fpg hLjg ofkgdf ;xof]u k'Ug]
;do ;fk]If ;'ljwf j[l4 ug]{ / cleeejs;Fu
z}lIfs u'0f:t/ j[l4 ug]{ ljifodf ;'emfj
;+sng ug{ lgoldt 5nkmn cGtlqmof /fVg] sfo{qmd to
ul/Psf] ;d]t u'/fufOn] atfP . To:t} sDko"6/ k|of]uzfnf,

lj1fg k| o f] u zfnf /
k':tsfnonfO{ cfw'lgs ?kdf
ljsf; u/]/ z}lIfs u'0f:t/
j[l4df ;xof]uL agfpg] of]hgf
;d]t ljBfnon] cl3 ;f/]sf] 5 .
* ;o @% hgf ljBfyL{
cWoog/t ;]qm]6xf6{ :s'nn] afn
dgf] l j1fg cg' ; f/ ;fgf
ljBfyL{x?nfO{ pkof]lu l;sfO l;sfpg 5'6\6} Ans ejgsf]
Aoj:yf u/]sf] hfgsf/L lbPsf] 5 . ;fy} ljBfnon] ljBfyL{x?sf]
rf}tkmL{ ljsf;sf] nflu ljleGg cltl/St lqmofsnfkdf Wofg
lbb} cfPsf] / ljleGg If]qLo tyf lhNnf :t/Lo k|ltikwf{x?df
;f] ljBfnosf ljBfyL{x?n] /fd|f] glthf xfl;n
ub}{ cfPsf] sfo{qmddf hfgsf/L lbOof] . b'O
lbg;Dd ;~rflnt jflif{sf]T;j ;df/f]xdf
ljBfyL{x?sf k|ltefsf] phfu/ ug{ lj1fg
k|bz{g, lrqsnf, x:tsnf nufotsf] k|bz{gL
;d]t ul/Psf] lyof] . ljBfyL{x?n] ljleGg
uLt, ;+uLt, g[To / k|xzg ;d]t k|:t't u/]sf
lyP . sfo{qmd ljBfnosf ;~rfns ;ldltsf
cWoIf Zofd sfsL{sf] ;efkltTjdf ePsf] lyof] .
k"jf{~rns} ;a}eGbf 7"nf] l8kf6{d]06 :6f]/

uf]]/vf l8kf6{d]G6 :6f]/
O6x/Ldf tkfO{x?nfO{ :jfut 5 .

xfd|f ;]jfx?
c08/u|fp08df M tfhf kmnkm"n tyf ;fu;lAh
e'O{ tNnf
M vfBfGg, k]o kbfy{ tyf
k|mf]hg cfO6dx?
klxnf] tNnf
M s:d]l6s, lsrgsf ;fdfu|L tyf
Knfli6ssf ;dfgx?
bf]>f] tNnf
M On]S6«f]lgS; cfO6dx?
t];|f] tNnf
M h'Ttf rKkn tyf ;'6s]z
rf}yf] tNnfdf M sk8f, ;l6ª–;'l6ª tyf ;fl8x?
kfFrf}+ tNnfdf
M afnaflnsfsf ;Dk'0f{ ;fdfgx?
5}7f}+ tNnfdf
M uf]/vf lsrg / ;]ldgf/ xn
O6x/L–!, w/fg/f]8, ;'g;/L
;Dks{ M )@%–%*#@%$

k'; @)&)

15

s[lif

Ps;o %) jif{kl5
lrof v]tLsf]
cg';Gwfg

/fh]z a/fn÷wgs'6f

lrof pTkfbgsf nflu ks]6 If]q dflgb} cfPsf] 5 . t/ s:tf]
xfjfkfgL / slt prfOdf s'g hftsf] lrof nufpFbf jl9
pTkfbg lng ;lsG5 eGg] xfn;Dd st}af6 cg';Gwfg gePsf]
/ k/Dk/fut ?kaf6} lrof v]tL ul/b} cfPsfn] ls;fgx?n]
clwstd kmfObf lng g;s]sf] s]Gb|n] hgfPsf] 5 .
s]Gb|n] Onfd,kfFry/,wgs'6f nufot k'jL{ kxf8L lhNnfsf]
xfjfkfgL ;'xfpFbf XofkL, EofnL, tSbf, 3'ld| nufotsf @@
k|hfltnfO{ cuf{lgs k|ljlwaf6 cyf]8{ S; lrof v]tLsf] cg';Gwfg
g]kfndf lrof v]tL x'g yfn]sf] Ps;o %) jif{ gf3]kl5 / kl/If0f pTkfbg ul//x]sf] 5 . s'g :yfgsf] nflu s'g
klxnf] k6s ;/sf/L lgsfoaf6 Aoj;foLs lrofv]tLsf] j}1flgs k|hflt pko'Qm x'G5 eGg]] lgZsif{ lgsfNg eg] s]xL jif{ nfUg]
s]Gb|sf j}1flgs /fdnfn >]i7n] hfgsf/L lbP .
cg';Gwfg z'? ePsf] 5 .
cg';Gwfg k'/fePkl5 k"jf{~rndf lrofsf] Joj;foLs v]tL
;g\ !*^@ df tTsflng j8fxflsd sg{]n uh/fhl;+x
yfkfn] rLgaf6 pkxf/ :j¿k k|fKt lrofsf] lj¿jf Onfd j9fO lgof{tdf yk 6]jf k'¥ofpg] cg';Gwfg s]Gb|n] nIo /fv]sf]
lhNnfdf /f]k]kl5 g]kfndf lrof v]tL k|f/De ePsf] dflgG5 . 5 . lrof tyf skmL ljsf; af]8{sf] tYof+s cg';f/ xfn
;g\ !(&)sf] bzsb]vL k"j{sf ljleGg lhNnfdf lrofsf] emfkf, Onfd,kfFry/ / wgs'6f lhNnfsf] !^ xhf/ % ;o ($
Aoj;foLs v]tL x'Fb} cfPsf] 5 . t/ s:tf] xfjfkfgL / slt x]S6/af6 jflif{s ! s/f]8 ^! nfv lsnf]u|fd eGbf jl9 lrof
prfOdf s'g hftsf] lrof v]tL nufpg pko'Qm x'G5 eGg] pTkfbg x'b} cfPsf] 5 . To;dWo] sl/j @! nfv lsnf]u|fd
ljifodf eg] ev{/}dfq wgs'6fl:yt s[lif cg';Gwfg s]Gb| cyf]{8S; lrof x'g] u/]sf] atfOG5 . cyf]{8S; lrof eg]
o"/f]k,cd]l/sf,ci6"]lnof nufotsf b]zdf lgof{t x'Fb} cfPsf]
kflv|jf;n] cWoog z'? u/]sf] xf] .
k"jf{~rnaf6 ljb]z lgof{t x'g] s[lif pTkfbgsf] 7"nf] lx:;f 5 .
g]kfnsf] k|dv
' lgof{thGo pTkfbgdf kg{] lrof / cn}rLn]
cf]u6\b} cfPsf] lrof;Fu} cn}+rLsf] ;d]t j}1flgs cg';Gwfg
eO /x]sf] s[lif cg';Gwfg s]Gb| kfv|Ljf;sf k|d'v /fdgf/fo0f ljb]zL d'b|f cfh{gdf k|d'v e"ldsf lgjf{x ul//x]sf] cj:yfdf
oL b'j} jfnLsf] ljsf; / lj:tf/sf nflu eO/x]sf] j}1flgs
rf}w/Ln] atfP .
k'jL{ g]kfnsf] emfkf, Onfd, kfFry/ / wgs'6f lhNnfnfO{ cg';Gwfgaf6 ls;fgx?df ;d]t pT;fx a9fPsf] 5 .

lhNnf :jf:Yo sfof{no ;'g;/Lsf] cg'/f]w
w'd|kfg gu/f}+, :j:y agf}+ / c?nfO{ klg :j:y /xg lbcf}+ .
c7f/ jif{ gk'u]sf / ue{jtL dlxnfnfO{ ;'t{LhGo kbfy{ laqmL ljt/0f ug{ glbcf}+ .
s;}n] klg ljBfno, SofDk;, c:ktfn, lzz' :ofxf/, afnsNof0f u[x, a[4f>dnufot ;fj{hlgs :ynaf6
slDtdf Ps;o ld6/leqsf] k;n, 3/af6 ;"tL{hGo kbfy{ laqmL ljt/0f ug{ u/fpg kfO{b}g .
;'tL{hGo kbfy{ lgMz'Ns jf pkxf/ lbg xF'+b}g .
 ;fj{hlgs :yndf w'd|kfg jf ;'tL{ ;]jg u/]df sfg'gdf b08 ;hfosf] Joj:yf 5 .
 s;}n] ;fj{hlgs :yn jf ;fj{hlgs ;/f]sf/ /x]sf] 7fpFdf w'd|kfg jf ;'tL{ ;]jg u/]df ;f] 7fpF jf lgsfosf]
lhDd]jf/ k|d'v JolQm jf Joj:yfksn] t'?Gt /f]s nufpg, /f]s nufpFbf gdfg]df jf k6s k6s w'd|kfg jf ;'tL{
;]jg u/]df ;fj{hlgs :ynaf6 aflx/ lgsfNg jf Ps;o ?lkofF;Dd hl/jfgf jf b'j} ;hfo ug{ ;Sg] Joj:yf
5 . To;}n] w'd|kfg gu/f}+, ;'tL{hGo kbfy{ ;]jg laqmL ljt/0f klg gu/f}+, w'd|kfgnfO{ lg?T;flxt u/f}+, w'd|kfg/
lxt ;dfhsf] ;[hgf u/f}+ .


16

k'; @)&)

df5f kfngdf /dfpFb} df]xg
df]/ª\sf] nfnleQL l:yt Go" Pe/]i6 df5f kmfd{sf ;~rfns
df]xg /fO{ ljut !$ jif{b]vL df5fkfng Aoj;fodf ;lqmo
5g\ .
pgn] @)%^ ;fnb]vL of] kmfd{ ;~rfng ub}{ cfPsf
x'g\ . s[lif k]zfnfO{ uf}0f 7fGb} b}lgs xhf/f}+ o'jfx? /f]huf/Lsf]
nflu ljb]z uO /x]sf] cj:yf oL
o'jfn] olt nfdf] ;dob]vL s[lif
k]zfs} Ps kf6f] df5f kfngdf
;lqmo /x]/ olx klg s]xL ug{
;lsG5 eGg] ultnf] pbfx/0f
b]vfPsf 5g\ .
pgn] ^ s7\ 7 f hldgdf
;~rfng u/]s f] kmfd{ d f df5f
kfngdfq x}g e'/f ;d]t ljlqm
ljt/0f ub}{ cfPsf 5g\ . tkfOFsf]
pd]/sf xhf/f}+ o'jfx? sdfpgsf
nflu ljb]z uO /x]sf] ;dodf
tkfOFnfO{ olx k]zf ug{ s;/L dg
dfg]sf] 5 eGg] lh1f;fdf pgn] eg]
…hxfF uPklg kl/>d ug}k{ 5{ ljb]zdf
uP/ ug]{ kl/>d olx ubf{ x'g] /x]5
eGg] a'em]/} d !$ jif{b]vL olx
Aoj;fodf /dfO /x]sf] 5' .Ú
klxn] df5f kfng dfq} ub}{
cfPsf /fO{n] df5fsf e'/fdf c?sf]
e/kbf{ cfFkm' n] rfx]sf] ;dodf gkfOg]
/ kfOPklg u'0f:t/Lo e'/fsf] cefj
dxz'; u/]kl5 s]xL jif{ kl5b]vL g}
ljleGg dT:o ljsf; s]Gb|x?af6
cfFkm}n] df5fsf] e'/f ;ª\sng ul/
lalqm ljt/0f ug{ yfn]sf x'g\ .
Joj;flos ?kdf df5f kmfd{ ;~rfng ub]{ cfPsf /fO{ of]
Joj;foaf6 /fd|f] cfDbfgL ul//x]sf] atfpF5g\ . …df5f kmfd{df
s]xLnfO{ /f]huf/L lbg kfpFbf lgs} v';L nfu]sf] 5 .Ú pgL
eG5g\ .
pgsf] df5f kmfd{df pGgt hftsf df5fsf e'/fx? u|f+ ;sfk{,
sdgsfk{, l;Nj/sfk{, laux]8sfk{, /x', g}gL, efs'/, xfOla|8
d+'ª\u|L nufotsf df5f kfOG5g\ .
d]xgt / nugzLn eO{ df5f kfng Joj;fo cufNg] xf]
eg] hLljsf]kfh{g dfq xf]Og /fd|f] cfDbfgL x'g ;Sg] cg'ej
cfFkm'n] u/]sf] pgL atfpF5g\ .
pko'St xfjfkfgL / ef}uf}lns ljljwtfsf sf/0fn] k|foM;a}
k|sf/sf df5f pTkfbg ug{ ;lsg] ePsfn] o;nfO{ cfDbfgLsf]
e/kbf]{ dfWod agfpg ;lsG5 . t/ ;/sf/n] o; Joj;fonfO{

dWo gh/ u/L pko'St gLlt Nofpg h?/L /x]sf] pgsf]
;'emfj 5 .
df5f vl/b ljlqm ug{ ahf/sf] Joj:yf klxnf eGbf bofgLo
ag]sf] pgsf] egfO 5 k9]n]v]sf ;a} o'jf ljb]z hfg] /
cfpg] qmd lta| ?kdf a9]sf] / hUuf Knl6ª u/]/ ljlqm ug]{

;+:sf/n] kfgLsf ;|f]tx? x/fpFb} uPsf] pgL pNn]v u5{g\ .
klxn] 7"nf7"nf kf]v/Lx? ePsf] 7fpFdf clxn] afSnf] a:tL
a;]sf] 5 . Joj;fodf r'gf}tL ylkb} uPsf] 5 pgL eG5g\ .
cGo s[lif Joj;fosf] t'ngfdf of] If]qaf6 a9L cfDbfgL lng
;lsG5 . df5f kfng Joj;foaf6 a]Un} lsl;dsf] /dfOnf]
cg'ej u/]sf pgL ;'? ug{ vf;} w]/} /sdsf] cfjZotf klg
gkg]{ / c? Aoj;fodf h:tf] w]/} ldlxg]t gkg]{ atfpF5g\ .
df5f kfng ub}{ cGo Joj;fo klg ug{ ;lsG5 . df5fsf e'/f
5f]8]kl5 nueu ^÷& dlxgfdf df5f ljlqm ug{ of]Uo x'G5 .
wfgv]tL leq klg df5f kfng ug{ ;lsG5 . df5f kfng
Joj;fonfO{ Joj;fod'vL agfpg ;/sf/L :t/af6 pko'Qm
jftfj/0f aGg ;s] w]/} /fd|f] x'g] pgsf] egfO 5 .
dl0f/fd bfxfn÷a]njf/L

k'; @)&)

17

cfn]v

s/ ljifodf hfGg'kg]{ s'/f

;/sf/L /fh:jsf cfGtl/s / afXo
u/L k|d'v b'O{ >f]t x'G5g\ . /fHodf
ePsf cfGtl/s cfly{s ultljlwdf s/
nufO{ s/ ;+sng ul/G5 eg] Tof]
cfGtl/s >f]t xf] / /fHosf] kl/wLaf6
 Zofd cfrfo{
leq jf aflx/ j:t' tyf ;]jfsf] sf/f]jf/
ePsf] cj:yfdf ePsf cfly{s lqmofsnfkdf ;ª\sng ul/Psf]
s/sf] >f]t afXo >f]t xf] . /fHon] hgtfsf] lxt / pGgtLsfnflu
cfjZos vr{ h'6fpg s/ nufpFbf lglZrt lgod sfg'g /
l;4fGtx?sf] Joj:yf tyf kl/kfngf u/]sf] x'G5 . ;fy} s/
;+sngsf nflu lglZrt ;+u7gfTds ;+/rgf ;d]t lgdf{0f
u/]sf] x'G5 .

s/ ;DjlGw sfg"g / ;f+u7gLs ;+oGq

g]kfndf cfGtl/s /fh:jsf] k|d'v >f]t
cfos/, d"No clej[l4 s/, cGtMz'Ns, lzIff
;]jf z'Ns / :jf:Yo ;]jf s/x? x'g\ . cfos/
P]g @)%* tyf lgodfjnL @)%(, d'No
clej[l4 s/ @)%@ tyf lgodfjnL @)%#
cGtMz'Ns P]g @)%* tyf lgodfjnL @)%(
cfGtl/s /fh:j ;+sngsfnflu cfwf/ k|bfg
ug]{ s/ sfg"gx? x'g\ . oL sfg"gx?sf]
k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjognflu cfGtl/s /fh:j
ljefu /x]sf] 5 . o; ljefu cGtu{t b]zsf
ljleGg :yfgdf @# cf]6f cfGtl/s /fh:j
sfof{nox? / @^ cf]6f s/bftf ;]jf sfof{nox? :yfkgf
ul/Psf 5g\ .

s/sf] kl/ro

cfo s/M cfDbfgLdf nufOg] s/ cfo s/ xf] . g]kfndf
/f]huf/L u/L tnj tyf eQf k|fKt ubf{, Joj;fo u/L cfDbfgL
ubf{, nufgL u/L ;f] nufgLaf6 gfkmf ubf{ / cfsl:ds ?kdf
wg sdfpFbfsf] cj:yfdf cfos/ nfUg] Joj:yf /x]sf] 5 .
g]kfndf AolQmnfO{ Psn AolQm / bDklt u/L b'O{ cfwf/df
cfo s/ nufOg] ul/Psf] 5 . ;+:yfut cfos/ eg] Psn b/
@% k|ltzt nufOg] ul/Psf] 5 . Psn k|fs[lts AolQmn] Psn
ePdf cfkm\gf] cfo @ nfv x'Fbf;Dd ! k|ltzt s/ lt/] x'G5
/ bDktLsf] xsdf @ nfv %) xhf/ ?k}ofF;Ddsf] nflu !
k|ltzt s/ lt/] k'U5 . ;f] eGbf dfyL yk Ps nfvsf] !%
k|ltzt, ;f] eGbf dfyL @%nfv;Dd @% k|ltzt s/ nfUb5 .
t/ @% nfv eGbfal9 cfDbfgL ePsf AolQmx?nfO{ eg] @%
k|ltztsf b/n] nfUg] s/df $) k|ltzt yk s/ nfUb5 .
 d"No clej[l4 s/M a:t'sf] d"Nodf ePsf] clej[l4 jf
a9f]Q/Ldf nufOg] s/ d"No clej[l4 s/ xf] . of] s/ a:t'
tyf ;]jfsf] vl/b ubf{sf] cj:yfdf ltl/G5 . o:tf] s/ ltg]{
vf; AolQm pkef]Qmf x'g\ eg] Aofkf/Lx? o:tf] s/ ;+sng
u/L ;/sf/nfO{ a'emfpg] lhDd]jf/ dWo:ystf{ x'g\ . o;

18

k'; @)&)

s/sf] Aojxfl/s cEof;df Aofkf/Ln] vl/bdf lt/]sf] s/
lalqmdf ;+sng u/]sf] s/af6 s6\6f ul/ afF+sL x'g cfpg]
/sd ;/sf/nfO{ a'emfpg] ub{5g\ . d"No clej[l4 s/df btf{
gePsf] AolQmn] of] s/ p7fpg gkfpg] Aoj:yf sfg"gdf
/x]sf] 5 . g]kfndf d"No clej[l4 s/ P]g tyf lgodfjnL
adf]lhd zx/L If]qdf hDdf !( k|sf/sf Aoj;flos lqmofsnfk
tyf Aofkf/ ubf{ clgjfo{ ?kdf d"No clej[l4 s/df btf{
x'g'kg]{ Aoj:yf u/]sf] 5 . pbfx/0fsf] nflu xf8{j]o/, kmlg{r/,
kmlg{l;ª\, c6f]df]jfO{N;, df]6/ kf6{;, jf/ ;lxtsf] /]i6'/]G6,
dfj{n nufotsf j:t'x?sf] sf/f]jf/ ubf{ sf/f]jf/ ug'{ cufj}
d"No clej[l4 s/df btf{ x'g'kb{5 . g]kfndf d"No clej[l4
s/sf] b/ !# k|ltzt /x]sf] 5 .
 cGtMz'NsM ;fwf/0ftof hg;fwf/0fsf] :jf:Yodf k|lts'n
c;/ kfg]{ j:t' tyf ;]jfx?df cGtMz'Ns
nufOg] u/]sf] kfO{G5 . cGtMz'NshGo
j:t'x?sf] xfgLsf] dfqfsf cfwf/df o;nfO{
ef}lts lgoGq0f / :jMlgoGq0f k|0ffnLdf
cfwfl/t /lx cGtMz'Ns nufOg] ul/Psf]
kfOG5 . g]kfndf r'/f]6, ljo/, /S;Lx?df
ef}lts lgoGq0f k|0ffnLdf cfwfl/t /xL /
cGo l;d]G6, rfprfp h:tf j:t'x?df
:jMlgoGq0f k| 0ffnLdf cfwfl/t /xL
cGtMz'Ns nufOg] ul/Psf] 5 . xfn
g]kfndf %) j:t'x?df cGtMz'Ns nufOg] ul/Psf] 5 . cGtMz'Ns
of]Uo j:t'x?sf] sf/f]jf/ ubf{ cGtMz'Ns Ohfht kq lng'
clgjfo{ x'G5 / sf/f]jf/sf] cfwf/df cfos/, d'No clej[l4
s/ ;d]t ltg'{ kb{5 . ;fdfGo Aoj;foLsf] xsdf xf]6ndf
dlb/f ljqmL ljt/0f ubf{,k;naf6 dlb/f gvf]nL af]tng} ljqmL
ljt/0f ubf{, r'/f]6sf] ljqmL ljt/0f ubf{ clgjfo{ ?kdf
cGtMz'Ns Ohfht lng' kb{5 .
 lzIff ;]jf z'NsM lghL z}lIfs ;+:yfn] cfFkm'n] ljBfyL{
egf{ u/]sf] / dfl;s ?kdf ;ª\sng u/]sf] /sdsf] ! k|ltztsf
b/n] /fh:j a'emfpg' kg]{ z'Ns g} lzIff ;]jf z'Ns xf] . h'g
rf}dfl;s ?kdf a'emfpg' kb{5 .
 :jf:Yo ;]jf s/M lghL :jf:Yo ;+:yfn] lj/fdL hf+r]kl5
k|To]s lj/fdLaf6 lnPsf] z'Nssf] % k|ltzt /sd :jf:Yo
;]jf s/sf] ?kdf /fh:j ltg'{ kb{5 . t/ cf}ifwL laqmLaf6
cfPsf] cfDbfgLsf] eg] :jf:Yo ;]jf s/ a'emfpg' kb}{g .
:jf:Yo ;]jf s/sf] ljj/0f rf}dfl;s ?kdf a'emfpg' kb{5 .

s/bftfsf] bfloTj

btf{ ug]{M ;j} s/of]Uo lqmofsnfk ;+rfng ug]{ AolQm
tyf ;+:yfx?n] clgjfo{ ?kdf s/df btf{ x'g'k5{ . s/df
btf{sf] klxnf] k|lqmof :yfoL n]vf gDj/ lng' xf] eg] Aoj;fosf]
k|s[lt / sf/f]jf/sf] /sdsf cfwf/df cGo btf{x? ub}{ hfg'
kg]{ x'G5 .

clen]v /fVg]M ;j} Aoj;foLx?n] sf/f]jf/sf] clen]v
/fVg' kb{5 . cfo s/df dfq btf{ ePsf s/bftfn] cfkm}n]
k|dfl0ft u/L vl/b tyf ljqmL vftf /fVg' kb{5 . d'cs/ /
cGtMz'Nsdf btf{ ePsf s/bftfn] ;DjlGwt s/ sfof{noaf6
vftf k|dfl0ft u/fpg' k5{ . lzIff tyf :jf:Yo If]qsf s/bftfn]
;d]t cfkm} vftf k|dfl0ft u/fO{ /fVg' kb{5 .
 ljj/0f a'emfpg]M s/bftfn] cfkm'n] u/]sf] sf/f]jf/sf]
tf]lsPsf] cjlwdf ljj/0f a'emfpg' kb{5 . ljj/0f cfkm'n]
lglZrt cjlwdf u/]sf] Aoj;fosf] oyfy{ km]xl/:t ePsfn]
ljj/0f ljgf s/ a'emfpbf dfq s/bftfsf] bfloTjsf] cGTo
x'b}g .
 s/ a'emfpg]M s/bftfn] cfkm\gf] ljj/0f cg';f/sf] s/
cfjlws ?kdf a'emfpg' kb{5 . s/ a'emfpgsf] nflu s/
sfof{nosf] vftf ePsf] a}ª\sdf ef}r/ e/L s/ sfof{nosf]
5fk nufP/ cfFkm'n] s'g k||s[ltsf] s/ a'emfpg] xf] ;f]xL
/fh:j lzif{sdf s/ /sd hDdf ug'{ kb{5 .

