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Nota Kuliah Kaunseling
Ini ialah satu penyampaian bagi manusia supaya mereka diberi amaran dengannya, dan supaya mereka mengetahui bahawa Dia Tuhan Yang Satu, dan supaya semua yang mempunyai akal mengingati. (Ibrahim (14):52) Definisi Kaunseling.
Kaunseling merupakan suatu proses perhubungan menolong yang sistematik berasaskan prinsip psikologi yang dilakukan oleh kaunselor profesional bagi menghasilkan perubahan, perkembangan dan penyesuaian peribadi klien, yang baik dan menyeluruh secara sukarela sepanjang hayat berlandaskan etika kaunseling.
1. 2. 3. 4.
Menolong menganalisa keadaan, sikap, pandangan dan kelakuan yang menghalang klien bekerja dengan berkesan. Menolong klien untuk menyesuaikan diri dalam situasi bekerja melalui proses penyelesaian masalah. Membolehkan klien menganalisa pandangan mereka dan mencari pelbagai cara dan tingkah laku yang mengganggu. Menolong klien menyelesaikan masalahnya.
Tujuan Kaunseling 1. Memberi Maklumat. Masalah klien selalunya berkaitan dengan kekurangan maklumat . Mendapatkan gambaran
(kefahaman) yang jelas berhubung dengan masalah daripada kaunselor
2. Menggalakkan Celik Akal. Membantu klien memahami lebih lanjut mengenai diri (menyelami diri dan
persekitaran. Membantu klien mengetahui dirinya adalah kunci kepada masalah yang dihadapinya
3. Memberi Sokongan. Klien memerlukan sokongan emosi yang tidak berbelah bagi, kemesraan dan pameran perasaan
yang diharapkan dapat mengurangkan bebanan masalah.
4. Penyelesaian Konflik. Mengurangkan ketegangan dan permusuhan
antara dua individu (pihak) Membantu mereka menerima perbezaan dan mencari jalan untuk mencapai penyelesaian yang menguntungkan
5. Membuat keputusan. Membantu klien membuat keputusan kerana kerap kali menghadapi masalah untuk membuat
keputusan. Kaunselor boleh mengemukakan cadangan dan berbincang dengan klien sebelum sesuatu keputusan diambil.
PERKEMBANGAN. Memberikan maklumat mengenai sumber dan kekuatan seseorang supaya ia mempunyai azam dan usaha kepada aktiviti sihat, peningkatan sifat positif PENCEGAHAN. Mengadakan program-program pencegahan ke atas perlakuan dan sifat yang negatif dari segi emosi dan pemikirannya INTERVENSI. Merubah dan membuka pemikiran, perasaan dan tingkah laku seseorang yang bermasalah supaya menerokai, memulih dan mempertingkatkan keyakinan diri PEMULIHAN. Penekanan adalah kepada isu-isu dan permasalahan peribadi, mentaliti, kerjaya dan penyesuaian diri agar seseorang itu dapat berfungsi sepenuhnya
Elakkan mengkritik atau nasihat yang terburu-buru. Memberi nasihat. 3. Mempertingkatkan komunikasi dalam organisasi. Fungsi Kaunseling Dalam Organisasi 1.html . Kebosanan kerja dan kekurangan pergerakan kerjaya. 8. 10. 4.tripod. 2. 4. Menilai diri.Rasional Perkhidmatan Kaunseling 1. Menumpukan sepenuhnya perhatian kepada pekerja. Kewujudan Ketegangan dan ketidakpuasan ditempat kerja. Keperluan sokongan dalam menghadapi krisis semasa. Masalah peribadi dan keluarga. Keperluan pertolongan untuk mengembangkan sesuatu tingkah laku. 7. Kebimbangan tentang kemahiran dan kemampuan. Masalah Pencapaian Mutu Kerja Masalah Sikap Masalah Penyesuaian Diri Stress Di tempat Kerja Masalah Situasi Lima Prinsip Kaunseling Pekerja 1. 5. 3. 2. Menyokong dan menenangkan pekerja. Memajukan diri. 5. Kaunseling Trauma Objektif 1. Jangan bertelagah atau berhujah. Prestasi kerja yang tidak memuaskan dan tabiat kerja yang tidak baik. 5. Perbezaan di antara keperluan personel dengan polisi jabatan. 2. 8. 5. Perbezaan individu yang bertentangan dengan imej korporat. 3. Mendengar dengan sebaiknya sebelum membuat sebarang pernyataan.com/ekaunseling/id8. Mengdiagnosis masalah pekerja atau kepincangan organisasi Memberi peluang pekerja meluahkan perasaan. 4. 11. 3. Membantu pekerja berfikir dengan jelas dan tidak dikuasai oleh emosi. 6. 3. Dapatkan sesuatu yang tersirat yang cuba disampaikan. 4. 7. 2. Untuk mengurangkan stress/ketegangan dan kekecewaan di tempat kerja Untuk meningkatkan keyakinan mengenai kemahiran dan kebolehan di tempat kerja Untuk menstabilkan emosi dan meningkatkan produktiviti http://ramlanhamzah. Konflik peranan dengan caragaya pentadbiran pengurus. Mengapa Kaunseling Diperlukan 1. 9. Ketidakseimbangan emosi. 2. 6.
