CONG TV TNHH OFFSHORE & INDUSTRIAL SERVICES LIMITED

RISER DESIGN - MANUAL
DOCUMENT No. OIS-31401010- Rev. 8
51 Nguyen Huu Cau, Vung Tau City, Ba Ria Vung Tau Province, S.R. Vietnam
Telephone: +84 (0)64 3530 501, Facsimile: +84 (0)64 3530 500, Email: ois@oisvn.com
This document is confidential. NeHher the whole nor any part of this document may be disclosed to any third party without the prior written c o n u n t ~   IS Vietnam. Tho
copyright of this document Is vested in these companies. All rights reserved. Neither the whole nor any part of this document may bo reproduced, st rod In any rotrtevel
system or transmitted in any fonn or by any means (electronic, mechanical, reprographlc, recording or otherwise) without the prior written consent oft e copyright O'M'Iers.
This document reflects the views, at the time of publication, of:
Offshore & Industrial Services Ltd. and other 01 S Service Companies.
They are based on the experience acquired during their involvement with the design, construction, operation and
maintenance of processing units and facilities, and they are supplemented with the experience of Group Operating
companies. Where appropriate they are based on, or reference is made to, international, regional, national and industry
standards.
The objective is to set the recommended standard for good design and engineering practice applied by companies
operating an oil refinery, gas handling installation, chemical plant, oil and gas production facility, or any other such
facility, and thereby to achieve maximum technical and economic benefit from standardization.
The information set forth in these publications is provided to users for their consideration and decision to implement. This
is of particular importance where documents may not cover every requirement or diversity of condition at each locality.
The document is expected to be sufficiently flexible to allow individual operating companies to adapt the information set
forth in this document to their own environment and requirements.
When Contractors or Manufacturers/Suppliers use this document they shall be solely responsible for the quality of worl<
and the attainment of the required design and engineering standards. In particular, for those requirements not specifically
covered, the Principal will expect them to follow those design and engineering practices which will achieve the same
level of integrity as reflected in this document. If in doubt, the Contractor or Manufacturer/Supplier shall, without
detracting from his own responsibility, consult the Principal or its technical advisor.
Subject to any particular terms and conditions as may be set forth in specific agreements with users, 01$ disclaim any
liability of whatsoever nature for any damage (including injury or death) suffered by any company or persoA whomsoever
as a result of or in connection with the use, application or implementation of any document, combination of documents or
any part thereof, even if it is wholly or partly caused by negligence on the part of OIS or other Service Company. The
benefit of this disclaimer shall inure in all respects to OIS and/or any company affiliated to these companies that may
issue documents or require the use of these documents.
Without prejudice to any specific terms in respect of confidentiality under relevant contractual arrangements, documents
shall not, without the prior written consent of OIS, be disclosed by users to any company or person whomsoever and the
documents shall be used exclusively for the purpose for which they have been provided to the user.
DOCUMENT No. OIS-31401010- Rev. 8
Page 2 of46
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................... 5
1.1 SCOPE .................................................................................................................... 5
1.2 DISTRIBUTION, INTENDED USE AND REGULATORY CONSIDERATIONS ........ 5
1.3 DEFINITION ............................................................................................................. 5
2. DESIGN INTERFACES ............................................................................................ 7
2.1 GENERAL ................................................................................................................ 7
2.2 TOPSIDE INTERFACE ............................................................................................ 7
2.3 JACKET INTERFACE ............................................................................................. 7
2.4 PIPELINE/EXPANSION SPOOL INTERFACE ........................................................ 7
3. RISER/TIE-IN CONCEPTS ...................................................................................... 9
3.1 SUMMARY OF MAIN RISER TYPES ...................................................................... 9
3.2 RISER INSTALLATION METHODS ........................................................................ 9
3.3 SUBSEA TIE-IN METHODS .................................................................................. 11
3.4 FLEXIBLE SPOOLS .............................................................................................. 12
3.5 SELECTION OF RISER/PIPELINE TIE-IN METHOD ............................................ 12
3.6 AVAILABLE CONSTRUCTION METHODS .......................................................... 12
4. RISER ROUTING AND LOCATION ....................................................................... 13
4.1 BASIC ROUTING REQUIREMENTS ..................................................................... 13
4.2 APPROACH TO PLATFORMS .............................................................................. 13
4.3 SAFETY ................................................................................................................. 14
5. DESIGN DATA ...................................................................................................... 15
5.1 RISER SYSTEMIPLA TFORM DATA ..................................................................... 15
5.2 SOIL DATA ............................................................................................................ 16
5.3 METOCEAN DATA ................................................................................................ 16
5.4 ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS ............................................................................. 17
5.5 EARTHQUAKE ...................................................................................................... 17
5.6 RETURN PERIODS ............................................................................................... 17
5.7 DIRECTIONALITY ................................................................................................. 17
6. RISER AND TIE-IN SPOOL ANALYSIS ................................................................ 18
6.1 FAILURE MODES .................................................................................................. 18
6.2 DESIGN LOADS .................................................................................................... 18
6.3 LOAD CASES ........................................................................................................ 19
6.4 WALL THICKNESS DETERMINATION ................................................................. 20
6.5 PIPELINE EXPANSION ......................................................................................... 20
6.6 EXPANSION LOOP ............................................................................................... 22
6.7 RISER STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS ........................................................................ 22
6.8 ALLOWABLE STRESSES .................................................................................... 23
6.9 ALLOWABLE STRAINS ........................................................................................ 23
6.10 OVALISATION ....................................................................................................... 23
6.11 COLLAPSE ............................................................................................................ 23
6.12 VORTEX SHEDDING ............................................................................................. 23
6.13 FATIGUE ............................................................................................................... 23
7. RISER SUPPORT DESIGN ................................................................................... 25
7.1 RISER SUPPORT TYPES ..................................................................................... 25
7.2 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS ................................................................................ 25
7.3 LOADING CONDITIONS ....................................................................................... 26
7.4 CORROSION PROTECTION ................................................................................. 26
8. J-TUBE DESIGN ................................................................................................... 27
8.1 DESIGN DATA ...................................................................................................... 27
8.2 J-TUBE ROUTING ................................................................................................. 27
8.3 J-TUBE SIZING AND RADIUS OF CURVATURE ................................................. 27
8.4 PULL-IN LOADS ................................................................................................... 27
8.5 STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF J-TUBE AND SUPPORTS ....................................... 28
8.6 APPURTENANCES ............................................................................................... 28
DOCUMENT No. OIS-31401010- Rev. 8 Page 3 of46
8.7 CORROSION PROTECTION ................................................................................. 31
9. FITTINGS ............................................................................................................... 32
9.1 FLANGES .............................................................................................................. 32
9.2 GASKETS .............................................................................................................. 32
9.3 BOLTING ............................................................................................................... 32
9.4 VALVES ................................................................................................................. 32
9.5 BENDS .................................................................................................................. 32
10. RISER MATERIALS AND CORROSION PROTECTION ....................................... 33
10.1 GENERAL .............................................................................................................. 33
10.2 LINEPIPE ............................................................................................................... 33
10.3 EXTERNAL COATING .......................................................................................... 33
10.4 CATHODIC PROTECTION .................................................................................... 34
11. MECHANICAL PROTECTION ............................................................................... 35
11.1 PROTECTION FROM BOAT IMPACT ................................................................... 35
11.2 PROTECTION FROM DROPPED OBJECTS ........................................................ 35
11.3 PROTECTION FROM SNAGGING LOADS .......................................................... 35
12. INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS ....................................................................... 36
12.1 RISER INSTALLATION TOLERANCES ................................................................ 36
12.2 INSTALLATION FEASIBILITY .............................................................................. 36
12.3 CLEARANCE FOR HYPERBARIC WELDING ...................................................... 36
12.4 CONSTRUCTION AIDS ......................................................................................... 36
12.5 TEMPORARY CONSIDERATIONS ....................................................................... 36
13. REQUIREMENTS FOR OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE .............................. 37
14. DESIGN OUTPUT .................................................................................................. 38
14.1 GENERAL .............................................................................................................. 38
14.2 DESIGN DOCUMENTATION ................................................................................. 38
14.3 AS-BUILT DOCUMENTATION .............................................................................. 38
15. REFERENCES ....................................................................................................... 39
APPENDICES
APPENDIX 1 FIGURES ...................................................................................................... 41
DOCUMENT No. 015-31401010- Rev. 8 Page 4 of46
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 SCOPE
This document specifies requirements and gives recommendations for the design of
offshore pipeline riser systems, which include the piping, riser clamp supports and any
expansion spool or anchoring system at the base of the platform. This document identifies a
broad approach t> the design including:
• definition of riser system and interfaces;
• potential riser concepts;
• riser routing;
• analysis requirements;
• support design;
• J-tube design;
• fittings and materials.
This document does not present a methodology, but is intended to act as a checklist of
design activities for consideration by an experienced engineer.
The scope of this document includes only rigid metallic risers; flexible risers and non-
metallic risers are excluded fi"om the scope.
1.2 DISTRIBUTION, INTENDED USE AND REGULATORY CONSIDERATIONS
Unless otherwise authorised by OIS, the distribution of this document is confined to
companies forming part of the OIS or managed by a Group company, and to Contractors
and Manufscturers/Suppliers nominated by them.
This document is intended for use in offshore exploration and production facilities.
If national and/or local regulations exist in which some of the requirements may be more
stringent than in this document, the Contractor shall determine by careful scrutiny which of
the requirements are the more stringent and which combination of requirements will be
accep1able as regards safety, environmental, economic and legal aspects. In all cases, the
Contractor shall inform the Principal of any deviation from the requirements of this document
which is considered to be necessary in order to comply with national and/or local
regulations. The Principal may then negotiate with the Authorities concerned with the object
of obtaining agreement to follow this document as closely as possible.
1.3 DEFINITION
1.3.1 General definitions
1.3.2
The Contractor is the party which carries out all or part of the design, engineering,
procurement, construction, commissioning or management of a project, or operation or
maintenance of a facility. The Principal may undertake all or part of the duties of the
Contractor.
The Manufacturer/Supplier is the party which manufactures or supplies equipment and
services to perform the duties specified by the Contractor.