kl/If0f u/fpg]M s/ bftfn] cfkm} 3f]if0ff u/L a'emfPsf]
s/sf] u0fgfdf q'6L /xg ;Sg] ePsf]n] s/bftfsf] sf/f]jf/sf]
oyfy{ cj:yf s:tf] /x]sf] 5 elg ;DjlGwt s/ sfof{non]
s/ k/LIf0f ug]{ ub{5 . s/bftfsf] s/ k/LIf0f sf/f]jf/ u/]sf]
ldltn] $ jif{;Dd x'g ;Sg] ePsf]n] s/bftfn] cfkm\gf] sf/f]jf/sf]
clen]v 5 jif{ ;Dd ;'/lIft /fVg' kb{5 . / sfof{non] s/
k/LIf0fsf qmddf dfu u/]sf sfuhftx? pknAw u/fpg]
lhDd]jf/L s/bftfsf] /xg] ub{5 .
 cfGtl/s /fh:j sfof{no / ;]jf sfof{nox?n] cfkm\gf]
sfo{If]q leq pNn]lvt s/x?sf] sfof{Gjog ug]{ ub{5g . /fi6"nfO{
;Da[4 Pjd ljsl;t agfpg ;j} cfo cfh{g ug]{ AolQm tyf
;+:yfx?n] cfkm\gf] s/ bfloTj lgjf{x ug'{ / ;]jf k|jfxsf] lhDdf
lnPsf sfof{nosf sd{rf/Lx?n] hgtfsf] lxtdf s]lGb|t /xL
;]jf k|jfx ug'{ cf cfk\mgf] lhDd]jf/Lk"0f{ sfd x'g\ .
-n]vs s/bftf ;]jf sfof{no wgs'6fsf k|d'v x'g _

k'; @)&)

19

/fh:j

s/bftfnfO{ ;Ddfg

cfk\mgf] Aoj;fosf] lx;fj lstfj kf/blz{
/ b'?:t /fvL ;sf/n] tf]s] cg';f/sf] s/
a'emfpg] sf]zL c~rnsf ;ft s/bftfnfO{
cfGtl/s /fh:j sfof{no w/fgn] ;Ddfg u/]sf]
5 .
s/ gltg]{nfO{ b08 ;hfo / s/ lt/]/
/fi6"nfO{ ;xof]u ug]{ s/bftf dWo] pTs[i6
7xl/Psf s/bftfnfO{ ut jif{b]vL cfGtl/s
/fh:j ljefun] ;Ddfg ug]{ kl/kf6L a;fPsf]
xf] . pQm kl/kf6L cg'; f/ cfly{s jif{
@)^*÷)^(df s/ a'emfPsf s/bft dWo]
;ft s/bftfnfO{ ;f] sfof{non] ;Ddfg u/]sf]
xf] . pTs[i6 s/bftfsf] ?kdf ;Ddflgt x'g]df
sfj]nL ljsf; a}ª\s wgs'6f, ljZj cfbz{
sn]h O6x/L, kz'klt 8fO6 P08 k"m8\; k|fln
b'xjL, dsfn' jfOg O08li6"h tfdfkmf]s;+v'jf;ef, dfp06 dsfn' 8]enkd]G6 a}ª\s
a;Gtk'/ t]x|y'd, uf]/vf art tyf C0f
;xsf/L ;+:yf w/fg / s'G;flnª\ sGi6"Szg
ef]hk'/ /x]sf 5g\ .
;j} s/bftfsf k|ltlglwnfO{ k"jf{Grn If]qLo
k|zf;s z+s/ clwsf/L, cfGtl/s /fh:j ljefusf dxflgb]z
{ s
6+sd0fL zdf{n] vfbf cf]9fO, ;Ddfgkq k|bfg u/]sf lyP .
pBf]u jfl0fHo ;+3 ;'g;/Lsf] ;efxndf cfof]lht
sfo{qmddf cf/fsf w/fgn] ;Ddflgt s/bftfx?n] s/df lbPsf]
of]ubfg pNn]v ub}{ sfj]nL ljsf; a}ª\sn] Aojl:yt lx;fj
lstfj /fVg'sf ;fy} @^ nfv ?k}ofF cfos/ a'emfP/ ;jf]{Ts[i6
7xl/Psf] hfgsf/L lbPsf] xf] .
To:t} lzIff ;]jfdf cu|0ffL dflgPsf] O6x/Lsf] ljZj cfbz{
sn]hn] !@ nfv ?k}ofF lzIff ;]jf s/, % nfv cfos/ / @
nfv kfl/>lds s/ ul/ !( nfv ?k}ofF a'emfPsf] lyof] eg]
kz'klt 8fO6 P08 k"m8\; k|fln b'xjLn] @) nfv ?k}ofF cfos/
a'emfP/ t];f| ] pTs[i6 :yfg xfl;n u/]sf] ;f] cj;/df hfgsf/L
lbOPsf] lyof] .
To;}ul/ !^ nfv ?k}ofF s/ a'emfPsf] w/fgl:yt uf]/vf
jrt tyf C0f ;xsf/L, !! nfv
?k}ofF cfos/ a'emfpg] dfp06 dsfn' 8]enkd]G6 a}ª\s
a;Gtk'/, t]x|y'd, @@ nfv ?k}ofF cfos/ / (! nfv ?k}ofF
cGtz'Ns a'emfpg] dsfn' jfOg O08li6"h tfdfkmf]s ;+vj' f;ef
tyf s'G;flnª\ sGi6"Szg ef]hk'/n] % nfv ?k}ofF cfos/
a'emfPsf lyP .
;Ddflgt s/bftfsf] tkm{af6 af]Nb} ljZj cfbz{ sn]h
O6x/Lsf k|frfo{ n]vgfy l3dL/]n] s/bftfnfO{ ;Ddfg ug]{
k/kfl6 a;fP/ ;/sf/n] c;n sfdsf] yfngL u/]sf] atfP .
20

k'; @)&)

pgn] s/ p7fPkl5 ;/sf/n] Aoj;foLx?nfO{ Go"gtd ;'ljwf
klg glbPsf] kIf eg] lg/f;fhgs /x]sf] pNn]v ub}{ s/
lnPkl5 ;/sf/n] s/bftfsf] Joj;foLs ;'/Iffsf] Uof/]G6L
ug['{kg]{ ;'emfj lbP . sfo{qmddf cfGtl/s /fh:j sfof{no
w/fgsf k|d'v s/ clws[t t'n;L/fd ;]9fOFn] ;f] sfof{no
cGtu{t @% xhf/ @ ;o () s/bftf /x]sf]df #$ ;o $^
d"No clej[l4 s/df btf{ /x]sf] hfgsf/L lbP . rfn' cfjsf]
sflt{s d;fGt;Dd $! s/f]8 &% nfv @( xhf/ /fh:j
c;'nL ug]{ nIo /fv]sf]df $# s/f]8 $@ nfv %! xhf/
c;'nL ug{ ;s]sf] atfP . t/ 3/ jxfn s/ c;'nLdf ;d:of
/x]sf] tyf ld; Dofrdf k/]sf / @) nfv eGbf sd sf/f]jf/
u/L sf/f]jf/ ljj/0f gj'emfPsfx? dWo] yf]/}n] dfq ljj/0f
a'emfPsf] pgn] pNn]v u/] . To;}ul/ s/sf] bfo/fdf cfpg
afFsL ef]hk'/ / ;+v'jf;efsf cn}+rL tyf ?b|fIfsf] sf/f]jf/
ug]{ Aoj;foLx?nfO{ s/sf] bfo/fdf Nofpg] k|of; eO /x]sf]
pgn] hfgsf/L lbP . cfGtl/s /fh:j sfof{no w/fgn] sf]zL
c~rnsf] df]/ª\ afx]s % cf]6f lhNnfsf] /fh:j k|zf;g ;DjlGw
sfd ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . ld; Dofrdf k/]sf Joj;foLx?nfO{ olx
k'; d;fGt;Dd d"No clej[l4 s/df btf{ eO{ km/s sf/f]jf/sf]
@ bzdnj % k|ltzt / cfos/ jfktsf] ! bzdnj %
k|ltzt j'emfPdf ;j} hl/jfgf tyf s/ ldgfxf ug]{ cj;/
lbPsfn] ;dod} ;b'kof]u ug{ ;fj{hlgs cfAxfg ul/Psf]
;]9fOFn] atfP .

cy{la6÷w/fg

a}lª\sª

kqmfp kb}{ a}ª\s/

a}ªl\ sª\ If]qdf clgoldttf a9]/ u|fxssf] ljZjf; u'Dg]
cj:yf cfPkl5 g]kfn /fi6« a}ªs
\ / g]kfn k|x/Lsf] s]lGb|o
cg';Gwfg Ao"/f]n] o; If]qsf clgoldttf lgoGq0f ug{ ;lqmo
x'g yfn]sf 5g\ . lgodfs lgsfo / k|zf;gsf] ;lqmotf;Fu}
shf{ nufgLdf clgoldttf ug]{ a}ªs
\ /x? wdfwd kqmfp kg{
yfn]sf 5g\ .
kl5Nnf] k6s PgcfO{8L;L Soflk6n dfs]6{ sf] shf{ b'?kof]u
u/]sf] cleof]udf $ cleo'Stx?nfO{ g]kfn k|x/Lsf] s]lGb|o
cg';Gwfg Ao"/f]n] kqmfp u/]sf] 5 .
kqmfp kg]d{ f sDkgLsf tTsflng k|dv
' sfo{sf/L clws[t
v'daxfb'/l;+x /f0ff, shf{ k|dv
' dLgf >]i7, lwtf] d'Nofª\sg
stf{ k|df]baxfb'/ yfkf / C0fL /Tgs'df/ uf}td /x]sf 5g\ .
PgcfO{8L;Lsf] xfnsf] ;~rfns ;ldlt tyf Joj:yfkg ;ldltn]
tof/ kf/]sf] k|ltj]bgn] pgLx?sf] ;+nUgtfdf @& s/f]8 ?k}ofF
shf{ b'?kof]u ePsf] b]vfPsf] lyof] . ;LOcf] / shf{ k|dv
' sf]

ldn]dtf]df Ps} ;d"xsf ljleGg C0fL v8f u/L shf{sf] b'?kof]u
ul/Psf] lyof] . C0fLn] lnPsf] shf{ kl/of]hgfdf vr{ gu/L
b'?kof]u u/]sf lyP eg] d'Nof+sgstf{n] lwtf]sf] clws d'Nof+sg
u/]sf lyP .
To:t} hDsf] k|sfzgnfO{ sdzn lwtf]df shf{ k|jfx u/L
shf{ ckrng u/]sf] ljifodf lsi6 a}ªs
\ sf k|dv
' sfo{sf/L

;'g;/L lhlj;sf] cg'/f]w
hGd, d[To', ljjfx, a;fO{;/fO{, ;DaGw ljR5]b,
nufotsf JolQmut 36gf ePsf] #% lbg leq}
;DalGwt gu/kflnsf tyf uflj; sfo{nodf
;Dks{ u/L btf{{ ug'{x'g ;j}df xflb{s cg'/f]w 5 .
;fy} ;kmf ePdfq} hLjg :j:y x'g] ePsfn]
;/;kmfOdf ;w}+ Wofg k'¥ofpg, af6f]df ufO{a:t'
af“Wg], kmf]xf]/ d}nf ;fj{hlgs :yfg -af6f], k}lg
tyf wf/f_df kmfNg] sfo{ gug{ gu/fpg
cg'/f]w ul/G5 .

clws[t aLPg 3tL{
;lxt k|u'g >]i7 /
dGho/fh kf08] klg
kqmfp k/]sf lyP .
hDsf] k|sfzgnfO{
ul/Psf]
shf{
:jLs[ltdf 3tL{sf] klg
;+ n Ugtf b] l vPsf]
k|df0f e]l6Pkl5 g]kfn
k| x /Lsf] s] l Gb| o
cg' ; Gwfg Ao" / f]
l;cfOaLn] kqmfp u/]sf] xf] . a}ª+ s
\ sf tTsfnLg k|aGw ;~rfns
sdn 1jfnL hDsf] k|sfzgsf] shf{ ckrng sf08df d'l5Pkl5
;LcfO{aLn] cg';Gwfg tLa| kf/]sf] lyof] . hDsf] k|sfzg k|flnnfO{
sd;n lwtf]sf] clws d"Nof+sg
u/L a}ª+ s
\ sf] shf{ nufgL gLlt
ljkl/t clwstd ;LdfeGbf
a9L !@ s/f]8 ?k}ofF shf{ k|bfg
ul/Psf] lyof] . hDsf] k|sfzg
k|flnsfnflu 1jfnLsL >LdtL
/fwf 1jfnLn] pSt shf{ lnPsL
lyOg .
3tL{ kqmfp k/]kl5 a}ªs
\+ ;~rfns ;ldltn] e]if/fh
vltj8fnfO{ lsi6sf] lgldQ k|dv
' sfo{sf/Lsf] lhDd]jf/L lbOPsf]
5 . kbflwsf/Lx? kqmfp k/]klg lsi6 a}ªs
\ sf] ljlQo cj:yf
eg] sdhf]/ g/x]sf]n] sf/f]jf/df g8/fpg gkg]{ /fi6« a}ªs
\ n]
hgfPsf] 5 .

s'j]/ e]6 kmdf{
ksnL ahf/, ;'g;/L

oxfF kz' k+IfLsf :tl/o sDkgLsf
cf}ifwLx? xf]n;]n ;'ky d'Nodf
kfOG5 .

k|f]k|fO6/
s'jL/ If]qL kf}8]n

lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt sfof{no, ;'g;/L
k'; @)&)

21

laQ ahf/

qmdz ufleb} ljlQo ;+:yfx?

Unf]jndf sdh{ P08 6«:6
Unf]an cfO{PdO{ a}ª\sdf sdh{ P08 6"i6 a}ª\s ufleg]
ePsf] 5 . b'j} a}ª\s aLr dh{/;DaGwL ;dembf/L ePkl5
ufleg] lglZrt ePsf] xf] .
Unf]an cfO{PdO{sf cWoIf rG›k|;fb 9sfn / sdh{ P08
6"i6sf cWoIf zf]efs/ Gof}kfg]n] sflt{s @$ ut] ;dembf/Lkqdf
x:tfIf/ u/]kl5 dh{/ k|lqmof z'?cft ePsf] xf] . g]kfn /fi6"
a}ª\sn] b'j} a}ª\snfO{ dh{/df hfgsf nflu ;}4flGts ;xdlt
-Pncf]cfO{_ lbO;s]sf] 5 . /fi6" a}ª\ssf] d+l;/ !& sf] a}7sn]
;}4flGts ;xdlt lbg]] lg0f{o u/]sf] xf] .
b'O a}ª\s cfufdL r}t;Dd dh{/ k|lqmof k"/f ul/ @)&!
a}zfvb]vL Pp6} a}ª\ssf] ?kdf sf/f]jf/ ug{] u/L sfd yfn]sf]
atfOPsf] 5 . dh{/ k|lqmof k'/f ePkl5 Unf]an cfO{PdO{sf]
gfdaf6 a}ªs
\ ;~rfngdf cfpg] 5 . dh{/kl5 Unf]jn cfOPdO
a}ª\s g]kfnsf lglh If]qsf jfl0fHo a}ª\sx?dWo] ;j} eGbfjl9
kF"hL ePsf] 7"nf] a}ª\s x'g] Unf]an cfOPdOsf cWoIf 9sfnn]
atfPsf 5g\ .
dh{/kl5 a}ª\ssf] r'Qmf k"FhL $ ca{ $! s/f]8 ?k}ofF k'Ug]
atfOPsf] 5 . xfn lghLIf]qsf] ;a}eGbf 7"nf] a}ª\s g]kfn
OGe]i6d]06sf] r'Qmf k"FhL # ca{ &^ s/f]8 ?k}ofF 5 . !)
k|ltzt af]gz z]o/ lbg] k|:tfj u/]sf] OGe]i6d]G6sf] af]g;
;]o/ ljt/0fkl5 klg r'Qmf k"FhL $ ca{ !# s/f]8 ^) nfv
dfq k'Ug] atfOPsf] 5 .
dh{/kl5 a}ª\ssf] sfo{sf/L clws[tdf /Tg/fh jh|frfo{
/xg]5g\ . pgL clxn] Unf]an cfO{PdO{ a}ªs
\ sf k|dv
' sfo{sf/L
clws[t x'g\ .
dh{/kl5 a}ª\ssf] s'n lgIf]k $* ca{ tyf shf{ nufgL
$) ca{ ?k}ofF k'Ug] / a}ª\ssf zfvf ;ª\Vof *& k'Ug] 5g\ eg]
PS;6]G;g sfp06/ & cf]6f, zfvf/lxt a}lª\sª\ ;]jf !& cf]6f
/ P6LPd sfp06/ *) cf]6f k'Ug]5g\ . dh{/kl5 a}ª\ssf]
u|fxs ;ª\Vof $ nfv %! xhf/ k'Ug] a}ª\såf/f hf/L lj1lKtdf
pNn]v 5 .
22

k'; @)&)

Unf]an cfO{PdO{df ut ;fpgdf dfq ;f]l;on 8]enkd]06
/ u'NdL ljsf; a}ª\s uflePsf lyP . o;cl3 @)^( c;f/df
Unf]an a}ª\sdf cfO{PdO{ kmfOgflG;on OlGi6Ro"zg / n8{a'4
kmfOgfG; uflePkl5 Unf]an cfO{PdO{ a}ª\s ag]sf] lyof] .
k"jf{~rndf Unf]an cfOPdOsf O6x/L, la/f6gu/, w/fg, r}gk'/
-;+v'jf;ef_, l;/xf, nxfg, ldr}{of, uf]nahf/, ufO3f6,
/fhlj/fh, tfKn]h'ª\, lkmSsn, w'nfjf/L / latf{df]8df tyf
sdh{ P08 6"i6 a}ª\ssf lj/f6gu/, rf/cfnL / t]x"y'ddf
zfvf ;~rfng x'bF } cfPsf 5g\ . Unf]an cfOPdO lglh If]qsf
jfl0fHo a}ª\sx?dWo] k"jf{~rndf ;j} eGbf jl9 zfvf ePsf]
a}ª\s xf] .

;g/fOh / Pr P08 aL

;g/fOh / Pr P08 la a}ª\s klg Ps cfk;df ufleg]
ePsf 5g\ . b'j} a}ª\ssf clwsf/L aLr dh{ ;djGwdf ljleGg
r/0fdf jftf{ eO dh{df hfg] lg0f{o ePsf] / lg0f{o cg'dltsf]
nflu g]kfn /fi6"a}ª\sdf k7fOPsf] 5 . /fi6" a}ª\saf6 cg'dlt
cfPkl5 k|lqmof cuf8L j9\g] atfOPsf] 5 .
;g/fOh a}ª\ssf b]ze/L %! cf]6f / Pr P08 la
8]enkd]G6 a}ª\ssf #! cf]6f zfvf /x]sf 5g\ . k"jf{~rndf
dfq ;g/fOhsf sfs8le6\6f, ljtf{df]8, eb|k'/, ;'?+uf, Onfd,
lj/f6rf}s, w/fg, e'mDsf, b'xjL, lj/f6gu/, /fhlj/fh /
ufO3f6df ul/ !@ cf]6f tyf Pr P08 la a}ª\ssf /+u]nL df]/ª\_, lj/f6gu/, O6x/L, Og?jf-;'g;/L_, kmQ]k'/-;Kt/L_ /
nxfgdf ul/ ^ cf]6f zfvf sfof{no ;~rflnt 5g\ .
ut c;f]h d;fGt;Dd ;g/fOh a}ª\ssf] @ ca{ ! s/f]8
%) nfv / Pr P08 lasf] *( s/f]8 &( nfv #) xhf/
r'Qmf k"FhL /x]sf] 5 .
;f] cjlw;Dd ;g/fOhsf] @^ ca{ @ s/f]8 / Pr P08
lasf] % ca{ ^! s/f]8 lgIf]k tyf ;g/fOhsf] @) ca{ %&
s/f]8 tyf PrP08 lasf] $ ca{ && s/f]8 $( nfv shf{
nufgL /x]sf] 5 . ut c;f/ d;fGt;Dd #! s/f]8 (@ nfv

?k}ofF v'b d'gfkmf cfh{g u/]sf] ;g/fOhn] rfn' cfjsf] c;f]h
d;fGt;Dd ( s/f]8 #@ nfv v'b gfkmf cfh{g u/]sf] 5 . eg]
ut c;f/ d;fGt;Dd !( s/f]8 *% nfv #% xhf/ v'b
3f6fdf /x]sf] Pr P08 lan] rfn' cfjsf] c;f]h d;fGt;Dd
eg] ;j} 3f6f k"lt{ u/]/ $* nfv eGbf jl9 v'b d'gfkmf
cfh{g ug{ ;kmn ePsf] 5 .

g} pQm dh{/ k|lqmof vf/]hL ug{ s]G›Lo a}ª\sdf lgj]bg
lbPsfn] k|lqmof /2 ul/Psf] xf] . pQm lg0f{okl5 eg] ls:6
a}ª\s tyf k|e' ljsf; a}ª\saLr dh{/sf nflu ;xdlt x'g]
atfOPsf] 5 .

g]sf] / lk|ldo/ OG:of]/G] ; dh{ x'g]

PlS;;,l;len / l;len dr{]06
g]sf] OG:of]/]G; / lk|ldo/ OG:of]/]G; dh{ x'g] ePsf 5g\ .
dh{/sf nflu b'j} ;+:yfaLr ;}4flGts ;xdltdf x:tfIf/
ePkl5 b'a} sDkgLn] g]K;]nfO{ ;]o/ sf/f]af/ /f]Ssf ug{ kqfrf/
u/]sf lyP .
dh{/sf] cf}krfl/s k|lqmof cl3 a9]kl5 ;]o/ sf/f]af/
/f]Ssf ug'{kg]{ rng 5 . oL b'O{ aLdf sDkgLaLr 8\o" 8]lnh]G6
l/kf]6{ -8L8LP_ eO;s]sf] 5 . h;df g]sf]eGbf lk|ldo/ s]xL
alnof] b]lvPsf] lk|ldo/ OG:of]/]G;sf Ps clwsf/Ln] hfgsf/L
lbP .
lgofds lgsfo ladf ;ldltn] df3 @! ut];Dddf PsLs[t
sf/f]af/ ug{ lgb]{zg lbPsf] pgn] atfP . …;ldltn] tf]s]sf]
;dodf g} PsLs[t sf/f]af/ ug]{ u/L tLa| tof/L ul//x]sf]
pgsf] egfO 5 .
g]sf] / lk|ldo/aLr x'g nfu]sf] dh{/ aLdf If]qsf] klxnf]
dh{/ xf] . g]sf]sf] r'Stf k"FhL !# s/f]8 %@ nfv @@ xhf/
?k}ofF 5 eg] lk|ldo/sf] r'Qmf k"FhL !! s/f]8 &# nfv ?k}ofF
5 . ladf ;ldltn] ut c;f/ d;fGtd} lghL{ag aLdf sDkgLsf]
r'Stf k"FhL @% s/f]8 ?k}ofF x'g'kg]{ clgjfo{ u/]klg oL b'O{
sDkgL dh{/sf] k|lqmofdf /x]sfn] 5'6 lbPsf] lyof] . dh{/kl5
aLdf ;ldltn] tf]s]sf] k"FhL k'Ug]5 .
rfn" cflys{ jif{sf] c;f]h d;fGt;Dddf lk|ldo/n] *) nfv $^
xhf/ / g]sf]n] &$ nfv @@ xhf/ ?k}ofF gfkmf sdfPsf 5g\ . ;f]
cjlwdf lk|ldo/sf] k|lt ;]o/ g]6jy{ ! ;o ( ?k}of &$ k};f 5 eg]
g]sf]sf] k|lt ;]o/ g]6jy{ ! ;o *$ ?k}ofF 5 . b'j} sDkgLn] lghL{jg
aLdf Joj;fo ub}{ cfPsf 5g\ .

l;len a}ª\s, PlS;; 8]enkd]06 a}ª\s / l;len dr{]06
ljQLo ;+:yf klg Ps x'g] ePsf 5g\ . tL ljlQo ;+:yfaLr
x'g nfu]sf] dh{/sf] nflu ;d]t g]kfn /fi6" a}ª\sn] ;xdlt
lbO;s]sf] 5 . dh{kl5 aGg] a}ª\ssf] r'Qmf k"FhL ¿ @ ca{ ()
s/f]8 / zfvf ;+Vof #@ k'Ug] atfOPsf] 5 .
s ju{sf] jfl0fHo a}ª\s l;len a}ª\ssf] r'Qmf kF"hL @
ca{, v ju{sf] PlS;; 8]enkd]G6 a}ª\ssf] &! s/f]8 *! nfv
&@ xhf/ / u ju{sf] ljlQo ;+:yf l;lend r]{G6sf] !^ s/f]8
^% nfv $# xhf/ ?k}ofF /x]sf] 5 . b]ze/L @) cf]6f zfvf
/x]sf] l;len a}ª\ssf k"jf{~rnsf] lj/f6gu/, lkmlbd /
ljtf{df]8df zfvf /x]sf 5g\ . To;}ul/ b]ze/L !) cf]6f zfvf
/x]sf] sfe\}sf] ag]kfdf k|wfg sfof{no /x]sf] PlS;; a}ª\ssf
eg] k"j{sf] O6x/L / ufO3f6df ul/ @ cf]6f zfvf ;~rflnt
5g\ t/ sf7df8f}d} s]lGb|o sfof{no /x]sf] l;len dr]{G6
k|wfg sfof{no afx]s sfe]|sf] ag]kfdf Pp6fdfq zfvf /x]sf]
5 . 5 dlxgf cl3dfq ;j{;fwf/0fnfO{ *) s/f]8 ?k}ofFsf]
;]o/ k|fylds ;]o/ ljlqm u/]kl5 l;len a}ª\ssf] r'Qmfk"FhL @
s/f]8 ePsf] xf] . ut c;f/df !@ s/f]8 !@ nfv ^$ xhf/
v'b d'gfkmf sdfPsf] l;lenn] rfn' cfjsf] c;f]h d;fGt;Dd
! s/f]8 @$ nfv ^^ xhf/ v'b d'gfkmf cfh{g u/]sf] 5 .
t/ PlS;; / l;len dr]{G6n] rfn cfjsf] klxnf] q}dfl;s
k|ltj]bg ;fj{hlgs u/]sf 5}gg\ . PlS;; a}ª\ssf] ut c;f/
d;fGtsf] k|ltj]bg cg';f/ ;f] cjlwsf] v'b d'gfkmf @ s/f]8
# nfv ^@ xhf/ lyof] . @)^( r}t d;fGtdf eg] (* nfv
!^ xhf/ ?k}ofF v'b gf]S;fgL a]xf]/]sf] lyof] . l;eln dr]{G6n]
ut c;f/ d;fGtsf] k|ltj]bg ;d]t ;fj{hlgs u/]sf] 5}g .
;]jf /]ld6 k|fln / l;4fy{ 8]endkd]06 a}ª\s lnld6]8aLr
;f] sDkgL klg @)^( r}t d;fGtsf] k|ltj]bg cg';f/ #(
/]
l
d6\
ØfG; e'QmfgL ;DaGwL ;Demf}tf ePsf] 5 . d+l;/ klxnf]
nfv @$ xhf/ ?k}ofF v'b 3f6fdf lyof] .
;ftf ePsf] ;Demf}tfkqdf l;4fy{ 8]enkd]06 a}ªs
\ lnld6]8sf
k|d'v sfo{sf/L clws[t dx]z zdf{ 9sfn / ;]jf /]ld6 k|flnsf
k|aGw lgb{]zs bfdf]b/ vgfnn] x:tfIf/ u/sf x'g\ .
;Demf}tfkl5 ljb]zaf6 ;]jf /]ld6 dfkm{t k7fPsf] /sd
l;4fy{ 8]enkd]06 a}ªs
\ lnld6]8sf !* cf]6f zfvfaf6 e'QmfgL
lng ;lsg] ePsf] 5 . ;Demf}tfkl5 ljb]zaf6 ;]jf /]ld6dfkm{t
lsi6 a}ª\s / leaf]/ ljsf; a}ª\s aLrsf] dh{/sf] k|lqmof k7fPsf] /sd l;4fy{ 8]enkd]06 a}ª\s lnld6]8sf !* cf]6f
/fi6" a}ªs
\ n] /2 u/]sf] 5 . b'j} a}ªs
\ sf ;~rfnsx¿n] o;cl3 zfvfaf6 e'QmfgL lng ;lsg] ePsf] 5 .

