on the origin of Filipinos Cultural evolution of the early Filipinos Filipino class structures (political and social) Parallelism of Luzon and Visayan concept of social class.

Migration Theory – H. Otley Beyer regarding the peopling of the archipelago, ancestors of the Filipinos came in “waves of migration”. First to reach the archipelago was the caveman similar to the Java man and other Asian caveman 250,000 years ago. Aboriginal pygmy group of the Negritos who reached the islands before the land bridges disappeared.

Seafaring and tool-using Indonesian group of two kinds. They displaced the Negritos to the mountains. Seafaring Malays who introduced Iron Age culture. Beyer’s theories were dismissed because there were no archaeological or historical evidence to support it.

In reality, Southeast Asian people shared many customs and traditions without any ethnic group racially or culturally dominant. In place of the waves of migration, modern scholars suggest the so-called core population theory, the inhabitants of the Philippines consist of a core population to which came accretions of people who moved in from the region. The movement of people were erratic rather than in sequential waves

The Southeast Asian people who reached the Philippines during prehistoric times became the core population. Each group, the Indonesians, Malays, and others stood as equal, without any of them racially or culturally dominant.

This core population shared common cultural traits or base culture. They used similarly fashioned tools, pottery, and ornaments; and upheld common beliefs and rituals. If there were some differences, these may be due to some factors like adaptation to the environment. Furthermore, the immigrants did not come into the archipelago in a fixed period of time nor with definite destination.

Mainland origin hypothesis – Peter Bellwood, the original inhabitants came from Taiwan and South China. From there they spread southward and westward direction Northern Philippines. Island origin hypothesis – Wilhelm Solheim II, dispersed from an island in Southeast Asia, northward expansion from Indonesia to Mindanao. Malay-polynesian settled in the Philippines (Barangay)

Tool assemblages, clothing, pottery, jewelry and the like are technological artifacts. These man-made objects illustrates the ability of man to respond to the conditions of the environment. Such technology that has been developed became part of civilization. Culture may be associated with manufacture materials, for these are products of human behavior. The structuring of the early Filipino society has been achieved in response to the needs of prehistoric Philippine communities.

Cagayan Valley – crude stone tools and weapons. Tabon Cave Complex in Lipuun Point, Palawan El Nido Cave in Palawan Balangay boats of Butuan in Agusan del Norte

I would like to thank and acknowledge Prof. Aldrin Gueverra for making this PPT

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