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MKONHA, THE LAST TUTELO.

IN

1870;

AGED

106.

March

2, 1883.]

l

(Hale.

PROCEEDINGS
OF THE

\

AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL

SOCIETY.
}

HELD AT PfllLADElPHIl FOR PROMOTING USEFUL DOWLEDIJE.

VOL. XXr.

1883.

/

THE TUTELO TRIBE AND LANGUAGE.
By HoKATio
(^Reai before the
IIai.e.
Society,

American Philosophical

March

2,

ISSS.)

The tribes of the Dakota stock, under various designations Osagcs, Quappas, Kansas, Otoes, Oinahas, Minitarees (or Ilidatsas), lowas, Mandans, Sioux (or Dakotas proper) and Assiniboins, have always been regarded as a people of the western prtvirie^, whose proper home was the vast region lying west of the Mississippi, and stretching from the Arkansas River on the south to the Saskatcliawan on the north. Asingletribe, theWinnebagoes, who dwelt cast of the Mississippi, near the western shore of Lake Michigan, were deemed to be intruders into the territory of the Algonkin nations. Tlie fact, which has baen recently ascertained, that several tribes speaking languages of the Dakota stock were found by the earliest explorers occupying tlie country east of the AUeghenies, along a line extending through the soutlicrn part of Virginia and the northern portion of North Carolina, nearly to the Atlantic ocean, has naturally awakened much interest. This interest will be heightened if it shall appear that not only must our ethnographical maps of North America be modified, but that a new element has been introduced Into the theory of Indian migrations. Careful researches seem to show that while the language of these eastern tribes is closely allied to that of the western Dakotas, it bears evidence of being older
in form. If this conclusion shall be verified, the supposition, whiciv at first

were merely otfshoots of tln' Dakota must be deemed at least improbable. Tlie course of migration may be found to have followed the contrary direction, and the western Dakotas,

was

natural, that those eastern tribes

stock,

like the western

Algonkins,

may

find their parent stock in the oast.

As
and

a

means of solving

this interesting

problem, the study of the
is

liistory

language of a tribe

now virtually extinct assumes

a peculiar scientific value.

Philologists will notice, also, that in this study there

presented to them
its

a remarkable instance of an inflected language closely allied in

vocabu-

PROO. AMEU. PHIL03. BOC. XXI.

114. A.

PRINTED MARGH

20, 1883.

Hale.]

^

(March

2,

to cllulects which are mainly agglutinative and bear but sliglit traces of inflection. In tlio year 1671 an exploring party under Captain BxU, leaving "the Aporaatocli Town," on tlie James River, penetrated into tlie mountains of Western Virginia, at a distance, by tlie route they traveled, of two hundred and fifty miles from tlieir starting point. At this point they found " the Tolera Town in a very rich swamp between a breach [branclj] and the miin river of tlie Roanolce, circled about by mountains."* Tiiere are many errata in the printed narrative, and the circumstances leave no doubt that "Tolera" should be " Totera." On their way to tliis town the party had passed tlie Sipong [Sapony] town, whicli, according to tlio journal, was about one hundred and fifty miles west of tlie Apomatock Town, and about a hundred miles east of the "Toleras." A few years later wo shall find tlie.se tribes in closer vicinity and connection. At tliis period tlie Five Nations were at the height of their power, and in the full flush of tliat career of conquest which extended their empire from the Georgian Bay on the north to the Roanoke River on tlie south. They had destroyed the Hurons and tlie Eries, had crushed the idastes (or Conestoga Indians), hvd reduced the Delawares to subjection, and were now brought into direct collision with the tribes of Virginia and the CaroUnas. The Toteras (whom we shall henceforth know as the Tuteloes) began to feel their power. In 1633 the French missionaries had occasion

lary anil in

m iny of its forms

in their structure,

.'

in

Senecas against a people designated misprint occurring once more in the same publication.! The traditions of the Tuteloes record long continued and destructive wars waged against them and their allies by the Iroquois, and more especially by tlie two western nations, the Cayuto record a projected expedition of
tlio tlie

printed letter the

"Tolere,"

—the same

To escape the incursions of tlieir numerous and relentthey retreated further to the south and east. Here they came under the observation of a skilled explorer, John Lawson, the Surveyor-General of South Carolina. In 1701, Lawson traveled from Charleston, S. C, to Pamlicosound. In tliis journey he left the sea-coastat the mouth of the Santee river, and pursued a northward course into the hilly country, whence he turned eastward to Pamlico. At the Sapona river, which was the west brancli of the Cape Fear or Clarendon river, he came to the Sapona town, where he was well received. $ He there heard of the Toteros as "a neighboring nation "in the "western mountains." "At that time," he adds, "these Toteros, Saponas, and the Keyawees, three small nations, were going to live together, by which they thought they should strengthen themselves and become formidable to their enemies."
gas and Senecas.
less enemies,

*Batt'8 Journal
p.
191.

and Relation

of

a

New

Discovery, la N. Y. Hist. Col. Vol.

ill,

Bruyas, Nov. 4, IB36, In N. Y. Hist. Col., Vol. HI, p. 48*. that Lawaon was here la error, and that the Sapona river was a branch of the Great Pedee, which he does not mention, and some branches which he evidently mistook for tributaries of the Cape Fear rlvev.Si/nop$i$ of the Indian Tribet, p. 85,
tLiiiiibrevllle to
X (ittllatln sH'jrgests

1883.1

*

[Hale.

They were then at war with the powerful and dreaded Senecas— whom Lawson styles Sinnagers. While he was at the Sapona town, some of the Toteras warriors came to visit their allies. Lawson was strucli with their
appearance. He describes them, in his qnaint idiom, as "tall, liltely men, hiving great plenty of buffaloes, elks and bears, with every sort of deer, amoiigst them, which strong food makes large, robust bodies." In another place he adds: "Tliese five nations of the Toteros, Saponas, Keiauwees, Aconechos and Schoicories arc lately come amongst us, and may contain in all about 750 men, women and children."* It is known tliat the Toteroes (or Tuteloes) and Siponas understood eacli other's speech, and it is higlily probable that all the five tribes belonged to the same stock. They had doubtless fled together from southwestern Virginia before their Iroquois invaders. Tlie position in which they had taken refuge might well have seemed to them safe, as it placed between them and their enemies the strong and warlike Tuscarora nation, which numbered then, according to Lawson's estimate, twelve hundred warriors, clustered in fifteen towns, stretching along tlie Neuse and Tar rivers. Yet, even behind this living rampart, the feeble confederates were not secure. Lawson was shown, near the Sapona town, the graves of seven Indians wlio liad been latel}' killed by the "Sinnegars or Jennitos" names by which Gallatin understands the Senecas and Oneidas, though as regards the latter identi-

fication there

may

be some question.
fact

The noteworthy
Fear
river,

mentioned by Lawson, that buffaloes were found
to afford a clue to the causes

in "great plenty" in the hilly country on the head waters of the

may be thought

Cape which account

Dakota lineage east of the Alleghenies. The Dakotas are peculiarly a hunting race, and the buffalo is their favorite game. The fact that the Big Sandy river, wliich flows westward from the Alleghenies to the Ohio, and wliose head waters approach those of the Cape Fear river, was anciently known as the Totteroy river, has been supposed to afford an indication tliat the progress of the Toteros or Tutelos, and perhaps of the buffaloes which they hunted, may be traced along its course from the Ohio valley eastward. There are evidences which seem to show that this valley was at one time the residence, or at least the hunting-ground, of tribes of the Dakota stock. Gravier (in 1700) affirms that the Ohio river was called by the Illinois and the Miamis the Akansea The Akanseas river, because the Akanseaa formerly dwelt along it.f were identical with the Quappas, and have at a later day given their name Catlin found reason for believing to the river and State of Arkansas.
for tlie appearance of tribes of
*

Lawaon's " History of Carolina ;" reprinted by Strother & Marcotn. Raleigh,
;

1860

t"Elle" (the Ohio) " s'appello par les Illiaola et paries Oumlamis la rlvlftre des Akanseas, parceque les Akanseas I'habltolent autrefois. "—Gravier, Helatlon du Voyage, p. 10. I am indebted for this and other references to ray esteemed friend, Dr, J. G. Shea, whose unsurpassed knowledge of Indian history la not more admirable than the liberality with which its stores are placed at the com-

p. 384.

mand

of his friends.

It is by no means improbable that when the buffalo abounded on the Ohio. In September. But the inference that the region west of the Mississippi was the original home of the Dakotas. and speaking languages Hist. 055 et seq. to endeavor to bring about a peace between them and the southern tribes. the governors of New York. and that the English derived The migrations of races are not to be traced their origin from America. held a conference at Albany with the chiefs of the Iroquois. 1T2-J." all of whom. The and protection which the Tuteloes had received from the Tuscaroras In the year 17il a war broke out between the Tuscaroras and the Carolina settlers. to different stocks. and Virginia.* Some confusion and uncertainty. conclude that the Aryans had their original . remained near Iheic original tired a short distance A applied by the Iroquois to two distinct tribes." a name derived from that of a fort which had been established in their neighborhood. Vol. enumerated the tribes for which the government of his Province would undertake to engage. heafllrms. and that those of that stock who dwe. the question must be pronounced unsoluble. follow. the Iroquois were accustomed to comprehend under the name of Todirichrones. of Virginia. p. does By the same course of reasoning we might not. These were "the Saponies. V. at various points along that river. great body of the Tuscaroras retniated northward and joined the Iroquois.. that the Portuguese were emigrants from Brazil. home. another tribe of the Si)nlhern at — .] * [March 2. of Southern Indians.seat in Western Europe. formerly no very distant period resided in the valley of the Ohio. Ochineeches. under the protection of the Virginian government. and that they receded Avith it to the westward of the Mississippi. Stenkenoaks. and Toteroes. On this occasion Governor Spotteswood. Meipontskj's. Y. They merely renorthward into the Virginian territory. that the Mtviidiins. from the fact that this name of Todirichrones was portion. by such recent and casual vestiges The only evidence which has real weight in any inquiry respecting migrations in prehistoric times is that of language and where this fails.Hiilp. who received them into their league as the sixth nation of the confederacy. And here they were ])resently joined by the Tuteloes and Saponas.t on the Ohio or cast of the Alleghcnics were emigrants from the AVeslern prairies. Here they were allowed to remain at peace. however. however. Among them were certain tribes which were commonly known under the name of the "C'hristanna Indians. with their confederates. it appears. or rather confederacies.ans. as it sometimes does. Tiie peculiar traces in the soil which marked the foundations of their dwellings and the p:)sition of their villages were evident. belonging •N. Pennsylvania. arise in consulting the colonial records of this time. by any m'. . A^ter their overthrow the their allies soon failed ihein. which ended during the following year in the complete defeat of the Indians. —and Dakota stock. the Dakota tribes found its valley their natural liome. Col. and took up their abode in the tract which lies between the Roanoke and the Potomac rivers.