;]jf / l;4fy{ aLr ;+emf}tf

lsi6 / leaf]/sf] dh{/ k|lqmof /2

k'; @)&)

23

z]o/ ahf/

gub nfef+z / z]o/ lb+b} ljlQo ;+:yfx?
Unf]an cfOPdOsf]] !% k|ltzt

Unf]an cfOPdO{ a}+sn] ut cfly{ls jif{sf] d'gfkmfaf6
z]o/wgLx?nfO{ !% k|ltzt af]g; z]o/ ljt/0f ug{] lg0f{o
u/]sf] 5 . a}ª\ssf] d+l;/ !* ut] a;]sf] ;~rfns ;ldltsf]
a}7sn] pQm lg0f{o u/]sf] xf] .
;~rfns ;ldltaf6 k|:tfljt af]g; z]o/ ljt/0f ug{
/fi6" a}+sn] :jLs[lt k|bfg ul/;s]sf] 5 . a}ª\ssf] jflif{s
;fwf/0f;efn] k|:tfj kfl/t u/]kl5 z]o/wgLx?df jf]g; ;]o/
ljt/0f ul/g]5 . a}ª\ssf] jflif{s ;fwf/0f;ef k'; !( ut]
x'Fb}5 .

a}7sn] ut cfly{s jif{sf]] d'gfkmfaf6 pSt nfef+; ljt/0f
ug]{ k|:tfj u/]sf] xf]
g]kfn /fi6" a}ª\saf6 k|:tfj :jLs[t eP/ cfPkl5 a}+sn]
cfufdL ;fwf/0f ;efdf k]z ug]{ lg0f{o u/]sf] 5 . ;fwf/0f
;efaf6 kfl/t ePkl5 z]o/wgLx?nfO{ pSt nfef+; tyf
jf]g; z]o/ ljt/0f ul/g] 5 .

l5d]s n3'ljQsf] $* k|ltzt nfef+;

x]6f}8fdf k|wfg sfof{no /x]sf] l5d]s n3'ljQ ljsf; a}+s

glansf] ^% k|ltzt nfef+; k|:tfj

gljn a}+s lnld6]8sf] ;~rfns ;ldltn] ;]o/wgLnfO{
^% k|ltzt nfef+; ljt/0f
ug]{ k|:tfa u/]sf] 5 . a}ªs
\ n]
ut cflys{ jif{ @)^(÷)&)
sf] gfkmfaf6 $) k|ltzt
gub / @% k|ltzt af]g;
;]o/ lbg] k|:tfa u/]sf] xf] .
a}s
+ n] ut jif{ @ ca{ @# s/f]8
?k}of v'b d'gfkmf sdfPsf] lyof] .
;~rfns ;ldltsf] k|:tfa u/]sf] pSt nfef+; g]kfn
/fi6" a}ª\sn] :jLs[lt lbPkl5 / cfufdL k'; !@ ut] x'g]
;fwf/0f ;efaf6 kfl/t u/]/ ljt/0f ul/g] 5 .
a}+sn] ut jif{ $) k|ltzt gub / @) k|ltzt af]g;
;]o/ u/L ^) k|ltzt nfef+; ljt/0f u/]sf] lyof] . cl3Nnf]
jif{ a}ª\sn] ! ca{ ^( s/f]8 ^@ nfv ?k}of v'b gfkmf
sdfPsf] lyof] .
gljn a}+s pTs[i6 jfl0fHo a}ª\sdf kb{5 . rfn" cflys{
jif{sf] klxnf] tLg dlxgfdf a}ª\sn] &! ca{ (@ s/f]8 ( nfv
?k}of lgIf]k ;+sng u/L $ ca{ *@ s/f]8 ?k}of shf{ k|jfx
u/]sf] 5 . o; cjlwdf a}+sn] $% s/f]8 *( nfv ?k}of v'b
d'gfkmf sdfPsf] 5 .

l;4fy{n] @! k|ltzt nfef+z lbg]

l;4fy{ a}+s lnld6]8n] z]o/ wgLx?nfO{ !@ k|ltzt jf]g;
z]o/ / !)=!! k|ltzt gub nfef+; ljt/0f ug]{ k|:tfj u/]sf]
5 . a}+ª\ssf] d+l;/ klxnf] ;ftf a;]sf] ;~rfns ;ldlt
24

k'; @)&)

lnld6]8sf] ;~rfns ;ldltn] ;]o/wgLnfO{ $*=@# k|ltzt
nfef+; ljt/0f ug]{ k|:tfa u/]sf] 5 .
a}ª\sn] ##=@# k|ltzt af]g; ;]o/ / !% k|ltzt gub
nfef+; ljt/0fsf] k|:tfa u/]sf] xf] . ;~rfns ;ldltsf] pSt
nfef+; k|:tfa g]kfn /fi6" a}ª\sn] :jLs[lt lbPkl5 / k'; (
ut] x'g] ;fwf/0f ;efn] kfl/t u/]kl5 ljt/0f ul/g] 5 .
a}ª\sn] ut cflys{ jif{df !) s/f]8 ?k}of v'b d'gfkmf
sdfPsf] lyof] . a}+ª\ssf] k|lt;]o/ g]6jy{ @ ;o !( ?k}ofF 5
. a}+ª\ssf #! lhNnfdf %& zfvf sfof{no 5g\ .

lqj]0fLsf] !( k|ltzt af]g; ;]o/ kfl/t

lqj]0fL ljsf; a}+ª\sn] z]o/wgLx?nfO{ !( k|ltzt af]g;
;]o/ lbg] ePsf] 5 . a}ª\s ;~rfns ;ldltn] u/]sf] af]g;
;]o/ lbg] lg0f{onfO{ xfn} ;DkGg a}ª\ssf] !) cf}+ jflif{s
;fwf/0f;efn] kfl/t u/]sf] xf] . a}+ª\sn] ut jif{sf] gfkmfaf6
sdfPsf] ^ s/f]8 #@ nfv ?k}ofFaf6 ;]o/wgLnfO{ af]g; ;]o/
lbg] lg0f{o u/]sf] xf] .

PlS;;sf] gub nfef+z

sfe] | s f] ag] k fdf k| w fg sfof{ n o /x] s f] PlS;;
8]e nkd] G 6 a}ª \ s n] & bzdnj #& k|l tzt gub nfef+ z
ljt/0f ug] { ePsf] 5 .
a} ª \ s n] ;lGrt d' g fkmf / cfly{ s jif{ @)^(÷)&)
d' g fkmf ;d] t ul/ % s/f] 8 @( nfv !* xhf/ ?k} o fF
gub nfef+ ; ljt/0f ug] { ePsf] xf] . a} ª \ s n] cfk\ m gf
;]o / wgLx?nfO{ k|ltlsQf & bzdnj #& k|ltzt nfef+z
lbg] ;~rfns ;ldltsf] lg0f{o ut sflt{s clGtd ;ftf
ePsf] !) cf} + jflif{ s ;fwf/0f;efn] kfl/t u/] s f] xf] .

lsi6 ;lxt kfFr a}ª\s 3f6fdf

g]kfnsf #! cf]6f jfl0fHo a}ª\s dWo] rfn' cfly{s 3f6f 36]sf] xf] . t/ v/fj shf{sf] cg'kft j9]sf] 5 .
jif{sf] c;f]h d;fGt;Dddf 3f6fdf uPsf] Psdfq a}ª\s
ut cfjsf] c;f]h d;fGt;Dd sl/j #=(* k|ltzt v/fj
ag]sf] 5 lsi6 a}ª\s .
C0f /x]sf] lsi6 a}ª\ssf] o; cfjsf] ;f] cjlwdf v/fj C0f
of] a}ª\s rfn' cfjsf] c;f]h dlxgf;Dd @ s/f]8 &$ a9]/ &=%@ k|ltzt ePsf] 5 . ut c;f/df o:tf] C0f ^=%(
k|ltzt lyof] . % k|ltzt eGbf jl9 v/fj shf{ x'\g'nfO{ a}ª\ssf]
/fd|f] cj:yf dflgb}g .
To:t} /fli6"o :t/sf !& ljsf; a}ª\s dWo] rf/cf]6f a}ª\s
3f6fdf uPsf 5g\ . c;f]h dlxgf;Ddsf] sf/f]jf/ ljj/0f cg';f/
To;/L 3f6fdf hfg] a}ª\sx? dWo] olt 8]enkd]G6 a}ªs
\ sf] 3f6f
;j}eGbf jl9 #@ s/f]8 $% nfv !@ xhf/ / v/fj shf{ @)=)^
k|ltzt 5 . lejf]/ ljsf; a}ª\ssf] 3f6f @ s/f]8 *( nfv *^
xhf/ / v/fj shf{ !%=%@ k|ltzt /x]sf] 5 .
To:t} ;DjlGwt a}ª\sn] k|sflzt u/]sf] ljj/0f cg';f/
PlS;; 8]enkd]G6 a}ª\s ! s/f]8 %! nfv, sfi7df08k
8]enkd]G6 a}ª\s ! s/f]8 %) nfv $# xhf/ ?k}ofF 3f6fdf
/x]sf 5g\ .
nfv $) xhf/ ?k}ofF v'b 3f6fdf uPsf] 5 . @)^( r}t
o; cjlwdf ljsf; a}ª\sx? dWo]df ;j}eGbf jl9 @@
d;fGtdf % s/f]8 %) nfv !) xhf/ ?k}ofF 3f6fdf /x]sf]df s/f]8 &) nfv (* xhf/ v'bgfkmf eg] PgcfOl8;Ln] sdfPsf]
@)&) c;f/ d;fGtdf cfOk'Ubf 3f6f a9]/ * s/f]8 ($ 5 . t/ p;sf] klg v/fj shf{ eg] !$=!$ k|ltzt /x]]sf] 5 .
nfv *^ xhf/ ?k}ofF ePsf] lyof] . t/ c;f]hdf cfOk'Ubf

cfOPnPkm;Lcf] / gf/fo0fL pTs[i6

sf/f]jf/,r'Qmfk"h
F L / v'b d'gfkmfsf] cfwf/df OG6/g]zgn
lnlhª\ P08 kmfOgfG; sDkgL cfOPnPkm;Lcf]_ / gf/fo0fL g]zgn
kmfOgfG; sDkgL pTs[i6 ePsf
5g\ .
cfly{s jif{ @)^(÷)&) sf]
sf/f]jf/sf] cfwf/df b Aofª\s/ gfds klqsfn] k|sfzg
u/]sf] tYofª\s cg';f/ pTs[i6 !) df k/]sf ljQ sDkgL
dWo] cfOPnPkm;L / gf/fo0fL ;jf]{Ts[i6 ePsf x'g\ . ljQ
sDkgLx? dWo] ;j}eGbf jl9 b'O ca{ ?k}ofF r'Qmf k"FhL

To:t} ;ldIff cjlwdf gf/fo0fL g]zgn kmfOgfG;n] r'Qmfk"h
F L
^$ s/f]8 &% nfvdf ?k}ofFdf tLg ca{ &# s/f]8 #$ nfv
lgIf]k / tLg ca{ %! s/f]8 $) nfv nufgL u/L ( s/f]8 *(
nfv v'b d'gfkmf cfh{g u/]sf] lyof] . k"FhL cfDbfgLsf] b[li6af6
ljQ sDkgLx?df pTs[i6 /x]sf] gf/fo0fLsf] s]lGb|o sfof{no
sf7df8f}df /x]sf] 5 . ut sflt{s !% ut]bv
] L @! cf}+ jif{df
k|jz
] u/]sf] gf/fo0fLsf b]ze/L !! cf]6f zfvf ;~rflnt 5g\ .
tL dWo] gf/fo0fu9df If]qLo sfof{no / sf7df8f}sf] Go"/f]8df
d'Vo zfvf ;~rflnt 5g\ .
sDkgLsf] k"jf{~rnsf] O6x/L, lj/f6gu/ / t]xy" d' sf] Dofª\nª' d\ f

/x]sf] cfOPnPkm;Lsf] ut
c;f/ d;fGt;Ddsf] lgIf]k Ps ca{ $@ s/f]8 / nufgL b'O
ca{ ^^ s/f]8 /x]sf] 5 . sDkgLn] ;f] cjlwdf !( s/f]8
$( nfv ?k}ofF v'b d'gfkmf cfh{g u/]sf] lyof] . sf7df8f}df
d'Vo sfof{no /x]sf] of] kmfOgfG;sf * cf]6f zfvf /x]sf
5g\ . sDkgLsf] k"jf{~rnsf] Aofkfl/s s]Gb| O6x/Ldf ;d]t
zfvf /x]sf] 5 .

zfvf sfof{no ;~rflnt 5g\ . ut sflt{s !# ut];Dd sDkgLsf]
s"n lgIf]k tLg ca{ (^ s/f]8 / nufgL tLg ca{ ^( s/f]8
k'us
] f] 5 . cfk\mgf u|fxsx?nfO{ lgMz'Ns Pl6Pd sf8{ pknAw
u/fpFb} cfPsf] 5 . gf/fo0fLaf6 Pl6Pd sf8{ lng] u|fxsn] $)
cf]6f a}ªs
\ tyf ljlQo ;+:yfsf Pl6Pd d]l;gaf6 ljgf z'Ns
/sd lgsfNg ;Sg] ;'ljwf kfpFb} cfPsf 5g\ . ;fy} d]l;gn]
k9\g] -PdcfOl;cf/_ r]s nfu' ug]d{ f of] sDkgL ljQ sDkgLx?df
g]kfns} klxnf] ePsf] atfOPsf] 5 .

k'; @)&)

25

cfot÷ lgof{t

Aofkf/ 3f6f %^ ca{
cy{lj6 ;+jfbbftf÷lj/f6gu/
cfly{s jif{ @)^(÷)&) df k"jf{~rnaf6 Ps va{
@@ ca{ ?k}ofF a/fa/sf] j}b]lzs Jofkf/ ePsf]df g]kfnnfO{
%^ ca{ !@ s/f]8 ?k}ofF a/fa/sf] Aofkf/ 3f6f ePsf] 5 .
Jofkf/ tyf lgsf;L k|j4{g s]Gb| k"jf{~rn If]qLo sfof{no,
lj/f6gu/sf] tYof+s cg';f/ cf=a=@)^(÷)&) sf] cjlwdf
k"jf{~rn If]qdf *( ca{ ^ s/f]8 ?k}ofF d"Nosf ;fdfg ljb]zaf6
cfot ePsf]df #@ ca{ ($ s/f]8 ?k}ofFsf] ;fdfgdfq g]kfnaf6
ljb]z lgof{t ePsf] lyof] . o; If]qsf] s"n j}b]lzs Jofkf/df
lgsf;L tyf k}7f/Lsf] of]ubfg qmd;M@^=)& k|ltzt / &#=(#
k|ltzt /x]sf] tYofª\sn] b]vfPsf] 5 .
;f] cjlwdf k"jf{~rnjf6 lgsf;L ePsf k|dv
' j:t'x?df kmnfd
tyf l:6n / ltgsf pTkfbgx?, d';'/f]sf] bfn, lrof, cn}+rL,
cb'jf, ljleGg cf}ifwL agfpg k|of]u x'g] h8Lj'6Lx?, kf]lni6/
tyf cGo wfuf], tof/L sk8fx?, h'6 Jofu tyf h'6sf cGo
;fdfgx?, tfdf tyf tfdfjf6 lgld{t ;fdfgx?, lhpFbf kz'x?,
5fnf, ;'kf/L, g'8N;, ;fj'g, cld|;f] s"rf], vlnlkgf, a|fg,
ux's
F f] rf]s/, x:tsnfsf ljleGg lsl;dsf ;fdfgx?, nufot
cGo ljleGg k|of]hgdf cfpg] ;fdfgx? /x]sf] s]Gb|n] hgfPsf]
5 .
lgof{t ;fdfg dWo] kmnfd tyf l:6n / ltgsf pTkfbg
;j}eGbf jl9 * ca{ #@ s/f]8 ?k}ofFsf 5g\ . To;kl5 jl9
lgof{t x'g]df # ca{ *% s/f]8sf] cn}+rL, tLg ca{ &$ s/f]8
?k}ofFsf h'6 tyf h'6sf cGo ljleGg ;fdfu|L, b'O ca{ &@
s/f]8sf] kf]lni6/ tyf cGo wfuf] lgof{t ePsf] s]Gb|sf k|d'v
s[i0fk|;fb /]UdLn] hfgsf/L lbP To;}ul/ b'O ca{ ^@ s/f]8sf]
d';'/f] bfn, b'O ca{ %% s/f]8sf] tof/L kf]zfs tyf Ps ca{
() s/f]8 ?k}ofFsf] lrof Ps ca{ !( s/f]8sf] tfdf tyf
tfdfjf6 lgld{t ;fdfgx?, ^! s/f]8sf] 5fnf, #^ s/f]8 ?k}ofFsf]
g'8N; - rfp rfp_ lgof{t ePsf] tYofª\sn] b]vfPsf] 5 .
lgsf;L ahf/nfO{ b[li6ut ubf{ kmnfd tyf l:6nsf ;fdfgsf]
lgsf;L ef/t / e'6fgdf, d';'/f] bfnsf] a+unfb]z, ef/t
nufo cGo l5d]sL d'n'sx?df;d]t lgsf;L x'g] u/]sf] 5 .
kf]lni6/ tyf cGo wfuf], h'6 tyf h'6sf ;fdfg, cld|;f]
s"rf], ;'kf/L, lrof, cn}+rL, cb'jf, g'8N;, rf]s/ , lkgf cflb
j:t'x? rfFxL ljz]iful/ ef/tLo ahf/df lgof{t x'g] u/]sf]
/]UdLn] atfP . g]kfnjf6 O6nL, d]lS;sf], ef/t, yfONof08,
6sL{, rLg, >Ln+sf / kfls:tfgdf 5fnf lgsf;L x'g] u/]sf] 5
eg] k"jf{~rn If]qdf pTkflbt lrof ef/t, hd{gL, /l;of,
cd]/Lsfdf;d]t lgsf;L x'g] u/]sf] 5 . e'6fgdf eg] g'8N;,
;fa'g, kmnfd tyf l:6nsf ;fdfg, x:tsnfsf j:t'x? hfg]
u/]sf5g\ .
cf=a= @)^(.)&) sf] cjlwdf k"jf{~rn If]qdf cfot
ePsf k|d'v j:t'x?df k]6"f]lnod kbfy{, kmnfd / l:6nsf
26

k'; @)&)

pTkfbg, d]zg/L / To;sf kf6{;x?, On]S6"Lsn / On]S6"f]lgS;
;fdfg, tfdfsf pTkfbgx?, /;folgs dn vfb, oftfoftsf
;fdfu|Lx?, sfuh tyf sfuhjf6 lgld{t ljleGg ;fdfgx?,
sRrf h'6, ljleGg k|of]hgdf cfpg] s]ldsN;x?, b}lgs k|of]udf
cfpg] ;gkm\Njf/ t]n, ds} tyf ds}jf6 lgld{t vfB ;fdfu|Lx?,
e6df;sf] t]n, rfnd, tof/L kf]zfsnufot cGo ljleGg
;fdfu|Lx? cflb /x]sf 5g\  .
;ldIff cjlwdf k"jf{~rn If]qdf @) ca{
(@ s/f]8 ?k}ofFsf] k]6"f]lnod kbfy{, !# ca{ *$ s/f]8sf]
kmnfd tyf l:6n / ltgsf pTkfbgx?, ^ ca{ #( s/f]8sf]
Knfli6s tyf Knfli6sjf6 lgld{t ;fdfgx?, tLg ca{ &(
s/f]8sf] wfuf], tLg ca{ ^^ s/f]8sf] sf]Onf, tLg ca{ $(
s/f]8sf ljleGg d]lzg/L ;fdfg tyf ltgdf k|of]u x'g] kf6{;x?,
b'O ca{ $! s/f]8sf oftfoftsf ;fwg tyf ltgsf kf6{;x?,
b'O ca{ # s/f]8sf h'6 tyf h'6jf6 lgld{t ljleGg ;fdfu|Lx?,
b'O ca{ @ s/f]8sf tfdf tyf tfdfjf6 lgld{t ljleGg
;fdfu|Lx?, Ps ca{ ?k}ofFsf cf}Bf]lus k|of]hgsf nflu
cfjZos df]gf]sfjf]{hfOlns km\of6L Pl;8, tyf &) s/f]8
?k}ofFsf tof/L sk8f cfot ePsf 5g\ . o; If]qdf ef/t,
rLg, yfONof08, O08f]g]lzof, dn]lzof, ch]{lG6gf, ci6"]lnof,
o'=P=O=, l;?fk'/, tfOjfg, Sofg8f, o'=P;=P=, /l;of, a+unfb]z,
e'6fg cflb d'n'sx?jf6 ;fdfg cfot x'g] u/]sf] b]lvPsf]5 .
cGg e08f/df * ca{sf] vfBGg / t]nxg cfot
s[lif k|wfg b]z g]kfnsf] k|d'v cGg e08f/ dflgPsf] k"jf{Grn
If]qdf Ps jif{sf] cjlwdf sl/j * ca{ ?k}ofFsf] rfdn, ds},
t/sf/L / t]nxg cfot ePsf] 5 . Jofkf/ tyf lgsf;L
k|j4{g s]Gb| k"jf{~rn If]qLo sfof{no, lj/f6gu/sf cg';f/
cf=a=@)^(÷)&) sf] cjlwdf Ps ca{ (^ s/f]8 ?k}ofFsf]
rfdn, Ps ca{ (@ s/f]8 ?k}ofFsf] ds} tyf ds}jf6 lgld{t
ljleGg vfB ;fdfu|L, Ps ca{ ?k}ofFsf] cfn' Ps ca{ (^
s/f]8sf] sRrf ;f]ofljg t]n / &( s/f]8 ?k}ofFsf] sRrf
;"o{d'vL t]n cfot ePsf] 5 .