The Principal is the party which initiates the project and ultimately pays for its design and
construction. The Principal will generally specify the technical requirements. The Principal
may also include an agent or consultant authorised to act for, and on behalf of, the Principal.
The word shall indicates a requirement.
The word should indicates a recommendation.
Specific definitions
J-Tube J-shaped tube installed on a platform, through which a
pipeline can be pulled to form a riser.
DOCUMENT No. OIS-31401010- Rev. 8 Page$ of46
Piping components
Riser support
Riser system
1.4 ABBREVIATIONS
ASCE
EPDM
ESD
HAT
QRA
LAT
RTJ
SMYS
1.5 CROSS-REFERENCES
items integrated in the pipeline/riser such as flanges, tees,
bends, reducers and valves.
structure intended for fixing the riser to the platform or for
local or continuous guidance ofthe riser assembly.
riser pipe, supports, integrated piping components and
corrosion prevention system.
American Sociey of Civil Engineers
Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer
Emergency Shut Down
Highest Astronomical Tide
Quantitative Risk Assessment
Lowest Astronomical Tide
Ring Type Joint
Specified Minimum Yield Stress
Where cross-references to other parts of this document are made, the referenced section
number is shown in brackets. Other documents referenced in this document are listed in
(15).
DOCUMENT No. 015-31401010- Rev. 8 Page 6 of46
2. DESIGN INTERFACES
2.1 GENERAL
The riser system shall be designed as a part of the total offshore pipeline system. For
design purposes, it is necessary to define the extent of the riser assembly and to establish
the interfaces between the riser system and adjacent systems. The interfaces provide a
point where loading and/or displacement, and the requirements of the various systems can
be defined and recondled.
The riser interface points can be summarised as t>llows:
• topside and supports;
• jacket and supports;
• pipeline/tie-in spool.
The riser analysis model shall take into account the effects of the interface points as further
detailed below.
2.2 TOPSIDE INTERFACE
The design of the riser system requires detailed interfacing with the platform topsides. The
code break for the riser system shall extend up to and include the pig trap (including
associated pipework and valves) or, if no pig trap is fitted, to the first isolation valve off the
riser. The riser supports fall outside the code break. The following design issues shall be
addressed:
• design responsibility;
• exact location of code breaks marked on process e!l;lineering tow schemes (PEFS);
• piping layouts;
• structurallayouts;
• instrument connections;
• electrical isolation;
• overlap of riser and piping analyses;
• support locations;
• access for pigging operations;
• access for valve overhaul.
2.3 JACKET INTERFACE
The design of the riser system requires detailed interfacing with the jacket structure. The
riser supports fall outside the code break. The following design issues shall be addressed:
• design responsibility;
• code breaks;
• details of the structural layout and dimensions ofthe jacket members;
• platform deflections;
• riser routing;
• riser support locations a1d type;
• electrical isolation;
• riser loadings on riser supports;
• ESD valve location;
• structural protection;
• hook-up to top section of riser.
2.4 PIPELINE/EXPANSION SPOOL INTERFACE
The design of the riser system requires detailed interfacing with the pipeline/expansion
spool. The interface between the riser and the submarine pipeline depends on the method
DOCUMENT No. 015-31401010- Rev. 8 Page 1 of46
of connection, geometry and type of riser and should be agreed in each case. The following
design issues shall be addressed:
• design responsibility;
• location of code breaks;
• riser routing;
• pipeline approach;
• expansion spool layout;
• overlap of riser and expansion spool structural analysis (often performed in one analysis
from pipeline to pig trap);
• the tie-in method.
DOCUMENT No. OIS-31401010- Rev. 8
Pagas of46
3. RISER/TIE-IN CONCEPTS
3.1 SUMMARY OF MAIN RISER TYPES
Risers for platforms may be broadly grouped into the following categories:
• riser for steel jacket platform;
• riser for gravity base structure (concrete);
• J-tube riser -this category is further discussed in (8);
• caisson riser system; consists of a caisson which forms a structural encasement and a
number of riser pipes which are installed in the caisson. Caissons are protective devices
to eliminate environmental loading on the riser pipes. Caisson riser systems may reduce
the number of riser supports which otherwise would be required for conventional risers;
• flexible riser for a floating facility (outside the scope of this document).
3.2 RISER INSTALLATION METHODS
3.2.1 General
Risers are usually pre-installed with the jacket structure. Otherwise they can: be retrofitted
onto existing platforms. This may be by the conventional method of lift, set and subsea tie-
in. Alternatively, one of the following methods may be used without the need for subsea tie-
ins:
• stalk-on method;
• bending shoe riser method;
• barefoot riser;
• J-tube installation (8).
3.2.2 Conventional method
Retrofitted risers are fabricated in sections, lifted from a barge and lowered into suitable
riser supports which may also be retrofitted onto the jacket. The number of riser sections
depends on the water depth and the length of the barge. The riser normally consists of an
upper section behind the jacket bracing (to provide safety against boat impact) which is
connected to lower sections positioned on the outside of the jacket. After installation, a
subsea tie-in is made to the pipeline.
A form of retrofit riser clamp may be installed after a jacket has been in service for some
time. In this case, provision shall be made for aligning the clamps/guides. This is achieved
by connecting the riser clamp/guide which is also clamped to a structural jacket member or
stub, depending on the size of riser. Retrofitting of these clamps/guides involves
consideralje diver time. Alternatively, a riser ladder, or more simply riser support stubs, may
have been installed on the jacket in the fabrication yard for future retrofitting of risers.
Retrofitting methods without the need for subsea tie-ins are described belo.v.
3.2.3 Stalk-on riser method
For shallow water, this is the most commonly used riser installatim method. After the
pipeline has been laid with its end on the sea bottom and close to the platform, the lay barge
is moored in position. The riser bend which will eventually connect the horizontal pipeline to
the platform deck is measured and the location at which the pipeline will be cut for
connection to the bend is marked. The pipeline is then lifted from the seabed by applying
tension to the pipe. In very shallow water with small diameter pipelines, this is not a
problem; however, larger lines in deeper water require a substartial length of pipe to be
supported off the bottom to avoid overstressing the pipe. The pipe is then cut at the mark,
the bend is welded onto the free end of the pipe and the pipe and bend are lowered down.
This process of adding pipe is continued until the pipe reaches the bottom. The riser is then
secured to the platform using diver-opented clamps.
Expansion spods can be set simultaneously with this method.
DOCUMENT No. OIS-31401010- Rev. 8 Page 9 of46
In deeper waters, the handling of the pipe and riser becomes increasingly difficult and even
hazardous to both pipe, equipment and personnel.
The main advantages ofthis technique are:
• weld connections are made above surface and can be fully inspected, ensuring weld
quality;
• diver activities are relatively simple, requiring only a normally-skilled team using standard
tools. The expense and time delay involved in mobilising specialised contractor
personnel are avoided;
• there is no requirement for underwater welding.
The disadvantages ofthis technique are:
• the lifting, welding and lo.vering operation is vulnerable to environmental conditions;
• careful planning and strict compliance with the predetennined lifting and lowering
procedures are vital to avoid overstressing the pipeline and riser;
• greater adjustability in the riser clamps is required because the riser cannot be moved
fore and aft once it is welded to the pipeline.
3.2.4 Bending shoe riser method
This method, consists of installing a curvature limiting shoe on the platform during onshore
fabrication. The pipeline is then laid to the structure and positioned under the bending shoe
either by manoeuvring the barge or attaching cables to the line as it is laid and pulling it
under the shoe. Once the line is in the correct orientation with respect to the centreline of
the bending shoe, specially designed hydraulic clamps on the platform capture and secure
the riser. These clamps may be installed either during onshore fabrication or immediately
before the riser is installed offshore. In very deep water or for pipe with low stiffness, it may
be necessary to install auxiliary cables on the riser to assist with the installation. Other than
inspection, this method of riser installatioo requires a minimal amount of underwater work.
3.2.5 Barefoot riser method
The method is simple and should find many applications, especially for deepwater platfonns.
The pipe weight and wall thickness are selected such that the pipe can be lifted vertically at
the water surface without exceeding a specified, non-buckling, bend in the sag portion of the
line. The method consists of approaching the platform with the pipe suspended vertically at
the water surface. The pipe is then positioned at a tangent to and in contact with the upper
end of a series of pipeline clamps on the platform. The lifting load is decreased according to
a prescribed schedule which forces the riser pipe into each successive clamp and puts the
bottom span into compression. The riser is then clamped to the platform once the desired
curvature in the sag-bend is achieved. The necessary hydraulic or electrically operated riser
clamps can be installed offshore using a rail guidance system to land each clamp at a
predetermined elevation. Diver time, other than for inspection, would be minimal for this
method of riser installation.
One other version of this approach to riser installation is called the Guide Rail method. This
type varies from the previously described method primarily in the clamp used to attach the
riser to the guide rail. The guide rail is a continuous "T" section or "H" beam welded to the
platform side or jacket leg during shore fabrication. The installation sequence requires the
lay barge to lay away from the platform while a riser barge attaches the riser clamp to the
rail and continues to add pipe as the riser is lowered. The lay barge continues to move away
from the platform during this operation. After the riser is in position, it is secured to the
platform by welding the clamps located above the water line to the rail and by having divers
attach the submersed clamps with set screws.
DOCUMENT No. 015-31401010- Rev. 8 Page 10 of 46
3.3 SUBSEA TIE-IN METHODS
3.3.1 General
In most cases, tie-in of the pipeline to the offshore facility is achieved by inserting an
expansion spool piece. The purpose of the spool piece is to absorb expansion loadings, and
accommodate the installation blerance on the pipeline.
The spool piece connections may be made up using one or a combination of the following
methods:
• mechanical oonnectors;
• flanged tie-in using RT J swivel ring flanges, miss alignment flanges; or
• hyperbaric weldng.
These tie-in methods are further described below.
3.3.2 Mechanical connectors
A variety of mechanical connectors are available and they generally consist of two
components:
• a gripping system, to anchor the connector onto the pipe;
• a sealing system, using either metallic or elastomeric seals.