html . 6. Untuk mengurangkan kebimbangan dan tingkah laku yang tidak diingini Untuk mengurangkan dan mengikis sikap dan perasaan negatif Untuk mengurangkan penderitaan emosi yang disebabkan oleh kejadian traumatik Indetifikasi Peringkat/Tahap taruma Tahap I : Luahan Rasa (Outcry) Tahap II : Penafian (Denial) Tahap III : Gangguan (Interruption) Tahap IV : Mengalami (Working Through) Reaksi Psikologikal Terhadap Trauma Gangguan Emosi (Emotional Disturbance) Kecelaruan Kognitif (Cognitive Disorders) Hyperarousal Penderitaan Fizikal (Physical Pain) Tahap-tahap Pemulihan Kesedaran Mengenai Kesan Trauma (Awareness of the effects of trauma) Tahap Kefungsian Yang Minima (Minima Level of Fuctioning) Penghindaran (Avoidance) Penerimaan (Acceptance) Ubah hala (Redirection) Proses Pemulihan dan Susulan Individu (Individual) Sokongan Kumpulan Kerja (Group Work Support) Sokongan Keluarga (Family Support) Struktur Kerja (Work Structure) Kaunseling Pelajar Objektif Kaunseling Pelajar "Untuk memastikan supaya pelajar-pelajar dapat mempertingkatkan keupayaan dan kebolehan dengan menggunakan sepenuhnya potensi diri secara positif dan proaktif melalui perkhidmatan psikologikal" Objektif Umum Kaunseling Pelajar http://ramlanhamzah.tripod.com/ekaunseling/id8. 5.4.
DEFINISI KAUNSELING PENGENALAN KAUNSELING RAWATAN PSIKOTERAPI SEJARAH RINGKAS PSIKOTERAPI SIKAP TERHADAP TERAPI PENDIDIKAN DAN LATIHAN AHLI TERAPI JENIS-JENIS TERAPI ALIRAN DAN PENDEKATAN http://ramlanhamzah. 3. o Kaunselor dan klien bersama mengenalpasti tindakan-tindakan yang perlu diambil oleh klien untuk menangani masalah yang dihadapinya. Diperingkat ini juga. Peringkat apabila klien telah selesai melakukan tindakan yang dipersetujui dengan jayanya. 4. 6. PERINGKAT AKHIR 1. Setiap maklumat dalam sesi kaunseling adalah dijamin kerahsiaannya o Maklumat klien tidak akan diberitahu kepada mana-mana pihak melainkan setelah mendapat kebenaran dan persetujuan klien demi kebaikan klien sendiri Etika Kaunseling (PERKAMA) NOTA TAMBAHAN 1.1. Peringkat penentuan masalah dan penyelesaian: o Kaunselor dan klien bersama mengenalpasti masalah-masalah yang dihadapi oleh klien. Di peringkat ini kaunselor berkenaan akan: o Membincangkan tentang tindakan yang telah diambil oleh klien dan penilaian terhadap tindakan yang diambil itu. 5. 8. 2.html . 7. Kerahsiaan: o Perkhidmatan kaunseling adalah berpandukan Piawaian Amalan Kaunseling (Standards of Practice) serta memelihara Kod Etika. 2. 4. Membuat klien menerima kaunselor dengan hati yang terbuka dan sebagai seorang yang boleh dipercayai. 5. o Mengakhiri kaunseling dengan teratur dan membuat rumusan tentang kejayaan proses kaunseling tersebut Kaunseling Yang Beretika 1. Membuat klien sedar bahawa ada sesuatu masalah yang perlu diselesaikan dan dia sendiri perlu memainkan peranan dalam proses penyelesaian. kaunselor menentukan sama ada masalah wujud dan perlu diselesaikan dan bersedia untuk meneruskan proses kaunseling itu PERINGKAT PERTENGAHAN 1.tripod. 3. 2. Membantu pelajar untuk menyesuaikan diri dengan keadaan atau persekitaran Membantu pelajar dalam memberikan maklumat mengenai pemilihan kerjaya yang sesuai Memberi pengetahuan kepada pelajar dalam proses memahami masalah dan bagaimana menanganinya Memberi khidmat kaunseling bagi membantu pelajar mengatasi masalah peribadi yang sedang dihadapi Mengadakan khidmat susulan bagi membantu pelajar dalam menangani masalah atau mengelakkan diri dari masalah baru Peringkat-peringkat Kaunseling PERINGKAT PERMULAAN 1. o Mengenalpasti tindakan seterusnya yang diperlukan tanpa penyeliaan dari pihak kaunselor.com/ekaunseling/id8.