Dofgdf/af6 ns8L cfot

xl/of] jg g]kfnsf] wg eGg] gf/f cj pvfgdf
g]kfn jg k}bfj/ Joj;foL
dfq l;ldt x'g yfn]sf] 5 . oxfF ;v'jf nufotsf ns8L
dxf;+3 sf k|y d pkfWoIf
cefj eO d"No cfsflzPkl5 ljb]zaf6 cfot x'g yfn]kl5
;Ltf/fd cu|jfnn] Dofgdf/
xl/of] jg g]kfnsf] wg Psfb]zsf] syfdf kl/0ft x'g] cj:yf
af6 cfot ul/Psf ns8L
5.
g]kfnsf] :yfgLo ;v'jfs}
3/ lgdf{0f / kmlg{r/sf] k|of]udf Jofkstf eP;Fu}
u'0f:t/sf ePklg d"No eg]
ns8L cefj
k|lt ju{lkm6 Ps
j9]kl5 k"jf{~ rn Dofgdf/af6 cfot ul/Psf ns8L xhf/ ?k} o fF ; Dd
If] q df jdf{ s f]
/x] s f]
g]kfnsf] :yfgLo ;v'jfs} u'0f:t/sf ePklg ;:tf]
Dofgdf/af6 ns8L
hfgsf/L lbP .
cfot x'g yfn]sf] d" N o eg] k| l t ju{ l km6 Ps xhf/ pgn] xfn ahf/
?k}ofF;Dd ;:tf] /x]sf] hfgsf/L lbP . df :yfgLo
xf] .
ljb]zaf6 ns8L
;v'jfsf] sf7 k|lt 3glkm6 % xhf/ % ;o;Dd /
cfot ubf{ ;/sf/n] eG;f/ dx;'n 5'6 ug'{sf ;fy} !#
DofGdf/af6 cfotLt sf7 $ xhf/ % ;o ?k}ofF;Dddf ljlqm
k|ltzt d"No clej[l4 s/ lng] u/]sf] atfOPsf] 5 .
ljt/0f eO /x]sf] atfP . pgsf cg';f/ Dofgdf/af6 cfot
sfi7 Aoj;foLx?sf cg';f/ g]kfnsf jg h+unaf6
ul/Psf ns8L O6x/L, w/fg, nxfg, lj/f6gu/ nufotsf ;ns8L s6fgL, 9'jfgLdf ;d:of eO ahf/df ns8L cefj
ldnx?df ljlqm ljt/0f x'Fb} cfPsf 5g\ .
ePkl5 Ps jif{b]vL DofGdf/af6 ns8L cfot ug{ yflnPsf]
g]kfnsf jgdf ;v'jfsf kof{Kt ns8L ePklg :ki6 jg
xf] . k"jf{~rn If]qdf Dofgdf/af6 ;fKtflxs ?kdf !)
lgltsf] cefjdf h+und} ;8\g] u/]sfn] jhf/df ns8L cefj
xhf/ ju{lkm6 eGbf jl9 ns8L cfot eO /x]sf] atfOPsf]
eO d"No cfsflzPkl5 ljb]zaf6 cfot ug'{ k/]sf] pkfWoIf
5.
cu|jfnsf] egfO 5 .

k'; @)&)

27

pBf]u jfl0fHo

lj/f6gu/df cGt{/fli6«o d]nfsf] tof/L
df]/+u Jofkf/ ;+3sf] cfof]hgfdf cfufdL df3 !!
ut]bv
] L !* ut];Dd lj/f6 dxf]T;j cGt/f{li6"o Jofkf/
d]nf ;~rfng x'g] ePsf] 5 .
d]nfnfO{ eJo ?kdf ;kmn agfpg cfof]hs df]/u+
Jofkf/ ;+3 tyf k|j4{ sdf jfl0fHo tyf cfk"lt{ dGqfno,
s[lif ljsf; dGqfno, lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt df]/ª,
lj/f6gu/ pk-dxfgu/kflnsf, g]kfn ko{6g af]8{,
g]kfn pBf]u jfl0fHo dxf;+3 /x]sf 5g\ .
d'Vo k|fof]hsdf Plzog yfO{ km"8\; k|f=ln= /x]sf]
lj/f6 Aofkf/ d]nfdf pTkfbs / pkef]QfaLr ;'dw'/
;DaGw :yflkt ug]{ p2]Zo/x]sf]] df]/ª\ Aofkf/ ;+3n]
hgfPsf] 5 .
d]nfdf g]kfnsf 3/]n,' ;fgf, demf}nf tyf 7"nf pBf]ux?sf
cltl/Q kxf8L lhNnfsf vlgh hGo, s[lif hGo / cGo
pTkfbgx?sf ;fy} ef/t, lrg, a+unfb]z, kfls:tfg nufotsf
b]zsf] pTkfbgsf :6n /xg] 5g\ . s/La Ps;o %) cf]6f
:6n /xg] d]nfsf] g]kfn / ef/tsf ;LdfjtL{ If]qsf s/La #
nfv bz{sx?n] cjnf]sg ug]{ ck]Iff ul/Psf] cfof]hsn]
u/]sf]5 .
g]kfnsf s[lif hGo pTkfbgx?, x:tsnf Pj+ 3/]n' tyf
;fgf pBf]ux?af6 pTkflbt ;fdfu|Lx?sf] ahf/sf] k|j4{g /
lgof{tsf] vf]hLsfnflu ;3fpm k'uf];\ eGg] clek|fon] k"jf{~rnsf]
kxf8L lhNNffsf pBf]u jfl0fHo ;+3x?nfO{ !) j6f :6n
lgMz'Ns pknAw u/fpg] sfo{qmd /x]sf] ;+3n] hgfPsf]5 .
d'n'ssf] cf}Bf]lus pTkfbgx?sf] ahf/ klxrfg, ;DefJo
nufgL If]qx?, s[lif / vlgh hGo j:t'sf] cf}Bf]lus/0f, hn>f]t

/ ko{6g If]qdf ;DefJo nufgL, cf}Bf]lus/0fsf nflu gofF
k|ljlw af/] hfgsf/L u/fO{ d'n'ssf] ;du| ljsf;df d]nfsf
dfWodaf6 6]jf k"Ug] ljZjf; cfof]hssf] 5 .
pkef]Qf / pTkfbsx?nfO{ cf}Bf]lus gu/L lj/f6gu/df
Ps} 7fpFdf e]nf u/fO{ pBf]uL÷Joj;foLx? ljr cf}Bf]lus /
pkef]Uo j:t'x?, nufgLsf gofF k|ljlw ;DaGwdf hfgsf/Lsf]
cfbfg k|bfg ug'{sf ;fy} ko{6g ;DjlGw cGt{lqmof / b]zsf]
ljleGg ;+:s[lt tyf cGo dxTjk"0f{ s'/fx? emNsg] u/L kmf]6f]
k|bz{g ug]{ sfo{qmd /x]sf] 5 .
* lbg;Dd ;+rfng x'g] dxf]T;jdf g]kfn nufot l5d]sL
/fi6"x?sf] nufgLstf{, pTkfbs, ljt/s, lgof{tstf{x?nfO{ Pp6}
d~rdf e]nf u/fO{ ;/;fdfu|Lx?sf] cjnf]sg tyf hfgsf/L
pknAw u/fpg] ;d]t sfo{qmd /x]sf] 5 .
dxf]T;jnfO{ Jojl:yt ?kdf ;+rfng ug{sf nflu ;+3sf
sfo{sf/L0fL ;b:o gljg l/hfnsf] ;+of]hsTjdf d"n ;ldlt
tyf ljleGg pk;ldltx? u7g ul/Psf 5g\ .

bdsdf If]qLo ko{6g d]nf x'g]

o; jif{sf] k"jf{ ~rn If]qLo ko{6g d]nf emfkfsf] bdsdf
x'g] ePsf] 5 . d]nfsf nflu :yfg ;DefAotf ug{ cfPsf]
g]kfn ko{6g af]8{sf] 6f]nLn] bdsnfO{ pko'Qm 7xof{Psf]
xf] .
bds pBf]u afl0fHo ;+3df ljleGg pBf]uL, :yfgLo
;+3 ;+:yfsf k|ltlglw nufotsf] 5nkmn ;sf/fTds ePsfn]
o; jif{sf] If]qLo ko{6g d]nf bdsd} cfof]hgf ug{] lg0f{odf
k'luPsf] g]kfn ko{6g af]8{sf al/i7 k|jGws nLnfaxfb'/
afFlgofn] atfP .
aflgofFn] d]nfn] k"j{sf] ko{6sLo If]qsf af/]df klxrfg,
k|j{4g / cfGt/Ls ko{6g k|j{4gdf 6]jf k'¥ofpg] lj:jf;
/fv]sf] hfgsf/L lbP .
d]nfdf If]qLo tyf /fli6"o :t/sf ko{6g ;DalGw ;+:yfsf
#% eGbfal9 :6n /xg] hfgsf/L u/fpb} aflgofFn] eg]
28

k'; @)&)

…d]nfdf g]kfnL vfgkfg, u|fld0f hglhjg tyf xf]d:6] /
x:tsnfnfO{ ljif]z k|fyldstf lbg]5f},+ d]nfsf] dWodaf6 k"jd{ f
/x]sf gofF ko{6sLo uGtAosf] klxrfg u/L tL If]qx?sf]
k|j{4g tyf k|rf/ ug{] / d]nfsf] dfWodaf6 b]ze/ ko{6g
k|j{4gsf nflu g]6js{sf] lj:tf/ ug{] p2]Zo;d]t /flvPsf]
5 .Ú aflgofFn] atfP .
To:t} sfo{qmddf af]Nb} bds pBf]u afl0fHo ;+3sf cWoIf
k|sfz k|;fO{n] k"js
{ f] ko{6sLo :ynsf] k|j4{ gdf d]nfn] ;xof]u
ug{] lj:jf; AoQm ub}{ d]nfsf nflu bds pBf]u jfl0fHo
;+3;Fu} bdssf ;a} ;+3 ;+:yfn] ;Sbf] ;xof]u ug{] atfP .
d]nfdf ljleGg ko{6sLo If]qsf af/]df lgd{f0f ul/Psf
a[Qlrq k|bz
{ g, hftLo tyf cGo ;+:s[lt emNsg] sfo{qmd;d]t
k|:t't u/Lg] hfgsf/L u/fO{Psf] 5 . b]zsf $ :yfgdf ;~rfng
x'g] d]nf bdsdf df3 !^ b]lv !* ut] ;Dd ;+rfng x'g]5 .

O6x/Ldf k"jf{~rn dxf]T;j x'g]
k"jf{~rnsf s[lif tyf cf}Bf]lus pTkfbg / ko{6g k|j4{gdf x'g] dxf]T;jdf g]kfn e/Lsf pTkfbgsf ;fy} ljb]zL pTkfbgsf]
;xof]u ug]{ p2]Zon] pBf]u jfl0fHo ;+3 O6x/Lsf] cfof]hgfdf ;d]t :6n /xg] 5g\ . & s/f]8sf] sf/f]jf/ x'g] cg'dfg ul/Psf]
O6x/Ldf k"jf{~rn If]qLo dxf]T;j x'g]
dxf]T;jdf cfof]hs pjf;+3n] #)
ePsf] 5 .
nfv gfkmf sdfpg] nIo /fv]sf]
u|fld0f If]qdf pTkflbt ;fdfgnfO{
hgfPsf] 5 . ;+3sf cWoIf k|;fOn]
zx/L If]qdf ljlqm ljt/0fsf] nflu
@)^* ;fnsf] dxf]T;jdf % s/f]8sf]
;lhnf] jgfpg dxf]T;jdf k|fyldstf
sf/f]jf/ x'Fbf pjf;+3nfO{ ;j} vr{
lbOg] cfof]hs pBf]u jfl0fHo ;+3
s6fP/ @) nfv gfkmf ePsfn] o;
O6x/Lsf cWoIf /f]lxt k|;fOFn] atfP .
jif{ gfkmf a9g] ljZjf; /x]sf] atfP .
df3 @@ ut]b]vL kmfu'g ^ ut];Dd
dxf]T;jaf6 cflh{t gfkmf ;+3sf]
;~rfng x'g] dxf]T;jdf b'O ;o eGbf jl9 :6n /xg] atfOPsf] lgdf{0fflwg ejgdf vr{ ug]{ nIo /x]sf] pgsf] egfO 5 .
5 . k"jf{~rnsf ko{6lso :ynx?sf] j[tlrq ;d]t k|bz{g

:6n wdfwd a'lsª eO/x]sf] 5 .

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29

ko{6g

kflye/f dftf

dgf]sfª\Iff k'/f u/fpg] cf:yfsL b]jL
;'s]6f/ k'u]kl5
d]rL cGrn, tfKn]h'ª lhNnfsf] # xhf/ & ;o (& -ld6/
!@ xhf/ ^ ;o $^ lkm6 _prfOdf cjl:yt kflye/f b]jLsf] sRrL ;8sdf rNg]
dlGb/ ;b/d'sfd km'ªlnªaf6 !( bzdnj $ lsnf]ld6/ k"j{ :yfgLo 6\ofS;L ;]jf
kfOG5 t/ sRrL /
pQ/L sf]0fdf /x]sf] 5 .
lxn] ;8ssf sf/0f
pTklt
@
kfyLe/f b]jLsf] pTkQLsf ;DaGwdf w]/} ls+jbGtL ;' s ] 6 f/af6
tyf hg>'tLx? /x]sf 5g\ . h;dWo] Pp6f ls+jbGtL cg';f/ lsnf] d L6/df kg] {
k/fk"j{sfndf kfyLe/f 8fF8fsf] km]bLdf uf]7fnfx?n] e]8Luf]7 b]p/fnL;Dd d'l:snn]
;lsG5 .
/fv]sf lyP . uf]7df /flvPsf ;j} e]8f Pslbg crfgs hfg
uf]7af6} nf]k eP . o;/L PsfPs e]8f nf]k ePkl5 cfZro{ ;8ssf] cj:yfn]
/ lrGtfdf k/]sf uf]7fnfx?nfO{ /ftL b]jLn] cfˆgf] pTklt ubf{ w] / } ofq' x ?
:yn / cfs[ltsf af/]df hfgsf/L lbb} anL;lxt cfˆgf] k"hf- ;'s6] f/af6} k}bn ofqf
cr{gf ug{' eg]sfn] uf]7fnfx?n] ;f]xL cg';f/ k'hf cfhf u/] ug{ ?rfpF5g\ . lx8\g
/ uf]7df ePdWo] ;j}eGbf :j:Yo / Åi6k'i6 e]8fsf] anL ;Sg] dflg; ;'s]6f/af6 ^ 306fdf kfyLe/f dlGb/ k'Ug ;S5g\
lbP . k"hf cr{gfkl5 x/fPsf e]8f h:tfsf] t:t} k|fKt ePsf] eg] lx8\g] afgL gePsfx?nfO{ cf/fd ub}{ hfFbf !)÷!@ 306f
nfUg ;S5 . t/ af6f]df htftt} lrof-gf:tf vfg kfpg]
eGg] cfZro{hgs ls+jbGtL /x]sf] 5 .
oxL ls+jbGtLdf cfwfl/t kfyLe/fb]jLsf] >4f / elQm k;nx? / jf; j:g] nhx? kfOg] x'Fbf lj:tf/} lx8]/ jf; a:b}
cfh tfKn]h'ªjf;Ldf dfq l;ldt g/xL g]kfn,ef/t tyf cGo hfFbf klg ;xh ?kdf b]jLsf] bz{g ug{ ;lsG5 .
ko{6lso b[li6n] cu|0fL
ljleGg d'n'ssf eQmhgx?sf] ;d]t dgf]sfdgf k'/f ug{]
cb[Zo cnf}lss zlQmsL b]jLsf ?kdf :yflkt ePsf] kfOG5
wfld{s dfWodaf6 dfq geO ko{6sLo ?kn] klg
dxTjk"
0
f{
dflgPsf]
kfyLe/fb]jLsf] dGbL/ !@ xhf/ lkm6 prfOdf
s;/L k'Ug] kfyLe/f <
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5 .
of]
dlGb/df
jif{el/ eQmhgx?sf] 3'OFrf] nfUg]
kfyLe/f b]jLsf] bz{gsf nflu xjfO dfu{ eP/ lj/f6gu/
ub{
5
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s
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kfyLem}
+
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b/,
dgdf]xs cfs[lt af]ss
] f] kfyLe/f
tyf sf7df8f}af6 tfKn]h'ª\sf] ;'s]6f/ ljdfg:yn;Dd k'Ug
kxf8sf]
lzv/df
b]
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pTklt:yn
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jLsf] gfd
;lsG5 . t/ xjfO ;]jf cToGt clgoldt /x]sfn] ;j} ;do
kfyLe/f
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elg
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fl/G5 .
of] dlGb/
eg] of] ;'ljwf kfpg sl7g x'G5 . ;8sdfu{af6 hfg eg]+
If]
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emfkfsf] ljtf{df]8af6 ;fj{hlgs j; k|of]u u/]/ jf cfk\mgf]
glhsaf6
cjnf]
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ug{
;lsG5 .
df}
;
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;kmf
ePsf]
;dodf
lghL ;jf/L ;fwg lnP/ hfg ;lsG5 .
emfkfsf] rf/cfnLaf6 z'? x'g] d]rL /fhdfu{ eP/ ;8s oxfFaf6 k'jL{ g]kfnsf] w]/} e" - efu / ef/tsf] bfhL{lnª\;Ddsf]
oftfoft dfkm{t hfg clxn] lgs} ;lhnf] x'G5 . rf/cfnLb]vL] b[Zofjnf]sg ;d]t ug{ ;lsG5 . of] If]qdf @% k|hfltsf]
;'Gb/ lhNnf Onfdsf] sGofd, lkmSsn, Onfd ahf/sf] nfnLu'/fF;, lr/fOtf], a'9f] cf]vtL, xªr'/ hl8a'l6 / xfa|] b[Zofjnf]sg ub}{ Onfd / kfry/sf] ;ª\ud /fFsj] hf/ k'luG5 . /]8kf08f_, efn', 8fFkm], d'gfn, h:tf jGohGt' / r/fr'?ËL
ToxfFaf6 lkmlbd, uf]k]6f/ x'Fb} sfj]nLgbL t/]kl5 tfKn]h'ª\ cjnf]sg ug{ ;lsG5 .
;j}sf] cf:yfsL b]jL
lhNnf z'? x'G5 . sfj]nLaf6 sl/j @% lsnf]dL6/df ;b/d'sfd
k'mlª\nª\ / ToxfFaf6 * lsnf]dL6/df ;'s]6f/ ljdfg :yn
kfyLe/f wfddf hfgnfO{ s'g} hft, wd{ jf lnËsf] e]befj
k'uLG5 .
/ aGb]h 5}g . dgdf z'4tf, b]jLk|ltsf] elQmefj /fv] k'U5 .
rf/cfnLaf6 @ ;o $% lsnf]dL6/ sfnf]kq] ;8s kf/ t/ kfyLe/f wfddf ue{jtL, /h:jnf ePsf] cj:yfsL dlxnf,
u/]/ k'uLg] ;'s]6f/af6 eg] sRrL af6f]sf] e/kg'{ k5{ . a/vL af/]sf], dgdf nf]e, kfk af]s]sf] dfG5] uPsf] v08df
;'s6] f/;Dd eg] df]6/;fOsndf b[Zofjnf]sg ub}{ hfFbf cToGt pgLx¿sf] 7"nf] Iflt x'G5 eGg] hgwf/0ff /lxcfPsf] 5 .
/f]d fGrs ofqf x'G 5 . lxhf] cfh rf/kfª\u|] ;jf/L /
kfyLe/f b]jLnfO{ c6n zf}efUosL k|ltssf] ¿kdf dflgG5 .
df]6/;fOsndf ofqf ug]x{ ?sf] ;ª\Vof p:t} x'g] u/]sf] :yfgLox? To;}n] ;a} lsl;dsf >4fn' eQmhgx¿n] b]jLnfO{ ;f}Gbo{
atfpF5g\ .
k|zfwgsf ;fdfu|L h:t} l;Gb'/, 6Lsf, ufhn, sfFluof], cflb
r9fpg] ub{5g .
30

k'; @)&)

pBf]uL cg'ej

@% xhf/ ?k}ofaf6
Joj;fo yfn]sf] xf]
tkfOFn] Aofkf/ slxn] z'? ug'{ ePsf] xf] <

d}n] @)$^ ;fndf @% xhf/ ?k}ofF nufgLaf6 h'Qf rKknsf]
Joj;fo z'? u/]sf] x'F . clxn] d]/f] ;+nUgtf wf/fsf ljljw
;fdfu|Lsf] Aofkf/sf] ;fy} uf]kL e]lgo/ pBf]udf ;d]t 5 . d
;Dj4 pBf]u Aofkf/df @ ;o hgfn] k|ToIf /f]huf/L kfPsf
5g\ . clxn] d d]/f] Aoj;fonfO{ cfkm\gf] k|d'v sd{ dfGb5' .
To;kl5 cGodf If]qdf klg Wofg lbG5' .

c;n Aoj;foL aGg dflg;df s:tf u'0fsf] cfjZostf
kb{5 <
c;n Joj;foL x'g kl/>dL,cg'zfl;t ldng;f/ /
;xglzn x'g'kb{5 .

pBf]uL Joj;foLsf ;d:of rfFxL s] s:tf 5g <

clxn] ;du|df pBf]uL Joj;foLsf] ;d:of eg]sf] d'n'ssf]
c;xh kl/l:ytL xf] . b}lgs h;f] s'g} g s'g} ;+3 ;+:yfn]
cfJxfg u/]sf] cfdx8tfn, oftfoft aGb, ;8s cj/f]w,
ljho 8fnldof
lr7\7f, rGbf cftª\s / nf]8;]l8ª\ g} x'g . g]kfnL s[lifhGo
cWoIf,
j:t'x?sf] k|of]uzfnf kl/If0fsfnflu ef/tsf] kfgL6+sL gfsfdf
d]rL pBf]u afl0fHo ;+3, d]rLgu/
vfB k|of]uzfnfsf] cefjsf sf/0f g]kfnL Joj;foLn] emGem6
Aofkf/ Aoj;fo tkfOFsf] k"Vof}{nL k]zf ePsfn] ;fg} Pj+ gf]S;fgL Joxf]g'{ kl/x]sf] 5 . Jofkf/ gLlt cg';f/ o;/L
pd]/blv Aofkf/ d} nfUg' eof] xf]nf x}g <
lgsf;Lsf nflu nlug] j:t'x?sf] k|of]uzfnf kl/If0f kl5dfq
xf] d]/f a'jf xh'/ a'jfb]lvs} k]zf Aofkf/ lyof] . d]/f] rfFxL lgsf;L ug{'kg]{ ePsf]n] pQm ;fdfgsf] gd'gf kl/If0fsf nflu
Aofkf/L geP/ hflu/] aGg] rfxfgf lyof] . t/ kfl/jfl/s ef/tsf] sf]nsftf k'¥ofpg' kg]{ jfWotf /xbf pBf]uL Jofkf/L
jftfj/0fn] g} dnfO{ Aofkf/L agfof] .
df/df kg'{ k/]sf] 5 . sf]nsftfaf6 vfB k|of]uzfnf kl/If0f
tkfOFnfO{ rfFxL km/s rfxfgf s;/L eof] <
eO glthf cfOk'Ug !@ lbg;Ddsf] ;do nfUg] ePsfn]
To;j]nf Aofkf/df clxn]sf] h:tf] rfld{ª\ lyPg . clxn]sf] ToltGh]n;Dd vfB j:t'x? ;jf/Ldf nf]8 /x]sf] cj:yfdf g}
h:tf] h] s'/fsf] klg Aofkf/ ug]{ eGg] x'bg} y] . Tolx k/Dk/fut ;8\g] cj:yf 5 . g]kfn ;/sf/af6 sfs/le§fdf :yfkgf
Aofkf/df clNem /xg] d]/f] OR5f lyPg . km]/L d]/f dfdf ePsf] vfB Sjf/]G6fOgdf ul/Psf] k|of]uzfnf kl/If0f glthfnfO{
a}ª\s/ x'g' ePsfn] pxfFsf] k|lti7f b]v]/ d nf]lePsf] lyP . g} dfGotf k|bfg ul/ lgsf;L ug{ kfpg] Joj:yfsfnflu tTsfn
;fdflhs k|lti7fs} nflu klg hflu/ cfsif{0fsf] ljifo lyof] . s'6gLlts kxn ul/g' kb{5 .

clg kl/jf/s} sf/0f tkfOFsf] hflu/ vfg] rfxfgf k'/f
ePg5 clxn] s:tf] nfU5 <

o; If]qsf] ;+efjgf rfFxL s:tf] 5 <

d]rLgu/ tyf cf;kf;sf P]ltxfl;s, wfld{s Pj+ k'/ftflTjs
dxTj /x]sf :ynx? h:t} 3}nf8'Aaf, kftfnu+uf, s[i0fy'DsL,
sGofd, >LcGt' cflb 7fpFx?;Dd k'Ug ;xh aGg;Sg]
sfs/le§f,>LcGt' hf]8g\ ] ;8s, O6fe§f,e[s6' L x'bF } Onfd hf]8g\ ]
;8s tyf eb|k'/,w'nfaf/L,ag]{ x'Fb} k"jL{ kxf8L lhNnfx?;Dd
hf]8g\ ;Sg] ;8ssf] lgdf{0f Pj+ dd{t ;Def/sf ;fy} pNn]lvt
:ynx?sf] k|j4{g x'g] vfnsf lb3{sflng of]hgfx?sf] 5gf}6
Pj+ lgdf{0f x'g;s]df ;du| d]rL c~rn g} cfGtl/s Pj+
ef/t, j+unfb]z, e'6fg nufotsf ;fs{ /fi6« / cGo b]zaf6
klxn]sf] Aofkf/ / clxn]sf] Jofkf/df s] km/s b]Vg' x'G5 < cfpg] jfx\o ko{6sx?sf] ;d]t ko{6lso uGtJo :ynsf] ?kdf
w/fgdf a:bf a'jf, xh'/afn] h8La'6L, l3p, lr/fO{tf] cflbsf] ljsl;t x'g;Sg] k|z:t ;Defjgf /x]sf] 5 . h;sf nflu
Jofkf/ ug'{ x'GYof] clxn] xfdLn] rfFlx Jofkf/ kl/jt{g u¥of} . g]kfn ;/sf/sf] Wofg hfg' h?/L 5 .
d]/f kl/jf/n] p; a]nf dnfO{ hfuL/ vfgaf6 g/f]s]sf
eP olta]nf d s'g} a}ª\ssf] hfuL/]df l;ldt x'Gy] . ;'g;/L
w/fgsf] km';|]df hGd]sf] d]/f] rfxfgf hfuL/] x'g] g} lyof] .
To;df klg a}ssf] . t/ k'Vof{}nL k]zf Jofkf/ g} ePsfn]
kl/jf/n] Jofkf/ afx]s cGolt/ axlsg} lbPgg\ . cGttM
kl/jf/s} rfxfgf cg';f/ k'Vof}]nL k]zf Aofkf/nfO{ g} lg/Gt/tf
lbg yfn]sf] x'F . / wGo, kl/jf/sf] s'/f dfg]/ Aofkf/df nfu]5'
eGg] nfUb5 .