Mechanical connectors are alternatives or supplements to flanges and can offer certain
advantages depending on their design, e.g.:
• some are easier to install (boltless flarges);
• some can accommodate a degree of misalignment (ball joints);
• some can be installed directly onto the bare pipe end;
• some are suitable for diver1ess application.
Mechanical connector systems are not yet as reliable as welded or flanged connecticns,
hence they are mainly used for emergency repairs to pipelines where speed of repair is
essential and the equipment for other repair methods is not available.
Mechanical connectors have been developed that can be activated from the surface by
hydraulics and without direct diver intervention. To achieve this type of connection, accurate
positioning of the end of the pipeline is essential. Once positioned, the pipeline is pulled into
the connector which is then activated and clamps around a special hub fitted to the end of
the pipeline.
3.3.3 Flanged tie-ins
Flanged tie-ins performed by divers on the seabed are etected by installing a flanged make-
up spool between the flanged ends of the lines to be connected. The spool is fabricated at
the surface to the exact dimensions required, using a template which has been made up on
the seabed and retrieved at the surface.
Due consideration should be given to the location of the flanges and, where possible, they
should be located to minimise bending loads in the flanged joint. The integrity of flanges
when subjected to high bending loads shal be confirmed by analysis.
The following recomrnendaticns apply to flanged tie-ins:
• the flange shall be of the ring joint type;
• one of the flanges shall be of the swivel ring type, to facilitate alignment of bOlt holes;
• the specified internal bore of the flange shall be the same as that of the pipeline;
• the gaskets shall be made of an alloy which is softer than the flange material;
• wall thickness differences between the flange body and the pipeline shall be
accommodated by specifying a tapered slope of not less than 1:5;
• all bolts shall be tightened using hydraulic tensioning equipment.
Subsea flanges and fittings should be bolted together using hydraulic tensioning equipment.
Hydraulic bolt tensioning equipment is used on either side of a flange to stretch the bolts to
DOCUMENT No. OIS-31401010- Rev. 8 Page 11 of 46
a predetermined tension. With the tension maintained on the bolt, the nuts are turned down
onto the flange, to bar tight, prior to relaxation of the equipment. In this way the flange can
be tensioned to meet the service load. Washers are not used on subsea pipe-to-pipe joints
as these are prone to contact corrosion, which causes the bolts to slacken with time.
3.3.4 Hyperbaric welding
Sub-surface or hyperbaric welding is performed with the pipeline on the seabed. Special
frames are required to align the pipeline ends to be welded, and the welding itself is
performed in a special habitat. The systems presently available are operated from a barge
or a diving support vessel. This method requires extensive diving capability and special
welding procedures.
As an alternative to hyperbaric welding, the weld can be performed inside an atmospheric
chamber into which the pipeline is pulled. However, this method requires further
development to be fully operational and is nd presently recommended.
3.4 FLEXIBLE SPOCLS
Flexible spools can be installed directly without the necessity of preparing a template, and
can considerably speed up the tie-in work. Flexible spools also have the ability to
accommodate thermal expansion/contaction. The extra cost of the flexible spools should be
weighed against the diving time savings on a project-by-project basis.
3.5 SELECTION OF RISER/PIPELINE TIE-IN METHOD
In general, welding is the preferred method for permanent tie-ins as far as this is practical
and economic. The welding may be performed at the surface or on the seabed. The
disadvantage of the hyperbaric welding technique is that it is a specialised activity, requiring
dedicated spreads and a high level of training of the operational personnel. Alternatives
shall be subjected to a cost/risk justification.
3.6 AVAILABLE CONSTRUCTION METHODS
Depending on the conditions at the intended location, such as weather, current velocity,
wave heights, tidal effects, seabed conditions, water depth etc., there may be a preference
for one of the possible construction methods. This in turn could put certain limitations on the
selection of line sizes. The preferred construction method will also be dependent on the
available construction equipment and on the cost of mobilising the required spreads with
dedicated equipment and handing capabilly.
The type of riser to suit a particular application depends largely on the pipe size, the
platform type, the direction of approach of the pipeline and whether the riser is to be
installed during platbrm fabrication or at some time after the platform is placed.
DOCUMENT No. 015-31401010- Rev. 8 Page 12 of 46
4. RISER ROU11NG AND LOCATION
4.1 BASIC ROUTING REQUIREMENTS
Selection of riser routing and location on a platform shall meet the following requirements as
far as practical:
• the riser shall have the minimum exposure to damage;
• the riser shall not be located below the accommodation or the helideck, or close to
escape routes from the accommodation or the temporary safe refuge;
• the riser shall be accessible for inspectim and maintenance;
• in meeting these requirements, gas risers shall have precedence over oil risers.
The selection of riser routing and location shall als:> consider the following general factlrs:
• safe and economical installation;
• supply boat mooring area locations;
• location of future risers;
• minimisation of risk of damage by vessel collisions, by positioning risers within the
structure above a depth of 20 m below LA T;
• minimisation of risk of damage by dropped objects;
• location of ESD valves, and their maintenance and inspecton;
• minimisation of risk of interference with future construction, drilling, work over or platform
maintenance or repair operations;
• access for subsea and topsides hook-up.
Consideration should be given to environmental loading conditions, particularly in the splash
zone (5.3.3), where riser lengths and horizontal routing should be rrinimised.
Jacket bracing layout should be considered as this will determine the possible support
locations and thus influence riser span lengths.
4.2 APPROACH TO PLATFORMS
Detailed consideration shall be given to the approach routes to the platform.
This will include consideration of:
• potential crossings;
• seabed obstruction;
• existing platforms/seabed iacilities in close proximity;
• angle of pipeline approach
• pipeline expansion requirements;
• routing to minimise risk of damage by dropped oqects;
• accessibility for future positioning of jack-up rig.
When pipelines have to approach the jacket with angles greater than 30° from the
perpendicular to the jacket face, the spacing between the risers should be increased to
allow more space between tle lines on the sea bottom.
If the direct approach of a pipeline would be halll>ered by the future position of a jack-up rig,
doglegs can be installed. Doglegs should also be used in preference to tight curved
approaches to jackets and provide a means of allowing for pipeline expansion.
Consideration should be given to the routing from the bottom riser clamp to the seabed as
this section is particularly susceptible to riser expansion, platform movement and scour-
induced spans.
Where several platforms together form a complex, they should have a staggered layout
along a straight line (spine) in ader to:
• free as much of the jacket faces as possible for risers;
• allow easy barge access;
• position different production functions along the spine, so that future extension of any
function is perpendicular to the spine;
DOCUMENT No. OIS-31401010- Rev. 8 Page 13 of 46
• allow for new functions to be installed along the spine.
A dedicated riser platform may be installed to supply additional riser capadty (with scraper
barrels and manifolds) and/or to improve safety and reduce the overall risk levels on
production facilities.
For new developments and extensions of existing complexes a careful study of the new
layout should be made in conjunction with anchor patterns (especially the drilling rigs},
pipeline approaches, approach path for jack-up rigs and supply boat mooring.
4.3 SAFETY
The design shall include a safety assessment which shall quantify the effect of the risers on
platform safety and may include the use of risk analysis to determine the need for additional
protective measures. Consideration should be given to the use of cost-benefit analysis to
assess the relative merits of different protective measures.
The requirement for and location of ESD valves should be addressed as part of the
development of the platform specific safety case.
Any risk analysis performed shall take into account analysis of the risk from both natural and
man-made hazards. Natural hazards shall include but not be limited to corrosion attack,
marine life attack, extremes of temperature and environmental conditions. Man-made
hazards shall include but not be limited to platform loading and off-loading operations,
vessel activities, dragged anchors, trawl gear, abrasion by cables and chains, impact by
vessels and dropped objects.
DOCUMENT No. OIS-31401010- Rev. 8 Page 14 of 46
5. DESIGN DATA
5.1 RISER SYSTEM/PLATFORM DATA
5.1.1 Process data
The following data are common to all elements of the riser:
• minimum bore requirement to meet throughput requirements;
• fluid type and density - maximum and minimum;
• design life;
• design pressure;
• maximum allowable operating pressure;
• hydrostatic test pressure for testing in fabrication yard and for system test;
• design temperature - maximum and minimum;
• normal operating temperature- maximum and minimum;
• internal corrosion allowance (if appropriate).
5.1.2 Riser data
The following data are required, as a minimum, for the riser design:
• riser type - whether a conventional riser for steel platform, for gravity base structure,
J-tube riser or caisson riser;
• installation P,ilosophy - whether pre-installed or retrofit;
• method of tie-in;
• steel grade;
• outside diameter;
• wall thickness;
• internal/external coating - type, thickness and density;
• insulation -type, thickness and density;
• field joint material - type, thickness and density;
• valve, fitting and pig trap weight, rating and location;
• bend radii, and thinning;
• mechanical protection requirements.
5.1.3 Pipeline data
• steel grade;
• outside diameter;
• wall thickness;
• internal/external coating - type, thickness and density;
• insulation - type, thickness and density;
• field joint material - type, thickness and density;
• expansion movements at free end;
• degree of trenching, self-burial and/or rock dump.
5.1.4 Expansion tie-in spool data
• steel grade;
• outside diameter;
• wall thickness;
• internal/external coating - type, thickness and density;
• riser/spool conna:tion type;
• geometry of expansion spool;
• mechanical protection requirements;
• bend radii and thinning.
5.1.5 Platform data
• substructure type and dimensions;
DOCUMENT No. OIS-31401010- Rev. 8
Page 15 of 46
• details of other risers, caissons and/or J-tubes;
• possible support locations and load restrictions;
• immediate substructure settlement into seabed;
• long-term substructure settlement into seabed;
• anode locations and details;
• platform displacements under 1 00-year design condition.
5.2 SOIL DATA
Soil data provide information regarding resistance of the soil to pipeline movement (lateral
and longitudinal friction coefficients), soil strength deterioration due to cyclic wave loading,
load bearilg capacity of the soil and susceptibility of soil to scour.
• ASCE classification of soils and grain-size;
• specific gravity of the soils;
• soil friction angle for sands;
• undisturbed shear strength of clay soils;
• remoulded (disturbed) shear strength or sensitivity.
5.3 METOCEAN DATA
5.3.1 Seawater
• water density;
• water kinematic viscosity;
• marine growth elevations, thickness and density.