Psychotherapy. treatment methods in psychotherapy are guided by well-developed theories about the sources of personal problems. Drugs are used to treat this disorder. Sometimes people may want to talk to a therapist about problems they would feel uncomfortable discussing with friends or family. Two of the most common problems for which people seek help from a therapist are depression and persistent anxiety. Psychotherapy can be thought of as a form of counseling that is used as a treatment for mental disorders. a fear of specific objects or situations.htm I. Mental health professionals do not rely on psychotherapy to treat schizophrenia. opinion. Today the distinction between psychotherapy and counseling is quite blurred. Counseling is a broader term than psychotherapy. problems stemming from child abuse. their dreams. This type of therapy often took years and was very expensive. Psychotherapy is an important form of treatment for many kinds of psychological problems.com/txtypes. or licensed therapist. prisons. a severe mental illness. and instruction to direct the judgment or conduct of another" (Stedman's Electronic Medical Dictionary. Variants of psychoanalysis emerged that focused more on the patient's current level of functioning and required less time in therapy. or behaviors. behavioral problems. problems at work. mental health clinics. people who are depressed. or whatever came to mind. In the 1950s and 1960s therapists began using behavioral and cognitive therapies that focused less on the inner world of the client and more on the client's problem behaviors or thoughts. Another severe mental illness. anxious. Psychotherapy differs in two ways from the informal help or advice that one person may give another. feelings. or mental illness primarily through verbal communication. In addition. Finding a therapist to talk to who is knowledgeable about emotional problems. a person discusses his or her problems one-on-one with a therapist. Over the next several decades the field of psychotherapy and counseling expanded enormously. psychotherapy is conducted by a trained. and churches and synagogues. People with depression may have low self-esteem. is treated with drugs or a combination of drugs and psychotherapy. such as eating disorders and juvenile delinquency.tripod. For example. People often seek psychotherapy when they have tried other approaches to solving a personal problem. both in the number of approaches available and in the number of people choosing to enter the profession. the giving of advice. can often help people overcome or manage these problems. and is relatively objective can be extremely helpful. by itself or in combination with drug treatment. Problems Treated with Psychotherapy. patients met with a therapist several times a week. military bases. Before 1950 psychoanalysis was virtually the only form of psychotherapy available. loneliness. personality disorders. At one time the term psychotherapy referred to a form of psychiatric treatment used with severely disturbed individuals. In most types of psychotherapy. whereas counseling referred to the treatment of people with milder psychological problems or to advice given on vocational and educational matters.Definisi Kaunseling: Steadman's Medical Dictionary defines counseling as "a professional relationship and activity in which one person endeavors to help another to understand and to solve his or her adjustment problems. III. psychotherapy has become http://ramlanhamzah.guidetopsychology. family disputes. colleges. The therapist tries to understand the person's problems and to help the individual change distressing thoughts. II. Other problems often treated with psychotherapy include obsessivecompulsive disorder. or troubled social relationships may benefit from psychotherapy. Psychotherapy. People experiencing an emotional crisis due to marital problems. The psychoanalyst interpreted these thoughts and helped patients resolve unconscious conflicts. or have drug or alcohol problems may find that talking to friends or family members is not enough to resolve their problems. With more opportunities for individuals to receive help for their problems.com/ekaunseling/id8. Artikel dibawah dipetik dari: http://www. has patients' best interests at heart. Trends in Psychotherapy. First. 1994). and with more affordable treatments.html . such as being sexually abused as a child. alcoholism and other forms of drug dependence. Introduction. a sense of hopelessness about the future. high schools. In traditional psychoanalysis. the practice of psychotherapy and counseling spread from hospitals and private psychiatric offices to new settingselementary schools. Psychotherapists and counselors often treat the same kinds of problems and use the same set of techniques. and many mental health professionals use the terms interchangeably. certified. and a lack of interest in people and activities once found pleasurable. As the number of approaches to therapy grew throughout the 1960s and 1970s. and behavioral problems. People with anxiety disorders may feel anxious all the time or suffer from phobias. treatment of individuals with emotional problems. some psychotherapeutic techniques may help people with schizophrenia learn appropriate social skills and skills for managing anxiety. businesses. Patients would lie on a couch and talk about their childhood. However. bipolar disorder (popularly called manic depression).