"Tiiough there that is among you. The vocabulary which he jc'ves seems to warrant this seiiaratloii. the Delaware's and Shawanese.es of th(! DiiUotan taniily. to arrive at a Onal result. subjection. 111 the other hand. We sliall have. the i'oseinl)laiices of words heinj^ fnw and of a doubtful eli. 8. and that his suljsequent researches among the few survivors ot the tribe have not yet resultedin conllrminglt. The latter. but too slight and distant to make the ttlUliatioii certain.whoseextensiveueiiuiilntiincc wilh Indliu Mnj^ulstIcs gives great weight to hisoplnlon on any subject connected witli this study. under the shatlow of the great confederacy. roes) iiiul These wore. IHS'i) that this elassllicatlou was conjectural and provisional." . tiiey could still muster four hundred warriors. mid. determined to follow the course which had been taken by the major portion of their Tuscarora friends. At the beginning of the last century they numbered several thousand souls. spoiulent. on the one hiiiid. One result of the peace thus established was that the Tuteloes and Saponas. distinct from tlic Dakota." they replied to the Virginians. It authorities at this conference sought to repress. leading to frequent hostilities. („„. we thought you it could only be extinguished by their it. from ancient times.„_ totally dissimilar. "to compare nioru material. and place themselves directly under the protection of the Six Natitms. under the name of the tribe which lay nearest to the confederacy and was the best known to them. As late as 174. Col. since desire we are willing to receive them into this peace. Tlieyshow certain tnicesof resemblance. p. dilVering wiibly. which the English was the policy of the Iroquois. however.iriicler. and to forget all the past. thoy established themselves at Shamokin (since named Sunbury) in what is now the centre of Pennsylvania.J. or more attentively that wliicli we have. liifoMUH mo (March HI. On this occasion they responded in their usual spirit. according to Adair. It was a region which the Iroquois held by right of conquest. In llui llrst annual report ol" the Ituri'jui of Kihnolojiy connected with tlie SiulllHonlan Institution (Introduction. V. The Catawhas occupied the eastern portion ol the Carolinas. if not radU both from the Dakota and from tiie Iroquois languagcs. Hist. yet. On Ualtatln.f The only connection between tlie Catawbas and theTuteloes appears to have arisen The Catawba language call3^ from the fact that they were neiglilwring. Galschet. Y. after a time. many frag- • X. against whom we "a nation. A bitter animosity existed between them and the Iroquois. always to yield to overtures of peace from any Indian nation. t bis Synopsis classes the Cata\vl)a as a separate stock-.1883. Mr. xix) the Kutiiba (or Catawba) My estei'nied correis i'unke<l uiuoii!? the lanfj(niij. having been eitlier expelled or reduced to Here. have had so inveterate an enmity total extirpation.] 5 their nllies. Vol. souih of the Tuscarora nation. as tic remai'Us. A. seem to have confounded them all together. («J0. the powerful Catii\vl)iv nation. both In the vocabulary und tli(! syntax. the Tiitelnes (or Toteon the other. Moving northward across Virginia. \).. and •jierhaps politically allied tribes."* is a peculiar speech. and were alike engaged in hostilities with the Irofiuois. the Todirichrones. its former occupants.

visited Shamokin. achieved not dissimilar destinies."! Tiiis disparaging description was perhai>s not unmerited. namely. 149. p. The same politic fore. the Delaware from the Sbawanese. 71. mcnts of broken tribes —Conoys. berge-. Tuteloes. and oibers.thought in council. marked the two peoples who. they pas. p. edition. and of ruling by proconsular deputies. the same clemency the . Pursuingthesame clas-sical comparison.sed through Skogari. an exploring party of Moravian missionaries passed through tbe same region. Yet some regard must be paid to a fact of which the good missionary could not be aware. Am. the same love of conquest. tribes of Indians. a like readiness to strengthen their power b}' the admission of strangers to the citizenship. He In September. David Bniinerd. f Life of Zeisberger. the same relentless determination in war. from the Onondaga.J • " were now congregated [Mnrch2. whose natural tntits are exem. Those who are familiar with the various branches of the Indian race are aware that every tribe. in the summer of 1748. Nanticokes. tbe missionary. has certain 8i>ecial characteristics." Tlie designation is more just than is usual in such comparisons. a like taste for agriculture." he says.Halc. a similar admixture of aristocracy and democracy in their constitution. both physical and mental."* Three years later. in what is now Columbia county. the differences are much more strongly marked. the tribes of the Algonkin stock. 1745. Indeed. the Sioux from Mandan and between the great divisions to which these tribes belong. Philip of PokanoQuotod in the " Life of Zeis- * Life of Bralnerd." by De Soliwelnltz. by Du Soliweinitz. It was "tlieonly town on the continent inhabited by Tuteloes. the resemblance between these great conquering communities is strikingly marked. Del- awares. The Mohawk differs in look and character decidedly nearly three hundred persons. or ethnic family. who was one of them. From this we gather that the whole of the Tuteloes were not congregated in Shamokin. "of three different speaking tluee languages wholly unintelligible to each other. the others Senekas and Tutelas. even a notable similarity in the strong and heavy mould of figure and tbe bold and massive features. . and still more every main stock. Tract 8oo. llfled in their renowned sachems. In Zeisberger's biography the impression formed of this town by the travelers is expressed in brief but emphatic terms. describes it in his diary as containing upwards of fifty bouses and "They are. similar customs of forming outlying colonies. has left a record of their travels. 167. a degenerate remnant of thieves and drunkards. p. Powhatan. an equal reliance on strong fortifications. to the utterly vanquished. we might liken the nearest neigh- bors of tbe Iroquois. Tlie Iroquois have been styled "t'ae Romans of the West. that the Indians wlio are qliaracterized in these unsavory terms belonged to a stock distinguished from the other Indians whom be knew by certain marked trails of character. The celebrated Zeisberger. on widely distant subject nations theatres of action. About one half of its inhabitants are Delawares. the same respect for laws and treaties. Before reaching that town.

Hut it would seem that their red-skinned neighbors saw in them some ciualities which gained their respect and liking. Mlivntanomiih. the Algonkin Nanticokes from the Eastern Shore of Maryland. the four small tribes of "Nanticokes. vl. Hist. to the ingenious and versatile Greeks. t stone's Life of Sir William Jolinson. though the tribs? whom thoy represent Iiave ceased to exist as such. j>. and no less eager for the dance and the feast. p.* At about the same time a band of Delawares was received Into the League. however. capable of heroism. When a great council was to be convened in 1756.1 ' [Hnle. and have become absorbed in the larger nations. and oncireled by tribes of teristics Algonkin and Iroquois lineage. 484. and the wild and wandering tribes of the great Dakotan stock. to confer with Colonel Johnson on tlie subject of the French war. and Tecumseli. 1733.. Ibid. showed all the distinctive characof the stock to which they belonged. Tlic tall. the Iroquois. 811. X 1. It would seem. or of long-susA not less notable resemblance might be found bt-twocn the tained ef!ort."| Though the Tuteloes were thus recognized as one of the nations of the • N. The step received the commendation of so shrewd a judge as Colonel (afterwards Sir William) Johnson." at least as seen in the hurried view of a passing missionary. untamable and fickle. that their removal from tlieir lands on the Susquehanna to the proper territory of the Six Nations did not take place immediately after their reception into the Loaguc. but incapable of political union." are bracketed together in the list as mustering in all two luuulred men. as well as o the Nanticokes and the Delawares. . had apparently degenerated. a position which they still hold in the Canadian branch of the confederacy. Vol. Tutecoas [an evident misprint] and Saponeys. on lands allotted by the Six Nations. wild and wandering Scythians of old. and perhaps was never wholly completed. 487. robust huntsmen of Lawson.t From this time the chiefs of the Tuteloes. In an "account of the location of the Indian tribes. p. Y. Vol. wampum belts were sent to nine "nations" of the confederacy. to the full honors of the confederacy. The Tuteloes. Reckless and rapacious. Five years after Zeisborger's visit. 1763. half a century later. held at Onondaga in September. Vol. into a "remnant of thieves and drunkards. Colonel Johnson congratulated the Cayugas on the resolution they had formed of "strengthening their castle " by taking in the Tedarighroones. who had held them hitherto under a species of tutelage. At a great council of tlie Six Nations. Col. Pontiac. Conoys. the modern Dakotas present all the traits which the Greek Iiistorians and travelers remarked in the barbarous nomads who roamed along their northern and eastern frontiers. and are described as "a people removed from the southward. together with their fellow-refugees. far from the main body of their race. II. chasers of the elk and the deer. took their seats in the Council of the League." prepvred by Sir William Johnson in November. and settled on or about the Susquehanna. ket. fond of the chase and the fight. de- cided to admit them.

Ilalc] 8 belli)? [March 2. Soutli of them lay the land assigned to the Tiileloes. in the expedition . which stretches along the western bank of the Cfrand lliver. Tlio Tuteloes accoini)anied their friends the Cayuga. the Onondagas.are have numbered then about two hundred souls. Y. Of tins above names Dchoriss kaimdla is apparent ly a corruption of the Moliawk words TeUolerinh fraH«(/«. but which proved most unl'ortiniate for tlie Scniecas and The liritisli government funiislied Grand River. siibiuilting to the compierors. It was called in the Journal of General Dearborn. ir: a special up tlicir distinct triliiil orfjiiniztilioii. {•onfedcmrj'.s. like most Indian names of i)liice8. Clarlt. the ravages coinmitted them upon the settlements of their Avliite neiglibors.. Six Nations. Tlieir (Jdef seltlenu'nt. mostly along the bi. witli a few of Tiiscaroras. Fifty years ago."* The town was destroyed in 1770 by General Sullivan. Tliej' retained aj)parently the reckless habits and love of enjoyment which had distinguished them in former times.ml (177!)). "Tlie town was on tlic liigh ground soutli of the sciiool-hoiise. Umler this name it now forms a suburb of tlie city of Hrantford. Miiicli liy avenged. . so disastrously for tin.loliii S. nearly oiipositc On tlie Guy Johnson's IJuttciiiiilk Falls. having in the midst their "long-house " in which their said to councils were held. Corcorgoi"! in tlie Journal of G and on a inaii made alioiit tlio 'orge Gr. when the (iresent city was a raero liamlc. and still bears tlie name «)f Tutelo Heights. and tliein tlie greater pjirt of the Cayugas. Tlic principal C'ayu'^^a villages its were (•Justered al)out the lake to wliieh the nation has fiiven name. wliich of c'onrse llie liuntin^ and llshinjf privilei^es neces- sary for their existence. as is well known. Of tlie broken tribes. the position of ilances which enlivened their council-house. l»roiiirht witli it tlic new comers and pav(! them a site for tiieir town. careful ol)scrver. but are too much corrupteil to bo satisfac- my torily deciphered. Tliej. and their festivals celebrated. The other words are probably. X. ancient times had with lands. occupied by a few venturous Indian traders and pioneers. trilial fiieiid *'I am iuflcbtcd for this and much ottier valuablo Infonnatloii to Goiieral . was the destruction of the ancient confederacy.'liiiriss-kanadia same date Ivayeghtalagealat. . They built their town on a pleasant elevation. about llnce miles end of Cayuga lake. some fragiucnls reinaiiKul in their origintil s'jats. All the Moliawlvs. tli(>y were maimer lie friends and allies of tiie Cayt Tiie latter. Old people still remember the uproar of the Unhappily.. atrii)e always noted for their kindly temper. di'scriptlvo designations.'eii compiered by the Iroipiois from the people who wore styled the Neutral Nation. about lialfof many of the Oneidas. followed Brant to Canada. Tutelo town. wlio lias made tlio locatlim and mis^ratlons of the Indian tribes the subject of a special study. accoiding to a was on the east side of Cayuga inlet. of Auburn. D. and two miles south of Ithaca. iind ns such kept irgiirded us iij^as. in the territory wliich in them. rec((iv(!d williin Iheir territory. A place was found for them in a locality wliich seemed at the time attractive and desirable. on the farm of James Fleming. The result. from the soutli map of 1771. it figures (by a slight misprint) as Todcvigh-rcmo. the Tutelo cabins w(!rc scattered over these heights.