5.3.2 Water depth and tides
• water depth, referred to a consistent datum (e.g. LAD
• lowest astronomical tide (LAD;
• highest astronomical tide (HAT);
• storm surge, i.e. maximum tide level for a specified average return period.
5.3.3 Splash zone
The splash zone range is defined as the astronomical tidal range plus the wave height
having a probability of exceeding 0.01. The upper limit of the splash zone is determined by
assuming 65% of this wave height above HAT and lower limit by assuming 3SO/o below LAT.
5.3.4 Currents
• maximum current velocity for a range of current directions (usually 8), heights above
seabed (usually every 10m) and return period (usually 1 and 100 years);
• relationship between he occurrence of wave-induced currents and the steady currents;
• the number of hours of occurrence per year for the ranges of steady current from zero to
the maximum steady current. These data are used for riser span fatigue calculations.
5.3.5 Waves
• maximum wave height for a range of directions (usually 8) and a range of return periods
(usually 1 and 100 years);
• the most probable wave period associated with each maximum wave height;
• the number of waves per year for ranges of wave height from zero to the maximum wave
height.
DOCUMENT No. OIS-31401010- Rev. 8
Page 16 of 46
5.4 ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS
5.4.1 Wind
• maximum wind velocity for return periods of 1 and 100 years;
• maximum and minimum ambient air temperatures.
5.5 EARTHQUAKE
In regions of the world prone to earthquakes, the response of the platform under the
1 00-year seismic event is required.
5.6 RETURN PERIODS
The riser system should be designed to withstand loadings resulting from the 100-year
return period storm conditions during the operating design condition. The one-year return
period storm condition should be used for analysis during the installation al!ld hydrostatic
testing design conditions.
Where the design life of the pipeline is very short (typically less than 10 years),
consideraion may be given to reducing the design storm return period to less than 100
years, based on a suitable risk evaluation.
If suitable seasonal data are available, seasonal one-year return period stam conditions
may be used for the installation and hydrostatic testing design conditions. Such data should
not be used if there is a possibilty of the relevant construction activity being performed
outside the season to which the data relate.
5.7 DIRECTIONALITY
Given sufficient hydrographic data, it is acceptable to account for the incident angle of wave
and current attack on the pipeline/riser system. Tidal currents are strongly directional. If the
wave and current data can be represented as a rosette, giving variation of wave height (or
current value) with direction for a given return period, then the resulting flow velocities may
be resolved perpendicular to the pipeline axis to give the (most critical) design loading
condition.
DOCUMENT No. OIS-31401010- Rev. 8 Page' 17 of 46
6. RISER AND TIE-IN SPOOL ANALYSIS
6.1 FAILURE MODES
The riser analysis shall consider the following failure modes:
• excessive yielding;
• buckling;
• fatigue.
6.2 DESIGN LOADS
The riser analysis shall considerthe following design loads:
6.2.1 Weight loads
Static loads due to weight shall include the following:
• pipeline/riser material;
• coatings;
• attachments such as anodes, flanges, buckle arrestors, couplings etc.;
• transported fluids;
• marine growth;
• buoyancy.
The weight loads shall be determined based on the nominal dimensions of the pipeline
system components, except for fluid where maximum values shall be used.
Concrete weight coatings may absorb water, and this shall be considered.
6.2.2 Pressure loads
The riser pressure design shall be based on the internal design pressure.
Cyclic variations in pressure may induce fatigue, and this shall be considered.
6.2.3 Thermal loads
Thermal expansion or contraction loads induced in the pipeline/riser system by virtue of full
or partial restraint of pipeline/riser movement shall be considered during the analysis.
6.2.4 Residualloads
Residual loads are loads left in the pipeline system after installation, and include:
• residual axial loads (such as lay tension);
• loads due to curvature at direction changes in the pipeline rolte; and
• loads induced by vertical curvature due to the seabed undulations along the pipeline
route.
Any permanent curvature or elongation produced during installation that results in residual
loads shoud be taken into account.
6.2.5 Dynamic loads
Dynamic loads induced as a direct result of the operation of the pipeline system may have
an effect on the structural strength of the pipe and its supports.
The riser analysis shall include dynamic loads resulting from slugging and pigging
operations.
Surge pressures occur when liquid flow is suddenly stopped or slowed, for example by the
sudden closure of a valve.
DOCUMENT No. OIS-31401010- Rev. 8 Page 18 of 46
6.2.6 Support reaction loads
Shear forces, axial forces and bending moments will be introduced into the pipeline system
by supports which displace or constrain the riser, and shall be included in tl"e riser analysis.
Substructure displacements as the result of storm loading and settlement fall into this
category of loading.
Possible scouring underneath the bottom riser bend and tie-in spool should also be
considered as well as any ESD valves and associated pipework when determining the
deadweight support loading.
6.2.7 Hydrodynamic loads
Hydrodynamic loads are caused by the movement of water particles past and around a
submerged object. The water particle movement is caused by currents and wave action.
Consideration should be taken of the following factors when determining the hydrodynamic
loads:
• selection and applicablity of wave theories with regard to water depth;
• selection of the appropriate steady current profile for combination with the wave current
profile;
• breaking waves in shallow water;
• storm surges in steady currents;
• selection of appropriate drag, lift and inertia coefficients;
• determination of combined drag, lift and inertia forces with regard to phase angle;
• velocity amplification around jacket members;
• the use of maximum wave data, not significant wave data;
• the use of irregular sea-state data.
6.2.8 Wind loads
Wind loadng on sections of a riser above sea level shall be considered.
The effects on wind load due to the proximity of other risers or structural members shall be
considered.
Vortex shedding excitation of the riser from wind loading and disturbances to the flow field
from change in wind speed or dynamic excitation of members adjacent to the riser shall also
be considered.
6.2.9 Seismic load
If seismic loads are taken into account in the platform design, they should· be taken into
accourt in the riser design.
6.3 LOAD CASES
The riser analysis shall consider at least three load cases, as follows:
6.3.1 Load case 1 -Installation loads
This load case shall consider the entire installation sequence, namely:
• onshore riser handling;
• load-out;
• jacket upending, staking-on or retrofitting.
Loads considered shall be combined as appropriate and include:
• weight and buoyancy loads;
• hydrodynamic loads appropriate t> the phase of work;
• dynamic loads due to vessel motions.
DOCUMENT No. OIS-31401010- Rev. 8 Page 19of46
6.3.2 Load case 2 - Hydrotest
This load case covers the onshore and offshore hydrotests and includes loads d.Je to:
• weight;
• pressure;
• thermal effects (if any};
• residual loads Qf any};
• support reactions, and hydrodynamic loads appropriate to the period of the test.
6.3.3 Load case 3 -Operational
This load case covers the operation of the riser and includes fle following types of load:
• weight and buoyancy;
• pressure;
• thermal;
• residual;
• dynamic;
• support reaction;
• hydrodynamic;
• wind;
• seismic;
• ice.
NOTE: The combination of loads that produces the highest stresses at one point may not be the same
combination that produces the highest stresses at another point (e.g. different wave directions and
phase).
6.4 WALL THICKNESS DETERMINATION
The riser wall thickness required for pressure containment shall be determined in
accordance with the required codes and standards.
An internal and external corrosion allowance shall be determined and added to the wall
thickness required for pressure containment.
An allowance for thinning during the bending process shall be added to the riser bend wall
thickness.
The wall thickness may not be governed by pressure containment and consideration shall
be given to the following:
• adoption of a single wall thickness for riser bends and straights;
• the use of a non-standard outside diameter, in order to achieve a constant internal
diameter along the pipeli'le system;
• the addition of an allowance for mechanical damage to the riser such as gouging by
cables;
• the increase of the wall thickness for ease of installation and to increase the spacing
between supports.
6.5 PIPELINE EXPANSION
6.5.1 General
The design of the pipeline and riser system shall consider the pipeline expansion due to the
effects of temperature and pressure. If pipeline expansion results in loads and stresses that
exceed acceptable limits, an expansion loop or other method of reducing the expansion
effects shall be provided.
6.5.2 Expansion analysis considerations
The pipeline expansion due to temperature and pressure shall be determined for the
following phases:
DOCUMENT No. OIS-31401010- Rev. 8 Page20of46
• operation;
• hydrotest.
The pipeline expansion analysis shall consider both the functional loading and the resulting
loads due to restraint. The functional loading should consider the loads due to the following:
• temperature;
• pressure;
• self weight (including weight of steel, coating, attachments, components, contents and
marine growth);
• configuration.
The restraining loads shout:! consider the reactions due to the following:
• pipe seabed friction;
• trenching and backfilling;
• riser or platform tie-in spoolpiece;
• subsea facilities such as subsea safety valves;
• anchors (such as rock dumping).
The expansion analysis should consider the maximum expansion mechanism resultillJ from
the minimum friction coefficient.
Pipeline expansions derived for both maximum operational conditions and hydrotest
conditions shall be based upon an appropriate pipe soil friction coefficient to determine the
critical design loading. Where a thin layer of soil with a high friction coefficient overlays one
with a much lower coefficient consideration should be given to possible pipeline settlement
into the seabed from repeated expansion and contraction movements.
For a buried pipeline, the frictional restraint of the soil overburden may be included as part of
the restraining seabed resistance. The design should give consideration of the uncertainties
inherent in this method of placement.
The pipe soil friction coefficients normally include a range of coefficients for various pipe
roughness and soil properties.
The design shall include the effects of potential seabed scour on pipeline expansion.
Changes in pipe wall thickness and/or weight coating thickness, and any discontinuities in
pressure or temperature such as may be found at a valve station, shall be taken into
consideration tq;Jether with the pipeline length when determining the pipeline expansion.
6.5.3 Expansion control methods
Pipelines at platforms have the potential to expand towards the platform. When the amount
of pipeline expansion and the corresponding load on the riser exceeds the allowable riser
loading, then some form of pipeline expansion control st-all be incorporated in the design.
In general, the control of pipeline expansion on the riser is achieved by either restraining the
pipeline and forcing expansion away from the platform or by incorporating an
expansion-absorbing mechanism
The restraining of pipelines near the riser may be achieved by the following methods:
• rock dumping;
• trenching and backfilling;
• increasing the pipeline submerged weigtt;
• axial anchoring;
• apply high-friction coating to low-friction-coated flow lines.