schools. Licensing requirements vary in the United States. Managed health care. people assess methods of therapy and debate which approaches are best for particular problems and disorders. considering that their actual therapeutic techniques may be quite similar. and recipients of therapy are more willing to disclose their therapy to friends. If the therapist and client wish to continue beyond this number. or brief therapy. For example. social work. researchers estimate that 3. many consumers have come to expect faster treatment for mental health problems than in the past. people enrolled in managed-care plans must select from a list of therapists provided by their managed-care organization. Rather than spending years in therapy. Psychotherapists and counselors come principally from the fields of psychiatry. (doctor of medicine) degree. he or she must pay the full cost of therapy. Then they receive training in psychiatry during a residency of three or four years. clients receive treatment over the course of several weeks or months. A. Managed care has affected the practice of psychotherapy in other important ways.5 percent of men in the United States receive psychotherapy in any given year. In the late 1990s most Americans with health insurance were enrolled in plans with managed mental health care. Attitudes Toward Psychotherapy The increased availability and use of psychotherapy has led to more positive attitudes toward mental health care among the general public. the therapist normally loses money. They attend medical school for four years to earn an M. Usually a case reviewer will authorize only a small number of sessions at first. Typical managed-care firms allow up to 20 sessions per year. a managed-care firm may pay a therapist $200 to hold up to eight sessions with a person. mental health centers. people often viewed the need for psychotherapy as a sign of personal weakness or a sign that the person was abnormal. In the scientific community and in the media.5 percent of women and 2. Psychiatrists are physicians who specialize in the treatment of psychological disorders. such as health maintenance organizations (HMOs). Other managed-care companies pay therapists a set fee to meet with a client for up to a specified maximum number of sessions depending on the nature of the problem. psychology. scope. usually requiring two years of graduate study. Rather than selecting a therapist based on personal referrals. managed-care companies are reluctant to authorize more than several sessions of psychotherapy. has further driven the movement toward shorter therapies. If the client wishes to continue after reaching the maximum. Others note that managed care has brought greater accountability to the profession of psychotherapy. They may work in mental health agencies or medical settings practicing individual therapy or family and marital therapy. Psychiatric social workers make up the single largest group of mental health professionals.com/ekaunseling/id8. Psychiatric nurses are registered nurses who usually have a master's degree in psychiatric nursing.html . and hospitals. They work in settings such as businesses. They often work in a hospital setting conducting individual or group therapy with patients under the supervision of a psychiatrist. Clients cannot be assured of complete confidentiality because therapists must provide case reviewers with treatment plans and details of progress. Those who received therapy seldom told others about their treatment. B. managed-care firms. With extensive publicity about short-term therapies. Today psychotherapy is a topic of immense public interest. But if treatment stops after two or three sessions.S.D.W. and psychiatric nursing. which became widespread in the United States in the 1980s and 1990s. Since then the stigma attached to psychotherapy has decreased significantly. the therapist must get approval from the case reviewer for additional sessions. but some allow as few as 8 sessions per year.). limit the number of therapy sessions that they will pay for during a year for each insured person. To provide mental health care at lower costs.tripod. Before the 1960s. Although a reliable count of the number of people who receive psychotherapy is difficult to obtain. IV. forcing therapists to justify the effectiveness of their treatment approach. Education and Training of Therapists.D. Psychiatric social workers have a master's degree in social work (M. and cost of psychoanalysis and similar approaches.increasingly popular. Brief approaches to therapy evolved in part from consumer dissatisfaction with the length. It is now common for people to consider seeing a therapist for an emotional problem. They differ from other therapists in that they can prescribe medications. Critics argue that managed-care companies have embraced a "quick fix" mentality that pushes short-term therapy even when long-term therapy may be more appropriate. free of interference from case reviewers. Their training is quite different. (doctor of psychology) degree that requires four to six years of graduate study. Licensing requirements vary in the United States. Brief Therapy and Managed Care One of the strongest trends in psychotherapy in recent years has been the shift toward short-term treatment. http://ramlanhamzah. Brief therapies usually focus on the client's specific problems and may make use of techniques from a variety of theoretical orientations.D. This relatively new system is controversial because it creates a financial incentive for the therapist to shorten the length of treatment. (doctor of philosophy) or Psy. such as antidepressants and antianxiety drugs. Clinical psychologists and counseling psychologists have a Ph. favoring drug treatment instead. Case reviewers for the managed-care company decide how many sessions of therapy each person should receive. If the client uses all eight sessions. Increasingly. but most states require psychologists to have postdoctoral training. the therapist makes a profit.