suH'ered the most. white hair. 1883. (>k( nha in the Cayuga dialetrt signifies nios(piito. . I believe. Tliis last surviving Tutelo lived amo ig the Cayugas. At all events. f . PRINTED MAUCH 20. a log cabin. confirmed the reports which I had heard. B. tlie diseiirtcs their Tlicir fniincs. Cliief George Johnson. . nd was known to them by the name of Nikonha. 114. and took refuge among their Cayuga friends. were un easy prey to followed in the track of the [Hnlo. >Iy friend. cholera foinid perished. The f^reater part of the tribe Those who escaped dims t'> tlH-ir habitations a few years longer. it was by tlie rattier odd cognomen of "Old Mosquito. mirlliful disposiHis replies to tion of his race survived in full force in its late. The Tutelo nation ceased to exist. built on a small eminence near the centre of the Reserve. AMER. in answer to my inquiries." that he was commonly known among the whites and he was even so designated. and much good-humored laughter. he differed strikingly from the gmve and composed Iroquois among whom he dwelt. only one Tutelo of the full blood was known to bo living. where the language of her people. The lively. be ascertained. is a scanty. Nikonha was sometimes.in Tribes. but demeanor and character. . considered by far the oldest man on the Reserve. and it was perhaps merely a corruption of the Knglish word mosquito." the my note book. Not only in physiognomy. His age was said to exceed a century and in confirmation of this opinion it was related that ho had fought under Bi-ant In the American war of Independence. His appearanc^e. He was married to a Cayuga wife. the government interpreter. . in which he had a place as having served in the war of 1812. accompanied us to the residence of the old man." and sometimes "liitle.lf»3. many victinis on the Indian The Tl:tell)«i^4. XXI. in tlu. By intermarriage with these allies. the small • remnant was soon absorbed and in the year 1870. pellloinenlH. stubbly beard. PROC. Iteserve. " A wrinkled. The few survivors fled from the Heights to which they have left their name. the last survivorof tlie tribe of stalwart hunters and daring warriors whom Lawson encountered in Carolina a hundred and seventy years before. In IHiJJ. our inciuiries were intermingled with many jocose remarks. and for many years had spoken only But Ik had not forgotten his proper speech. But the second visitation of the dreadfid plagm. eiifoubled wliicli now population. basking in the sunshine on the slope before his cabin. rendered "mosquito. fingei-s bent with age like a bird's claws. AVhat in common repute was deemed lie was to be the most notable fact in regard to him was his great age. At that time my only knowledge of the Tuteloes had been derived from the few notices comprised in Gallatin's Synopsis of the Indi. half-shut eyes. in 184S coinidi'ted the work of the first. PHIL03. both of his great age and of his marked intelligence. smiling countenance. thtj Asiatic." perhaps in the sense of mos((uitoHis Tutelo name was said to be Waskiteng its meaning could not like. a description recorded in also in high forehead. and readily gave us the Tutelo renderings of nearly a hundred words. as we first saw hiiii. SOC. pension list. in pro- portion to their numbers.t member.] .W town brought them into direct fontact witli llie wliitu by dissipniion.

The discovery of a tribo of Dakota lineage near the Atlantic coast was so unexpected and surprising that at first it was natural to suspect some mistake. same they are classed with tho naUons of the Tluron-Iroquois stock. was tho last information which I received from old Waakiteng. on my next visit to the Reserve. and he did not know what had become of them. 1871). In early times the}' were a large tribe. is careful to mention that no vocabulary of tho language was known. Ilis mother (who was also a Tutelo). and joined the Six Nations. himself to be a hundred and six years old and if so. with tho scientific caution which marltcd all his writings. however. except himself. The Sapo- and Tuteloes. beyond question. children of Tutelo mothers by Iroipiois fathers. enumerated with the Saponies. and two other tribes. Toteroes.] ^^ [March 2. old Nikonha said. could undersUind one another's About the language of the Patshenins.Hale. . This. or Nikonha. At that time his people. There are. but they were mentioned with the Saponies as a companion tribe. with some additions to my vocabulary. Senecas. Ilis father's name was Onusowa he was a chief among the Tuteloes. He died a few months later (on the 3l8t of February. his earliest recollections would go back to a time preceding by some years the Rovoliilionary war. the Tuteloes. With the view of determining this point. lie believed . which city he knew by that name. the distinguished author. and by the native law (which traces descent through the female) are held nies speech. 1870. and he was brought up by an uncle. to be Tuteloes. were living in the neiglibor- hood of two other tribes. The tribes they most commonly fought with were the Tuscaroras. they parted with the Sajionies at Niagara Falls. that the language was totally distinct from the Iluron-Troiiuois tongues. was allowv-'d to retain his saat after his constituency had disappeared. who know the lunguage. I neglected to inquire. In the latter we may perhaps recognize the Ochineeches.ribe came to Niagara (as he expressed it). whom Governor Spottcswood. died when he was young. At the time. was of the tribe. taken in the wars which were anciently waged between the Iroquois aiul the tribes of the far West. before I had an opp. One of them.a great river beyond Wasliington. the Saponies and the Patshenina or Rotshenins. He knew of no Tutelo of the full blood now living. and Cayugas.v<«t('d away through fighting. and that it was closely allied to tho languages of the Dacotan family. who sat in the council as the representative and who. but had w. Tlieir war parties used to go out frequently against various enemies. Afterwards his4. That which was now obtained showed. several half-castes. The idea occurred that the old Tutelo might have been a Sioux captive. man about his early history. under the general name of Christanna Indians. of questioning the old that of his people. . He had hoard from old men that the Tuteloes formerly lived on. in October. When the Tuteloes came to Canada with Brant. in 1703. with a conservatism worthy of tho days of old Sarum.irtunity of again visiting the Reserve. I took the first opportunity. and His answers soon removed all doubt.

Both of my semi-Tutelo informants assured me that the prope'. . He made. tli(!list of words obtained from the old Tutelo was extensive enough to atlbrd a test of the correctness of the additional information thus procured." has pointed out.ov)"Th<' Dincovories of nati." he . lay in the fact that the interpreters were dutufomidcd. "Ti»e island. Iliirpol. maintains inhabitants. if necessity rcMiuires. though not with ecjual success. wliicli was duly appreciated. Cincin- p. howStarting from the Falls of the James ever. There is still. 17. undoubtedly. applied by Lcderer to the tribes of this stock. an island in the same river. at the charge of the colonial government. 1070 a year before Captain Batt's expedition to the Alicghenies undertook. the Saponas whom Captain Batt visiied in the following year. whose daughter was the wife of a leading Onondaga chief. be accepted as atfording an authentic representation of (his very interesting speech. In this word we probably see the origin of the name. many who naturally fortified with fastnesses of ley in his " History of Virginia. a village of the Nahyssans. theiridentity with the Occaneeches mentioneil by Beversmall. and from his aunt. The vocabulary and the outliiu's of grammar which have been derived from these sources may. and interpreter. It may have been originally a mere local designation." »9. the last syllable having a faint nasal sound." situate on a branch of the Uoanoke river. accustonipd to amuse his grave fellow-senators occasionally asserting the right which each councillor possesses of addressintc the council in the language of his people. " though — — — are fixed in great security. thereft)re. an exploring journey in the same direction. Tifitei and Tutie) has no meaning either in tlie Tutelo or the Iroquois language. T received a sullicicnt nunduT of words and phrases of the language to give a good idea of its gninnnatical framework. and the Ochineeches mentioned by Governor Spotteswood. Brinton. 80 far should be added. his speech. to " 8ai>on.] 11 l»j' [Hftlo. being mountains and water on every In these Akenatzies we midoubtedly see the Acouechos of side. which was sometimes barely audible. Nahyssan. 11." by O. it as can which has accompanied the tribe. also. extend.— 1883."* Lawson. the kindred and allies of 'the Tuteloes. name. as such names sometimes do. These were. and in doing so has drawn attention to roprlntoil John Lederer. after twenty days of tnivel. Tehfitili. Dr. Fortunately. that the elotpience uttered in an unknown tongue had to go without reply. Fifty miles beyond Saixtn lie arrived at Akenatzy. lH7it. river. the word Tutelo or Totero (which in the Iroquois dialects is variously pronounced Tiuterih or Tebotingh.says. some uncertainty in regard to the tribal be learned. being trim slated — by an In the case of the Tiitelo chief the jest. John Ledercr was a German tnivelcr who in May. an elderly dame. some interesting discoveries. in his well-known work on the "Myths of the New World.national name or the name by which the people were designated among themselves was Yesang or Ycsah. in its subsequent migrations. as far as they tliis From chief. he came.

may dilfer the Latin. . native and iutrugive. mountain fastnesses of the Clierokees." wiiich people of didercnt tribes used in tlieir intercourse with one anotlier. it would seem. from the Great Lakes to tlu. like that of the widely scattered Algonkins (or Ojibways) in the nortiiwest. were found by the English to be living together.1 -l- [March tlieir 2. stock. in the same manner (lie observes) "as tlie Catholics of all nations do their Mass in .vpected conflrmation of the tradition iirevailing among liie tribes both of the Algonkin and of the Iro(piois stocks. but also from the terms of amity on which these tribes of diverse origin. they had some ceremonial observances (or. That these tribes bad at one time a large and widespread population may be inferred from the simple Tlie Akenatzies or Occanecches respects. may be inferred not only from the adoption of the aboriginal speech as the general means of intercourse. as Beverley terms them. These are Beverley's illustrations. They found. it some of these ol)- servances. precisely as the Indians of the north."! Further on he gives us tiie slill more surprising information thai lliis "general language" was used by the "priests and conjurors" of tlie ditlerent Virginia!' nations in performing their religious ceremonies. Tiiey had. in some community among the tribes of Dakotan stock who formerly inhaliited Virginia. and gradually overspreading the country on both sides of the Alleghanies. in performing their own We thus have a strong and une. became the general medium of conimunieaTliat tion for the people of different nationalities in their neighborhood. (1st eilillon). the chief or leading fact that their language. p. though they have been but a small nation ever since these parts were known to tiie English but in what their language from tliat of the Algonkins I am not able to determine. 2(1 edition. He adds the remarkable statement: "The general language here used is that of the Occanecches. lUl.. like those of the western Dakotas. however. seems evident from the circumstance that the intrusive tribes adopted this language. and the Lingua Franca in tiie Levant. used the "Aland as Latin was employed in most parts of Europi. History of Virginia Ibid. Virginia. the very Interesting facts recorded by Beverley respecting guai^e. and possibly the whole country east of (he Alleghenies. whicli represents them as coming originally from the fir north.lfi83. a "general language.* lan- According to tliis liisiorian. 171. "adorations and conjurations") of a peculiar and im|)ressive cast. according to gonliine. p. occupied by tribes speaking languages of the Dakotan Tliat the displacement of tliese tribes was a very gradual process. and probably with religious rites. and that the relatio is between the natives and the encroaching tribes were not alwaj's hostile. "t would seem to have been. from the Great Lakes to South Carolina. tlic tribes of Virginia spolvc languages differ- ing so widely tliat natives "at a nii»dorate distance" apart did not under- stand one another. See tho note on puRe t i M'i of I)r Hrlnton's voliiinc. " tlien La Ilontan..