Pipeline expansion-absorbing mechanisms may include the following:
• provision for riser flexibility;
• expansion loop;
• flexible pipe.
DOCUMENT No. OIS-31401010- Rev. 8
Page 21 of 46
6.6 EXPANSION LOOP
Pipeline expansion should be accommodated by flexibility in the bottom of the riser. If the
pipeline expansion is such that the pipe and riser termination cannot accommodate the
expansion load, an expansion loop shall be provided.
The spool shall be made as compact as possible for ease of installation.
The expansion loop shall be designed to accommodate the maximum pipeline expansion
from either operation or hydrotest conditions, without applying unacceptalje loads or
stresses to the pipeline, riser or subsea structure. Flanges shall avoid locations subject to
high bending loads.
The maximum stress in the expansion loop and the maximum loads on the riser or subsea
structure shall be determined using conservative values of lateral friction coefficients at the
expansion loop.
The environmental loads shall be applied to the expansion loop design in combination with
maximum operational and hydrotest functional loading conditions. The wave crest shall be
positioned to give maximum loading on the expansion loop and four wave directions shal be
considererl.
Considerations shall be given to potential scour around a platform or subsea structure and
the effect on the expansion loop design.
Consideration shall also be given to vortex shedding criteria for any pipe span between the
bottom riser support and the pipe touchdown pant on the seabed.
As it is necessary for the spool to move relatively freely, local lateral stability under
environmental loading may not be achieved. If the spool is unstable, the maximum lift force
acting on the spool should be less than the submerged weight of the spool.
A spool which is either trenched or partially buried will experience a lower hydrodynamic
force than when exposed on the seabed. The design shall consider the effect of this
shielding.
The stability of a subsea pipeline is dependent on the stability of the soil on which it is
placed. If the seabed is unstable then the pipeHne will become unstable with it. The stability
of the seabed shall therefore be considered in addition to the stability of the pipeline.
If there is evidenre that the seabed becomes mobile in storm conditions, the depth of the
unstable soil below the seabed should be determined. The stability design should assume
that the pipeline is only buried to the depth by which the pipeline embeds in stable soil, and
not the embedment depth of the original undisturbed seabed.
A more extreme possibility in sandy soils of low density is that the soil near the seabed may
liquefy under extreme storm conditions. The excess pore pressures within the soil may
become equal to the confining pressures on the soil, resulting in zero effective stress and
zero soil strength. If this occurs, there is the possibility of severe instability coupled with
settlement of the pipeline. The possibility of soil liquefaction shall be assessed where
appropriate, or where there is evidence of the phenomenon occurring.
6.7 RISER STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Detailed strength analysis of risers shall be carried out using a validated finite-element
computer program. The computer model shall include the expansion offset, the riser up the
jacket and riser-associated piping on the deck, up to and including the pig traps.
The pipe system shall be modelled using pipe and elbow elements. Node spacing shall be
carefully selected to provide adequate stress output summaries of critical locations (i.e.
pipeline elbow).
The riser guides and supports shall be modelled by applying restraints to the model with the
required degrees d freedom.
The thermal offset/soil friction interaction is complex and will be modelled by springs for
small movements of the spool, or forces for larger movements of the spool.
DOCUMENT No. OIS-31401010- Rev. 8 Page 22 of 46
If overstressing due to hydrodynamic loads is predicted, then one or more of the following
should be adopted:
• relocation of clamps;
• use of additional damps;
• increase in riser pipe material grade md/or wall thickness;
• use of anti-fouling coating and/or cleaning systems to reduce marine growth.
6.8 ALLOWABLE STRESSES
Stresses shall be evaluated in accordance with the relevant codes and standa,ds.
6.9 ALLOWABLE STRAINS
A riser shall be so designed that it remains elastic under any combination of functional and
environmental loads. Allowable strain design is not allowed for risers, except for allowable
bending strain during the installation of a J-tube riser.
6.10 OVALISATION
The riser design stBII ensure that pipe ovalisation, F, does not exceed 2.5%.
where:
(D -D · )
F= max m1n X
100
(Dmax + Dmin)
and:
F = Ovalisation
Dmax = maximum OD
Dmin = minimum OD
The design shall consider ovalisation that results from pipe manufacture, external pressure
and pipe bending.
6.11 COLLAPSE
The riser design shall ensure the pipe is not subject to collapse/local buckling under any of
the load cases. Collapse results from excessive external pressure and/or pipe bending.
Appropriate safety factors against collapse are given in DnV Rules for Submarine Pipelines.
Note: Specialist advice should be sought when using cold-expanded linepipe as the DnV Rules underestimate
the effect of residual stresses.
6.12 VORTEX SHEDDING
The riser and clamping/support arrangement shall be designed so that significant cross-flow
vortex-induced vibrations do not occur. Analysis of vortex-induced vibration shall be based
on natural frequencies calculated in the course of the structural analysis of the riser as a
whole. The analysis shall take account of interaction with nearby structural elements and
other risers.
If it is not possible to eliminate in-line vortex-induced vibration by design, t ~   a fatigue
analysis shall be performed to demonstrate an acceptable fatigue life. ·
6.13 FATIGUE
The fatigue analysis shall consider fatigue damage from cyclic loadings due to pressure,
temperature, waves and vortex-induced vi !ration.
DOCUMENT No. OIS-31401010- Rev. 8
Page 23 of 46
The riser pipe shall have a fatigue life of at least 10 (ten) times the intended service life.
Conservatively, six shutdown and start-up cycles per year shall be assumed when
assessing the fatigue life of risers.
DOCUMENT No. 015-31401010- Rev. 8 Page 24 of 46

7. RISER SUPPORT DESIGN
7.1 RISER SUPPORT TYPES
Riser supports are normally one ofthe following types:
Guide clamp
This type of riser clamp restrains the riser from movements perpendicular to its axis whilst
allowing rotation and axial movement (see Figure 1).
Deadweight support clamp
This type of clamp supports the deadweight of the riser whilst allowing rotatipnal and axial
movement depending on its detailed design. Axial movement of the riser is restricted
downwards only (see Figure 2).
Anchor ch:mp
An anchor clamp fixes the riser at the location of the support in all directions and preven1s
rotation, including torque (see Figure 3).
Anchor damps can either be fabricated from steel plate and welded to the riser by means of
a doubler plate and circumferential fillet welds, or they can be manufactured as a fitting
similar to a flange and welded into the riser string by means of full penetration welds. The
former type of anchor clamp is most common due to its ease of fabrication. The latter
integral type of anchor clamp is used where riser loads are particularly high.
Topsides support
The topsides supports are designed by others and fall ou1side the scope of this document
Special support
Other types of support are used in cases where the reqLired riser restraints differ from those
indicated above. A riser guide permitting the movement of the riser in the direction of the
pipeline expansion is m example of a special clarrp.
7.2 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
Riser support types shall be selected and the supports designed to provide the riser restraint
and movement requirements determined from the riser strength analysis. Where possible,
riser suppor1s shall not be located in the splash zone.
Except for the integral riser anchor flange, riser supports shall be designed and fabricated in
accordance with the structural design rules for the structure. The integral andlor flange shall
be in accordance with ASME VIII. The fabricated anchor flange shall make use of doubler
plates welded to the riser with circumferential fillet welds.
Riser supports shall be designed without large stress concentrations particularly when
subjected to fluctuating loading. The possibility of fatigue damage of supports shall be
examined and, if necessary, a fatigue analysis carried out to confirm adequate fatigue life
and possible requirements for inspection for fatigue damage. Combined stresses should not
exceed 0.6 SMYS.
Bolts shall be designed for pre-tensioning to give a maximum allowable stress of 500/o of
SMYS.
Access shall be provided for the use of   bolt-tensioning equipment. Bolts shall be of
sufficient length for the use of hydraulic bolt-tensioning equipment and nuts shall be
provided with pre-drilled holes for the use of a "Tommy bar" for bolt rotation. All bolts of a
support should have the same diameter. Correctly tensioned bolts minimise fluctuating
stresses under cyclic loading and therefore improve fatigue performance and reduce the
de-stressing tendency of the bolt.
Supports shall be designed to facilitate their installation and that of the risers .
DOCUMENT No. OIS-31401010- Rev. 8 Page25 of46
For retrofit risers, specific attention shall be given to the requirement for position adjustment
of supports to enable a stress-free riser installation. The required adjustment shall be
determined taking into account the following tolerances and accuracies:
• dimensional accuracy of as-built drawings;
• dimensional accura::y of measurements by divers;
• alignment accuracy of installed clamps;
• clamp closure tolerance;
• misalignment adjustment tolerance;
• riser fabrication dimensional oontrol accuracy;
• riser transport and handling effect on dimensional variaion.
At least 250 mm of adjustment should be provided in the riser clamp design in order to
accommodate the stack-up of tolerances. See (Figure 4) for configuration of clamp with
complete freedom of adjustment.
The design of riser guides shall also comply with the following requirements:
- the inside of the guide shall be provided with a ribbed polychloroprene liner vulcanised to
the guide body;
- the inside diameter of the lined riser guide shall be determined such that the riser can
move in its axial direction without significant restraint;
- risers coated with a polychloroJX'ene coating at the location of riser guides shall be
provided with external Monel sheeting vulcanised to the riser coating over the length of
the riser guide and 250 mm at both sides in the installed condition. The length of the
Monel sheeting shall be sufficient to accommodate the requirement for adjustment of
vertical riser position during installation.
7.3 LOADING CONDITIONS
Supports shall be designed to resist the maximum loads from the risers, the support weight
and environmental loads on the support. Riser loads on the supports during hydrotesting of
the riser shall be taken into account when determining the support design loads.
The supports and supporting structures shall be designed to resist the combined loads from
the riser, environmental loads acting directly on the clamping structure and its weight for all
riser design conditions.
7.4 CORROSION PROTECTION
The corrosion protection of riser supports shall be in accordance with the substructure
requirements, and is a function of the support location, namely, either above the splash
zone, or in the splash zone or in the submerged zone.
Riser supports above, or in, the splash zone shall be protected by a coating system in
accordance with substructure specifications.