but only a fraction of these have found mainstream acceptance. Transference exposes these repressed feelings and allows the patient to work through http://ramlanhamzah. children focus on feelings of pleasure in their genital organs. Although psychoanalysis is the best-known form of psychodynamic therapy. each developed from different theories about the causes of psychological problems and mental illnesses.tripod. Later he developed free association. Therefore.html . Id forces are unconscious and often emerge without an individual's awareness. People seeking help for their problems most often select individual therapy over group therapy and other forms of therapy. In Freud's view. and memories. anxiety. Freud developed the theory and techniques of psychoanalysis in the 1890s. ministers. or other titles not covered under licensing and certification laws. He also proposed that children pass through a series of psychosexual stages. Although anyone may use the title of psychoanalyst. In the process. (3) behavioral. even one with no training. according to Freud. and emotions into consciousness. memories. or social workers who have completed six to ten years of psychoanalytic training. during the phallic stage. Freud sought to eliminate neurotic symptoms by bringing the individual's repressed fantasies.Psychoanalysts specialize in psychoanalysis. instinctual drives. Psychodynamic Therapies Psychodynamic therapies are those therapies in some way derived from the work of Austrian physician Sigmund Freud. or other distressing symptoms. during which they express sexual energy in different ways. and the ego is the rational thinking that mediates between the id and superego and deals with reality. In individual therapy. At first. Classical Psychoanalysis. or better in other ways. family therapy. girls develop sexual feelings toward their fathers and feel rage toward their mothers. Forms of therapy that treat more than one person at a time include group therapy. A. Many kinds of psychotherapy are offshoots of well-known approaches or build upon the work of earlier theorists. At this time. The National Board for Certified Counselors offers certification for counselors who have a minimum of a master's degree and who meet the organization's professional standards. he used hypnosis as a way to gain access to a person's unconscious. psychodynamic therapists emphasize the importance of discovering and resolving internal. clients should ask therapists who practice under such titles about their academic and professional training. and couples therapy. the individual represses these feelings. without distractions from others. Sometimes people combine individual therapy and group therapy. Also. The analyst's interpretations of this material. In the United States. For example. usually under the title of licensed professional counselor or licensed mental health counselor. psychotherapist. (2) humanistic. Freud also placed great value on what could be learned from transference. or (5) eclectic. The id represents unchecked. depression. could provide patients with insight into their unconsciousinsight that would help them become less anxious. Any person. and rabbisusually take courses in counseling and psychology as part of their seminary training. or way of understanding another individual. not separately. fantasies. Members of the clergypriests. three basic personality structures are formed: the id. often through an exploration of one's childhood and past experiences. about 40 percent of therapists consider their approach eclectic. which he regarded as the source of emotional problems in adults. Freud believed that during therapy. Types of Therapy. (4) cognitive. People may prefer individual therapy because it allows the therapist to focus exclusively on their problems. working with members of a congregation who are in distress. the ego. the patient's emotional response to the therapist. In general.com/ekaunseling/id8. patients transfer repressed feelings toward their family members to their relationship with the therapist. boys become sexually attracted to their mothers and feel hostility and jealousy toward their fathers. In response. V. the superego is the voice of social conscience. psychologists. theorists have developed many other psychodynamic therapies. The methods of therapists vary depending on their theory of personality. which means they combine techniques from a number of theoretical approaches and often tailor their treatment to the particular psychological problem of a client. All but a few states license professional counselors. These three systems function as a whole. individuals may desire more privacy and confidentiality than is possible in a group setting. Freud used the term neurosis to refer to such symptoms. less depressed. a patient or client meets regularly with a therapist. those accredited by the International Psychoanalytic Association are usually psychiatrists. typically over a period of weeks or months. He placed particular emphasis on helping patients uncover memories about early childhood trauma and conflict. Freud believed. a method in which patients say whatever thoughts come to their minds about dreams. driving them into the unconscious mind. He believed that much of an individual's personality develops before the age of six. such innate sexual and aggressive drives cause feelings and thoughts that the person regards as unacceptable. some very different from Freud's original techniques. Similarly. Most therapies can be classified as (1) psychodynamic. from about age three to age five. causing fear. There are more than 250 kinds of psychotherapy. Other forms of therapy specialize in treating children or adolescents with psychological problems. and the superego. In psychoanalysis. 1. These therapies may use techniques from any theoretical approach. Some ministers specialize in pastoral counseling. can legally use the title of therapist. the founder of psychoanalysis. unconscious conflicts. Psychotherapy encompasses a large number of treatment methods. They are also required to undergo a personal analysis themselves.