3Iere traditionary evidence. the characteristics of race whieli dis- full oval outline office. gan. must certainlj' be considered one of the moat singular occurrences in the history of science. it has a weight which renders it a valuable confirmation.188. This conclusion was briefi)' set forth in some n-marks wliich I had the honor of addressing to this Society at the meeting of December 19. but when it corresponds with conclusions previously drawn from linguistic evidence. a comparison of its grammar and vocabulary with those of led to tiie inference that the Tutelo the western l. tlierefore be deemed a hinguagc of no small historical imporlance. TIIE able to bring TUTELO LANGUAGE. 1SS3. Owen Dorsey.inguage Dakota tongues has was the older form of this common sjieech. in September. The fact tha!. The portrait of old Nikonha. i)e olVshoots of the Win- nebagoes. lield in Montreal. will serve to show.T. this language. I the earlier portion of tliis essay was had the pleasure. and has made careful In fact. For this purjiose the Dakota and Ilidatsa (or Minnetarce) languages were necessarily selected. and is recorded in the published minutes of the meeting. better than of any description could do. As has been latest surviving already said. The almost Euro[)ean cast. Apart from the mere historical interest of the language. That the Tiilelo tongue represenls this "gcneml hmguage" of which Beverley speaks— this aboriginal Latin of Virginia— cannot be doubted.1] 13 [Tlnle. 1879. who till recently resided near the western shore of Lake Michi- A comparison of their made with ]Mr. who do not claim a near relationship to Nikonha. which was first obscurely heard of in Virginia two hundred years ago. of learning Rev. It may. . as well known. Sonic years afterwards. its scientific value '\n American ethnology entitles it to a careful study. cannot always be relied on. and after written. In the following outline of Tutelo grammar. as they reappear in the Tutelo half-breeds on the Reserve. Dorsey's is aid. . who has resided for several years as a missionary among the western Dakotas. the at the meetingof the American Association for the Advancement of from n\y Science. the more southern Dakotas declare their tribes to dialects. researches into their languages and historj^ that they have a distinct tradition that their ancestors tormcrly dwelt east of the Mississippi. and there learned from the li|)s of the member of this ancient community. and the large features were evidently not individual or family traits. friend. Tliose who are familiar Mith the Dakotan physiognomy will probably discover a resemblance of type between this last representative of the Virginian Tatelosand their congeners. tinguished his people. the Sioux and Mandans of the western plains. an accurate photograph. fully sustains this assertion. being the only tongues of this family of which any complete account has yet been publislied. it has been deemed advisits forms into comparison with those of the western lan- guages of the same stock. of the Smithsonian Institution. has been brought to liglit in our day on a far-ofi" lleservation in Canada.

of tlie Rev. thus a. like oi in boil . whose experience has attested its value. au. like a in mat. of the highest scientific value. as in like in accented syllables o. y. method which has been followed by me in writing this is based on the well-known system proposed by the Hon. un. 4. or like oo in pool . in accented syllables written a. i. g. i in accented syllables . as \n 6. h. like e. like a. like the q. iu. which are due chiefly to a desire to employ no characters that are not found in any well-fur- The alphabetical language. R. special notice are: like sh in shine. e. the German a in Mann. French nasal n in an. o in bonne. The modifications suggested for the Indian languages by Professor Whitney and Major Powell have been adopted. kota For the information respecting these languages I am indebted to the DaGrammar and Dictionar}. like e in met. j. h. u in but . s. i in pin. Riggs (published in the Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge) and the Ilidatsa Grammar and Dictionary of Dr.: Hale. p. like The diphthongs our long i in pine . a. in accented syllables u. like the French in not. syllable written A. as well as the Iroquois dialects. as in mason. nished printing-ofilce. like ou in loud. get. a. w. t. a in fall. ai. The Alphabet. with a few exceptions. with some modifications expressed by The letters 6. «. The vowels are sounded generally as in Italian or German. m. 0. both of them excellent works.] 14 [March 2. like ii. and generally followed by American missionaries. 0. ?iote . n. like u in j^are. in e. i. sharp sound. S. Shea'p Library of Amoriran Linguistics). lu go. as like t in ature. are. z are sounded as in English. as in rale. The consonants requiring 5. bon. a in fate . like u in pull. k. BAways h&rA. the 8 having always its diacritical marks. or the Spanish j in joveth . like like in machine accented syllables i. &i. like the German ch iu Loch. 0. John Pickering. like the in an accented French u in dur. d. give. like father . I. Washington Matthews (published in Dr.

A double con• In or t<. more frequently a variation of the a than of any other vowel sound. white. younger brother (Dak. Tlie harshest was that oftak. Phonology. Thus hustoi. and the nasal n. l<. It is. became maate . i (ord). nor r was heard. in fact. child. which occasionally has to be indicated in unaccented syllables. v. I alone. Neither/. are rarely of sufficient importance to require to be noted in taking down a new language.. the syllable in which it occurs is the accented or emphatic syllable of the word.* Words usually end in a vowel or a liquid. beoomea i<si in Hldataa. of u (or in accented syllables u) was often heard. m. the diacritical marks over the vowels are omitted. suntka. however. as in is indicated by an acute accent over adopted principally when the vowel has a brief iniaani. Tlie word for " mother" was at one time written hena. e vowel sounds. but the distinction between and between o and u is not always clear. the steals" was heard as manbma and manumn. spring (tlie season). caused by the dropping of a consonantal sound. tliough not always. and at anotlier ina . in judge The sound of the English ch by dj. except accented syllable It —that in the is. stinka) . and this was not frequent. . Experience shows that the variations in tlie sound of a vowel in unaccented syllables. wagtUska (Dakota. inserted by a mere trick of pronunciation. the syllable on which the stress of voice falls. h (and q). Ao. represented by trj the j and dg The apostrophe (') indicates a sliglit hiatus in the pronounciation of a word. «anT. ko^ka). s. this sound was frequently developed into a clearer vowel. oold. In general.ongo dog (Dak. arm.unki. and language could probably be dispensed with. k{org). Tlie obscure sound ditference of these vowels was sufflclently apparent. aaiini. or (losing the nasal sound) aadi. tlie word for "he In general. «.1883. Tlie consonantal sounds which were heard were: p (or 6). is understood that when a vowel (other than the it) has a mark of any kind over it. Tlie Hldatsa caiTles this practice further. The only exception is in the sound marked u. n. to distinguish it from the u. and q (ah) only as a variant of a. became histo . w and y. and so on. foot. becomes t«inia. with which it has no similarity of sound.. I. muate. and constantly Introduces the sound of < before the sharp The Tutelo i<i. whicli is often. but when the word la which it occurred was more distinctly uttered. as in wagntaka. the t la apparently an ad- scitltlous sound. Occasionally the accented syllable the vowel. The use of the character ii (or u) in this Tlie Tutelo has the ordinary i. became anfiTii.] 15 in cheat is [Hale. Harsh combinations of consonants were rare. cuflka) and many similar words. This method or obscure sound. which is pronounced in a manner is midway between msaai and mmmi. within the limits represented by the foregoing alphabet.

merely the French nasal sound. that for one. In all is properly a modification of nnhilTibi words in which it occurs. and was occasionally so little audible that it was not noted. he The nasal n is properly a modification of the preceding vowel. hinfpi. day. my axe monti. yet in certain words sonants v-ere pretty constantly used. the two elements seemed to distinct. . at difierent times and m'~itoi. and at another with q. as has been said. tr^oiik nuhdinbi. good dog word grammatically . tH/ttoire. and related to it. The aspirate was somewhat stronger than the English h. the nasal sound was at times very faintly heard. is followed by another Thus. t and /. nahdTip. soon. When a monosj-llablc or dissyllable ends with a consonant. .ictioa^. and wnnei. and frequently assumed the force of the German ch or the Spanish j (represented in our alphabet by 7).Hale. "Wiiether there were really two distinct sounds or not. or nahfnip. iinhdinp Idnt. is to terminate every word with a vowel sound. could not be positively ascertained. a bear.i rare. except as variants of the surd consonants p. and for daj'. his. tliine. nds and nons. that for sky. as ksiiTi'cii. Wliellu his indistinctness of the nasal sound belongs to the language. In general. In the Tutelo this latter sound only occurs ))efore a k or hard . It'fri ant] iicfr'. and would have been more adequately rendered by a mark above or below the vowel itself. The and n were I occasionally interchanged. extracted from the more extensive vocabulary hereafter given. nine. mont nosd. liefore which it assumes the sound of ?«. htHrtnkai.. The tendency of tlie language. one bear l^bTijo (or tt^oiiki). icdnehl. lified by the palatal consonant. tongue. Thus the Tutelo word for day. Bonant in tlie onmmencomont of itiou tr (d't) a ^vnrd I i. yiiifiiowe. however.7. or was a peculiarity of the individuals from whom the speecli was learned. Dakota (or Sioux proper) and Ilidatsa (or Minnetaree) : .] 1^ at the [March is 2. eplul. dog.p miiiyilowe. Tlie word for knife ' was written nianfiii. three days. mutoTii. but it has seemed desirable to avoid the multiplication of such di. while at e er times an n was heard in its place. axe.7 was almost always sounded. Tlius in tlie pronouns mii I'oitc. in fact. three. mine. mntoi. and in the Polynesian dialects often commences a word. that that for winte moseTiiAw\ masdi. will show the forms which similar words take in the allied dialects. 1 or (in the construct form) nithdmp. It is. nahdmp. The nasal n is also modified by the labials b and p. It perhaps onlr occurs for comb'm an ca:itr.icritical marks. tlie . as in lani&nd nfini. nnlunnhi. The following brief comparative list. hixi'. It is donbtful if the sonants h. in this position. it is usually in a construct form. . The same word was writ'en at one time with h. and »<i/inp Ine. d and g occur. and is then represented by li. could not be satisfactorily determined. Tutelo. which is a distinct consonantal element. nnhdmhi. This nasal is not to be confounded with the sound of hij in riiif/.