The design of riser supports in the splash zone shall include a corrosion allowance based on
the design life of the structure.
Riser supports beneath the splash zone shall be protected by the substructure cathode
protection system and shall be coated in accordance with substructure requirements.
Ribbed linings on the riser clamps shall be used to prevent shieldng of the cathodic
protection system.
Electrical continuity straps between the substructure and retrofitted riser supports shall be
used.
DOCUMENT No. OIS-31401010- Rev. 8 Page26of46
8. J-TUBE DESIGN
8.1 DESIGN DATA
The following data shall be provided in addition to the requirements of (5):
- pull head weght, diameter and length;
- pull-in cable weight, diameter and maximum tension capacity;
- back-tension during pull-in of the riser.
8.2 J-TUBE ROUTING
Routing of J-tubes shall tale into account the following requirements and consiideratiors:
- alignment tolerances of J-tube and the pull-in cable or riser;
space and support need to be available above the J-tube for the riser hanger clamp;
space and supports are required for the riser pull-in winch and routing of . ~ l l   i n cable;
the number of bends srould be minimised;
bend angles should be kept as small as is possible;
for steel risers the bend radius shall be as large as possible. Radii should be typically
100 times the diameter and radii of less than 50 times the diameter shall not be used.
NOTE: Reducing the number of bends and bend angle and increasing the bend radii will reduce the friction
forces between riser and J-tube during pull-in and will lead to minimum pull-i n and J-tl.tle design loads.
8.3 J-TUBE SIZING AND RADIUS OF CURVATURE
The internal diameter of the J-tube for steel risers should not be less than tv.Ace the diameter
of the riser.
The riser shall be capable of negotiating J-tube bends without exceeding maximum
permissible strains or without collapsing, buckling or wrinkling.
The combination of internal J-tube diameter, bend radius and bend angle shall be sufficient
to accommodate the pull-head.
NOTE: Minimum values for J-tube wall thickness and radius may be governed by the allowable span
requirement to prevent vortex-induced vibrations.
8.4 PULL-IN LOADS
The pull-in of the riser up the J-tube shall be analysed step-by-step from entry of the pull-
head into the bell mouth all the way up the J-tube using a validated riser pull-in program.
This analysis shall provide the required pull-in loads, point loads on the J-tube and bending
moments/strains induced in the riser.
The following forces shall be taken into account when calculating required pull-in loads:
- back-tension during pull-in ofthe riser;
- forces necessary for the elastoplastic bendng of a rigid riser;
- friction forces between the riser and the J-tube and friction forces between the pull-in
cable and the J-tube;
- radial forces n the bend due t> loss in tension t>rce around the bend;
- bell mouth jamming forces;
- J-tube jamming forces, i.e. the load on the J-tube that would result if a pull-head got
stuck, prior to the pull winch stowing.
Back-tension shall include the tension or residual tension in the riser from the laying
operation and friction with the seabed.
Predictions of the contribution of friction forces to the required pull-in loads shall be
conservative.
DOCUMENT No. OIS-31401010- Rev. 8 Page 27 of 46
NOTE: Frequently used coefficients of friction are as follows:
Coefficient of friction
riser and sea bed 0.4 to 0.6
riser and inside of the J-tube wall 0.3 to 0.65
pull cable and the inside of the J-tube wall 0.2 to 0.4
8.5 STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF J-TUBE AND SUPPORTS
J-tubes and their supports shall be designed and fabricated in accordance with the
requirements for the platform structure. Particular attention shall be paid to the modelling of
the loads at the contact points between the J-tube and the riser/pull-in cable. Supports shall
be designed without large stress concentrations particularly when subjected to fluctuating
loading.
The possibiity of fatigue damage of J-tube and riser shall be examined and, if necessary, a
fatigue analysis carried out to confirm adequate fatigue life and possible requirements for
inspection for fatigue danage.
Buckling analysis shall be performed to investigate any possibility of buckling/collapse of the
J-tube. Bar buckling of the J-tube compression shall also be prevented. Checks shall be
performed on the buckling stability of the J-tube bends, both in-plane and out-of-plane, for
the pull-nload case and for local buckling at the worst loaded area rJ the J-tube.
J-tubes shall be designed and supported so that vortex-induced vibrations cannot occur.
8.6 APPURTENANCES
8.6.1 Bell mouth design
The purpose of attaching a bell mouth to the J-tube bottom end is to ease the pull-in
operation. The bell mouth acts as a guide for the pull-head into the J-tube, and should have
an entry angle and height above the seabed (if any at all) which accommodate pull-in and
lead to acceptable span lengths with respEd to vortex shedding and column buckling criteria
(if applicable). The bell mouth may also serve to reduce the stresses resulting from a minor
change in orientation of pull-head and riser as they enter a J-tube. In case a seal bung
(8.6.2) is to be used, the bell mouth design needs to be suitable for seal bung installation
and operation. The bell mouth might also need J-tube flushing tlcilities for J-tube installation
and/or for flushing the J-tube of seawaterlinhiJjtor for corrosion protection purposes.
The loading that the bell mouth may experience can be divided into two load cases, namely
installation (pull-in) load case and the operational load case.
a) During installation, the bell mouth shall be able to sustain the reaction forces induced
on the bell mouth from the pull force required i> free a jammed pull-head.
Bell mouths which are close to the J-tube bottom bend may form a contact point on the
riser as it progresses around the bend. In these cases the bell mouth shall be designed
to sustain lhese loa:ls.
b) During operation the loading on the bell mouth is very dependent on what type of
restraints the seal bung (if any) puts on the pipeline riser. However, the following
loading might have to be considered:
- Pipeline expansion: When the bell mouth structure acts as a clamp fixing the riser to
the end of the J-tube, expansion movement of a pipeline on the seabed imposes a
bending moment, axial loading and shear force at the bell mouth.
- Gravity: When the bell mouth acts as a fixed support for the pipeline as it spans the
seabed or to a support structure, the submerged weight of the line causes bending
and shear at the bell mouth.
- Environmental: Wave and current loading acting on the suspended section may
induce shear and bending at the bell mouth.
DOCUMENT No. OIS-31401010- Rev. 8 Page 28 of 46
- Settlement: Differential settlement between platform and seabed may induce
bending and shear at the bell mouth.
There are many bell mouth designs in existence and it is difficult to categorise them. The
bell mouth layout is very much dependent on whether a seal bung for prevention of inhibited
water diffusing into the seawater is going to be used or not, and if so, what type of seal
bung.
In some cases a seal bung is not required, and the messenger wire, preinstalled in the J-
tube for installation purposes, needs only to be attached to the pull-head padeye outside the
bell mouth to commence the pull-in operation.
When installing a jacket structure it might be impractical to have heavy and lomg bell mouths
attached to the J-tubes. In this case, the J-tube may end in a blind flange with the
messenger wire attached to its inside. The bell mouth must then be flanged to the J-tube
before the pull-in operation can start.
(Figures 5A and 58) illustrate these bell mouth concepts.
8.6.2 Seal design
The primary objective of the seal bung is to isolate the void between the inside of the J-tube
and the outside ci the riser/pipeline from seawater. The riser/pipeline within the J-tube would
experience accelerated corrosion if the line was open to the sea. To prevent this accelerated
corrosion, this void is illed with inhibited seawater, or other suitable non-corrosive medium.
Secondary considerations are the degree of restraint the bung applies to the riser/pipeline
and the ability to flush the J-tube of seawater/inhibitor. The flushing consideration may not
form part of the seal design.
The seal is designed to prevent diffusion of the contents of the J-tube into the sea. In
satisfying this task the seal must accommodate the following load conditions:
a) Pipeline axial movement
The pipeline usually experiences high axial loads during operation which, if the line is
unrestrained, will translate into axial movement. Should pipeline axial movement be
experienced, then the seal can either permit the line to expand or prevent it from
expanding. Should the seal permit line expansion, then it will prove difficult to provide a·
watertight seal suitable for a long design life. However, should the seal prevent line
expansion, the seal will experience high axial loads.
b) Hydrostatic pressure
The seal may experience a pressure differential between the inside of the J-tube and
outside of the tube. This differential pressure can be either positive or negative
depending on the design. If the J-tube is filled with inhibited seawater up to the
topsides, the pressure differential at the seal will be the hydrostatic head due to the
height of water from sea level to the topsides. However, if the J-tube is gas filled, the
pressure differential will be dependert on the pressure ofthe gas in the J-tube.
If the gas pressure is topsides ambient pressure, the maximum differential pressure at
the seal will be the hydrostatic pressure at the seal due to water depth. These
scenarios are clearly illustrated in (Figure 6).
c) Design life
The seal should maintain its integrity over the design life of the J-tullle, which can
typically be 20 years. The seal material should not degrade due to seawater, J-tube
fluid content or extended durations of high temperature (from the riser/pipeline).
There are many J-tube seal designs in existence, most of which can be placed into 5
different categories. These caegories are:
- conical seals;
- inflatable seals;
- rubber boot seals;
- bellow seals;
DOCUMENT No. OIS-31401010- Rev. 8 Page 29 of 46
- integral plug/anchor seal.
Each type of seal is discussed with respect to their advanlages and disadvantages during
installation md operation.
a) Conical rubber seals
Conical rubber seals are suilable for small-diameter lines where the expansion
movement is low. The seal consistsof a rubber sheath of varying cross-section v.tlich is
bonded to the riser. This is usually fabricated on a short pup piece which is then added
in place o1fshore.
The riser shall be installed carefully so that the conical seal section is accurately
positioned in the J-tube bell mouth. In some cases, an anchor flange is ~ t t e   to restrict
the movement of the riser within the J-tube and to prevent damage to the seal. The
limits of axial movement and misalignment during installation with whic the seal can
cope will depend upon the contact length of the seal. Typically, the maximum
permissible misalignment or movement is ± 50 mm. The principal advantages of this
type of seal are its low cost and ease ci installation.
b) Inflatable seals
This type of seal consists of two toroidal inflatable seals. The seals are installed on the
inner surface of the J-tube bell mouth. After the riser is pulled in, the seals can be
inflated from the surface to close the annulus between the outside diameter of the riser
and the inside diameter of the J-tube. The seals can provide a sufficient seal to
withsland a differential pressure of typically 5 bar. Axial movement of the riser within
the J-tube is accommodated by shearing of the toroidal seals. With larger expansions
the riser may slip through the seals and cause damage to the elastomeric seal
components. Therefore this system is typically limited to axial movement of± 30 mm.
c) Rubber boot seals
One of the simplest methods of sealing a J-tube is using a rubber boot, which is
installed in the J-tube bell mouth. Since the sheath is designed to fit the riser a tight fit
should be achievable. However, the seal is susceptible to mechanical damage during
installation and pull-in.