and they use a number of innovative action techniques to help patients change mistaken beliefs and interact more fully with family members and others. For Adler and modern therapists who draw from his work. such as Austrian-born British psychoanalyst Melanie Klein.com/ekaunseling/id8. beliefs. She asserted that people develop anxiety and other psychological problems because of feelings of isolation during childhood and unmet needs for love and respect from their parents. In traditional or classical psychoanalysis. work. Jungian Therapy. who emphasized the role of social and cultural influences in the formation of personality. In contemporary forms of psychoanalysis. Adlerian therapists see therapy in part as educational. and relationships with parents. Other psychoanalytically oriented therapists work in a brief format of 30 sessions or less. At a rate of $100 or more per session. They treat psychological problems by helping their patients bring material from their personal and collective unconscious into conscious awareness. Erikson extended Freud's emphasis on childhood development to cover the entire lifespan. 5. Like Jung. which he defined as the reservoir of the experience of the entire human race. dragons. the patient lies on a couch and the therapist sits out of sight of the patient. Modern psychoanalysts tend to focus more on current functioning and make less use of free association techniques. http://ramlanhamzah. Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung developed a very different system of therapy. Erikson helped individuals develop the basic trust and confidence needed for the development of a healthy ego. Contemporary Psychoanalysis. The patient sits on a chair across from the therapist rather than lying on a couch. British pediatrician Donald Winnicott and Austrian-American pediatrician Margaret Mahler were known as object-relations analysts because of their emphasis on the child's love object (such as the mother or father). Unlike the psychoanalytic therapists. but also current cultural symbols. Karen Horney. They are often expressed in mythological concepts such as good and evil spirits. Whereas Freud had described the personal unconscious. He would ask patients about their early memories and use this information to analyze their attitudes.tripod. Fromm believed that the fundamental problem people confront is a sense of isolation deriving from their own separateness. Other psychoanalytic therapists focused on how relationships develop between the child and others. and friendship. which reflected the sum of one person's experience. in her view. relatively few individuals choose this intensive and long-term therapy. Adler was particularly interested in sibling relationships. 2. They and other objectrelations therapists. but broke away totally from Freud in his own work. Jung added the concept of the collective unconscious. establish roots. By interpreting dreams and other materials. In general. Jung created a school of psychology that he called analytical psychology. Free association and transference are still central features of Freudian psychoanalysis. He felt that Freud focused too much on sexual drives and not enough on all of the creative instincts and impulses that motivate individuals. This practice is intended to minimize the presence of the therapist and allow the patient to engage in free association more easily. Neo-Freudian Therapies. The collective unconscious contains images called archetypes that are common to all individuals. The goal of therapy.html . He helped his patients by encouraging them to meet important life goals: love. He had worked closely with Freud. All three emigrated from Germany to the United States in the 1930s. Often working with children. and Erik Erikson. Austrian physician Alfred Adler believed that Freud overemphasized the importance of sexual and aggressive drives. he emphasized the importance of the ego in helping individuals develop healthy ways to deal with their environment. helped patients deal with problems that arose from being separated inappropriately or at too early an age or from their mothers. The therapists do this through a knowledge of symbolismnot only symbols from mythology and folk culture. the duration of therapy is often shorterbetween one and four yearsand meetings may take place one or two times a week. fairies. the goal of therapy is to orient oneself. Referred to as an ego psychologist. three sessions per week costs more than $15. According to Fromm. Classical psychoanalysis requires three to four sessions of therapy each week for several years. Three important neo-Freudians were Erich Fromm. is to help patients overcome anxiety-driven neurotic needs and move toward a more realistic image of themselves. Therefore. Jungian therapists help their patients become more aware of unconscious processes and become stronger individuals. and gods. Adlerian Therapy. Their theories have influenced modern psychodynamic therapists. especially the mother.000 per year.them. Several of Freud's followers developed new theories about the causes of psychological disorders. and find security by uniting with other people while remaining a separate individual. Jungian therapists see psychological problems as arising from unconscious conflicts that create disturbances in psychic energy. 4. interest in others and participation in society are important goals of therapy. Horney departed from Freud in her belief in the importance of social forces in personality formation. 3. Classical psychoanalysis is not typically covered by insurance plans with managed mental health care. and behaviors. birth order.
because you thought he loved you. and does not try to analyze. and feelings and communicates this empathic understanding to the client. or lead the direction of discussion. An empathic therapist demonstrates a deep understanding of the client's thoughts. Frankl in the 1940s (logos is Greek for meaning). In the following example. Clients are encouraged to take responsibility for their lives. the therapist helps the client become more aware of her own behavior and her responsibility for it: Client: You know. I guess I haven't really accepted that he could do this to me. Rogers believed. is the capacity for self-understanding and constructive change. Therapist: Please repeat that phrase using the word I instead of you. Within each person. 