.] 17 Tutelo. [llnle.18S3.

ati yinipahpi.4es fretlie quently becomes dilfc in llidatsa. large house. plural verbal termination tion as. In the Dakota. who has made a special study of the western Dakota languages. Fokms. it is a good dog). good. small house. T i. pi. J. bad house. the plural of adjectives is frequently expressed by what may bo termed a natural inflection. good man. and at the same time a verbal sufTix is fre- quently if not always added. as though they were nearer th(! original forms from Uukn. as warte. Owen Dorsey. are wanting in the llidatsa. tconjc bihlese. Hi. as ksnpa. *a' Grammaticat. i. ati apipisd. tan'ctan'ca . wnr^'erje . As is nsually the case with allied tongues. So tr^onje bise. Riggs. Dakota takes the sufllx pi. wahtake bihla (or bihlese). . pi. Tlie Rev. the grammatical resemblances of the languages of this stock are much more striking and instructive than those which appear iu the mere comparison of isolated words. pi.] lo Tiftsal [March in 2. but in both tho Tutelo and tlie Dakota. In one instance the plural differs totally from the singular atisui. Hi. ati asan. liingim. bo noticed that the words in Tutelo are frequently longer and fuller in sound than the corresponding words in tlie other languages. ati asansdh^el. The . long house.. white house. great. adjective. foot. Hi. great. The following ex- . and itd. . as. ati okayeke..<nipn. e. as waqte. Tliese dialectic. pi. katskaisel. The Tutelo... between Tn. . wliiie the of tiie two fonuer siinfji'ii. pi. Occasionally the reduplication takes a peculiar form.. wise. as In ati kutaka. and occasionally it is a middle syllable. pi. pi. which arc so In common s tho Dakota anu the Tiik'lo. Ui.il oeculiarities explain rencc between the words for younger brotlier. good men. The plural form by reduplication does not appear to exist in the lli- The . sometimes it is the last syllable. is frequently used without the reduplicawahtake bi (or pi). Sometimes the adjective in plural form of the verb. like the Dakota and the Hidatsa. tankihffan. pi. or some part of it. snnkii. pi. toahtake biwa (or bite). he is a good man pi. between mitMnl. Da. by a reduplication. It will which tho words in the various Dakota tongues wore derived. good houses (those are good houses) ati Hani. thus ati api. atiokayeye'cesel . tanbi./(in. Siibstantioes and Adjectiees. according to Mr.. the initial syllable is sometimes reduplicated.. has no inflection of the substantive to indicate the plural number. ksak.\\iey are good men. t(inkinkin. they are good men. knife. and inaetHi. The sounds. Similar forms exist in the Tutelo.Hale. <di ifuhtdnsel. datsa. pi. is reduplicated in the plural. which makes the good icitr^'ista icaq'eji. namely.. finds in the Omaha (or Dhegiha) dialect a peculiar meaning giveu to this reduplicate plural of adjectives. good house. good dog (or. ati kotskutskaisel. Tu.

small. and it was not detected by I11C in the Tutelo. but It is it is not impossible that it actually exists in botli languages. titdhs. good. long poles. pi- man. pi. knrennitkscns. Nujinja (apparently a compound or derivative form. pi." <S7V'. both of substantives and of adjectives. house. makes m^mji or soijiji. and uiyo. this same method of forming the plural is found. Exploring Expedition under Chas. firm. Jin'ja. father. good man. skulhiiltamiqo . ri's. ear. to the adjective thus we have laaii tele. as in the Dakota tongues. Thus from kanomo. In the Sahaptin. sick. Dorsey's letters for this and muoli other Informal Ion ot great interest respecting the western languages ot the Dakota stock.'bi\d songs kaitdkaadjective . Thus in the Selish language we have Iniins. becomes Avhich . them only. large tree. black. and certainly seems. pi. Pl'iji. 1883. It is also remarkable that the peculiar mode of forming the plural. t Ethnogiuphy and Philology of the U. pi. 534. sick (persons). pi. . fast. tcoroit.ata maitatui. bad. 2. et seq. pi. spotted. It is still more noteworthy that in the Polynesian dialects. pi. . tdiia. amples will sizes.1 19 illustrate this signification. e„ small man. as in iK^/ctih pipi'dji. man. mahaki. this meaning is indicated in the by l!<e addition of s. means "boy. is I ciiiployod wisii tools as in the following example that are hard." i. qusqacxt.. handsome house. nujiiijlTijn. pi. j)l. boys of difft'rent sizes and ages. This meaning is not indicated by Mr. it^inni. laau tetele. black here and there. taata maitai. p. So k trcnnaksen. worordt small. good men. pi. a to find It is therefore somewhat surprising America to a comparatively small group of linguistic families. pi. forming part of his extensive work. pi. we have konomiyo. skultamiqo.\ This has been termed. and belonging to families entirely distinct from one another. from which tliat of plurality in many cases follows. large trees. and from the Dakota. in the rel\inils duplicate (ornijinjinf/a. makes jitplnji. or hard. pi. In the Kizh language. frjtrinni. kanaknrenhohn. handsome. jfitin. good.ili)i . girl. tn'tit. handsome houses. S. small). long poll?. quest. kuTibdhc and of diirerenl kinds. different bad deeds. tu. [Hnle. J This is a subject in linguistic science which merits farther investigation. pi. from jm/rt. liiludus. mahamahaki. (Mhje. bad song. t /bid..* It would seem from these examples that in this language tlie reduplication expresses primarily the idea of variety. Riggs in his Dakota grammar. irelhihule HnfiijihiKin. natural mode of forming the plural. 34t. or hohs. affixed to the adjective when it is combined with the ntmn. is found in several Indian languages spoken west of the Rocky Mountains. tun tana ." the reduplication of the adjective gives the sense expressed by the words "of different kinds. which refers to small objects of (liflorent Siiyi. by reduplication of the first syllable or portion of the word. makes mmbe. pp. becomes (/dheji'ija spotted in many places. it restricted in . Wilkes. kdtiomiyos. which we may hope will soon be published. but confined. * I am Indebted to Mr. Here the sufllx hniiii expresses the meaning of "only. found in deserving of notice that while no inflection of the noun is the Iroquois to express plurality. which in their general characteristics differ so widely from the Indian languages.

nomldi nani topdi ndsdn. agpi-dopa. In Dakota. division. nbmbdh. thrice. nombaq Idni. four times. ksdkai butt^kai. eleven ake nonpa. . nosdh. putskdTi dgermai aginotai. In the Dakota ake. In Tutelo the fonn is the same. second idaiii. first or abridged form being apparently used in ordinary counting.nonsa. as oke vanjiJt. in Tutelo. nonsah numba. third itopa. as in Dakota. after the first. fourth. The various pronunciations of my different informants—and sometimes of the same informant at different times are also shown in these ex- — / amples. twenty. . twice. [Marcli 2. is In the llidatsa nqpi (or ahpt). In Tutelo I received einombai. sdgomiq. The ordinal numbers. . eleven. lut<. Construct. . Idnih. putskai putskdni. as aqpi-duiisa. nusen. two tens. but the position of the words is reversed. agenombai. agespeq akdsp i 8 9 10 11 sagomei j. wikiqeitma.k. ksank ksdhkat put<.] 20 Numerals. nosdi. nonsdi I f J \ Variations.aid/i paldni sd OT sdn. in llidatsa. tens-two. more accurately speaking. nomba. nonsai. nonpa. twelve. This rendering was given by the interpreter. putqka nomba.k' sdgom sagbmi.Uale. twelve. and nonpa. In the Tulelo the same word (usually softened to age) is used. or perhaps. itsika. cintdpai.n. different terminations. in Dakota. aa agcjtosai. signifying a part or employed. the in which they are used. fourth. Separate. according to the context The following are examples of these forms. . numbdi. akinoaai . ten. The ntmr resemblance and llie of the are first seven numernla is in the Tutclo. sagomink paldniq katankai. inonpa. not 2 8 nomp Idt.^^j^^- kisdhdni akaspe. tokaheya. In llidatsa. but the true meaning was probably the same as in the Dakota and Hidatsa. Idniq nan 4 6 6 7 top kise. topah kisdhai kUan agds or akds. two. in wliich Ilidiitsa is sufflciently shown is in the vocabulary. nonmbai. toba. In the Tutelo the numerals appear to have different forms. akdspei. The word for " first " is peculiar in all three languages. etdhni. prefixed to the simple numerals to form the numbers al)0ve ten. and the others when the numerals are employed in conjunction with other words. again. twenty being dopa-pitika. eleven. 1 noiis. are formed in all three languages by i)refixing i or ei to the cardinal numbers. second iyamni. eindtii. Dakota. third itopa. form icikfr/mna nonpa. idopa. twelve. nosSn. In Hidatsa it is similar. Tlie manner tlirce compound numbers formed also kjimilar in tlic languages.

1S88.] n ** [Hnle .

"self. tho Dakota employs tho separate pronouns already given. . while tho Ilidatsa has a special form Tiiti'lo. : .] 22 thus [Mnrch2.'iln\c." for which meiinin!.

liead .

or mahkitowt) yingitoDifn'ii (or yih'iitombui) ours. ditamne. lier husband. "my boy.k(t. and iUtwde. i. thine. it is it is mine thine yingitowi (yingltowe.p' yiTi/fitoici thy axe his in'jVomhui our axe your axe their axe hisep' (jitowi axe Jiisep' f/ito/mel So toxci. to keep for me. or.] ^4: [March 2.((i. my woman). and (i^ongo wnhkiinpi in Tutelo probably or "the dog I have. axe. is and kipi. With dog. ditn (nit<i) and ita to the noun mai' (or wae) signifying personal property." or my husband. boy (evidently the same word as the Dakota 7tOt. is evidently the same that apDakota mitawo. or. has sds miujltowi. or mihttotci) mine. sda. in which their use seems to resemble that of the Dakota pronouns with the words meaning "comrade" and "friend. ctamanki. and itamae. e. In the latter example icitogiitr^ldi. Thus with hinepi. yinhltom) injlfowi (iiigltowe. aas yinr/ttowi." Tlie possessive pronouns are used by themselves in Tutelo in the follow- ing alllrmative and negative forms : mimigVbwi (or mimig'ttowe. tawa. itc. Tlie form tmhkiinpi fies." apparently implied. tt^onjo. Tlie sense of property or possession means "the dog my property. thy husband. following the noun. his. miglfowi. my wife (i. e. "my youth." from VKKjvtrlixl. but only with certain words of personal connection or relations. thy bed. sas gi- his bed. mj' bed." Tims we heard icifdin/inil. liis." who may leave me and go elsewhere at any time. it is ours yours. nitawue. thy wife. few examples. and iritucjuli^hai. or. it is it is yours theirs gitonnesel (or kiUhiesd) theirs. The Ilidatsa has similar forms. witdWd. So witamilun. may l)e similarly explained. my son. we find a different form : tq^ongo imhhiinpi my dog thy dog his (qongo maoliinjn (or mnhkiiupi) tqongo yahkimpiii tt^ongo our dog tqtmgo yahkimpi tqiirijo eo/ikiinpi dog kimpena your dog their dog tlu'se forms. In Tutelo the pronouns indicating property or "transferable possession" were commonly found in a separate and ajiparenlly compound form. often pronounced mntawde. it is his muqgitowi (or tnahglfoirc. yiiamihcn. or. or.— not " mj* child. which seems a very first The of pears in the probable explanation. which was tlien sometimes (though not always) heard in the shortened or "construct" form. ours. inkitowi) thine. to In Dakota kipn signihold or contain. young man).Hale. apparently expresses a lower bond or sense of relationship than w<Vc/. matamae. we boy. yiiauuinki. mine. or ." but "my have : Iiitep' migVowi (or mi/izfowi) zny axG Jd»ep' maJufitowi Jiinep' Jiixc. unkitaim. jMatthews regards them as compounds formed by prefixing the pronouns utatif. Dr. bed.

are used for the same pur- pose! The may negative form is not found in either the Dakota or the Ilidatsa. and be regarded as another instance of the greater wcaltli of inflections possessed by the Tutelo. &c.. used for emphasis. not mine not thine IHale. so far as : Tutolo. foUowing are the interrogative demonstrative and indefinite prothey were ascertained. I. me. In the Dakota the forms ntii/e mitawa.1 25 Negative Form. the first personal affirmative doubtless mujitowi In miinujttowi tlio first syUablc is evidently froui the sepa- rate pronoun mlin. mine. The Dakota and Hidatsa are added for comparison Tlie nouns in the Tutelo. . niye nitawa. thine. thee.1883. kimi(jitonan (kiinilitonan) kinifiyitonctn it is it is kUjitoiM Ti it is it is it is it is not liis kinaqfjitonnu kinyiijltombdiKtn ki(jltoqneiian not ours not yours not is tliuirs The proper form of (or mikttowc).