nIdL pk|]tL

k'; @)&)

31

;'/Iff

k|x/Lsf] z'l4s/0f cleofg
k"j{ If]qLo k|x/L sfo{fnosf k|dv
' k|x/L gfoj dxflg/LIfs
gj/fh l;njfnn] k"j{ If]qsf k|x/Lsf] Joj;flostf / sfo{
z}nLdf ;'wf/ NofO{ gful/s d}qL k|x/L lgdf{0f ug{ k|x/Lsf]
cfGtl/s z'l4s/0f cleofgnfO{ k|fyldstfsf ;fy cl3 a9fpg]
atfPsf 5g\ .
cleofgsf nflu k|x/L pkl/Ifssf] sdf08df k|f]km]zgn
:6Øf088{ ;d"x agfO{ sfo{ ug{] k|gfdlg l;njfn] atfP .
pgn] cfd gful/sx¿n] ;d]t cf-cfˆgf u'gf;fx¿ k|x/L
pkl/Ifs xl/eQm k|hfkltnfO{ (*%!@*)!$( / k|x/L gfoj
pkl/Ifs lagf]b zd{fnfO{ (*%!@*!))$ df hfgsf/L u/fpg]
Joa:yf ;d]t ldnfOPsf] hfgsf/L lbP . k|gfdlg l;njfnn]
ck/fw cg';Gwfgdf lhNnf k|x/L sfo{fnox¿nfO{ yk ;xof]u
ug{ laz]if Ao"/f] 6f]nLnfO{ yk ;s[o agfpg], l;df ck/fw
/f]syfd tyf ca}w lgsf;L k}7f/L /f]Sg / u'08fub{L{ nufotsf
;fdflhs ck/fwx¿nfO{ /f]Sg / km/f/ cleo'Qmx¿nfO{ kqmfp
ug{ laif]z 6f]nLx¿ lqmoflzn agfpg] ;d]t pNn]v u/] .
If]qLo k|x/L sfof{no lj/f6gu/df kqsf/ ;Dd]ng ub}{
k|gfdlg k|x/L / gful/saLrsf] ;xsfo{ clej[l4 sfo{qmd,
;fd'bflos k|x/L sfo{qmdnfO{ yk ;s[o agfpg] / gful/sd}qL
k|x/L lgdf{0f ug{ lqmoflzn /xg] k|ltj4tf ;d]t JoQm u/]sf
x'g\ . pgn] lhNnf k|x/L sfo{fnox¿nfO{ sfo{qmdx¿ lbP/
;jn / ;lqmotfsf ;fy ;+rfng ub}{ sfdsf] ;'kl/j]If0f ul/

k'/:sf/ / ;hfosf] Joj:yf k|efjsf/L agfpg lgb]{zg lbPsf
hfgsf/L lbP . ckx/0f, lkm/f}tL, rGbf cft+s / e"ldut
;d"xx¿sf] ultljlw lgoGq0fdf ljz]if kxn ug],{ dlxnf la¿4sf]
ck/fw, n}lu+s lx+;f pGd'ng / dfgj clwsf/sf] ;+/If0f Pj+
oftgfd'Qm k|x/L sfof{no Joj:yfkgdf ljz]if kxn ug]{ pgsf]
k|ltj4tf 5 . k|x/L sf/jfxLnfO{ ;zQm agfpgnfO{ cl3
a9fpg] / cfGtl/s ;+hfnnfO{ ;'b[9 agfpg cGo ;/f]sf/jfnf
lgsfox¿, gful/s ;dfh / ldl8of;Fu ldn]/ sfd ul/
;dfhnfO{ yk ;'/lIft agfpg k"j{ If]qdf sfo{/t k|x/Lx¿
lqmoflzn u/fpg] ;d]t l;Njfnn] hfgsf/L lbPsf 5g\ .

df] / ª\ Aofkf/
;+3n] Ps sfo{qmd
cfof]hgf ul/ k|x/L
gfoj dxflg/LIfs
gj/fh l;njfnnfO{
:jfut u/]sf] 5 . ;f]
cj;/df ;+ 3 sf
cWoIf cljgfz
af] x /fn] k| g fdlg
l;Njfnsf] :jfut ub}{
k"j{ If]q sf pBf]uL
Joj;foLx?n] ef]Ug'
k/]sf ;d:ofx?sf
jf/] d f hfgsf/L
u/fPsf lyP .
pgn] ub}{ o;
If]qsf] zflGt ;'/Iff, ;Ldf If]qdf x'g] cj}w sf/f]jf/ nufotsf
ljifodf k|x/L k|zf;g cem ;s[o x'g' kg]{df s'/fdf hf]8 lbg'

ePsf] lyof] .
e]63f6sf cj;/df eG;f/ gfsfdf s8fO{ gx'Fbf ;Ldf
If]qsf] ahf/ u'Nhf/ x'g uO{ o; If]qsf] Jofkf/ Joj;fo
v:sFb} uPsf] / cj}w Jofkf/ al9/x]sfn] o;nfO{ s8fOsf
;fy sfof{Gjog u/L o; If]qsf] ahf/ k|j4{g ug{ cfjZos
e"ldsf v]Ng' kg]{ cWoIf af]xf]/fn] ;'emfj lbPsf lyP .
k|gfdlg l;njfnn] ;Ldf If]qdf x'g] cj}w sf/f]jf/nfO{
lg?T;flxt ug]{ nufot k"j{ If]qsf] zflGt ;'/Iff sfod /fVg
cfFkm" sl6j4 /xg] k|ltj4tf JoQm ub}{ cjf+lIft lqmofsnfknfO{
/f]Sg pBf]uL Joj;foLx?af6 klg ;xof]u x'g' kg]{ s'/fdf hf]8
lbPsf lyP . ;fy} s/ 5Ng], cj}w sf/f]jf/nfO{ j9fjf lbg]
h:tf lqmofsnfk u/]df cfkm" kl5 gkg]{ eGb} pBf]uL Joj;foLx?
klg kf/blz{ ePdf s;}nfO{ cGofo gx'g] ljZjf; lbnfPsf
lyP . To:t} aGb x8tfn h:tf sfo{qmdx?af6 cf}Bf]lus
gu/Lsf] cfly{s lqmofsnfkdf c;/ kl//x]sf] x'bF f o:tf sfo{qmd
/f]Sg] ;DjGwdf ;j} /fhg}lts bn / Joj;foLx? jLr
cGt/lqmof u/fO{ aGb, x8tfn h:tf sfo{qmd /f]Sg cfkm"
k|ltj4 /xg] ;d]t k|gfdlg l;Njfnn] atfPsf lyP .

Jofkf/ ;+3af6 l8cfOhLsf] :jfut

32

k'; @)&)

sf/uf/df
sfo{qmd

;'g;/Lsf] e'mDsfl:yt k"jf{~rn If]qLo sf/fuf/df jlGb
hLjg ljtfO /x]sf s}bLx?sf] dgf]/Ghgsf nflu d+l;/ clGtd
;ftf sf/fuf/ leq} ;f:s[lts sfo{qmd cfof]hgf ul/of] .
lhNnf ;'/Iff ;ldlt / sf/fuf/ k|zf;gsf] cg'dltdf s}lb
jlGbx?s} cfof]hgfdf ePsf] sfo{qmddf ufos 8Dj/ g]kfnL
/ ufoLsf /]Zdf ;'g'jf/n] ljleGg uLt ufP/ dgf]/Ghg k|bfg
u/]sf lyP eg] gflosf ;'Zdf sfsL{, l/df ljZjsdf{ tyf
ul/df 8fG; ;]G6/ w/fgsf snfsf/x?n] ljleGg g[To b]vfPsf
lyP .
;'g;/L If]q g+j/ @ af6 ;+ljwfg;efdf lgjf{lrt ;ef;b
/]jtL/d0f e08f/Ln] pb\3f6g u/]sf]] ;f+:s[lts sfo{qmd sl/j
$ 306f ;~rfng ePsf] lyof] .
% ;o hgf s}lb jlGb /fVg] Ifdtf ePklg xfn & ;o $(
hgf s}lb jlGbx? /x]sf] pQm sf/fuf/df o; k|sf/sf] ;f:s[lts
sfo{qmd klxnf] k6s cfof]hgf ePsf] xf] . ;f+:s[lts sfo{qmd
x]g{ ;j} s}lb jlGbx? pkl:yt lyP . ljutsf jif{x?df czfGt
eO /xg] pQm sf/fuf/df Psjif{b]vL Aojl:yt cfGtl/s

k|zf;gsf sf/0f zfGt /x]sfn] s}lb jlGbsf] cfrf/0f ;'wf/df
;d]t ;xof]u k'uf]; eg]/ ;f+:s[lts sfo{qmd ug{ cg'dlt
lbOPsf] sf/fuf/ k|d'v u0f]z clwsf/Ln] atfP .
sf/fuf/sf rf}sLbf/ tf/f g]kfnn] ;'wf/ u[xdf j;L /x]sf
s}lb jlGbn] aflx/L jftfj/0f lj;{g] x'Fbf pgLx? s}b e'Qmfg
u/]/ 3/ kms{bf ;dfhdf 3'nldn x'g d2t k'uf]; eg]/ ;f+:s[lts
sfo{qmd cfof]hgf ul/Psf] atfP .

OSHIL SAJHA
TRAVEL & TOURS
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O6x/L k"j{s} cg's/0fLo zx/ xf]

kz' k lt vltj8f
sfo{ s f/L clws[ t
O6x/L gu/kflnsf

kz'klt vltj8fn] k"j{sf w]/} lhNnfsf k|zf;g
/ :yfgLo lgsfodf nfdf] ;do ljtfPsf 5g\ .
k|zf;lgs / :yflgo ljsf; b'j} sfddf bvn
ePsf pgL ut sflt{s b]vL O6x/L gu/kflnsfsf]
sfo{sf/L clws[tsf] ?kdf sfo{/t 5g\ .
k"j{sf] w/fg / bds gu/kflnsfdf nfdf] ;do
j;]/ :yfgLo hg;xeflutf kl/rfng ul/ ljsf;df
/fd|f] cg'ej xfl;n u/]sf vltj8fn] o; cl3
;'g;/L lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltsf] of]hgf clws[t
;d]t eP/ nfdf] ;do ljtfPsf lyP . O6x/L
gu/df eg] klxnf] k6s sfo{sf/L clws[t eP/
cfPsf x'g\ . O6x/Lsf] ;d:of / ;+efjgfsf
ljifodf vltj8f;Fu ul/Psf] s'/fsfgL .

O6x/L gu/kflnsfsf] sfo{sf/L clws[t eP/ cfpg' ePsf] cfpg] ub{Yof] . O6x/L eGbf w]/} k'/fgf] gu/ bdsn] klg
5 oxfFsf k|d'v ;d:of s] s] dx;'z ug'{eof] <
hg;xeflutfsf] cg's/0f O6x/Laf6} u/]sf] xf] d ToxfF
;d:of klxrfg ug{ ;do nfU5 . df]6f df]6L ;d:of x]bf{
kmf]xf]/ Aoj:yfkgsf nflu 8lDkª\ ;fO6 / hg;xeflutfnfO{
Aojl:yt ug]{ k|d'v ;d:of 5g\ . To:t} 5f8f rf}kfosf] ;d:of
/ a;kfs{sf] ;d:of klg 5 . t/ cGo 7fpFsf ;d:of;Fu t'ngf
ug]{ xf] eg] kl5NnfnfO{ ;d:of gdfGbf x'G5 .

sfo{sf/L clws[tsf] ?kdf /xFbf hgk|ltlglw tyf blno
;GoGqsf k|ltlglwx?n] O6x/Lsf] :ynut cjnf]sg g} u/]/
oxfFsf] ljsf;sf] df]8nnfO{ cg's/0f u/]sf lyof}+ . O6x/Ls}
l;sf] u/]/ bdssf w]/} ;8sx? sfnf]kq ul/P / hg;xeflutf
h'6\g] qmd cTolws j9\of] . To:t} lj/f6gu/, Og?jf
clg O6x/Lsf ;+efjgfx? rfFxL s] s] 5g <
nufotsf gu/n] ;d]t O6x/Lsf] cg's/0f u/]sf] b]vLG5 .
O6x/L k"j{s} xl/ofnL / zfGt zx/ xf] . cfk\mgf] gu/sf] Toltdfq x}g g]kfnsf cGo w]/} gu/n] O6x/L / w/fgsf]
uf}/j ug]{ gu/jf;L oxfFsf] 7"nf] kFhL xf] . k"j{d} Aofks hg;xeflutfd'ns ljsf;sf] df]8nsf] cg's/0f u/]sf 5g\ .
hg;xeflutf h'6\g] zx/ xf] . To:t} ko{6lso ;+efjgf af]s]sf] dGqfnon] ;d]t hg;xeflutfsf] df]8n b]z AofkL nfu'
tfn tn}of Pp6f dxTjk"0f{ 7fpF xf] . e]8]6f/ / sf]zL 6Kk' u/]sf] 5 . To:t} oxfFsf] u|Lgj]N6sf] s'/f clg kl5Nnf] ;dodf
hfg]nfO{ O6x/Lsf] tfn tn}of b]vfpg] / O6x/Ldf Ps/ft ePklg xfdLn] kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkgsf] sfd ;d]t lghL If]qnfO{ lhDdf
a;fpg ;Sg] ;+efjgf 5 . To:t} oxfFsf] ko{6g ljsf;df lghL lbP/ cg's/0f of]Uo sfd z'? u/]sf 5f}+ .
If]qn] v]n]sf] e"ldsf dxTjk"0f{ 5 . kl5Nnf] ;do ko{6s:t/Lo
tkfOFn] dx;'z u/]sf] 8DkLª\ ;fO6sf] ;d:of s;/L
xf]6nsf] lgdf{0f dfq x}g . lghL nufgLd} ko{6lso s]Gb| ;d]t ;dfwfg xf]nf <
aGg' o; gu/ . gu/jf;Lsf] nflu v';L / uf}/jsf] s'/f xf] .
kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkgsf] nflu % jif{nfO{ lglh If]qsf] lhDdf
ljsf;df rfFxL <
nufOPsf] 5 . w/fg, O6x/L / lj/f6gu/ gu/kflnsfn]
ljsf;sf] b[li6n] klg O6x/L cu|0fL gu/ dflgG5 . To;df ;+o'Qm ?kdf agfpg] elgPsf] 8lDkª ;fO6sf] sfd :ylut
klg hg;xeflutf h'6fpg z'?ug]{ g]kfns} klxnf] gu/ w/fg / ePkl5 xfdLn] j}slNks 7fpFsf] vf]hL/x]sf 5f}+ . tTsfn
b't| t/ gd'gf ljsf;df cg's/0fLo gu/ O6x/L xf] eg]/ lrlgG5 . :yfoL ;d:of ;dfwfg ug{ g;lsPklg c:yfoL ?kdf hUuf
d oxfF gcfpFbf klg xfdLn] jflx/af6 To:t} b]VYof}+ / w]/} 7fpFdf ef8fdf lnP/ ePklg c:yfoL 8lDkª\ ;fO6sf] Joj:yf tTsfn}
ljsf;sf,hg;xeflutfsf] rrf{ x'Fbf O6x/L s} gfd cuf8L ug]{ of]hgfdf h'6]sf 5f}+ . t/ o;sf] lb3{sflng ;dfwfgsf]
34

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nflu klg xfdL lqmoflzn x'g} k5{ . To;sf nflu ;j} ;+efjgfx? lbPsf 5f} + . ;jf/L ;fwg / sd{rf/Lsf] kl/rfng To;} ;+:yfn]
vf]hL ug{ ;j{ klIfo / ;j{blno 5nkmn rnfP/, ;'emfj / ug]{ tnj eQf nufotsf ;j} vr{ p;}n] j]xf]g{] 5 . sd{rf/LnfO{
;+efjgfsf s'/fx? klxrfg u/]/ hfg] 5f}+ .
tnj eQf gu/kflnsfn] lbb} cfPeGbf sd lbg gkfpg] >d
o;df lghL If]q;Fusf] ;fem]bf/L s;/L eO /x]sf] 5 < Pg] eGbf jl9 ;do sfd nufP yk ;'ljwf lbg' kg]{ nufotsf
;/;kmfOdf klg O6x/Lsf hgtf w]/} ;r]t 5g\ . ;j}sf] zt{x? 5g\ . p;n] gu/kflnsfsf ;jf/L ;fwg k|of]u u/]
rfxfgf O6x/LnfO{ ;kmf / :jR5 zx/sf] ?kdf x]g]{ / c?af6 jfkft dfl;s ?kdf tf]lsPsf] ef8f gu/kflnsfnfO{ ltg'{ kg{
;sf/fTds tyf pbfx/0fLo k|ltlqmof kfpg] vfnsf] 5 . oxfF zt{ 5 . Joj:yfkgdf ;3fP jfkt p;nfO{ gu/kflnsfn]
Ps} lbg !) xhf/ eGbf jl9 gu/jf;Lx? rf/} tkm{af6 dfl;s # nfv ?k}ofF ;Grfng cg'bfg kfpF5 . dfl;s # nfv
;/;kmfOdf h'6/] gu/ ;kmf u/L r]tgf clej[l4 u/]sf] pbfx/0f eGbf jl9 hlt;'s} vr{ nfu]klg Tolx ;+:yfn] j]xf]g]{ ;+emf}tf
5 . To:t} x/]s ljbf, rf8 kj{x?df ;d]t oxfFsf gful/s ePsf] 5 .
:jt :k"mt{ ?kdf zx/ ;kmfOdf lg:sg] ub{5g\ . ;j}sf] efjgf
l/ª\ /f]8sf] s'/f rfFxL s;/L cuf8L a9\b}5 <
cfk\mgf] 3/ cfFugdfq x}g cfFk'm a:g] zx/ klg ;kmf / ;Eo
O6x/Lsf] yk ljsf; / l5d]sL gu/ tyf uflj;x?;Fusf]
x'gk' 5{ eGg] 5 . O6x/Lsf ;j} ;+3 ;+:yfsf ;lqmo k|ltlglwx?sf] ;Djgw lj:tf/ ub}{ gu/jf;LnfO{ ef}lts k"jf{wf/sf] ;'ljwf
;femf ;+:yfsf] ?kdf lsk O6x/L SnLgn] sfd ul/ /x]sf] 5 . lbg O6x/Ldf b'O vfnsf l/ª\/f]8sf] cjwf/0ff cfPsf]5 .
To:t} pBf]u jfl0fHo ;+3sf] ;d]t ljz]if ;lqmotfn] O6x/Lsf] Pp6f jflx/L l/ª\/f]8 / csf]{ lelq l/ª\ /f]8 5g\ . jflx/L
kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkgsf] lb3{sflng ;dfwfgsf] sfd cl3 a9]sf] l/ª\/f]8 gu/ / l5d]sL uflj;x?nfO{ ;d]t ;d]6\b} nfg] ul/
xf] . kmf]xf]/nfO{ To;} v]/ kmfNg' x'Fb}g o;nfO{ klg cfDbfgLsf] cWoog ePsf] 5 eg] leqL l/ª\/f]8af6 gu/leqsf jfl;Gbfn]
;|f]tsf] ?kdf s;/L ljsf; ug{ ;lsG5 eg]/ xfdLn] k|:tfj d"Vo jhf/ cfjt hfjt ug{ ;xhtf k|bfg ug]{ dfq x}g
cfAxfg ubf{ OGefO/f] s]o/ sG;g{ k|fln gfds sf7df8f}+sf] O6x/Lsf] jhf/ lj:tf/df ;d]t ;xof]u ug]{ 5 . lelq l/ª\/f]8
Pp6f ;+:yfn] kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkgdf ;fem]bf/L ug]{ k|:tfj k]z cGt{ut eg] sfd ;d]t z'? eO ;s]sf] 5 . ljZj a}ª\ssf]
uof]{ . p;sf] k|:tfj pko'Qm nfu]/ xfdLn] ;xsfo{df sfd zx/L ljsf; sfo{qmd cGt{ut @$ s/f]8 nufgLdf lgdf{0f
lhDdf lbPsf 5f}+ . ;f] ;+:yfn] ut sflt{s clGtd ;ftfb]vL g} x'g] lelq l/ª/f]8 !% lsnf]ld6/ x'g]5 . b'O cf]6f k"n ;lxt
sfd z'? u/]sf] 5 .
lgdf{0f x'g] of] l/ª\/f]8sf] lj:t[t kl/of]hgf k|ltj]bg -l8lkcf/_
;fem]bf/L cGt{ut s;/L sfd x'G5 <
tof/ ug]{ sfd clGtd r/0fdf k'u]sf] 5 . o;} jif{b]vL &
lghL If]q;Fusf] ;fem]bf/L cg';f/ xfdLn] ;fljs ?kdf lsdL ;8s / @ cf]6f k"nsf] lgdf{0f z'? x'g]5 . of] sfd k'/f
kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkgsf nflu k|of]u ub}{ cfPsf ;j} hgzlQm / x'bF f l/ª\/f]8 lgdf{0fsf] b[li6af6 klg O6x/L k"js
{ f gofF gu/kflnsf
;|f]t ;fwg % jif{sf] nflu pQm ;+:yfnfO{ s/f/df lhDdf dWo]sf] cg's/0fLo g} x'g]5 .

hg;xeflutf h'6fpg z'?ug]{ g]kfns} klxnf] gu/
w/fg / b'|tt/ gd'gf ljsf;df cg's/0fLo gu/
O6x/L xf] eg]/ lrlgG5 . d oxfF gcfpFbf klg
xfdLn] jflx/af6 To:t} b]VYof}+ / w]/} 7fpFdf ljsf;df
hg;xeflutfsf] rrf{ x'Fbf O6x/L s} gfd cuf8L
cfpg] ub{Yof] . O6x/L eGbf w]/} k'/fgf] gu/ bdsn]
klg hg;xeflutfsf] cg's/0f O6x/Laf6} u/]sf] xf]
d ToxfF sfo{sf/L clws[tsf] ?kdf /xFbf hgk|ltlglw
tyf blno ;GoGqsf k|ltlglwx?n] O6x/Lsf] :ynut
cjnf]sg g} u/]/ oxfFsf] ljsf;sf] df]8nnfO{ cg's/0f
u/]sf lyof} + . O6x/Ls} l;sf] u/]/ bdssf w]/} ;8sx?
sfnf]kq ul/P / hg;xeflutf h'6\g] qmd cTolws
j9\of] .
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35

gu/ ;kmfOsf] lhDdf

ljljw

OGefO/f] s]o/nfO{

O6x/L gu/kflnsfsf]
;/;kmfOsf] lhDdf sf7df8f}s
+ f]
OGefO/f] s]o/ sG;g{ gfds
;+:yfn] lnPsf] 5 . O6x/L
gu/kflnsf / ;+ : yfaLr
;+emf}tf eO % jif{;Dd gu/
;kmfOsf] sfd ;f] ;+:yfn]
lhDdf lnPsf] xf] . sflt{s
dfgWjh df]Qmfg
clGtd ;ftfb] v L ;+ : yfn]
O6x/L gu/kflnsfsf] ;/;kmfOsf ;fwg / sd{rf/L ;d]t
cfFkm}n] kl/rfng ub}{ sfd z'? u/]sf] xf] .
;+:yfsf k|jGw ;Grfns dfgWjh df]Qmfgn] O6x/Lsf
jfl;Gbfx? cGo gu/sf jfl;Gbf eGbf ;/;kmfOdf lgs} ;r]t
/x]sf] kfOPkl5 cfFk'mx?n] of] lhDd]jf/L lnPsf] atfP .

pgsf cg';f/ O6x/Ldf b}lgs !% 6g kmf]xf]/ pTkfbg x'g]
u/]sf] 5 . pTkflbt kmf]xf]/ dWo] % k|ltzt k'gMk|of]u ug{
;lsg] kmf]xf]/ x'G5 t/ Tof] kmf]xf]/ ;+:yfn] ;ª\sng ug'{ cl3g}
sjf8L ;ª\snsx?n] nfg] u/]sf 5g\ . pTkflbt kmf]xf]/ dWo]
sl/j % 6g kmf]xf]/af6 sDkf]i6 dn ptkfbg ug{ ;lsG5
Tolx p2]Zon] sfd lhDdf lnPsf] xf] . b}lgs !) 6g kmf]xf]/
eg] gi6 ug{'kb{5 . t/ kmf]xf]/ gi6 ug]{ 8lDkª;fO6sf] eg]
O6x/Ldf cefj /x]sf] 5 . gu/kflnsfn] c:yfoL 8lDkª;fO6
Joj:yf tTsfn} ug]{ eg] klg xfn;Dd x'g g;Sbf kmf]xf]/
Joj:yfkgdf ;d:of x'g yfn]sf] 5 . xfdLn] dn pTkfbg u/L
k"j{sf ljleGg lrof aufgx?df ;KnfO{ ug]{ nIo /fv]sf]df
To:df ;d]t l9nfO{ eO/x]sf] 5 . gu/kflnsf / gu/ jf;Ln]
o;tkm{ ;dod} Wofg lbPdf O6x/LnfO{ ;kmf zx/ agfpg]
cleofg ;kmn kfg{ ;lsg] df]Stfgn] atfP .