1. American psychologist Carl Rogers developed this type of therapy in the 1940s and 1950s. Rogers believed that when clients feel unconditional positive regard from a genuine therapist and feel empathically understood. accepting. Person-Centered Therapy. to accept themselves. Client: I can't do anything right. Gestalt therapists are willing to use confrontational questions and techniques to help clients express their true feelings. The therapist may use such phrases as "What I hear you saying is. Like person-centered therapy. clients gain a better understanding of their own lives.. you just can't do anything right in today's world. and the feeling that life is meaningless. therapists must show through their body position and facial expression that they are paying attentionfor example. judge. Existential therapists help their clients confront and explore anxiety. which in turn moves them toward growth. not just those of humanistic orientation.. Humanistic Therapies Humanistic therapies focus on the client's present rather than past experiences. He felt that effective therapists must be genuine. Gestalt therapy was developed in the 1940s and 1950s by Frederick (Fritz) Perls. and to recognize their own potential for growth and change. and Gestalt therapy. By doing so. by directly facing the client and making good eye contact. Therapist: You seem to still be hurting from what he did. Existential Therapy Based on a philosophical approach to people and their existence. and persuasion. and on conscious feelings rather than unconscious thoughts. Three of the most influential forms of humanistic therapy are existential therapy. The love you have for him is so strong.com/ekaunseling/id8. advice. and life enrichment. developed by Austrian psychiatrist Viktor E. More than other kinds of therapists.tripod. originally called client-centered therapy.. they will be less anxious and more willing to reveal themselves and their weaknesses. The first existential therapists were European psychiatrists trained in psychoanalysis who were dissatisfied with Freud's emphasis on biological drives and unconscious processes. A big part of me still loves him. Many therapists. Person-centered therapy. supportive atmosphere and to guide clients toward personal realizations and insights. the therapist tries to restate what the client has said and seeks clarification of the client's feelings. Therapists try to create a caring. Gestalt is a German word referring to wholeness and the concept that a whole unit is more than the sum of its parts.B. During the therapy session. and dealing with a sense of meaninglessness. Therapists normally draw on techniques from a variety of therapies. ideas.html . These themes include living and dying. move toward self-acceptance. is perhaps the best-known form of humanistic therapy. have adopted elements of Rogers's approach. 3. There are few techniques specific to existential therapy. freedom. Rogers believed that people. fear of death. a German-born psychiatrist who immigrated to the United States. existential therapists examine individuals' awareness of themselves and their ability to look beyond their immediate problems and daily events to problems of human existence. it seems. despair. Client: M-hm. existential therapy deals with important life themes. One well-known existential therapy is logotherapy. An accepting therapist cares for the client unconditionally. Gestalt Therapy. Rogers strongly believed that the quality of the therapist-client relationship influences the success of therapy. person-centered therapy. A genuine therapist expresses true interest in the client and is open and honest. For example: Client: I always felt my husband loved me." and "You're feeling like. The length of therapy depends on the severity of the problem and on a client's ability to change and try new behaviors. 2. like other living organisms. Because humanistic therapies emphasize the relationship between client and therapist and a gradual development of increased responsibility by the client. Person-centered therapy emphasizes understanding and caring rather than diagnosis. First. Therapist: You feel surprised by the fact that he left you. responsibility to self and others. finding meaning in life. Therapist: Would you change the word can't to won't? Client: I won't do anything right. However. http://ramlanhamzah. Person-centered therapists use an approach called active listening to demonstrate empathyletting clients know that they are being fully listened to and understood. and can make progress in resolving a wide variety of personal problems. I just don't understand why this happened. Gestalt therapy tries to make individuals take responsibility for their own lives and personal growth and to recognize their capacity for healing themselves. are driven by an innate tendency to maintain and enhance themselves.. these therapies typically take a year or two of weekly sessions. It comes as a real surprise. maturity. loneliness. experiences. even if the therapist does not always agree with him or her." The therapist seeks mainly to reflect the client's statements back to the client accurately. and empathic.
people learn to tighten and then relax one muscle group at a time. or past experiences. for example. talking with others. feelings. feelings. The empty-chair technique reflects Gestalt therapy's strong emphasis on dealing with problems in the present. called progressive relaxation. they help individuals replace distressing behaviors with more appropriate ones. Behavioral therapies differ dramatically from psychodynamic and humanistic therapies. Typical problems treated with behavioral therapy include alcohol or drug addiction. wholeness. The relaxation and the imagined scene are paired until the client feels no further anxiety. illustrates a brief relaxation procedure: Just settle back as comfortably as you can. One of the best-known Gestalt techniques is the empty-chair technique. The client may then express her feelings by speaking in the direction of the chair. begin to breathe slowly. See Behavior Modification. Because behavioral therapy can work through nonverbal means. Take a deep breath . and social skills training. and actions. Then they gradually relax their body. both normal and abnormal.. For example. but merely sits in a quiet atmosphere and repeats a mantra (a specially chosen word) to try to achieve a state of restful alertness. Therapists may use a number of specific techniques to alter behavior. Alternatively.. Behavioral Therapies. differences may be resolved. if a client is angry at herself for not being kinder to her mother. and let yourself relax to the best of your ability . a person does not try to concentrate on anything. the therapist and client establish an anxiety hierarchya list of fear-provoking situations arranged in order of how much fear they provoke in the client. behavioral therapists can teach social and self-care skills to children with severe learning disabilities and to individuals with schizophrenia who are out of touch with reality. As she talks to different parts of herself. Eventually the client can remain free of anxiety while imagining the most-feared situation. 