I bind. . They may be placed at the beginning. and sometimes inserted no instances have been found in which they are sufiixed. he says hny'ihewa. or between any two syllables of the verb. he drinks yalakphe. he down down tiKthny'xnanka.Hale. thou drinkest vralakpefie. thou thinkest. verbs in Tutelo are not very numerous. however. becomes kitsdhikema. maja. The Tutelo has the pronouns sometimes prefixed. I sit down he laughs I inyakseha. wvAkUlcr^i. It ai)pears to be fixed for each verb. "he binds"). iiiksehn. and kitsaJukixla. In the Ilidatsa. seem not yet to have been fully determined. I make good. at the end. yAkakqi. kiir. thou sittest mahamvinn^M.kn. . tliou mukes maw a >um. 1. I am dead 2. and edafe. of tlie Daliotan precisely as a Latin dictionary must give the perfect tense of every verb of the third conjug. I steal. arbitrary and dependent on the pleasure of tho speaker. he steals. thou knowest and kitsahikc. I say sits malianankft. as verbs of this class are not common in either of the former binguages.nJia'i. I think. thou lovest eke. he thinks. and our examples of conjugated fixed pronouns receiving a peculiar form. in the Dakota proper. efr. and thus it happens that a Dakota dictionary must give the place of the pronoun in every verb. thou sleepest wahiantkapeica.] clicated 9fi '-^ [March 2. by an inflection. lie loves. The verbs in which the pronouns are inserted seem to be the most numerous class. he sees oyahnta. he knows. thou stealest. for example.'a. and ef<. thou makest good. thou laughcst ihwakseha. The following are examples: hahcica. I drink hinntkapeicd. thou seest ovva/((i.ition. kidcrj. makes . Among them are the following : Verbs with prefixed pronouns: lakpese. I sleep he is dead yitewa. he makes good. however.iii. Tlie peculiarity whicli distinguishes the stoclv is hmguagis found in the variable position of tliese incorporated pronouns. he sleeps yahiantkapeim. thou sayest havfahewa. The position of the pronoun is not. These rules. Thus.'(ort. but it is by no means improbable that such cases may occur. I see . makes etrdii:\\]. according to certain rules. maiioii.. thou art dead wUeica. teicd. to bind (or rather bindest. makes wakaqka. I love. tlie sufdakkler^i. laugh ohdta. I know. becomes emake.

we sit down. and in this example the pronouns were inserted. the pronoun prefixed). which approach nearest to the mother siteech. The similar word in Tutelo. It is an established law in the science of imguistics that. especially as indicating that the Tutelo is form of speech. strilving contrast with the the older abundance of these changes which mark the Tutelo verb. wo say. oil same time varied. thou stealest. \w<\. be is sense. while I cut off (. making (as above) hdWAhnca. and On the other band. mamnnoina. and m&fikinahnitanka. makes wii/. and of the verb itself in tliat The word manon. that the pronoun of the person plural he sits have (as above) nialuimiDaTika. I cut off (with the j^ronoun inserted)." and distinction is "we love. maiioma or maiiuitiii. or. vocables. DdkUlecidi signifies . of which has changes of in tense which can properly be called inflections.-. while the Dakota. thou art an Indian wam'ihiakai. ern The derivative or more recent tongU(>s are distin- guished by the compai-. as y'vnniioma. those which are of tlie oldest formation. we see. lias them prefixed. he in tlie shown person. I sit down. iiKiJuiiumha.iges. numher. peculiarity of the to.] 27 [Ilftle.^\\Q says. and apparently all the other western dialects of the stock. llie variations of person. /I'W^'^^J between singular and the plural of a verb. being at the m'lnundaine. or rather absence. steals. as manuiuUnit. the form of the first personal pronoun. and so in otlier like instances.1883. the paucity. In by a change in makes hnwaksa. Thus llie in the Ilidatsa there is no difference. in any family of languages. are the most highly inflected. used with a verbal Thus wuhla'ca or wahtakni.'<^//(0> we laugh. usually (though not always) prefixed. Thus bdki^a.inkseha {or sometimes wa/«/. man or Indian. nuist be classed among agglutinated langu. "I love. thou stealest. all is been referred viz. The pronouns may be thus uiserted in a noun.dksd. from maoJidta. Avo Tims from down. I say. to cut with an axe. mood and tense being denoted by afllxed or inserted particles. an Indian Indiaa first wnyMtlahai. VKtDakota the place of the pronoun is similarly varied the form of the verb. hiJiewa." mnkidcrj. be steals.." made in the first and second persons. in other words. The difference is important. So. to cut off witli a knife. I It is am an is remarkable. properly be styled an inflected language. however. signifies both "lie loves" In the future a and "they love . has in Dakota the pronouns inserted. But on one occasion this word was given in a different form. I steal. The other mood and Dakota and Ilidatsa languages. in the present tense. we find hunvAwkhcwa. as is examples previously given. the Ilidatsa. I steal.with k((kxf/. as mayinundrlai. may be conjugated: wahtdkai.ilive fewness of the grammatical elianges in the The difference in this respect between the Tutelo and the westbranchas of this stock is so great that they seem to belong to diflerent Tlie Tutelo niay categories or genera in the classification of languages.

wi uind. in the third person. A7(f«"(. Thus h'x^ke kta. The particle Ma. to distinguish the present tense from the past. signify both he goes Opeica (from opa. he goes oyapewa. thou seest oyahathna. are shown in the following example is icaginoma. I kill him. he goes (or went). I will go maopeta." In no mark of any kind. kti(^ka\Vi kta. It sometimes produces a slight euphonic change in the final vowel of the verb. they l)ind. or bj' the general context of the sentence. No distinction is made between the jiresent and the past tense. in Thus hirj. mes k(irj. A distinctive present indicated by ta or elu.a. they see it It it oyahatn.] t -^O wilt love. they are sick teaylnjinoma. to go) may and he went.'rtpi. we are sick thus varied ohata. The distinction of singular and plural is clearly shown in all the persons.'. if. and a future by Thus from tibnia. "yo will lovo. a distinctive past by oka. I kte. he will am go opehehla.ain. indicates the future. ye see owahata. I bind. and in the first person by prefixinsr the pronoun iin. the Tutelo gives us a surprising wealth of verbal forms. which daMdeddiha is the plural. he saw it formerly. which is not printed and apparently not pronounced as an afllx. he will go. becomes uriZv/(. All other distinctions of number and tease are indicated in these two languages by adverbs. and ohateta. thou wilt go oyapefepa. we see it . even by aflixecl particles. In lieu of these scant and imperfect modes of expression. and wakteta. to kill. 7riik- the termination oma. he will see it. he fiees 0[etca.7. L to distinguish the future Wnkii<. we have tcaklewa. "thou this language there is loved. thou art sick wameginoinn.: Hale. opetn." of [March !. So o/iutu. I go maopeica. owapewa. Kac^la is both he binds and lie bound. they will bind. becomes ohatioka. or rather of an inciefinite sense. I see it maohnta. and he will love. they. we go in Of tenses there are many forms. am is wayinyinSinpo. we will go The endhig inflections for person in and number in the distinctively present tense. they will go oyapeta. Ohata. ye will go owapeta. he sick sick : waginonhiia. lieu of itii or ire. The termination ewa appears is to be of an aorist. he will bind. or killed him.d. ye go opeltehla. he binds. inflected as follows killing him. he sees it ohntehla. lie The Dakota is a little better furnished in tliis way. he sees I it.t signifies he loves. ye are sick manjtDigiiwma. thou goest they go oyapepua. nor even. : omi. The plural is distinguished from the singular by the addition of tlie particle 7)t. I will kill him. becomes opeta. from the other tenses. thus: opewa.

thou sawest oicafiatiokn. he steals yimanoma. thou remembcredst kikoTupeoka. he remembers xmkon<<pedka.1S831 29 oludibka. steal From fied these examples the language evident that there arc variations of inflection. an becomes is in the preterite wakonapcdka. thou stealest manonnese. and. we are hungry. ye are hungry mahkihnindewa. and opeta. and other In- dian languages. they are hungry klhnindepua. is thus varied : mamma. Manoma. thou sayest hairahfica. he goes. tlie For are simple or root-form. I it makikompewa. of different stocks. thou wilt sec oicalmteta. we remember it yakonspepui ye remember it kikuhspehela. we Thus opeitia. in the future. we saw it ohatiokelda. there are many forms of the verb. WakiJ^iewa. IViniiiucae. So in manoma (wliich is probably a distinctively present tense). they say h(iyi/ie>ra. I say hayihepua. they remember it . he will go. which actually found in the Dakota. obliged to have recourse to the better known Dakota language. ye remembered they remembered it In several instances verbs were heard only in the inflected forms. remembered it it makikonspeokn. negu- . he remembered it yakuTispepuyoka. thou art hungry mikVuiiniUwa. he saw it it oyahatiohi. we remembered it it yakompebka.i07i. I remember it pakonspeica. might probably be classiOther instances of these variations will be given hereafter. bly a contraction of manonoma. thou rememberest it kikompexca. [llalc. Algonquin. they steal yimanompua. and past tenses I remember it. which doubtless exists in the language. wakoiispela. I shall see it maohateta. Cherokee. if in distinct conjugations. kikonspelebka. we say he is hungry yikihniiidewa. It is well known that in the Iroquois. ye will see it it oyahdteta. aorist form. wiiich. which is proba- meaning lie steals. saw it it it saw it saw it mnohatioka. I ohntetii. having the same meaning. they oyahutiokewa. I hungry ki/inindcira. is he went. we shall see it The following examples tense : will show the variations of person in the aorist huheien. ye he Avill see oMtetehht. ye say Jutmnnk^ieica. I steal it is mankmanbma. ye steal mamanbma. we were better understood. indicate a root opa. both the indicate a briefer root-form which we find Dakota 7«a. they will see oyahatethua. It : thus varied in the aorist wakompewa. and man- ondani. he says haliehln.