afnlzIff
of]hgf
g]kfn nfOkm OG:of]/]G; sDkgLn] cfk\mgf gfgLx?sf] ladf
ug{ rfxfg] u|fxsx?sf] nflu …afnlzIff of]hgfÚ nfu' u/]sf]
5 . ladf ;ldltsf cWoIf k|fWofks 8f=kmQaxfb'/ s];Ln]
sDkgLsf] pQm of]hgf ;fj{hlgs ub}{ aLldtsf] cfjZostf
cg';f/sf] of]hgf g]kfn nfOkmn] NofPsf] atfP . pgn]
aLdf sDkgLx¿n] n3'aLdf of]hgf cGtu{t klg u|fdL0f
If]qnfO{ s]lGb|t u/]/ of]hgf Nofpg cfjZos /x]sf] hfgsf/L
lbP .
g]kfndf clxn];Dd o:tf] of]hgf s;}n] klg ;~rfngdf
gNofPsf] sDkgLsf k|d'v sfo{sf/L clws[t ljj]s emfsf]
bfjL 5 . kl/jf/ tyf b]zsf] pGgltsf nflu lzIff ckl/xfo{
ePsfn] ef]lnsf s0f{wf/x¿sf] lzIffnfO{ ;'lgZlrt ug{ o;
of]hgfn] clek|]l/t ug{] emfn] atfP . o; of]hgfdf hGd]b]lv
!* jif{;Ddsfn] afnaflnsfsf] ladf ug{ kfpg] Joj:yf
36

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5 . of] of] h gfdf aLdf ug] { k| :tfjs cyf{ t
cleefjssf] pd]/ @) b]lv dfly / aLdf cjlw %
b]lv #) jif{;Dd /x]sf] 5 . aLdf cjlw ;dflKtdf
aRrfsf] pd]/ #) jif{ / k|:tfjssf] pd]/ &)
jif{;DdnfO{ ;dfj]z ug{ ;lsG5 .
sDkgLsf cg';f/ o; of]hgfdf %) xhf/b]lv
! s/f]8 ?k}ofF;Ddsf] ladf ug{ kfpg] Joj:yf 5 .
o; of]hgfdf k|:tfjssf] aLdfÍ /sd a/fa/ jf clwstd
@% nfv;Dd hf]vLd axg z'Ns k|lt xhf/ ladfª\sdf Ps
?k}ofF nfUg] atfOPsf]5 . afn lzIff aLdf of]hgfdf %
nfvb]lv !) nfv;Dd k|ltxhf/ ¿ ! 5"6 / !) nfveGbf
a9Lsf] aLdf ug{]nfO{ k|ltxhf/df ¿ @ aLdf z'Ns 5"6 x'g]
Joj:yf 5 .
aLdf cjlw ;dflKt;Dd k|:tfjs hLljt ePdf k|:tfjsn]
aLdfÍ /sd / To;af6 cflh{lt af]g; /sd kfpg] 5 .
aLdf cjlwleq k|:tfjssf] d[To' ePdf pQm cjlw;Ddsf]
cfh{lt af]g; /sd e'QmfgL ul/g] Joj:yf 5 . k|:tfjsf]
d[To'kl5 aLdf cjlw ;dfKlt;Dd k|To]s jif{ k|:tfjssf]
aLdfÍsf] !) k|ltzt /sd e'QmfgL x'g] ;'ljwf of]hgfdf
5 . aLdfn]v rfn" ePsf] Psjif{kl5 aLdfn]v lwtf] /fvL
C0f lng ;lsg] sDkgLn] atfPsf] 5 .

n]v

hUuf k|zf;gsf] 5lj

hUufsf] :jfldTj, pkof]u / clen]v ;DaGwL ;"rgfx?sf] lgwf{/0f, clen]lvs/0f /
k|;f/0f -hfgsf/L lbg]_ ;DaGwL sfo{df ;+nUg hUuf k|zf;g;Fu dflg;sf] b}lgsL hLjg
s'g} g s'g} ?kdf k|efljt ePs} x'G5 . xfd|f] b}lgs cfxf/, ljxf/, a;f]jf;, >L ;Dkltsf]
cfwf/sf] ?kdf /x]sf] hUuf / o:sf] k|zf;gaf6 cfd gful/snfO{ s'g}klg ?kn] k[ys /fVg
;lsb}g . t/ lj8Dagf, o:tf] dfgj hLjg k4lt;Fu cGof]Gofl>t ;DaGw /x]sf] hUuf
k|zf;g;Fu cfd gful/sx? Tolt ;Gt'i6 / ljZj:t x'g ;s]sf 5}gg\ . sf/0f :yfgLo
:t/df o;sf] k|zf;g x]g]{ d'Vo ;GoGqsf ?kdf /x]sf] dfnkf]t, e'ld;'wf/, gfkL / u'7L
sfof{nox?sf] sfo{ ;Dkfbg, Jojxf/ / ;]jf ljZjf; of]Uo / ;]jfu|fxL d}qL 5}gg . o;df
hUufsf] d"Nodf ePsf] c:jefljs j[l4sf sf/0f pTkGg :jfldTj ljjfbsf] a9\bf] k|j[lt, e"ck/fw, k/Dk/fut ;f]r / z}nL lgb]{lzt sd{rf/L Jojxf/, cfw'lgs k|ljlwsf] Go"g pkof]u,
P]g, sfg"gsf] lkmtnf] pkl:ylt, hl6n / ;+j]bglzn sfo{ k|lqmof, ;]jfu|fxL :jodn] lgj]bg,
lnvt tof/ ug{ g;Sg] hl6ntfsf sf/0f cGo kIfsf] ;xfotf lng'kg]{ kl/l:ylt /x]sf] 5 .
To:t} lh0f{ clen]v Joj:yfkg cflb cg]sg sf/0faf6 k|bQ ;]jf u'0f:tl/o,ljZj;gLo Pj+
e/f];fof]Uo gx'g'n] ljBdfg hUuf k|zf;g k|lt cfd hgtfsf] gs/fTds cg'e'lt /x]sf]
>j0fs'df/ kf]v/]n
;Gbe{sf ljleGg sf/sx? dWo] k|fKt ;]jfsf] ljZj;lgotf, e/f];,of]Uotf, kl/kSstf
shrawan.pokharel2014@gmail.com gx'g'sf ljifodf o; n]v dfkm{t To;sf sf/0fx? k|sfz kfg]{ hdsf]{ u/]sf] 5' .
-#_ 6fO6n /lhi6«]zgM hUuf k|zf;gsf] If]qdf xfn;Dd
hUuf k|zf;gdf ;+nUg lgsfox?n] k|bfg u/]sf ;]jfx?
e/f];fof]Uo, ljZj;gLo gePsf sf/0f k|foM k|To]s lbg kq cAan dflgPsf] of] ljlw k|fo ljsl;t d'n'sx?df cEof;
klqsfx?df " e'-dflkmofx?sf] rnv]n", " a}+s 7uL", "df]xL / hUuf ul/G5 . o; ljlwaf6 :jfldTj x:tfGt/0fsf] sfof{nout /
wgLsf] ljjfb", lnvt adf]lhd gS;f g'xg', If]qkmn 36\g] j9\g] sfg"gL /]s8{ /flvG5 / To:sf] ;a} sfg'gL kl/0ffdsf] Uof/]G6L
;d:of, "gSsnL hUuf wgL" v8f e} ljlqm x'g', "gSsnL, s[t] ul/G5 . s'g} klg Joxf]/fn] hUufsf] :jfldTj sRrf 7x/]
sfuhftaf6" JolQm ljz]ifsf] :jfldTj nf]k x'g] cflb h:tf To:sf] ;Dk"0f{ Ifltk'lt{sf] Uof/]G6L /fHon] ub{5 . o; ljlwdf
36gfx? cWoogsf ljifo ePs} x'G5g . o:sf] k|d'v @ j6f :jfldTj k|fKt ug]{ dfG5], 9'Ss / lglZrGt /xG5 tfls p;n]
sf/0f 5g\ . klxnf] gLltut sdhf]/L, bf];|f] sdhf]/ clen]v k|fKt u/]sf] hUufdf ef]nL 36j9, gSsnL,s[t],df]xL ljjfb,
cflb s'g} klg emGem6 cfO{ nfUb}g . nfu] klg To:sf]
Joj:yfkg .
ljZjdf hUufsf] :jfldTj x:tfGt/0f ;DaGwL k|rlnt gLltut ;Dk"0f{ lhDd]jf/L /fHon] lnG5 . olb hUuf k|zf;g k|lt
hgtfsf] ljZjf;, e/f];f a9fpg] xf] eg] eljiodf xfdLn]
Joj:yfsf] cWoog u/L x]bf{ # j6f ljlwx? k|rlnt 5g\ .
-!_ k|fOe]6 slGeolG;ª\M of] ;j}eGbf k/Dk/fut ljlw xf] . klg o:tf] lgltut Joj:yfsf] cg'z/0f gul/ ;'v} 5}g .bf];|f]
o;df hUuf lng] lbg]n] 3/;f/df g} 3/fof;L sfuhftsf] cfwf/df sf/0f xf] sdhf]/ clen]v Joj:yfkg . lnvt,sfutsf] cfo'
lsgj]r ub{5g\ / ;f]xL adf]lhd ef]u rng ub{5g\ . o;df nfdf] g/xg', d;L p8\g', dfpn] vfg', ;8]/ hfg',ls/f d'';f
c8\8fsf] s'g} klg ;xeflutf /xFb}g . OdfGbfl/tf / cfk;L cflbn] gi6 ug{', vf]h]sf] ;dodf km]nf gkg'{, /fVg] b/fh,
ljZjf;sf] v8]/L l;h{gf x'Fb} hfFbf of] ljlwn] klg :jfldTjsf] ¥ofs ,:yfgsf] cefj /x'g', cgflws[t JolQmsf] v'Nnf /
s'g} Uof/]G6L ug{ ;s]g . o:tf 3/fo;L Jojxf/sf] j}wflgstfnfO{ ;xh} kx'Fr leq /xg' cflb h:tf cg]sg sf/0fn] tkfFO{sf]
s'g}klg ;/sf/L lgsfon] k'li6 gu/L lbFbf yk ;d:ofx? l;h{gf hUufsf] :jfldTjsf] k|df0f s'g}klg jxfgfdf, s'g}klg ;dodf
x'Fb} hfg]qmd;Fu} of] ljlw klg k|fo lg:s[o eP/ uof] . h:t} hf];'s}n] x/0f ul/lbg ;Sg] kl/l:yltjf6 u'h|]sf] xfd|f] hUuf
k|zf;gsf] jt{dfg ;]jf ljt/0fdf s;/L ;]jfu|fxLn] e/f];f /
dWo t/fO{ lt/ k|rlnt (( sf] lnvt .
-@_ l88 /lhi6«]zgM of] o:tf] ljlw xf] h:df hUuf lng] ljZjf; ug]{, clg s;/L hUuf k|zf;g If]qdf sfd ug]{
lbg]n] cfkm\gf] n]gb]gsf] ;fIfL;Dd ;/sf/L lgsfonfO{ /fVb5g\ sd{rf/Lx?n] ;]jfu|fxLnfO cfZjf:t kfg]{ < ;f]rlgo kIf 5 .
t/ To:sf] s'g} Uof/]G6L x'Fb}g . sf/f]jf/ ePsf] Joxf]/fsf] k'li6 / ct M jt{dfgsf] sdhf]/ clen]v Joj:yfkg kIfnfO{ l8lh6n
To:sf] clen]v;Dd c8\8fn] /fvL lbG5 t/ To:sf] kfsf]kgf -+ k|ljlw k|of]u u/L r':t / b'?:t t'Nofpg] / j}1flgs ljlwsf]
Dofr'l/6L_sf] s'g} k|Tofe'lt ub}g{  . :jfldTj cfof] eg]/ 9'Ss x'g] jftfj/0f ?kdf ljZjn] l:jsf/ u/]sf] 6fO6n /lhi6]"zg l;:6dsf]
x'bF g}  . tkfFOn{ ] lsg]sf] hUuf gSsnL klg x'g ;S5 . xh'/j'jfn] lsg]sf] cEof; ul/of] eg] dfq tkfFO{ xfd|f] hUufsf] :jfldTjsf]
ljgf df]xLsf] hUufdf PsfPs df]xL pTkGg e} gftLn] km;f{pg' kb{5 . Uof/]G6L ;+ej x'G5 / o;f] ul/Pdf dfq hUuf k|zf;gsf] 5lj
Psflt/ eg]/ lsg]sf] hUuf csf]l{ t/ ;5{, To:sf] s'g} sfg"gL Uof/]G6L ;'lw|g,] cfd ;]jfu|fxLsf] e/f];f / ljZjf; cfh{g x'g] kl/l:yltsf]
c8\8fn] ub}g{  . of] ToxL sRrf lgtLut ljlw xf] h:sf] cEof; xfdLn] lgdf{0f e} ;]jfu|fxLx? klg ;+t'i6 / 9'Ss /xg ;S5g\ . clg
ul//x]sf] sf/0f hUufsf] :jfldTjsf] ljifo slxn} klg ljjfb /lxt / dfq cfd gful/ssf] gh/df hUuf k|zf;gsf] 5lj ;s/fTds
x'ghfg] ck]Iff ug{ ;lsG5 .
e/f];fof]Uo x'g ;s]gg .
- n]vs dfnkf]t sfof{no ;'g;/Lsf k|d'v dfnkf]t clws[t x'g\_

k'; @)&)

37

cfGtl/s /fh:j sfof{no, w/fg
cToGt h?/L ;"rgf

cf=j=@)&)÷)&! sf] jh]6 jStJo tyf cfly{s cWofb]z
@)&) n] lgDgcg';f/ 5'6 tyf ;'ljwfsf] Joj:yf u/]sfn]
;/f]sf/jfnf ;a}n] cfGtl/s /fh:j sfof{no, w/fg /
;DalGwt s/bftf ;]jf sfof{nox?df ;dod} ;Dks{ /flv
;/sf/L 5'6 ;'ljwfsf] pkof]u ug'{x'g cg'/f]w 5 .
d""No clej[l4 s/ ljj/0f tyf s/ ga'emfPsf]df nfUg] yk b:t'/, Jofh / hl/jfgf ldGxf jf/] M
cf=j= @)^*÷)^( jf ;f] eGbf cuf8Lsf s/ cjlwsf s/ ljj/0f / ;f] cg';f/ bflvnf ug'{kg]{ d"No clej[l4 s/ bflvnf
gu/]sf] cj:yf /x]5 eg] To:tf] s/bftfn] @)&) ;fn kf}if d;fGt;Dd d"No clej[l4 s/ ljj/0f tyf ;f]df nfUg] d"No
clej[l4 s/ bflvnf u/]df nfUg] hl/jfgf, yk b:t'/ / Jofh ldGxf x'g]5 .
s/sf] bfo/fdf cfpg]nfO{ s/,z'Ns tyf Jofh ldGxf ;DaGwL Joj:yf M
lrlsT;s, snfsf/, OlGhlgo/, sfg"g Joj;foL, n]vfk/LIfs, Jofkf/L, pBf]uL, nufgLstf{, k/fdz{;]jf k|bfos, sldzg
Ph]06, ;]jflgj[Q jf jxfnjfnf jf ;fj{hlgs kb wf/0f u/]sf kbflwsf/L, sd{rf/L, lzIfs, k|fWofks nufot h'g;'s} JolSt
jf lgsfon] cfly{s jif{ @)^*÷)^( eGbf cufl8sf jif{df s/ nfUg] cfo cfh{g u/]sf] t/ To;/L cflh{t cfodf s/ bflvnf
gu/]sf] ePdf cfly{s jif{ @)^&÷)^* tyf @)^*÷)^( sf] cfo ljj/0f / ;f]df nfUg] s/ @)&) ;fn kf}if d;fGt;Dd
bflvnf u/L :yfoL n]vf gDa/ lnPdf ;f]eGbf cl3sf jif{x?sf] cfo ljj/0f k]z ug'{kg]{ 5}g / ;f]df nfUg] s/, z'Ns tyf Jofh
;d]t ldGxf x'g]5 .
kqsf/ Pj+ ;+rf/ tyf k|sfzg u[xnfO{ z'Ns tyf Jofh ldGxf ;DaGwL Joj:yf M
kqsf/, kqklqsf Pjd\ ;+rf/ tyf k|sfzg u[xn] cfly{s jif{ @)^*÷)^( sf] cfo ljj/0f / ;f] jdf]lhd ltg'{kg]{ s/
@)&) ;fn kf}if d;fGt;leq a'emfO{ :yfoL n]vf gDj/ lnPdf ;f] cjlweGbf cl3sf jif{x?sf] cfo ljj/0f k]z ug'{kg]{ 5}g /
;f]df nfUg] s/, z'Ns tyf Jofh ;d]t ldGxf x'g]5 .
;xsf/L ;ª\3÷;+:yfx?nfO{ cfos/, z'Ns, Jofh ;DaGwL ljz]if Joj:yf M
;xsf/L ;ª3 jf ;+:yfx?n] dfGotf k|fKt n]vf k/LIfsjf6 n]vfk/LIf0f u/fO{ cfly{s jif{ @)^&÷)^* / @)^*÷)^( sf] cfo
ljj/0f / ;f]df nfUg] cfos/, ;|f]tdf s/s6\6L u/L a'emfpg' kg]{ Jofh s/, jxfns/ tyf clu|d cfos/ @)&) ;fn kf}if
d;fGt;Dd bflvnf u/]df ;f]eGbf cl3sf jif{x?sf] cfo ljj/0f k]z ug'{kg]{ 5}g / ;f]df nfUg] s/, z'Ns tyf Jofh ;d]t
ldGxf x'g]5 .
lzIff ;]jf z'Ns;DaGwL ljz]if Joj:yf M
cfly{s jif{ @)^%÷)^^sf] a'emfpg afFsL lzIff ;]jf z'Ns / cfly{s jif{ @)^^÷)^&, @)^&÷)^* / @)^*÷)^( sf]
ljj/0f ;lxt lzIff ;]jf z'Ns @)&) ;fn kf}if d;fGtleq a'emfPdf To:tf lzIf0f ;+:yfn] ljj/0f l9nf a'emfP jfktsf] /sd
/ Jofh ldGxf x'g]5 .
k"jf{g'dflgt s/ ljj/0f ;DaGwL Joj:yf M
d'No clej[l4 s/df btf{ gePsf / cfly{s jif{ @)^*÷)^( ;Dddf ?=@) nfv eGbf sd sf/f]jf/ b]vfO{ cfos/ tkm{
k"jf{g'dflgt s/ ljj/0f a'emfO{ ;s]sf s/bftfn] cfly{s jif{ @)^(÷)&);Ddsf] cfkm\gf] sf/f]jf/ sd 3f]if0ff u/L jf:tljs
laj|mL cª\s km/s k/]sf] ePdf To:tf s/bftfx?n] @)&);fn kf}if d;fGt;Dd d"No clelj[l4 s/df btf{ x'g'kg]{ sf/f]jf/ u/]sf]
ePdf btf{ eO{ sf/f]jf/sf] :jod\ 3f]if0ff u/L km/s k/]sf] laqmL cª\ssf] d"No clej[l4 s/ jfkt b'O{ bzdnj kfFr k|ltzt /
cfos/ jfkt Ps bzdnj kfFr k|ltzt /sd a'emfPdf s/bftfn] 3f]if0ff u/]sf] xb;Ddsf] ;f] s/ clGtd x'g]5 .

38

k'; @)&)

Joj;foL jftf{

c:j:y k|ltikwf{ / ;/sf/L gLltn]
Joj;fo ;+s6df 5
pbok'/sf] yfgfufpFdf @)@& ;fn c;f/ * ut] hlGdPsf
lvnf/fh k/fh'nLn] ef/tsf] lbNnL /]Nj] :6]zgdf dhb'/Lb]vL
ufd]{G6 pBf]u tyf kz'kfng / b'w ljlqmx'Fb} kl5Nnf] k6s
em08} !) jif{b]vL 5fkfvfgf Joj;fo ub}{ cfPsf 5g\ .
O6x/Lsf] k'/fgf] c?0f 5fkfvfgf Psnfv %) xhf/df
vl/b u/]/ Joj;fo k|j]z u/]sf lvnf/fhn] ;do ;fk]If
5fkfvfgfsf] kl/jlt{t Joj;fonfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbb} cfPsf
5g\ . n]6/ k|];sf] k'/fgf] d]l;gaf6 Joj;fo k|j]z u/]sf
pgL;Fu clxn] cfw'lgs k|ljlwsf b'Ocf]6f ck\m;]6 d]l;g
/x]sf 5g\ . / pgsf] of] Joj;fodf @% nfv ?k}ofF k|ToIf
nufgL /x]sf] 5 . xfn O6x/Ldf ;~rfng x'Fb} cfPsf
lvnf/fh k/fh'nL
5fkfvfgf dWo] ;j} eGbf 7"nf] / cfw'lgs d]l;g cfk\mg}
s]lGb|o ;b:o,
5fkfvfgfsf] /x]sf] bfjL lvn/fh u5{g . !# hgfnfO{
g]kfn d'b|0f Joj;foL dxf;+3
/f]hL/f]6L ;d]t k|bfg ub}{ cfPsf pgL g]kfn d'b|0f pBf]u
dxf;+3sf s]lGb|o ;b:o tyf g]kfn d'b|0f pBf]u ;+3 ;'g;/Lsf sf]iffWoIf ;d]t x'g\ . jt{dfg ;dodf ckl/xfo{ eO
;s]sf] d'b|0f pBf]usf] ;+efjgf, ;d:of / r'gf}tLsf ljifodf cy{la6n] pgL;Fu u/]sf] s'/fsfgL .
g]kfndf d'b|0f Joj;fosf] cj:yf s:tf] 5 <
kl/0ffddf sfuh vl/b ug'{ kbf{ dxuf] kb{5 . sfuh vl/bdf
g]kfndf d'b|0f Joj;fosf] cj:yf gfh's /x]sf] 5 .
Joj;foLnfO{ of] Joj;fodf l6Sg} ufx"f] kg]{ cj:yf 5 .

dxTjk"0f{ e"ldsf /x]sf] d'b|0f Joj;fodf klg lsg
To:tf] ePsf] <

Psflt/ c:j:y k|ltikwf{ 5 . ;/sf/n] 5kfOsf] sfd
@÷$ cf]6f l;ldt k|];nfOdfq lbg] jf tL k|];n] gEofPdf
ljb]zLnfO{ lbg] k|j[lt 5 . To;}n] e/kbf]{ / 7"nf] sfdsf]
cefjn] ubf{ 5fkfvfgf Joj;fo gfh's cj:yfdf u'h|L /x]sf]
5 . hgs lzIff ;fdfu|Lsf] kf7\o k':ts bfdf;fxLn] ;j}
If]qsf k|];n] 5fKg kfpg] xf] eg] klg of] Joj;fodf 7"nf]
/fxt ldNg] cj:yf 5 . Toltdfq x}g x/]s jif{ hlz;fs]n]
k|sfzg ug]{ k':ts gkfP/ ljBfyL{x? z}lIfs ;q cfwf ljlt;Sbf
klg k':ts ljlxg eO /xg' kg]{ ljBdfg cj:yfnfO{ cGTo
ug{ klg gLlh If]qn] ;xof]u ub{Yof] . unt ;/sf/L gLltsf
sf/0f klg of] Joj;fo w/f;oL x'Fb} cfPsf xf] .

clg Tof] c:j:y k|ltikwf{ eg]sf] rfFxL s:tf] xf] <

tf]lsPsf] b/ eGbfsd b/df,pwf/f]df 5fkL lbg], 7"nf
k|;
] n] ;fgfnfO{ Joj;foLs k|ltikwf{df ;xof]u gug]{ nufotsf
;d:of 5g\ .
To:t} 7"nf k|];n] Ps} k6sdf !)cf}+ nfvsf] sfuh vl/b
u/]/ lng] ePsfn] pgLx?n] ;:tf]df sfd ul/lbg] ub{5g\
h;n] ubf{ cfjZostf cg';f/ dlxgf jf xKtf lbgdf ;fgf]

7"nf k|];n] hltdf kfpF5g\ . ;fgf k|];nfO{ pgLx?sf] eGbf
em08} %) k|ltzt al9 kg]{ ePsfn] k|ltikwf{df sl7g x'g]
u/]sf] xf] .

b]ze/Lsf] ;d:of To:t} xf] <

k|fo b]ze/Ls} ;d:of o:t} 5 . ;'g;/Lsf k|];n] klg
:jefljs ?kdf o:t} ;d:of 5 . of] Joj;foaf6 w]/}h;f]
Joj;foLx? knfog x'g] cj:yfdf k'u]sf 5g\ .
;'g;/Ldf slt cf]6f 5fkfvfgf 5g\ / cj:yf s:tf] 5 <
;'g;/L lhNnfe/L ;fgf 7"nf u/]/ %^ cf]6f 5fkfvfgf
;~rfng x'Fb} cfPsf 5g\ . t/ ;j} 5fkfvfgfx?sf] cj:yf
/fd|f] 5}g .