The wear caused by the riser during pull-in can be uneven and render the seal useless.
Once the riser is installed, it is not possible to replace these seals. If this type of seal
can be installed correctly without suffering damage during installation the seals can
withstand differential pressures up to 2 bar and an axial movement of up to 30 mm.
This method lends itself to the use of a rubber sealing diaphragm, whiCh permits the
J-tube to be filled with corrosion inhibitor before the riser is pulled through. To pull the
riser through, the diaphragm is punctured to allow the riser to pass into the J-tube. The
ruptured diaphragm can form a seal, however an effective seal cannot be guaranteed.
d) Bellow seals
This is another simple method of sealing a J-tube by means of a rubber diaphragn.
These seals come in two forms, integral diaphragms and zipped types. The integral
diaphragms must be installed on the riser before the pull-in operation, hence a
protective cover is usually required to ensure no damage occurs to it during pull-in.
Should the diaphragm be damaged then it cannot be replaced with a similar seal.
However, the zipper diaphragm is inslalled by use of a waterproof zip. This will allow
installatim subsequent to the riser pull-in and replacement of the whole seal if
necessary. The seal between the riser/diaphragm and J-tube/diaphragm can be made
in a number of ways. The simplest method is to use banding straps, however split
flanges can also be used.
These seals allow greater axial movement compared to simple diaphragm seals and,
by increasing the length of the sleeves, can cope with axial movement over half a
metre.
These types of seal are suitable for differential pressures of up to 2 bar.
DOCUMENT No. OIS-31401010- Rev. 8 Page30of46
e) Anchor type seal
This type of seal is based on the same principle as the conical rubber seal, with the
difference that the seal is kept in constant compression irrespective of the
movements/loads in the riser. This is achieved by an anchor flange which is attached to
the riser behind the conical seal. Two split flanges are attached behind the anchor and
tightened to the bell mouth. This prevents the riser from moving at the bell mouth, so
ensuring the integrity of the seal. As discussed, this system does not permit any axial
movement of the riser, but can accommodate relatively high differential pressures.
8.6.3 Pull-head design
The pull-head is an item which is attached to the end of the riser on one side and to the pull-
wire on the other. The pull-head shall be designed to facilitate the pull-in operation and not
cause damage to the J-tube or the riser. It must withstand the tension caused by the pull-
wire and distribute the load to the riser so that these will not get damaged. It must be small
enough to pass through the J-tube bends without any danger of its getting jammed, and
incorporate any feature which results in a reduction in riser stresses and pull-in loads. These
features are often incorporated by designing a curved pull-head body of hardened steel, see
(Figure 7). The danger of the pull-head getting stuck in the J-tube bend may be easily
checked by sketching to scale the J-tube bend with the pull-head inside it.
The pull-head needs to be designed for the highest pull-load the system will experience
during pull-in plus the additional safety factor required. This load may either come from the
pull-in analysis or from a pull-head snaggirg analysis.
Two pull-head designs are illustrated in (Figures 7A and 78) and they are used for small
(50 mm to 150 mm) and medium (150 mm to 500 mm) diameter rigid pipelines, respectively.
8.7 CORROSION PROTECTION
The internal surface of the J-tube shall be protected against exposure to untreated seawater
prior to riser pull-in by means of a blind flange that prevents the ingress ofseawater.
At the time of the riser pull-in the blind flange is removed and replaced with a bell mouth. A
seal is fitted to the riser that blocks to the bottom of the J-tube. The J-tube is then filled with
inhibited seawater to prevent corrosion of the internal surface of the J-tube or the riser.
Provision for sampling the annular water shall be 170vided.
The external surface of the J-tube shall be protected against corrosion in the same manner
as a riser, see (1 0).
DOCUMENT No. OIS-31401010- Rev. 8 Page 31 of 46
9. FITTINGS
9.1 FLANGES
Flanges shall comply with the relevant specifications, codes and standards.
If bending moments, additional axial forces or shear forces occur at the location of the
flange connection, a behaviour (including the gasket with regard to leaking), stress and
bolting force analysis according to ASME VIII shall be carried out, taking into account all
relevant loading situations for the flanged connection.
For maintenance purposes, the operating manual for the pipeline system shall detail the
flange installation procedures used including the equipment required, the bolt pre-tension
forces to be applied and measurements to be made.
Consideration shall be made for the provision of profiled flange protectors to prevent
snagging by cables.
9.2 GASKETS
The gasket shall be a ring type gasket in accordance with ASME 816.20 and shall be made
of a material softer than the flange ring groove. The gasket material shall be chosen for
compatibility with the flange material and for the service conditions. Consideration should be
given to the use of ring joint inlays and corrosion-resistant materials for the gaskets.
Consideration should also be given to the use of coatings on the gaskets to improve
corrosion resistance.
9.3 BOLTING
Bolting shall comply with the required codes and standards.
Note: The preferred materials for standard applications are ASTM A 193-87 and ASTM A 194-2H for non-sour
service conditions, and ASTM A 193-B7M and ASTM A194-2HM for sour service conditions. For special
applications, e.g. low temperature, other materials may be required.
The bolt tension shall be calculated on the following basis:
• the bolt tension shall not caLSe a stress in the bolt greater than 50% SMYS;
• the relaxation of the bolt is a function of the method of tensioning and the coating on the
bolt;
• the bolt tension shall not lead to excessive yielding of the gasket;
• the bolt tension shall be sufficient to ensure the gasket remains seated under the worst
combination oftension, bending and bolt relaxation.
The use of a low-friction coatirg for ease oftightening shall be considered.
9.4 VALVES
Valves for offshore pipelines shall corrply with API6D.
Submarine valves should not be included in offshore pipeline systems b:cause of the
difficulty of inspection and maintenance. To facilitate maintenance, valves hall be either
flanged both ends or be of the top-entry type and be suitably mounted for eas . a access.
Piggability requirements shall betaken into accourt in the selection ofvalves.
1
9.5 BENDS
All long-radius riser bends shall comply with the required specificatim$, codes and
standards.
Consideration should be given to the use of long tangents to provide cut material for fit-up
offshore.
DOCUMENT No. 015-31401010- Rev. 8 Page 32 of48
10. RISER MATERIALS AND CORROSION PROTECTION
10.1 GENERAL
The service conditions throughout the design life of the pipeline shall be established to
permit the selection of suitable materials based on a technical and econanical evaluation.
The requirements for pipeline materials shal comply with API 5L.
10.2 LINEPIPE
Carbon steel linepipe shall comply with API 5L and the relevant design specifications.
Duplex stainless steel linepipe and other high-alloy materials (including clad pipe) shall be
specified on a project-specific basis and specifications shall be developed in full consultation
with the Principal.
10.3 EXTERNAL COATING
All risers including Duplex or austenitic steel pipelines shall be coated externally by a
suitable anti-corrosion coating, supplemented by cathodic protection for the part of the
system below the water level. The sections located within the spash zone shall be externally
coated with a vulcanised polychloroprene (neoprene). Consideration should also be given to
PE coating and Monel cladding.
The section above the splash zone and the riser bends can be coated with a glassflake
epoxy coating system.
Recent QRA studies have demonstrated the benefits of providing passive fire protection
around the above-sea secton of the riser, to prevent escalation due to flame impingement.
This aspect should be considered during the design of new risers.
External coating selection shall take account of the following proven temperature limitations
of the available coating systems, unless aherwise agreed with the Principal:
Table 10.1 Coating temperature limits
Coating System Maximum Maximum Specification
continuous excursion
operating temperature
temperature
eC>
("C)
Asphalt enamel 60 70 To be agreed With Principal
Fusion bonded   p o ~ 70 85 Project-specific specifications
Polychloroprene 100 100 Project-specific ·specifications
EPDM 105 105 To be agreed with Principal
Polyethylene and 100 120 Project-specific specificatons
polypropylene
Coal tar enamel or coal tar epoxy coating systems shall not be used.
Corrosion coating systems shall be in accordance with the documents listed in the above
table or project-specific spa:ifications.
DOCUMENT No. OIS-31401010- Rev. 8 Page 33 of 46
Field joint coating systems shall be compatible with and have good adhesion to the mill-
applied coating, and shall be stored and applied in accordance with the Manufacturer's
recommendations.
Thermal insulation materials and their properties shall only be selected in full consultation
with the Principal, taking into account the long-term degradation of mechanical and thermal
properties at operating conditions, such as service temperatures and (external hydrostatic)
pressures.
10.4 CATHODIC PROTECTION
Cathode protection design and sacrificial anodes shall comply with the project-specific
specifications
Zinc anodes shall be specified and the system shall be designed such that operational
temperatures of the anodes do not exceed 50 ·c. Impressed current systems should not be
used.
To allow effective monitoring of the cathodic protection of risers and to minimise the risk of
current drain from pipeline cathodic protection systems, submarine pipelines and risers shall
be electrically isolated from platforms and onshore installations. For offshore pipelines
isolating flanges are not acceptable and use shall be made of an appropriate type of
prefabricated isolating joint. Electrical isolation shall be ensured at all points of potential
electrical con1act, between the riser and the structure, below the isolating joint.
DOCUMENT No. OIS-31401010- Rev. 8 Page 34 of 48
11. MECHANICAL PROTECTION
11.1 PROTECTION FROM BOAT IMPACT
To prevent boat impact, the locating of the riser on the inside of the jacket structure adjacent
to a leg should be considered. Alternatively, a boat fender should be provided.