I laugh do not I laugli unmcginoinn. . he thus varied in the present tense kinknehna.o. The negative form in Tutelo is made (in a manner which reminds us of the French nepas) by prefixing k or ki to the afBrmative and suffixing na. kiahona. I do not speak am is is killing him kmakteona.'ipuna. o. and not in any manner an agglutinated particle.Hale. thus be. I inwakseha. we ye are not laugliing are not laughing The interrogative form terminates as : yaktewa. he laughs ktnkse\nn. kihyakxeh/M. become ona and ena in this form : inkseha. thcj'arenot laughing kih." or we conclude an interrogative sentence. I spealc waklfdinn. The tense terminations o)na. I yaJiowa. I go he is going. he is lam is not killing him coming not laughing. I am not laughing in kimatnksehna. like. thou killedst yatetd. but none of them are tliese found in the Dakota or Ilidatsa. distinguished apparently hy a sharp accent on which loses the sign ot .] tive. he kiwamegindna. Mr. the voice rogative sentences.'ense. Riggs refalls at the close of all inter- desiderative form appears to be expreireed by the affixed particle hi but the examples which were obtained happened to be all in the negative. interrogative. waktewa. thou art not laughing kinuoaksehna. thou art killing him yakteohmo. ku). I did not him koicakldkna. he is not laughing' kinksehnnenn. desiderative. owapewa. wilt thou wilt kill him thou kill him? ? yafiwa. both of which express the meaning of these forms by adverbial phrases or other circumlocutions. owa. or will go hawilewa. Thus from the I njo. It It a vowel place change. to give (in Dakota and Hidatsa. and add miicli to their power of Tutelo has several of these forms. «^v lMarch2. I do not wish to kill him The imperative mood the final syllable of the verb. where dost thou dwell he is going is toka alewo. thou dwellest aleica./nkite. It is toka yntiwo. didst thou kill him? yakteoma. where is he going? is evident that this form an inflection. The languages. I killed him owakldkn. pure and simple. and tlie which are among tlie most notable characteristics of expression. which appears in maingoica. I do not wish to come kiwaktebina. strange to say. come him is do not wish to go he does not wish to go kiwUebiim. I kopeheriiae. I I kill koienpebina. I am sick uaktewa. and ewa. of that elevation of tone with which takes tlie and which. he does not laugh kinicafiaehiia. am not sick kill kiwaktena. not coming : Kin\-Hehna. art thou kiling hira? yakte'. him yakiewo. : The opetene. is marks that "unlike the English. not heard among the Dakotas.

which apis found also in lakatkusisel. signifying separation. as kide<. lak or laka. Tliis usage is governed by very simnle rules. foot. to count or read. that is. signifying action with the foot. acts forms. he breaks latkuaisel. the one being in the nominative case anl the other in the objective.) indicate an act done by a sudden. masa mingo. lakaspeta. as far as could be ascertained. and he binds him. this pronoun Is not expressed in the nominative. which in latkusisel indicates action with the mouth. In the western languages of the Dakota stock. or iqonic' kite.) and dak (Hid. we have pakm. La.'ca is I bind. follows the usage of the Dakota pears in lakatkusisel. or it wakd(. In the Hidatsa. to chop. It was found that in many cases the latter liad distinct words to express kifene or kitesel. to express the passage of tlie action from the agent or subject to the object. Ilidatsa ada (for ana) are prefixes showing that the action is done with the foot. in the Tutelo nantkusisel above quoted. the objective always precedes the nominativt as in mnyaki:r^\-a (Dak. is The Dakota some foot. . to cut oflf in pieces. Dakota and Hidatsa the prefix pa signifies that the action is done with the hand. . Ka (Dak. givo to you. dimakideci (Hid.he bites tikusisel. . J'rom ksa. to break with the hand from qu. that when tAVo <irtixed pronouns come together. it it ofi with the foot off lakatkusisel.. . occurs in the following forms nantkusisel. lakasase.. or impulsive prefix. The Dakota ya. Hidatsa da (often pronoimced ra or la) show that the act is done with the mouth. which evidently corresponds with the Dakota : ksa. lakapleh. The Tutelo. he loves him. of like meaning The afllxcd or incorporated pronouns are used with transitive verbs to form what are called by the Spanish writers on Indian grammar transitions. . to pour out with the hand. to spill. Dak. In the Dakota the third personal pronoun is in general not expressed kar^l-d signifies both he binds. with modification. to drink. and I bind him. but in the objective it is indicated by the pronoun i prefixed to the verb. he cuts open. gives kite tqon'd.] "^ we have. and perhaps in yilanaha. . in the imperative. to stamp with the and in konaqlotisd. In the Dakota and Hidatsa the rule prevails. he loves ikidcqi.i. «fcc. evidently found. give [Hale. the languages were indicated by these compound number of examples wore obtained to show tjiat use of modifying prefixes was not unknown to the language. he kills him. Hid. to sweep the fioor. Tims which in the western Still. me a linlfe.1883. certain particles prefixed Thus in to the verb play an important part in modifying the meaning. &c. paqti. her. kill the dog. a sufficient the root kusa. pushing. and also in naii- kbkisek. her or it. is found also in lakpese. he breaks it off by pushing he cuts it off with an axe na. forcible impulse. which has the corresponding prefix ya in the Dakota word yct'ca. meaning separate. to scratch witli the So the cutting. Attempts wore made to ascertain whether similar prefixes were employed in the Tutelo speech.) methou-bindest. The Dakota nn.) thee-I-love.

he struck thee kohinahmilAwa. I see thee miinewa. however. he struck me . and from the latter into Tutelo). Owing to tlie diflicolties of an inquiry carried on through the medium of a double translation (from English into Cayuga or Onondaga. this order is reversed. he loves them (or they love him) yandomistekana. he loves us tcaiyandoyasteka. m'ineica. and to reverse the meaning of the pronouns. thou loved us yandostekanese. is apt to become perplexed. thou lovest him yandoyisteka. killing me him them yakteoma." or "thou lovest me. maihiandostekanese. I-thee-see.Hale. The following examples. in the order of Tlie nominative affl. maikiandoyisteka)." unless he with the language in which he addressed. he loves thee niankiandosieka (qu. fectly familiar An Indian when asked is is the to translate " I per- love thee. at least in some instances. I love him yandoyasteka. me-tliou-strucliest (where the pronouns are inserted). it was not easy to gain a clear idea of the precise meaning of many of an educated man. will sufllce to show that the system of transitions exists in the Tutelo. but are omitted from u doubt of their correctness. we love thee we love them icaiyandosteka.] in regard to the third personal *^^ 1 March :2. they love me him kohinanhtwa. .Tamples which were obtained. he loves me ' yandoyisteka. The rule on which these variations depend was not ascertained. pronoun (which ia not expressed) but differs languages. he sees thee miinehla. he loves him yandomisteka. for ma-iuiiea) mayinewa. Many other examples were obtained. though they do not enable us to analyze and reconstruct it completely. Yet in kohinah'ivntxheua. or e. as in siwinewa. they see me yandosteka.K occasionally precedes the olyective. waktcoma. he sees me yiinewa. he struck (or strikes) kohinankyiliiwa. he loves thee yandowasieka. he sees him (or he saw him) mincwa. I see him (qu. I am is killing him icaiktcdma (for icayiktebma) I am killing thee mikteoma he kiteonscl. from botli tlie otlicr the pronouns. thou art killing he is killing ineiea.

^ like other Indian tongues. But there are iaijLopwi. by inserting becomes tcimair^ir^ta or icitqimarja. E. or wahldkai. . they call to you • gikohanese. he culls to rai yigikoha. PUILOS. we are good. I am good. becomes. the pronoun ma. thou callest to him Ihem evident that the system of transitions Dakota and llldatsa. miwamihtdkdi. . It is in this manner that those languages. are generally enabled to dispense with the use Thus in the Dakota witr^tr^'a. Ave are men. with the aorist good yimhtuoa. they are men. 8. wamihidkai. good. we are men. 114. wa. he calls to you minjikoha. good. lie is I am In the PKOC. &c. man. In the Tutelo the word wahtdka. i/M*w«/t?afcai probably means "all are men. I struck [Hftlo. (or was) a man. iinuoat^tepi. and by inserting vn (we) and adding the plural atHx pi. So also waqte. (or was) a affix (or was) So the adjective ti." This verb may take the aorist form. as : wamihtakduoa.: J883. In the Tutelo. they call to From the foregoing examples is it is in the Tutelo as complete as in the apparently some peculiar euphonic changes. thou art a man. injikopolese. and s<mie of the pronouns are indicated by terminal inflections. I call to thee injiko/ttse (for yingikohhe). The last two forms appear not to be regular. man. thou struckcst liim kohinan'aciynhtica. thou art (or wast) a is man. I am a man. is a man. I wahidkni. him kohinunyahiiea. he am wayihtakdioii. PKINTED MAY . and may have been given by mistake. he wigikoha. I call to calls to him he calls to thee ioaiiigikoha. man. becomes wiun'r^ir^tnpi.J 33 koJiinanwalilvDa. I. wayihidkni. suffixes. good. XXI. I wahtakduoa. we struck him him gikoha (or kikoha). AMER. thou struckcst me kohinunnankiliiica. he is inflected as follows am a man. liwa. ye are men. hukwahidkai. as in the Dakota and Hidatsa. substantives and adjectives are readily converted into neuter verbs by the addition or insertion of the and pronouns and the verbal of the substantive verb. thou art good miinl%u>a. BOC. inwuhtdkni. 1883. becomes inuwai^te. {ior wayingikoha). particularly in the second person plural in the third person singular and ])lural.