cem} k'/fgf] k|ljlwsf -n]6/ k|];_ ;d]t 5g\ sL <

;'g;/Ldf ;~rfng x'Fb} cfPsf %^ cf]6f k|]; dWo] ;ft
cf]6f n]6/ k|]; /x]sf 5g\ .
;/sf/n] s] ul/ lb+bf Joj;foLs ;d:of xn x'G5 <
xfdLn] /fHonfO{ s/ ltl/ /x]sf 5f}+ . To;}n] :yfgLo
;/sf/L :t/af6 x'g] 5kfOsf sfd :yfgLo k|];nfO{ lbg]
kl/kfl6 j;fpg' k5{ . cyf{t ;/sf/n] Ps lhNnfsf] sfd
Tof] lhNnfdf 5fkfvfgfsf] ;'ljwf x'Fbf x'Fb} cGo lhNnf jf
ljb]z nfg gkfOg] s87f gLt agfpg' k5{ . k|; d]l;g
vl/b ubf{ s/ 5'6 / ;x'lnotdf C0f ;'ljwfsf] Joj:yf
ug'{k5{ .

k'; @)&)

39

:jf:Yo

k/Dk/fut cf]vtLn]

rn]sf] hLjg

lrghfgsf dflg; e]6 x'gf;fy pgL ;Gr ;'lj:tfsf] s'/f ;f]W5g\ . 3/ kl/jf/df
klg sf]xL lj/fdL 5g\ eg] pgL Pp6f ;fgf] af]6n lgsfn]/ lbO xfN5g\ / nufpg] ljlw
;d]t atfO lbG5g\ . pgn] lbg] ;+lhjgL dfln; t]n w]/s
} f nflu ;+hLjgL a'l6 em}
x'g] u/]sf] 5 .
olx ;GhLjgL dfln; t]n cfFkm}n] k/Dk/fut ?kdf agfP/ #) jif{bv
] L
a]Rb} cfPsf AolQm x'g O6x/L % sf &@ jifL{o b]jLnfn kf;jfg .
ld/jgfsf] ;8s lsgfsf] P]nfgL hUdf a:b} cfPsf b]jLnfn] l/hfn
Soflgª\ sDkgLdf sfd ug]{ Ps hgf a}B afafaf6 hl8a'l6sf] cf}ifwL
agfpg] ;'q l;s]sf lyP . To;}jn] fb]vL ;+hLjgL dfln; t]n, Uof:6Ls
x/g / of}g j4{s Rofjg k|f; agfP/ ljlqm ub}{ cfPsf pgn] olx
k]zfaf6 ;ft efO 5f]/f ;lxt ( hgfsf] kl/jf/ kfnb} cfPsf lyP .
!) ÷!@ jif{bv
] L cGo 5f]/f 5'l6P/ cfFkm} ul/vfg yfn]kl5 xfn
sfG5f] 5f]/f a'xf/L;Fu} olx k]zf c+ufnL /x]sf b]jLnfn cfFkm' n] Uof:6"Ls,
An8 k|;
] /, lrgL /f]u, of}g sdhf]/L, hLp 9f8 tyf sDd/ b'vs
] f]
;d:ofsf] cr's pkrf/ ub}{ cfPsf] bfjL u5{g . ;fy} pgL ;k{n]
6f]ss
] f lj/fdLnfO{ klg hl8a'l6af6} l7s ug{ ;Sg] atfpF5g\ . pgn]
ljlqm ub}{ cfPsf] ;+hLjgL dfln; t]n / Rofjg k|f; *$ hl8a'l6af6
lgdf{0f ug]{ u/]sf] pgn] atfP . d cfFkm} lxdfn, kxf8 / t/fOsf e'efudf
kfOg] hl8 a'l6 ;ª\sng u5'{ / cfFkm} tL hl8a'l6 ld>0f u/]/ cfjZos
;d:ofsf] nflu cf}ifwL tof/ ub{5' pgL eG5g\ of] sfd olt ;+jb] glzn xf]sL
d}n] c?sf] e/ kg}{ x'bF g}  . dfl;s %) xhf/ ?k}ofF xf/fxf/Lsf cf}ifwL agfP/
a]Rg] b]jLnfn cfk\mgf] kl/jf/sf] u'hf/sf] d"n dfWod g} olx k]zf
ePsf] atfpF5g\ . cfFkm' j[4 eO ;s]sfn] sfG5f] 5f]/f / a'xf/LnfO{
o;sf] ;'q l;sfpFb} 5' ef]nL d s]xL eO xfn] eg] d]/f] ;'q
d};Fudfq
O6x/L –%
l;dLt eP/
ghfj; eg]/ oLgLx?nfO{ l;sfPsf] x'F 5f]/f a'xf/LnfO{ b]vfpFb} pgn] eg] .
t/ 5f]/fn] agfPsf] ;fdfgdfq} a]Rg rf;f] /fvL /x]sf] 5 agfpg] s'/fdf eg]
a'xf/Lsf] rf;f] ePsfn] pg}nfO{ l;sfO /x]sf] 5' pgL eG5g\ . cf}ifwLdf pN6f]
kfN6f] x'gx'bg} olb pN6f] kfNf] ePdf ;lx sfd ub}g{ To;}n] ;+jb] glzn x'g' k5{
eg]/ a'xf/LnfO{ ;+emfPsf] 5' pgn] klg ;+jb] glzn eP/} l;ls /x]sL 5g\ .
pgsf] 3/df b}lgs ?kdf 6f9f 6f9faf6 lj/fdLx? cf}ifwLsf] nflu cfpg]
u5{g . cfpg g;Sg] lj/fdLsf]df jf]nfPdf d cfFkm} klg uP/ pkrf/ u/]/ cfpF5'
pgL eG5g\ O6x/Lsf w]/} dflg; d}n] lbPsf] cf]vtLn] ck|z
] g ug'k{ g]{ cj:yfaf6
hf]uLPsf 5g\ .
O6x/L $ sf dfwj u'/fufOF b]jLnfnsf] hl8a'l6 k2tL w]/} e/ kbf]{ /x]sf]
atfpF5g\ …d}n] klg w]/} k6s p;sf] cf}ifwL k|of]u u/]/ ;Grf] ePsf] 5' .Ú pgL
eG5g\ .

b]jLnfn kf;jfg

40

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!! lgdf{0f Aoj;foL ;+ljwfg;efdf

hgfb{g 9sfn

lty{dfg nfdf

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;+ljwfg;ef lgjf{rg @)&) df k|ToIf
jnfo/, /fd]5fk–! df cfª\6jf z]kf{, sfe|–]
tkm{af6 !! hgf lgdf{0f Aoj;foLx? ljhoL
! df tLy{ nfdf, ?kGb]xL–! df cAb'n
ePsf 5g\ .
/hfs lgjf{lrt ePsf x'g \ . g]kfnL
ljhoL x'gd] f g]kfnL sf+u;
]| af6 & hgf,
sf+u|];af6} dsjfgk'/–@ df pDd]bjf/
g]skf Pdfn]af6 @ hgf, /fli6"o k|hftGq
ag]sf g]kfn lgdf{0f Joj;foL dxf;+3sf
kfl6{ / ;b\efjgf kfl6{af6 Ps÷Ps hgf
cWoIf ho/fd nfld5fg] eg] k/flht
5g\ .
ePsf 5g\ . ;'o{rGb| sGi6«Szgsf k|jGw
;+ljwfg;efdf lgjf{lrt x'g] lgdf{0f
axfb'/ l;+x nfdf
lgb]{zs hgfb{g 9sfn /;'jfdf / csf{
Joj;foL dWo] lxdn'ª\ P08 yf]s/ lgdf{0f
g'jfsf]6–#
lgdf{0f Aoj;foL wgaxfb'/ a'9f 8f]Nkfaf6
;]jfsf k|jGw lgb]{zs tyf g]kfn lgdf{0f
;+ljwfg;ef ;b:odf lgjf{lrt ePsf
Aoj;foL dxf;+3sf pkfWoIf axfb'/l;+x nfdf g'jfsf]6–# 5g\ . pgLx? g]skf Pdfn]af6 pDd]bjf/ ag]sf lyP .
af6 ;+ljwfg;ef ;b:odf ljhoL ePsf x'g\ . pgL g]kfnL
sflnsf sGi6«Szg tyf sflnsf u|'ksf cWoIf ljqmd
sf+u|];af6 pDd]bjf/ ag]sf lyP .
kf08] lrtjg–%df /fk|kfaf6 / w|'jtf/f sGi6«Szgsf k|jGw
nfdf ;lxt sf+u|];sf tkm{af6 dsjfgk'/ ! df OGb| lgb]{zs ;Ghos'df/ ;fx wg'iff–$ df ;b\efjgf kfl6{af6
aflgofF, :ofª\hf –! df /fh' yfkf, 8f]6L ! df aL/axfb'/ ;+ljwfg;efdf ;b:odf ljhoL ePsf x'g\ .

cy{la6

O6x/L gu/kflnsfsf] ;"rgf
 gkfnfO{ a'emfpg'kg]{ s/ b:t'/ ;dodf g} lt/f}+, gu/sf] ljsf; ug]{ sfo{df ;xof]u u/f}+
 3/sf] kmf]xf]/ 3/df g} tx nufcf+},kmf]xf]/nfO{ k'g k|of]u / k'g rqm0f u/f}+ .
 JolQmut 36gf -hGd, d[To', ljjfx, a;fO“–;/fO{, ;DaGwljR5]b_ ;dodf g} btf{ u/f}+ .
 3/ j/k/ ?v /f]kf}+, gu/nfO{ xl/t agfcf}+ .
 h}ljs kmf]xf]/nfO{ k|fª\ufl/s dn agfcf}+ .
 gu/nfO{ :jR5 ;kmf, xl/t agfcf}+ .
 rf}kfof 5f8f g5f8f}+, ;Defljt b'3{6gf x'gaf6 arf}+,
 af;L, ;8]un]sf vfB j:t' laqmL ljt/0f tyf pkef]u gu/f}} .
 dxfdf/L, x}hf h:tf /f]uaf6 arf}+, :j:y hLjg af“rf}+
 ;8s÷af6f]df lgdf{0f ;fdu|L g/fvf}, cfjt hfjtdf ;xh / ;/n agfcf}+ .

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arthabeat@gmail.com

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41

cjsfz ofqf

cjsfz hLjg
Jofkf/df nufpF5'
$! jif{;Dd g]kfn ;/sf/sf] Gofo ;]jf cGt{ut sfd
u/]/ Psjif{cl3 cjsfz kfPsf uf]kfnk|;fb g]kfn cfk\mgf]=
casf] ofqf Aofkf/df nufpg] tof/Ldf 5g\ . @)!) ;fn
c;f]h @@ ut] pbok'/ul8sf] bfl/Djf]6d] f hlGdPsf uf]kfnnfO{
cfdf a'jf O6x/L a;fOF cfpFbf @)!@ ;fndf sf]qmfdf lnP/
cfPsf x'g . O6x/Lsf k'/fgf Jofkf/L sfG5f afh] -vu]Gb| g]kfn_ pgsf sfsf x'g . pgsf a'jfnfO{ l6sf/fd g]kfnnfO{ eg]
;j}n] h]7f afh] eg]/ lrGy] . To;j]nf sfG5f jfh] / h]7f afh] b'j} hgfsf] Jofkf/ lyof] . pgL klg a'jfnfO{ Aofkf/df ;3fpFy ] .
@)@% ;fndf hgtf dflj O6x/Lsf] klxnf] Aofrsf] ?kdf P;Pn;Ldf ;xeflu eO plt0f{ ePsf g]kfn @)@& ;fndf cfOsd
cWoog ;Sgf;fy hflu/df k|jz] u/]sf lyP . To;j]nf Aofkf/ eGbf hflu/df cfsif{0f ePsfn] cfFkm' nfO{ hflu/ vfg] /x/
ePsf] / kl/jf/n] klg hflu/df k|/] 0ff lbPsf] pgL atfpF5g\ . clxn] hflu/ eGbf Aofkf/df cfsif{0f 5 To;}n] d]/f 5f]/fx?
Aofkf/d} ;lqmo x'g yfn]sf 5g\ pgL eG5g\ . Gofo ;]jf cGt{ut ljleGg lhNnf / k'g/fj]bg cbfntdf nfdf] ;do ;]jf k'¥ofO
xfn cjsfz k|fKt hLjg ljtfO /x]sf g]kfn;Fu cy{la6 k|ltlglwn] u/]sf] s'/fsfgL .
cjsf; hLjg s;/L ljtfO /xg' ePsf] 5 <
O6x/Ldf olt w]/} hUuf hldg / 3/ 5 cfDbfgL eO xfN5
clxn] 3'd8'n, tLyf{6g, 3/ Aojxf/ / ;xsf/L ;+:yfsf]
sfd u/]/ ;do s6fpFb} 5' . blIf0fsfnL art tyf C0f
;xsf/L ;+:yfsf] ;+:yfks cWoIf x'F . ;xsf/LnfO{ s;/L
pTs[i6 agfpg] eGg] ljifodf ;xsf/Lsf] l6d;Fu j;]/ ;/
;Nnfx / k/fdz{ lnO of]hgf agfpFb} 5' .

lsg Aofkf/ ug'{ hf]lvd ljgf g} cfDbfgL eO /xFbf klg <
cfDbfgL gePsf] x}g . t/ cfDbfgL cg';f/ vr{ klg eO
/x]s} 5 . To;} j;]/ cg'Tkfbs ?kdf ;do v]/ kmfNg x'Fb}g .
s]xL g s]xL ug}{ k5{ . km]/L xfd|f] kl/jf/ k'/fgf] Aofkf/Ls
kl/jf/ xf] clxn] klg d]/f bfh'efOx? Aofkf/d} ;+nUg 5g\ .

xf] . cfFk'mn] kfPsf] lhDd]jf/L /fd|/L k'/g ug{' k5{ eGg]
d]/f] wf/0ff lyof] . d}n] @)@& ;fnb]vL g} eG;f/ ljlefu
cGt{ut ;/sf/L hflu/ z'? u/]sf] xf] . h'g a]nf d !& jif{sf]
dfq lyP . @)#& ;fndf Gofo ;]jfsf] l86\7f ePsf] x'F . d
n]vf x]g]{ sd{rf/L ePsfn] @)#* ;fndf tTsflng /fli6"o
k~rfotsf] r'gfjdf lgjf{rg cfof]udf vl6Psf] lyP . ToxfF
/fd|/L n]vf /fv]sf] eg]/ dnfO{ lgjf{rg cfof]un] k'/:s[t
u/]sf] lyof] . To; kl5 klg a]nf a]nfdf k'/:s[t ePsf] x'F .

xf] . xfdLn] % jif{cl3 blIf0fsfnL art tyf C0f ;xsf/L
;+:yf vf]n]sf xf}+ . o;df O6x/Lsf k'/fgf / gofF gfd rn]sf
;]o/ ;b:ox?sf] jfx'Notf 5 . @% hgfsf] ^@ xhf/ % ;o
?k}ofFaf6 z'? ePsf] ;xsf/Lsf] sf/f]jf/ clxn] jflif{s #
s/f]8 eGbfjl9 5 . vf; ul/ a}ª\sx?n] ;fgf ltgf / gofF
Joj;foLnfO{ C0f nufgL ug{ w]/} emGem6 / cfgfsfgL ug]{
ePsfn] ;fgf Aofkf/LnfO{ ;]o/ ;b:o agfO xfdLn] of] ;xsf/L
vf]n]sf xf}+ . clxn] o;af6 w]/} ;]o/ ;b:ox?n] C0f sf/f]jf/
u/L Aojf;o u/]/ cfk\mgf] hLjg :t/ psf:g ;Sg' ePsf] 5 .
o;nfO{ h;/L ePklg kmnfpg' k'mnfpg' k5{ eg]/ d}n] a}7s
eQf ;d]t glnOlsg sfd ub}{5' .

;/sf/L hflu/df /xFbf klg /fd|f] sfd u/]/ k'/:s[t x'g'
tkfOF hflu/d} /xFbf ;xsf/Ldf ;+nUg x'g' x'GYof] . clxn]
ePsf] lyof] eGg] ;'lgPsf] lyof] gL <
;xsf/Lsf] cj:yf s:tf] 5 <

hflu/sf] qmddf sxfF sxfF a:g' ef] <

g]kfnsf w]/} 7fpF a;]F . ;'g;/L, df]/ª\, wgs'6f, emfkf,
kfFry/, sf7df8f}+, g'jfsf]6, ;Kt/L nufotsf lhNnf cbfnt
tyf k'g/fj]bg cbfntdf a;]/ sfd ug]{ df}sf kfPsf] lyPF .

cj s] sf] Jofkf/ ub}{ x'g'x'G5 <

7"nf] 5f]/fn] sk8f Aofkf/ ul/ /x]sf] 5 . sfG5f] 5f]/fsf]
k9fO{ o;} k6s ;lsb}5 . p;n] k9fO ;Sgf;fy Aofkf/ yfNg'
k5{ eg]sf] 5 . s] Aofkf/ ubf{ pko'Qm x'G5 eg]/ cWoog
ub}{5f}+ .
42

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clg of] ;xsf/LnfO{ s:tf] agfpg] nIo 5 <

b'O jif{leq 38]/L vl/b u/]/ ;xsf/Lsf] cfk\mg} 3/ agfO
;Sg] / cfk\mg} ejgaf6 sf/f]jf/ ;Grfng ug]{, PDj'n]G; ;]jf
;~rfng ug]{ tyf ;fgf Aoj;foLx?nfO{ ;d]6]/ ;]o/ ;b:otf
cem} j[l4 ul/ O6x/Lsf] gd'gf / k|ltli7t ;xsf/Lsf] ?kdf
lrgfpg] nIo 5 .

 k|sfz

pk|]tL

prakash@pracasinfosys.com

kf]6j{] n ofK;

;"rgf
klj| lw

;fwf/0ftof sDKo'6/ jf Nofk6kdf OG;6n gul/ rnfpg
;lsg] ;km\6j]o/nfO{ kf]6]{jN; ;km\6j]o/ elgG5 . of] sDKo'6/
df OG;6n gul/ ;f]em} s'g}klg 8|fOeaf6 rnfpg ;lsg]
cyjf kf]6]{jn ePsf]n] ubf{ o;nfO{ kf]6]{jn ;km\6j]o/ jf
kf]6]{jn PlKns];g elgPsf] xf] .
;lhn};Fu rnfpg ;lsg],sDKo'6/sf] /lhi6|L df]l8kmfO ug'{
gkg]{, cfFkm'n] rnfPsf] a['sdfs{,;]l6u+x?nfO{ ;fgf] k]g 8|fOedf
/fv]/ hxfF;'s} clg h'g;'s} l;:6ddf rnfpg ;lsg] o:tf]
kf]6]{jn ofK;sf] k|of]u lbg k|lt lbg al9 /x]sf] 5 . kf]6]{jn
ofK;sf] k|of]u z'?df df]lhnf kmpG8];gn] df]lhnf kmfo/kmS;nfO
jlG8lnu u/]/ ;'?jft u/]sf] lyof] h;n] k|of]ustf{nfO{ ;lhnf]
agfpb} nUbf laleGg ls;Ld / k|of]udf cfpg] ;km\6j]ox?
kf]6]{jn km/Dof6df kfOG5 .
tkfOF s'g} clkm;df sfd ug'{ x'G5 jf ;fO{j/df uP/ g]6
rnfpg' x'G5, ToxfF tkfOnfO{ rflxg] ;km\6j]o/x? 5}gg jf
OG:6n u/]/ rnfpg ;lsb}g eg] tkfOn] o:t} kf]6]{jn ofK;sf]
;xof]uaf6 s['g} klg cfkm'n] rfx]sf] k|f]ufdx? lagf emGem6
rnfpg ;Sg' x'G5, o;n] ubf{ tkfOsf] ;dosf] art clg
emGeml6nf] ;d:ofaf6 d'St x'g'x'g] 5 .
kf]6{]jn ofK;sf] k|of]u lsg <<
 ;L 8|fOedf :k]; gePsf] a]nf .
 6]Dkf]//L 6fOksf] ;km\6j]o/ h:t} 1/2 k6s dfq
rnfpg] ;km\6j]o/ .
 ;km\6j]o/ OG;6n ug{ ns u/]sf] sDKo'6/df .
 cfkm'nfO{ rflxg] ;km\6j]o/x? k]g 8|fOedf /v]/ s'g}
klg sDKo'6/df ;lhn} rnfpg .
kf]6{]jn ofK;df kfpg] s]lx dxTjk"0f{ ;km\6j]o/x?
df]lhnf kmfo/kmS; (Mozilla Firefox ) M OG6/g]6
a|fplhusf] nflu k|of]u x'g] df]lhnf kmfo/kmS;n] g} k|f]6]jn
ofK;sf] ;'?jft u/]sf] xf],OG;6n ug{ gldNg] jf clkm;df
ePsf] sDKo'6df kmfo/kmS; gePsf] cj:yfdf o;nfO{ k|f6] j] nsf]
?kdf k|of]u ug{ ;lsG5 .
cf]kg clkm; (Open Office ) M Pd Ps clkm;sf] ;6\6fdf
k|of]ux'g] cf]kg clkm;n] dfOs|f];km\6 clkm;sf] h:t} sfd
u5{,k|f]6]jn ofK;sf] ;'lrdf w]/} k|of]u x'g] PlKns];gdf of] klg
kb{5 .
6f]/ a|fph/ (Tor Browser ) M k|f]6]jn df]lhnf kmfo/
kmS;nfO{ k|f]lS; ;lxtsf] a|fplhË l;:6ddf alG8lnË u/]/
6f]/ a|fph/ agfPsf] x'G5 h;n] ubf{ tkfOsf] a|fplhË PlS6lel6h

xfO8
ug{ ;lsG5 .
:sfOk M cl8of],lel8of]
tyf u|'k sln+udf k|of]u x'g]
:sfOk klg k|f6] j] n PlKns];gdf
pknAw 5 .
o'6f]/G] 6 (UTorrent) d'le,;km\6j]o/ jf gofF s'g} kmfon
k|f]6]jn l;:6daf6 rnfpFbf kf6{,kf6{ u/]/ o;nfO{ laleGg
7fFpaf6 8fpgnf]8 ug{ ;lsG5, h:t} cflb 8fpgnf]8 u/]/
ePsf] eg] c? clkm;df jf ;fOj/df uP/ klg ug{ ;lsG5
.
u'un s|f]d(Google Chrome ) M cu|k+ltsf] OG6/g]6
a|f ph/ h;nfO{ k|f]6]jn ofK;sf] dfWodaf6 rnfpg
;lsG5,cfkm\g} nlugaf6 rnfpFbf a'sdfs{ ;fy} gofF ;]l6+u
klg ;f]lx PlKns];gdf kfpg ;lsG5 .
ljG8f]h nfOe k|f]6]jn M (Windows Live Writer
Portable ) Anu:kf]6 ul/ /xg]x?sf] nflu pkof]lu ljG8f]h
nfOe /fO6/nfO{ klg k|f6] j] n ofK;sf] ?kdf k|of]u ug{ ;lsG5
kmfon lhNnf M (File zilla): kmfon 6|fG;km/ k|f6] f]sf]nsf]
cf]kg ;f];{ e;{g kmfon lhNnfaf6 7'nf tyf ;fgf kmfonx?
klg cknf]8 jf 8fpgnf]8 ug{ ;xof]u ub{5 .
kmf]lS;6 l/8/ (Foxit Reader) lkl8Pkm kmfonnfO{
k9\gsf] nflu of] PlKns];gsf] cfjZostf kb{5, P8f]j l/8/
sf] ;6\6fdf o;sf] k|of]u ePsf] kfOG5 .
kmf:6 :6f]g kmf]6f] l/;fOh/ M ( Fast Stone Photo
Resizer): Ps} ;fy xhf/f}+ kmf]6f] x?nfO{ l/g]d,l/;fOh ug{
clg y'k|} Okm]S6x? lbgsf] nflu kmf:6 :6f]g kmf]6f] l/;fOhsf]
k|of]u ul/G5 .
gf]6Kof8 M (Notepad++): j]a k|f]ufldËsf sf]l8Ë
kmfon x?nfO Ol86 ug{ of] notepad++ files x?nfO
k|of]u ul/G5, o;n] c? kmfOnx?nfO{ klg Ol86 ub{5 .
cGo hfgsf/Lsf] nflu of] ln:6 x]g{ ;lsG5 .
70 Free portable apps : http://goo.gl/i6OlF9
100 portable apps list : http://goo.gl/mv9zsg

k'; @)&)

43

;xsf/L

blIf0fsfnLsf] sfo{;ldlt k'gu{ 7g
O6x/Lsf] blIf0fsfnL art tyf C0f ;xsf/L ;+:yfsf]
5}7f}+ ;fwf/0f;efaf6 sfo{;ldlt k'g{u7g ePsf]5 .
;+:yfsf] cWoIfdf ;+:yfks cWoIf uf]kfnk|;fb g]kfn g}
;j{;Ddt r'lgPsf 5g\ eg] pkfWoIfdf 6ª\s g]kfn cfPsf
5g\ . ( ;b;Lo sfo{ ;ldltsf] ;b:ox?df /fdafa' g]kfn,
3gZofd e§/fO{, nlnt /f]Ssf, >Lk|;fb g]kfn, rGb|k|;fb
uf}td, lzj' bfxfn / 6ª\sd0fL g]kfn 5flgPsf 5g\ .
;+:yfsf] ;fwf/0f;efn] xf]dz+s/ bfxfnsf] ;+of]hsTjdf
hLjgfy g]kfn / ;'jf; kf]v|]n cfPsf 5g\ . ;fwf/0f;efdf
k|ltj]bg k]z ub}{ ;+:yfsf cWoIf uf]kfn g]kfnn] ! ;o &&
hgf ;]o/ ;b:o /x]sf] ;+:yfsf] ;]o/k"FhL ## nfv %^ xhf/
/x]sf] hfgsf/L lbP . To:t} @ s/f]8 ^# nfv *! xhf/ lgIf]k
;ª\sng u/]sf] ;+:yfn] Ps s/f]8 $^ nfv !^ xhf/ ?k}ofF
shf{ nufgL u/]sf] 5 . ;+:yfn] cfkm\g} ejg lgdf{0f ug{ 3/
hUuf vl/b sf]ifdf /sd ;+sng ug]{ gofF >f]t klxrfg ug]{
nufotsf sfdnfO{ o; jif{ klg lg/Gt/tf lbg] hgfPsf] 5 . ePtfklg Tof] k|hftflGqs gePsfn] cfufdL ;fwf/0f ;efdf
;+:yfn] ut ;fwf/0f ;efaf6 lgjf{rg sfo{ljlw kf; u/fPsf] ;Rofpg' kg]{ ;fwf/0f ;efsf ;xefuLx?n] k|:tfj u/]sf 5g\ .

dflnsfsf] ;]o/k"h
F L @# nfv gf£of]

tLgjif{ cl3 Go"g ;]o/ kF"hLaf6 z'? ePsf] O6x/Lsf]
dflnsf art tyf C0f ;xsf/L ;+:yfsf] ;]o/ kF"hL @# nfv
gf3]sf] 5 .
O6x/Lsf ;fgf Aoj;foLnfO{ nlIft ul/ ;Grfng x'Fb}
cfPsf] ;+:yfn] 5f]6f] ;dod} ;]o/ k"FhL j[l4df km8\sf] df/]sf]
xf] . ut c;f/ d;fGt;Ddsf] ;+:yfsf] lgIf]k #* nfv %^
xhf/ tyf shf{ nufgL %# nfv &^ xhf/ /x]sf] 5 . nufgL
u/]sf] shf{dWo] $# nfv *$ xhf/ ;fd"lxs hdfgLdf ljgf
lwtf] / !* nfv (@ xhf/ b[li6 aGws /x]sf] ;:yfsf cWoIf
nIdL ef/tLn] hfgsf/L lbP .
…xfd|f] ;xsf/L ;fgf Aoj;foLsf] ;femf ;xsf/L ePsfn]
o;sf ;]o/ ;b:o tyf shf{ lng] ;j} ;fgf Joj;foL 5f}+ .

h;sf] Aofkf/Ls sf/f]jf/ ug{ lwtf] /fv]/ C0f lng ;Sg]
Ifdtf 5}g . To:tf ;]o/ ;b:o xfd|f] k|fyldstfdf kb{5g\ .
;+:yfsf] shf{ nufgLsf] ^% k|ltzt ljgf lwtf] ;fd"lxs hdfgLdf
nufgL ePsf] 5 .Ú cWoIf ef/tL eG5g\ .
;+:yfn] x/]s jif{ ;+:yfsf ;]o/ ;b:o dWo]sf h]i7 a'jf
cfdfnfO{ ;Ddfg ug]{ lgtL cg';f/ o; jif{ e"kfn yfkfsf
a'jf 8Dj/axfb'/ yfkfnfO{ ;Ddfg u/]sf] 5 eg] P;Pn;Ldf
pTs[i6 cª\s xfl;n ug]{ ;]o/ ;b:osf 5f]/f 5f]/L / lgoldt
art ug]{ ;]o/ ;b:o ;d]tnfO{ ;Ddfg ug]{ sfo{qmd cg';f/
o; jif{ Zofds'df/ lu/Lsf 5f]/f CifLs]z lu/L / art stf{
;]o/ ;b:o nlnt lai6nfO{ ;Ddfg u/]sf] 5 .