11.2 PROTECTION FROM DROPPED OBJECTS
The frequency of damage caused by dropped objects shall be assessed, by means of
specific drop zones and the probabilities of an object being dropped, of the object hitting the
pipeline and of the pipeline sustaining damage. A consequence analysis shall be carried out
and the results of this analysis shall be assessed against accepted risks. For any risks
exceeding allowable levels, protection measures shall be designed.
If the expansion loop configuration cmnot avoid the platform loading areas or other potential
dropped-object areas, consideraion shall be given to the provision of protection covers to
the expansion loop. The protection cover shall be designed to withstand the impact from the
heaviest item transferred between the platform and supply vessels. Protection covers shall
allow free movement of the expansion loop for maximum pipeline expansion.
Consideration should be given to the method of installation of the protection covers to
ensure that they are not a potential hazard to the expansion loop or to adjacent pipelines
and structures. The covers should be designed to allow easy access and removal if
required. Consideration shall be given to ensuring that the cathodic protection system
provided t>r the expansion loop remains unaffected by the protection covers.
Alternatively, where this is impractical or excessively costly, the hazard and risk should be
evaluated on a quantitative basis as part of the overall risk to the installation. Appropriate
action should be taken where necessary to reduce the risk to an acceptable level.
11.3 PROTECTION FROM SNAGGING LOADS
Consideration should be given to preventing accidental snagging of the pipeli"le/tie-in spool
and avoiding transfer of such loads to the riser system.
The possibility of snagging may be mitigated by avoiding spanning in the pipeline and tie-
in/expansion spool and protecting the tie-in spool and pipeline end close to the platform by
means of burial, rock dumping or covering with mattresses. This is particularly important if,
for example, anchor cables are frequently deployed in the vicinity of the platform.
DOCUMENT No. OIS-31401010- Rev. 8 Page 35 of 46
12. INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS
12.1 RISER INSTALLATION TOLERANCES
The alignment of all the riser clamps shall be verified before riser installation. In cases
where the riser is stalked into position, the position of the clamp shall be adjustable by
approximately 250 mm in all directiors.
12.2 INSTALLATION FEASIBILITY
A procedure demonstrating the feasibility of the riser installation shall be prepared. The
procedure shall demonstrate the following:
• the riser installation vessefs capacity is adequate (e.g. deck space, lift   etc);
• sufficient clearances are provided for the installation vessel;
• flexibility is provided in the design to make allowance for possible seabed level
variations;
• clearance is provided to adjacent structures for the tie-in operations;
• installation sequence is established including riser handling, up-ending, positioning and
placing of the riser in the clamps;
• the riser will not be overstressed during any stage of load-out and installation, including
static and dynamic loadings;
• minimised interference to platform operations.
12.3 CLEARANCE FOR HYPERBARIC WELDING
If the expansion loop is to be connected to the riser by hyperbaric welding, sufficient
clearance shall be maintained from any adjacent pipeline or structure (including the platform
jacket and appurtenances e.g. mud mats and pile guides) to allow positioning of the
hyperbaric welding chamber and associatEd handling frames.
12.4 CONSTRUCTION AIDS
Consideration should be given to the installation of construction aids at the tinie of the jacket
design.
Construction aids for the installation of future risers, subsea tie-in to expansion loops, and
hook-up to the topsides section ofthe riser should all be considered.
12.5 TEMPORARY CONSIDERATIONS
Temporary protection and sea fastening requirements should be considered for pre-installed
risers in order to prevent damage during load-out, transportation, installation and setting of
the platform. Temporary supportslfixings should also be considered for the installation
operation.
In order to minimise installation stresses within the riser, it may be necessary to provide
knee bracing on the riser, usually at the bottom bend in order to support the protruding riser.
After installation the knee bracing shall be completely removed in order to minimise
operational stress levels.
Consideration should be given to the temporary requirements for hydrotesting and pre-
commissioning equipment.
DOCUMENT No. OIS-31401010- Rev. 8 Page 36 of 46
13. REQUIREMENTS FOR OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE
The riser system should be designed with regard to future inspection, maintenance and
repair.
If intelligent pigs are to be used for internal inspection, bend radii shall meet the following
requirements:
Nominal pipe diameter, D, Minimum bend radius
(mm}
~ 100 100
150 to 250 50
~ 3     30
Additionally, if intelligent pigs are to be used, the pipeline internal diameter should ideally be
constant throughout, including valves, flanges, tees and other fittings.
Variations in internal diameter (Di} cannot always be avoided in local areas of limited length,
e.g. pipeline equipment such as valves. If changes in Di occur at the location of equipment,
pup pieces shall be used with a Di of the equipment. These pup pieces shall have tapers to
the pipeline Di with at least a 14 degree transition angle, measured from the axis of the pipe
(i.e. a taper of 1 :4}.
Consideration should be given to the requirement for possible riser replacement, in the
event this becomes necessary at some time during the life of the structure. If replacement is
not possible, as for example with a gravity based structure, consideration should be given to
the provision of a spare riser.
As far as practicalje, the risers should be located to enable easy access for inspedion,
maintenance and repair purposes. Consideration should be given to diver and remote
operated vehicle access throughout the length of the riser. Riser supports should be avoided
in the splash zone since they hinder inspection and may result in additional corrosion.
DOCUMENT No. OIS-31401010- Rev. 8
Page 37 of 46
14. DESIGN OUTPUT
14.1 GENERAL
Documentation is produced at all stages during the life of a pipeline, from design to
abandonment. All essential documentation should be retained, be accessible and be
regularly updated, as required, throughout the life of the riser system.
14.2 DESIGN DOCUMENTATION
On completion of the design activity, a detailed design report shall be issued. All tables,
graphs, drawings and any references used during the design should be included within the
report. Back-up calculations, though not necessarily included in the report, should be
retained for reference and clarifications.
The drawings prepared during the detailed design should be retained to form the basis for
as-built documentation. The drawings should include, but not necessarily be limited to, the
following:
• Key plan of field arrangement;
• Platform layout including:
- platform crane locations and radi;
- loading areas;
- areas at risk from dropped ot:jects;
- pipe supports.
• Tie-ins and expansion spools- general arrangement and isometric drawings;
• Designated anchor areas;
• Platform approach details;
• Riser details including:
- size (diameter, wall thickness);
- coatings;
- clamp details;
- location and routing;
- general arrangement and isometric drawings.
14.3 AS-BUILT DOCUMENTATION
Upon completion of pipeline construction activities an as-built record of the riser system
shall be made.
The as-built record provides an official record of the installed riser system and includes such
information as:
• precise routing ri the riser;
• riser details, i.e. material grade, wall thickness, coating, etc.;
• fittings inslalled on the riser, i.e. ESD valves, anodes, bends, etc.;
• clamp details.
The as-built records are essential information required by the riser system operator for
future inspection and maintenance of the riser system.
DOCUMENT No. 015-31401010- Rev. 8
Page 38 of 46
15. REFERENCES
In this DOCUMENT reference is made to the following publications:
NOTE: Unless specifically designated by date, the latest edition of each publication shall be used together with
any amendments/supp laments/revisions thereto.
AMERICAN STANDARDS
Pipeline valves
Issued by:
American Petroleum Institute
Publications and Distribution Section
1220 L Street Northwest
Washington DC. 20005
USA
ASME Boiler And Pressure Vessel Code:
Section VIII: Rules for construction of pressure
vessels
Metallic gaskets for pipe flanges
Issued by:
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
345 East 47th Street
New York NY 10017
USA
Alloy-steel and stainless steel bolting materials for
high-temperature service
Carbon md alloy-steel nuts for bolts for
high-pressure md high-temperature service
Issued by:
American Society for Testing and Materials
1916 Race street
Philadelphia
PA 19103
USA
NORWEGIAN STANDARDS
DnV rules for submarine pipeline systems
Issued by:
Det Norske Veritas
P.O. Box300
N-1322 Hevik
Norway
DOCUMENT No. OIS-31401010- Rev. 8
API6D
ASMEVIII
ASMEB16.20
ASTMA 193.
ASTMA 194
Pag$ 39 of 48
APPENDIX 1 FIGURES
FIGURE 1 TYPICAL GUIDE CLAMP
Riser clamp
Jacket leg Riser
Jacket sleeve
DOCUMENT No. 015-31401010- Rev. 8
Page40of 46
FIGURE 2 TYPICAL DEADWEIGHT SUPPORT CLAMP
Jacket leg Riser
Ja::Ket sleew
DOCUMENT No. OIS-31401010- Rev. 8
t----- SleewV\elded
to riser
Neq:Jene
linillJ
Page 41 of 46
FIGURE3 TYPICAL ANCHOR CLAMP
------ ---------- ____ ! ____ _
Jacket leg Riser
Jacket sleeve
DOCUMENT No. 015-31401010- Rev. 8
Circumferential
fillet weld
top and bottom
Doubler plate
Pag$ 42of 46
FIGURE 4 TYPICAL CLAMP WITH COMPLETE FREEDOM FOR ADJUSTMENTS
!..
1-----
DOCUMENT No. 015-31401010- Rev. 8
 
I
'
'
'
 
Page 43 of 46
FIGURE 5 J-TUBE BELL MOUTHS
A:
8: --- -------------------------- -
DOCUMENT No. 015-31401010- Rev. 8 Page44of46
FIGURE 6 J-TUBE SEAL PRESSURE
PRESSURE OF SEAL
Ps =(Pi+PigHi)-(PsgHs)
WHERE:
P s = Differential pressure at seal
Pi = Gauge pressure at top of J-tube fluid
Pi = Density of fluid in J-tube
Ps = Density of sea water
Hi = Height of top of J-tube fluid above seal
Bell mouth
H
8
= Water depth of seal below mean sea level
DOCUMENT No. OIS-31401010- Rev. 8 Pag$ 45 of46
FIGURE 7 TYPICAL PULL-HEADS
-4-
1 Lifting lug, to be connected
to a shackle
Circular plate bevelled
to give smooth profile
Reducer
Riser/pipeline
A: Side elevation of typical pull-head for small diameter pipelines
(50 mm to 150 mm)
-S-2---- --- -i-- _,_ To•--
Pull-head
To pull-head
 
Spelter socket
8: Pull-head for medium size pipelines (150 mm to 500 mm)
DOCUMENT No. OIS-31401010- Rev. 8 Page 46 of 46

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