"and tdhkai njineic. usually e\|)rcssed in is lliis manner. she is careful in sewing (lit. circumnavigate a lake. are incorporated with the verb. Many phrases were obtained witha view of ascertaining the prepositions of the Tutelo. Prepositions. but with no loss of clearness. and the phrase " I am tlie coming from the house. \\\ for example. Thus ^a/ttet signifies "woods. . The phrase "when I came. are examples of an idiom so prevalent in the Indian tongues as to supersede not merely the cases of nouns. tnkai was given as equivalent to "in the liouse. "I called the dog. e. she is sewing..Maroh2. hianka. as lias been already sliown." It may perhaps simply mean "at home. which merely carry to a greater extent a familiar usage of the Aryan speech. ehilfiin. he ini. to s(!w and kompewn yeho. to undermine a wall.Hale. as kuminena. The practice of combining very common hill. he is on the hill. of tlie verb. to in the Indian languages. kiiiksehnd. while ati signifies a house. i. he was asleep. Thus. I called the dog. Til luiiii}' cases. or remembers. to overhang a fence. he was asleep. apparently from a root iho or yeliii. and sui a'jineie. Tlie expressions. she is sewing badly. An elliptical form of speech is employed. he is laughit ing." by wakleta preposition with the verb is iatt. tlie Englisli advttri) is iiidi- oalod in tlie Tiitelo is by a modifleation not laugliing . Thus we have ihoha. When it is considered necessary or proper. Adoerbs. mi Jan hinika. but without success. it is mine." Other examples would seem to show that the prepositions in the Tutelo. the conjunction is expressed. as in'ae." Prairie is latahkoi. Here "but" is expressed by mi. So swi. he is in tlie woods. liowever.onk.. they uro. she is sewing well. but to a large extent the separable prepositions." becomes wageldkiok t(. prcsonl lonso good . ebikoii. she thinks. as In the Ilidatsa. and to a large extent in the Dakota. is |. Tlie negative adverb. but he did not come. but onu" signifies "at the prairie.jttowr. Sometimes an expression which in English requires a preposition would in the Tutelo appear as a distinct word. . I did not see him. is expressed in Tutelo by two veri)s." is expressed briefly wihlok. hill. The phrase "I am going to the house" was rendered wileta iaft. lien! keJi'ina is tlie negative form ofbiwa. conjunctions appear to be less frequently used than in English. e. i^oixl j iind in lln! preterit. In the Tutelo. So. . she does not well in sewing (or is not good at sewing). I came. in sewing) kcliiui yeho. he came not. lie lit) was good..hH'. he (or she) Is good. Sometimes the meaning which in PjUglish would be expressed by an adverb accompanying a verb.] 9m wo Imvo ebt^c. but John snw him. kihuna. is not miiu'. kuni'jitonttn. i. to ascend or descend a Conjunctions.

xed. by the inflection. is A me. be combined with the verb. at least him. Tims "I see a man." appears . give me a dog kitelr^'in'd.v of the language related to the position of words in a sentence. wage'djita. "A dog give me. which expresses "if." don't . appears to vary with the position of the word in the sentence. Ouxdioka waktaka ni</di mihin nomba lek. as well as in the dialects of the Iroquois stock. and the position of ihe noun is a matter of emphasis. day. it bears the relation exkill pressed by our infinitive I will kill him). The euphonic changes which words undergo in construction with other words are as marked in this language as they are in the proper Dakota tongue. good man. character in the t'. Iflio comes. as miiiyiloqkd loakteta. The rule applies to the numerals. which were ascertained in regard to the synta. as loahUike It. "iilso. to hold. ." Wakbtmiha liifmn iiifjfh maneh. I will Wakonta mo make him go (I him (allow cause him he will go). mhuta. In Tutelo nahdmbi (properly nahdn'ii) or nahdbi. umn and two women. the meaning being determined apparently.\prcssing either the subject or the object. . . dog. becomes yus in the phrase yus majiii. aft amn. give me a dog frequently dropped. three days. The verb in the imperative mood sufllciently shows the speaker's meaning. becomes qun'ce when a possessive pronoun is prefi. to met in II Li. one woman. . let opeta. verb placed after another verb to which . and seem to be often of a similar. points of interest The only The position of the verb appears to be a matter of indiflerence. ait nohbul.ni'd is apparently not a grammatical inflection. and the consonant preceding it undergoes a chmge tlius in Dakota yma. The adjeclive follows the noun which it qualifies. becomes nahdmp (or nahdp). In the Tutelo a similar change takes place when the position of the noun Is altered thus we have iqonko kite tqmki. In such instances the two words which are thus in construction are prououuced OS though they formed a single word. but Is merely euphonic. white house.vo languages. I'r. on the other hand.] '^5 signities II [Hale. Syntax. Thus in Dakota the word qun'cii. It sometimes precedes the noun e. to stand holding. I will come if John comes. in nahdmp Idli (or nahdp lali). . . It is noticeable in the last two examples that the accent or stress of voice in the word Uhiok. kill the dog. I I Nindi bouglit "and. two houses. iironunciation tliiis: Li/iluk." is minewn WMicdj (I see him a man) and "the man sees me " is miineioa waited] (he sees me the man). as in Latin. if not identical. Jan Uhiok. In the last example the change [nn\\t(^mko to (r. The terminal vowel is mingo. let him escape.onko miiijo." not a knife " kill the dog. kill the dog." or ii hut ami knife. In this respect the Tutelo conforms to the rule which i)revail3in the Dakota and Ilidatsv languages. the adjective precedes the noun. and sometimes follows it. In the Algonkin languages. I will tell .1S«3. as mi/idn noTim. if he comes.

which have doubtless ditiiirent sliadcs of meaning. A more complete knowledge of the language would doubtless afford tho means of discriminating between these appa- ohata. Many other words. Tlie alphabetical arningcmcnt is adopted for convenience of reference. all the words comparative vocabulary adopted by Qallatin for his Synopsis of the Indian languages." opeioaa. in lieu of tlie different order which Gallatin preferred for tlie purposes of his work. tliougli these were not ascerParticular care tiie compriHccl In tained. as correctly as possible. rently synonymous terms. The Dakota and Hidatstt words are derived from tlie dictionaries of Mr. willi the necessary changes of ortijography wliieh are required for the direct comparison of tlie three languages. When several words arc given in tlic Tulelo list." inahtaka." iueioa. and and two for "go. and as affording a test of the correct- . Mattliews. mere variations of pronunciation or of grammatical form. have been added.] 36 VOCABULARY.Hale. and Bomctimcs entirely distinct expressions. rather opa and la. lliggs and Dr. [March 2. Tho Tutelo has no less than four words for "man.waiyuioa {or wuitraq) yu'ihm. they are sometimes. was taken to obtain. the vocabulary are those which were received pronunciation of these words may be accepted as that of a Tutelo of the full blood. Tliere are also two distinct words meaning "to sec. expressive of the most common objects or actions. answering to opa and ya in Dakota). as will be seen.ni\q(da{ar. The ness of the others. The words marked n in from Nikonlia himself. and /<»««.

] 37 [Hals. .IfWi.

Rale.1 ' 38 [March 2. .

1883. .] [Hale.

lapl tcante (tapi. el.] Tutelo. ipi. i<j 1 e^ai. ak napo (<jake. i^&ni iye. liver) Hers nei e. i Him Himself iye. hihna kida. Gun Hail niinkto (n) niazakan Hair UQll na(6nwe(N). inkqe (n) oloi. taiasai (n) kaU masa i»an maetsi Lake (see Sea) (see Earth) Land Laugh Leaf inkseha. ipikani (see ij'>od) owanyag waste tin-maQLinlQa itfiki Have Hat Ilatcfiet taliontanoki lubus im. kiteae kte. okeni tnna. (see axe) He Head Ileart iye <. ma. yanti. detu atu na'ta (apiQa.[oiak iklqewitijasta amakanoqpaka uetsa nia/asapa wita t<jegha histek. stes- teki Kettle yesifik miduqa ta. mmgiratqah tQtgha kinlinfi mignana miqki.e pasuye (n). pasui yiiiiti pa den. giiki . misai let nonhi li . 2. masel. uia'kuqpitami Iiin natu .liver) (n). [March Dakota. niig. i . miye niiye. toiiaka luami. mitsaki manuqi If Indian Iron Island wahlakai (man) mn«3. masi:.nail) pire (n). tuaka pitikiqtia kihnindewa opawinghc wotoktehda (hung>y) aniiti (hungry) mauki ma. raastni. apoka i.Hale.6i. mm. oloii (n) iqa ka' ape. linger. mi. nat6i wasu nim'. kotub63 (n) wapaha iQ. kitivhe KiU Knife kite (n). ig tipi iqki ati House ati (N) How many Hundred Hunger («) Husband tokenun ukeni. hi Hand JIandaome hag (n). ana claw. stok. kina mim m:q. mi I alone or Imy self misaiii. Midatsa. kte. wapa midapa . haki.

.1883.1 41 [Hal*.

4M maqgitowe maesai. sagomink agesagomi ilioha Sew (o) ikowin kaghcghc ipasisa .akowin ake-(j atsi^a sag6m (n). atQut data (scarlet). sagomei. i(. atQuti. wauyaka ika . qeta Seven Seventeen wanlidaka <. Hale. tik.. tahank tawinoqtin . taksitai kiksuya wakpa watpa . inewa. iqoade itapa opatansel waginoma ' Sing (d) Sister yamuiiiyo (n) minek (n).touwan . hanta (n) inyaiika (b) hahewa (see Speak) eya XM (lake).] Tutelo. tanka. mantoi. "mouth-stone") tqotanka . tQanduikipi hupa Pound Prairie (t)) pahe latahkoi apa tiuta pa amaadatsa. yetal. itaku.i(o/iewa<6r)minIiqtia water) 8ee(v) ohata. ililr- matai Pipe ihenstek (qu. angolilei. iuu. agode Shoot Sick ojf (p) hupa. teduti Rain Raspberry qawoi (n). (red) hiQi koSapewa taksita. agore. tcaShanpa bopota yazan dowafi ahiyaya . amaki Six Sixteen (n). gapua aqpigapua kikaki Shoes handisonoi (n). matawae midohi Partridge wustetkai zltqa Pigeon Pine-tree mayutkai. yetani. maqpiya to matoi akaspei akama aqpiakama apaqi . hawolia. hasisiai qawo maghaju takaulietqa qade (ja Red Remember Rioer atsuti. azi tioie Run Say Sea (o) hinda. ietafi mdo mini(great wan:(}. waste (n) wazi yelilfistik (n).am{ tanku Sit mahananka agii3 iyotanka ak&sp. wayotkai wakiyedaii wasti. macs&ni [Marchl2. uiikitawa Hidatsa. Ours Ourselves Dakota. qawoqa. Sky qakpe ake^ikpe agegaspo matofii. wa.

yaotafiin id^.1 43 Tutelo. liiivntkapcwa i^tiutna hami. Hidatsa. . kutskai. mapokqa qut<5kal(see|SmaZ0 tqinklQi young man) Speak niqa (n). tekai.1883. ni<jkodan karigta Snake Son wageni wileka (n).k&. Iiianta. waradugka (ko(. saliita.istinna . wan. binami tqikadan Small kutQkai (s). Sleep (c) hlyun (n). kotskai f<. [Hale. oakUvka Spring (n) m6 . sali^Bta. ia. Dakota. idiqi hahewa.

Hale. .] 41 [March 2.

inamiakre. heloa Whose Wtfe tewaki.iwa (same as Woman") raihani tuwe tuwetawa tawitQu tape tapeitamae itadamia .edu toki. omaklewa Winter wancfii. toklya torn. asani. niahci (e) wlnohintQa. toliinni . asai. toka .1883. wiQyan mia . Hidntsa. mihaa (x).u. [Hale. <. waniyetu (n). When Where White tokenaq toka asuiii kehan tuakaduk tuaka. Woman Wood Work miliafii. Avanei tate hutsl wani. Dakota.tsinic(co2(0 Wolf munktagia muaktokai. asci san . (n). ska atuki oqati ketoa.Wind maniukiti (n). tukai makQufiktoketqa motsa t^CQa .1 45 Tutelo. niamunkloi. ua . mana.

] 46 [March 2. .Hale.

.1S83.] 47 [Hale.

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