O6x/Lsf] h]7f] art tyf C0f ;xsf/L ;+:yf k"jf{~rn
art tyf C0f ;xsf/L ;+:yfn] cfly{s jif{ @)^(÷)&)sf]
sf/f]jf/af6 !( nfv $% xhf/ ?k}ofF d'gfkmf cfh{g u/]sf]
5 .
cl3Nnf] jif{ ;f] ;+:yfn] !& nfv #) xhf/ ?k}ofF d'gfkmf
cfh{g u/]sf] lyof] . cfj @)^(÷)&)df @ xhf/ $ ;o !^
;]o/ ;b:o k'u]sf] ;+:yfdf cl3Nnf] jif{sf] ;b:o ;+Vof @

xhf/ ! ;o ^# lyP . ;+:yfsf] ;]o/kF"hL *# nfv %) xhf/
af6 a9]/ (! nfv # xhf/ k'u]sf] 5 eg] lgIf]k ^ s/f]8 &$
nfvaf6 a9]/ * s/f]8 &$ nfv tyf C0f nufgL ^ s/f]8 #^
nfvaf6 j9]/ * s/f]8 (! nfv ePsf] ;+:yfn] hgfPsf] 5 .
nufgL ul/Psf] C0f dWo] $ s/f]8 ^) nfv ?k}ofF AolQmut
/ @ s/f]8 &! nfv ?k}ofF Aofkf/Ls shf{ nufgL ePsf] 5 eg]
afFsL ljleGg zLif{ssf shf{ 5g\ .

k"jf{~rn artsf] gfkmf !( nfv

44

k'; @)&)

a'4f]bon] !! k|ltzt nfef+z lbg]
lj/f6gu/ $ l:yt a'4f]bo art tyf C0f ;xsf/L ;+:yfn]
cfly{s jif{ @)^(÷)&);Ddsf] d'gfkmfaf6 ;]o/ ;b:ox?nfO{
!! k|ltzt nfef+z ljt/0f ug]{ ePsf] 5 . ;+:yfn] & nfv &)
xhf/ ?k}ofF v'b d'gfkmf cfh{g u/]sf] lyof] .
;+:yfsf cWoIf uf]ljGbk|;fb bfxfnn] ;+:yfsf] xfn} ;DkGg
kfFrf} ;fwf/0f;efdf pQm 3f]if0ff u/]sf x'g\ . ;~rfngsf] %
jif{df cfOk'Ubf ;xsf/L If]qdf o;n] k"FhL j[l4df 5nfª\ df/]sf]
5 .
@)^% ;fn d+l;/ !* ut] ^# hgfsf] !@ nfv ^) xhf/

;]o/kF"hL ;+sng u/]/ z'? ePsf] a'4f]bo ;xsf/L ;+:yfsf]
@)&) c;f/ d;fGt;Ddsf] r'QmfkF"hL Ps s/f]8 gf3]sf] 5
eg] k"FhLsf]if @ s/f]8 @* nfv &# xhf/ k'u]sf] 5 . o;
cjlwdf ;+:yfn] cfk\mg} 38]/L vl/b ul/ ;'ljwf ;DkGg ejg
;d]t lgdf{0f ul/ ut jif{b]vL g} cfk\mg} ejgaf6 ;~rfng
x'Fb} cfPsf] 5 .
;+:yfdf ut c;f/ d;fGt;Dd ;]o/ ;b:o ;+Vof # ;o
(# k'us
] f] ;+:yfn] dlxnfnfO{ ;]o/ ;b:odf k|fyldstf lbPsf]5 .
h; cg';f/ s"n ;]o/ ;b:o dWo] @ ;o & hgf dlxnf 5g\

;xsf/L ;+:yfx?nfO{ cToGt h?/L ;"rgf
art tyf C0fsf] sf/f]jf/ ug]{ ;xsf/L ;+:yfx?n] dfl;s ?kdf a'emfpg' kg]{ k|ult k|ltj]bg ;j}n]
tf]lsPsf] ;dol;df leq} a'emfO ;Sg ;"lrt ul/G5 . cGoyf ;xsf/L P]g tyf dfkb08 cg';f/ hl/jfgf
tyf sfjf{xL x'g] Joxf]/f] hfgsf/L u/fOG5 . ;fy} ;xsf/L ;+:yfsf ;Grfnsx?nfO{ ;]o/ ;b:o /
sfo{If]q leq dfq sf/f]jf/ ug{, ;DalGwt ljifos} cGo ;xsf/Ldf ;]o/ ;b:o ePsfx?nfO{ ;b:o
gagfpg tyf sfo{If]q aflx/sf dflg;x?nfO{ ;]o/ ;b:o gagfpg ;d]t cfu|x ul/G5 . ;fy} gofF btf{
ePsf ;xsf/L ;+:yfx?n] btf{ePsf] ldltn] # dlxgfleq k|f/lDes ;fwf/0f ;ef ;DkGg ul/ gofF
sfo{;ldlt tyf n]vf ;ldltsf] lgjf{rg ul/ lgjf{lrt kbflwsf/Lx?sf] gfd / ;fwf/0f ;efsf] lg0f{o ;d]t
oyfl;3| o; sfof{nodf k]z ug{ ;"lrt ul/G5 .

;xsf/L k|lzIf0f tyf l8lehg sfof{no
;'g;/L, Og?jf

xflb{s cfef/ tyf wGojfb
o; ;xsf/L ;+:yfsf] 5}7f}+ ;fwf/0f;efaf6 sfo{;ldlt tLgjif{sf] nflu xfdLnfO{ sfo{
;ldltdf ;j{;Ddt?kdf lgjf{lrt ug'{ ePsf]df ;+:yfsf ;Dk"0f{ z]o/ ;b:o dxfg'efjx?df
xflb{s cfef/ tyf wGojfb JoQm ub{5f}+, ;fy} ;+:yfsf] sfo{ ;~rfngdf lg/Gt/ ;Nnfx /
;'emfjsf] ;d]t ck]Iff ub{5f}+ .
uf]kfnk|;fb g]kfn

6ª\s g]kfn

xf]dz+s/ bfxfn

cWoIf

pkfWoIf

n]vf;ldlt ;+of]hs

/fdafa' g]kfn
>Lk|;fb g]kfn
6ª\sd0fL g]kfn

;b:ox?
3gZofd e§/fO{
rGb|k|;fb uf}td

nlnt /f]Ssf
lzj' bfxfn

hLjgfy g]kfn
n]vf;ldlt ;b:o

;'jf; kf]v|]n
n]vf;ldlt ;b:o

blIf0fsfnL jrt tyf C0f ;xsf/L ;+:yf
O6x/L –!, ;'g;/L

k'; @)&)

45

s[lif a}ªs
\ n] ;'gsf] sf/f]jf/ ug]{

O6x/Ll:yt s[lif ljsf; a}ªs
\ zfvfn] o;} dlxgfb]vL ;'g
rfFbL lwtf] /fv]/ shf{ sf/f]jf/ z'? ug]{ ePsf] 5 .
To;sf nflu ;'gsf] u'0f:t/Lotf hfFr nufot ;j} kIfsf]
cfjZos tflnd a}ª\ssf] s]lGb|o sfof{non] O6x/L zfvfsf
clws[t /fdafa' k|;fOFnfO{ lbO ;s]sf] 5 . ;'g lwtf] /fv]/

shf{ nufgL ug]{ ljifodf cxfjZos tof/L eO ;s]sf] 5 o;}
dlxgfb]vL cf}krfl/s sf/f]jf/ z'? x'G5 zfvf clws[t k|;fOn]
eg] .
o; cl3 ;'gsf] u'0f:t/Lotf hfFRg ;Sg] hgzlQm cefjn]
;f] zfvfn] ;'g shf{ nufgL ug{ ;s]sf] lyPg . a}ª\ssf] w/fg
zfvfn] eg] o; cl3b]vL g} ;'g shf{ sf/f]jf/ ;~rfng ul/
/x]sf] 5 . ;/sf/L :jfldTjsf] O6x/Ll:yt /fli6"o jfl0fHo
a}ª\sn] klg ;'g lwtf]df shf{ sf/f]jf/ ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . ut
cfly{s jif{sf] c;f/ d;fGt;Dd @ s/f]8 @@ nfv ^* xhf/
v'b d'gfkmf u/]sf] s[lif ljsf; j}+s O6x/Ln] ;f] cjwLdf %#
s/f]8 ! nfv $) xhf/ C0f nufgL $& s/f]8 *# nfv $%
xhf/ c;'nL u/]sf] lyof] . a]njf/LklZrdb]vL Og?jf k"j{;Dd
t/x/fb]vL blIf0fdf b'xjL;Dd /fhdfu{af6 @ ;o ld6/ sfo{
If]q ePsf] o; a}+sn] ljb];L d'b|f ;6xLsf] sf/f]jf/;d]t ub}{
cfPsf] Zffvf k|jGws b'uf{k|;fb Gof}kfg] atfpF5g\ . lgs6
eljiodf g} sf]/ a}+lsª l;:6d nfu" ug]{ tof/L u/]sf] a}+sn]
b]zel/sf ;j} zfvfx?sf] art hDdf ug]{ / r]s af6 /sd
e'StfgL lbg] PljljP;\ ;]jf ;d]t lbFb} cfPsf] hgfPsf] 5 .
zfvf k|jGws Gof}kfg]sf cg';f/ ljb]zjf6 k7fPsf] /sd
e'QmfgL / ljb]z k7fpg];d]t ;'ljwf lbFb} cfPsf] a}s
+ n] ljleGg
7]Ssfk7\6f, s[lif Joj;fo, cfjf;, pBf]u, xf]6n, ;]jf, cf]e/
8«fkm\6, z}lIfsnufotdf shf{ nufgL ub}{ cfPsf] 5 .

Sofg ;'g;/Ldf 7fs'/
O6x/Lsf o'jf Joj;flo 7fs'/s'df/ >]i7 sDKo"6/ P;f]l;o;g g]kfn Sofg_ ;'g;/Lsf] cWoIfdf 5flgPsf 5g\ .
O6x/Ldf xfn} ePsf] ;ftf}+ ;fwf/0f;efaf6 >]i7sf] cWoIftfdf !# ;b;Lo
sfo{;ldlt k'g{u7g ePsf] xf] . k'gu{ l7t ;ldltsf] k|yd pkfWoIfdf eLdk|;fb
lu/L, låtLo pkfWoIfdf k|lbkrGb| bfxfn / t[lto pkfWoIfdf ;'dg >]i7
5flgPsf 5g\ .
To:t} dxf;lrjdf ejs[i0f ltlD;gf, sf]iffWoIfdf dx]Gb| u'/fufFO{ / ;lrjdf
lg/h l3dL/] 5gf}6 ePsf 5g\ eg] ;b:ox?df clgn e§/fO{, ljzfn afF:tf]nf
nufot 5g\ .
gjlgjf{lrt cWoIf >]i7n] lgs6 elj:od} Sofg Ogkmf]6]s cfof]hgf ul/
g] hfgsf/L lbP .

;/;kmfO{ xfd|} nfuL,;/;kmfO{ cleofgdf xfdL .
;'g;/Lsf] ;/;kmfO{ cleofg,:jR5tfsf] uf}/jg}
xfd|f] klxrfg ..
vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO{ l8eLhg sfof{no
O6x/L , ;'g;/L
46

k'; @)&)

Hof]ltif

wg k|flKtsf] cb\e"t M uhs]z/L of]u
ldy'g nUgdf u'? a[x:klt ;Ktd]if /
bzd]if x'G5g\ clg rGb|df åtLoif x'G5 .
o:tf] cj:yfdf o; nUgdf u'? wg' /flzdf
 s[i0fk|;fb sf]O/fnf
ePsf] cj:yfdf dfq uhs]z/L of]u kmnjfg\
x'G5 . lsgeg] lqsf]0f /flzdf /xgfn]
a[x:kltsf] s]Gb|flwklt / ;Ktdflwklt x'Fbfsf] bf]if k|efjxLg x'g] ub{5 .
ss{6 nUgdf u'? a[x:klt ifi7]if / gjd]if x'G5g\ clg
rGb|df nUg]if x'G5 . o:tf] cj:yfdf olb nUgklt rGb|df 5 /
u'? a[x:klt d]if /flzdf 5g\ cyjf a[x:klt ss{6 / rGb|df
d]ifdf 5g\ eg] klg pQd uhs]z/L of]usf] lgdf{0f x'G5 .
l;+x nUgdf u'? a[x:klt k~rd]z / ci6d]z x'G5g\ clg
Hof]ltif zf:qdf …uhs]z/LÚ of]unfO{ cToGt z'e kmnbfoL /
rGb|
d
f åjfbz]if x'G5 . o:tf] cj:yfdf l;+x nUgsf] s'08nLdf
wgk|flKtsf] cb\e"t of]usf ¿kdf dfGotf lbOPsf] 5 .
hGds'08nLdf rGb|dfaf6 klxnf], rf}yf], ;ftf}+ / b;f}+ efjdf uhs]z/L of]u ta dfq z'ekmnbfoL x'G5 ha u'? dLg /flzdf
a[x:klt u|x cjl:yt /xFbf uhs]z/L of]usf] lgdf{0f x'G5 . of] /x]sf] x'G5 / rGb|df wg' /flzdf cjl:yt x'G5 . cGo :yLltdf
u'? a[x:klt / rGb|dfsf dfemdf b[li6 ;DaGw sfod x'bF f :yflkt of] of]u sdhf]/ x'g] ub{5 .
sGof nUgdf u'? a[x:klt rt'y]{if / ;Ktd]if x'G5g\ clg
x'G5 . s]Gb| :yLltdf afx]s oL b'j}u|xn] lqsf]0f :yLltdf cyf{t\
rGb|
d
f /fHo]if x'G5 . o:tf] cj:yfdf o; nUgdf b]ju'? a[x:klt
gjd / k~rd eP/ a;]df klg z'ekmn k|bfg ub{5g\ . s'g}
cfk\
m
gf]
/flzdf a;]sf] cj:yfdf dfq pm s]Gb|flwklt bf]ifaf6
JolQmsf] /fzL s'08nLdf a[x:klt u|x s]Gb|jtL{ eP/ a;]sf] 5
d'St x'G5 . u'? a[x:klt cfk\mgf] 3/df 5 / rGb|df klg a[x:klts}
eg] o; of]usf] pk:yLlt b]lvG5 .
;du|df of] Pp6f /fhof]u xf] . o:tf] of]udf hlGdPsf 3/df a:b5 eg] o;af6 l;h{gf x'g] uhs]z/L of]u k|efjzfnL
JolQm g]tf, Jofkf/L, ;f+;b, ljwfos, ;+:yf k|dv
' jf /fhkqflª\st x'G5 . h;n] JolQmnfO{ u'0fjfg agfpF5 / pm j}ejzfnL klg
sd{rf/L x'g] ;Defjgf x'G5 . k|fo M o; of]udf hGdg] dflg;n] aGb5 .
t'nf nUgdf u'? a[x:klt t[tLo]if / ifi7]if x'G5g\ clg rGb|df
cfk\mgf] hLjgdf kof{Kt pGglt ub{5g\ / d[To'kl5 klg k|l;l4nfO{
bzd]
if x'G5 . o:tf] cj:yfdf o; nUgsf] s'08nLdf uhs]z/
cd/ t'NofpF5g\ .
Lsf] k"0f{kmn k|fKt x'Fb}g t/ ss{6 /flzdf u'? a[x:klt 5g\ /
z'e uhs]z/L of]u
h'g JolQmsf] s'08nLdf z'e uhs]z/L of]u x'G5 . Tof] ds/ /flzdf rGb|dfsf] pkl:ylt 5 eg] s]xL z'ekmnsf] cfsfª\Iff
a'l4dfg / ljåfg x'g] ub{5 . o:tf dfG5]sf] JolQmTj uDeL/ tyf ug{ ;lsG5 .
j[Zlrs nUgdf u'? a[x:klt wg]if / k~rd]if x'G5g\ clg
k|efjzfnL x'G5 / p;n] ;dfhdf k|lti7f k|fKt ub{5 . cfly{s
rGb|
d
f efUo]if x'G5 . o:tf] cj:yfdf nUgdf b]ju'? / ;ftf}+ 3/
dfldnfdf pm c;fWo} efUozfnL x'G5 . p;sf] hLjg j}ejk"0f{
df
rGb|
df a;]/ o; of]usf] l;h{gf eof] eg] of] of]u c;fWo}
x'G5 . o:tf] uhs]z/L of]u tadfq ;Dej x'G5, ha hftssf]
s'08nLdf rGb|df gLr 3/df / a[x:klt gLrdf jf c:tfPsf] z'esf/L dflgG5 .
wg' nUgdf u'? a[x:klt nUg]if / ;'v]if x'G5g\ clg rGb|df
x'g' x'Gg . To:t} b'j} u|x o'jfj:yfdf x'g'klg cfjZos 5 . clg
ci6d]
if x'G5 . o:tf] cj:yfdf uhs]z/L of]un] k"0f{ kmn k|fKt
b'j} u|x /fx', s]t' jf zlgu|xåf/f klg x'g'x'Gg . s'08nLdf o:tf]
ug{
;Sb}
g . t/ b]ju'? j[lZrs /flz / rGb|df j[if /flzdf 5
of]u x'Fbf s]xL JolQmn] Psflt/ cfly{s / ef}lts ¿kdf pGglt
ub{5g\ eg] s]xL JolQmn] o; of]uaf6 s'g} lsl;dsf] z'e kmn eg] o; of]un] s]xL xbdf z'ekmn k|bfg u/]sf] b]lvG5 .
ds/ nUgdf u'? a[x:klt t[tLo]if / åjfbz]if x'G5g\ clg
k|fKt gu/]sf] :yLlt klg b]lvG5 . o; ;Gbe{df Hof]ltif zf:qn]
rGb|
d
f ;Ktd]if x'G5 . o:tf] cj:yfdf ds/ nUgsf] s'08nLdf
s]xL lgodnfO{ cl3 ;f/]sf] 5, h;af6 s:tf] uhs]z/L of]uaf6
z'ekmn k|fKt x'G5 / s:tf] uhs]z/L of]un] kmn k|bfg ug{ l;h{gf x'g] uhs]z/L of]uaf6 ;fdfGo kmn k|fKt x'g] u5{ .
s'De nUgdf u'? a[x:klt wg]if / Psfbz]if x'G5g\ clg
;Sb}g eGg] :ki6 x'G5 .
rGb|
d
f ifi7]if x'G5 . 5}7f}+ 3/nfO{ z'e dflg+b}g To;}n] o:tf]
nUg adf]lhd uhs]z/L of]u
d]if nUgdf u'? a[x:klt gjd]z / åfbz]if x'G5 clg rGb|df cj:yfdf s'De nUgsf] s'08nLdf klg uhs]z/L of]un] ;fdfGo
rt'y]{if x'G5 . o:tf] cj:yfdf u'? a[x:klt / rGb|dfsf] o'lQmnfO{ kmn k|bfg ub{5 .
dLg nUgdf u'? a[x:klt nUg]if / bzd]if x'G5g\ clg rGb|df
z'e kmnbfoL dflgG5 . o; nUgdf oL b'j} u|xsf] z'e:yLlt
k~rd]if x'G5 . dLg /flz b]ju'?sf] cfk\mgf] 3/ xf] . o; nUgdf
rt'y{ efjdf x'G5 .
j[if nUgdf u'? a[x:klt ci6d]if / cfoif x'G5g\ clg rGb|df uhs]z/L of]usf] l;h{gf x'Fbf clt z'esf/L of]u aGg] ub{5 .
t[tLo]z x'G5 . o:tf] cj:yfdf o; nUgdf rGb| a:bf pRrsf]
;d:t nUgx¿dWo] ldy'g, sGof, j[Zlrs / dLg nUgdf
x'gk'U5 / a[x:klt cf7f}+ 3/sf] dflns x'G5 . To;}n] o; nUgdf lgdf{0f x'g] uhs]z/L of]unfO{ ;j{>]i7 dflgG5 .
oL b'j} u|xsf] of]u l;h{gf x'gfn] uhs]z/L of]usf] z'ekmn k|fKt
x'G5 .

k'; @)&)

47

===/ of] klg

t:jL/ M cy{la6

sfnsf] ;xf/f l;nfO d]l;g
a'9];sfnsf]

…lxpFb] ofd, u|fxs eGbf of/f 3fdÚ
wgs'6faf6 @) jif{cl3 w/fg cfPsf d]x]/dfg ;'Gbf; clxn] *& jif{sf eP . l;nfOsf] sfd u/]/ &% a;Gt
s6fO ;s]sf pgL sfG5L >LdtL ljjfx u/]kl5 w/fg em/]sf] atfpF5g\ . cfFkm' ;lxt @ 5f]/L / >LdtLsf] kfng kf]if0fsf
nflu pgL w/fg ahf/sf] ;8s lsgf/df a;]/ sk8f l;nfO / 6fn6'nsf] sfd u5{g\ . ev{/} rf8 kj{ ;lsPsf] / lxpFb
;'? ePsf] x'Fbf sfd kfpg d'l:sn 5 . …a'9f] zl// lagf sfd s';L{df j;L /xFbf ysfO nfu]/ To;} lgbfOFbf] /}5 .Ú pgL
eG5g\ . t/ of] pd]/df klg pgsf cfFvf, sfg nufotsf OlGb|osf] Ifdtf eg] t]h 5 . eG5g\ …;fgf ;fgf l;of]df ;d]t
wfuf] pGg c?sf] ;xf/f lng k/]sf] 5}g\ .Ú pgL cfkmgf] dfq x}g c?sf] ;d]t l;of]df wfuf] pGg ;3fpF5g\ . kfl/nf] 3fddf
d]l;gdf ;':tfpFb} ubf{ lvlrPsf] pgsf] t:jL/ .
48

k'; @)&)

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