2. The following example. and integration of one's thoughts. It also serves as an important component of some other behavioral treatments. Let the fingers of your hands become loose and observe the contrast in your feelings . C. people begin by sitting comfortably on a cushion or chair. Behavioral therapists begin treatment by finding out as much as they can about the client's problem and the circumstances surrounding it. Rather. beginning with the least-feared situation and moving upward. For example. he or she is instructed to stop thinking about the situation and to return to a state of deep relaxation. The word desensitization refers to making people less sensitive to or frightened of certain situations. others. They believe that behavior of all kinds. systematic desensitization. but rather focus on observable and measurable behaviors. Systematic desensitization. For example. exposure and response prevention. http://ramlanhamzah. Behavioral therapists do not explore an individual's thoughts. phobias (such as a fear of heights). Now let yourself go and try to become more relaxed all over. the man may first imagine seeing a picture of a spider. It is often used to treat phobias and other anxiety disorders. adapted from Jacobson's work. Now relax. Now clench up both fists tighter and tighter and study the tension as you do so. people try to relax both the mind and the body. By applying the principles of learning. gradually teaches people to be relaxed in a situation that would otherwise frighten them. and anxiety. Gestalt therapists use a wide variety of techniques to make clients more aware of themselves. In many forms of meditation.html . Then the therapist asks the client to imagine each situation on the anxiety hierarchy. Relaxation Training.. and the environment that brings about growth. Systematic Densensitization.. Another relaxation technique is meditation. the therapist has the client relax using one of the relaxation techniques described above. whereas seeing a small picture of a spider may rank at the bottom. or cooking a meal. the client may pretend her mother is sitting in an empty chair. the therapist gives spoken instructions to the client.. the client might play the role of the understanding daughter while sitting in one chair and the angry daughter while sitting in another. by having clients develop specific behavioral goalssuch as returning to work. it can also help people who would not respond to other forms of therapy. then from a short distance. was developed in the 1930s by American physiologist and psychologist Edmund Jacobson.. For a man afraid of spiders. In the first step of desensitization. In meditation. At first.. and they often invent or experiment with techniques that might help to accomplish this goal. such as depression. in which an empty chair represents another person or another part of the client's self. Just let your whole body become more and more relaxed. In Transcendental Meditation. aversive conditioning. In the second step. They do not infer causes or look for hidden meanings. a procedure developed by South African psychiatrist Joseph Wolpe in the 1950s. Modern behavioral therapists work with other problems. forearms . and concentrate on a sensationsuch as the inhaling and exhaling of breathor on an image or object. Keep them clenched and feel the tension in your fists. 1. holding a spider may rank at the top of his anxiety hierarchy. If the client feels anxiety at any stage. is the product of learning.tripod. hands. close your eyes. then imagine seeing a real spider from far away.com/ekaunseling/id8. Later the client can practice the relaxation exercise at home using a tape recording of the therapist's voice..Therapist: What won't you do that you want to do? The general goal of Gestalt therapy is awareness of self. These techniques include relaxation training. they focus on the behavior that is causing distress for their clients. This method. and so forth. In one type of relaxation exercise. Relaxation training is a method of helping people with high levels of anxiety and stress. dreams.
This technique teaches people. However. The drug makes the patients violently sick if they drink alcohol. Influenced by Alfred Adler's work. and as a result. viewing them as slow and inefficient. making eye contact. Ellis came to regard irrational beliefs and illogical thinking as the major cause of most emotional disturbances.Asking a client to encounter the feared situation is a technique called in vivo exposure. In vivo therapies are more direct and may take less time. Rather. aversive conditioning can work when all other techniques have failed. or vomiting. and responding to questions. such as an electric shock. Exposure and Response Prevention. 5. therapists treating patients with alcoholism may have them ingest the drug disulfiram (Antabuse). The therapist would model for the client how to approach a spider and how to handle it. The therapist watches the exercises and provides constructive criticism and further modeling. according to Ellis. For example. D. now commonly called rational-emotive behavior therapy. Trained in psychoanalysis in the 1940s. standing at the appropriate distance. a therapist might arrange to go to a park or zoo where visitors can touch large spiders. For example. to treat people who compulsively wash their hands because they fear contamination from germs. rational-emotive therapy. rather than observable behaviors. Social Skills Training. more occasionally. "I'm a worthless human being. Therapists often conduct this kind of training with groups of people with similar problems. Social skills training is a method of helping people who have problems interacting with others. and then reevaluating or changing goals as therapy progresses. reinforcing his progress with praise and reassurance as he does so. Ellis quickly became disillusioned with psychoanalytic methods. The therapist first describes and models the behavior. and the idea that one must always be competent and successful to be a worthwhile person. but then prevents the client from acting on these thoughts. such as by thinking. For example. the therapist would model assertive behavior for the client. if a woman has trouble saying no to a coworker who inappropriately asks her to handle some of his job responsibilities. include the idea that unhappiness is caused by external events. 4. they use this technique very infrequently. Many therapists have found that aversive conditioning is not as effective as other behavioral techniques. For the man who is afraid of spiders. Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy. Therapists have also experimented with exposure and response prevention to treat people with bulimia nervosa. In the mid-1950s American psychologist Albert Ellis developed one of the first cognitive approaches to therapy. an eating disorder in which people engage in binge eating and afterward force themselves to vomit or. depending on the severity of the problem. Systematic desensitization typically takes from 10 to 30 sessions. 1. clients receive an unpleasant stimulus. They try to teach people to think in more rational. Then the patient or client practices the behavior in skits or role-playing exercises. who would then roleplay and rehearse appropriate responses to her coworker. she may benefit from learning how to become more assertive. the therapist exposes the client to the situation that causes obsessive thoughts. In this method. Behavioral therapists occasionally use a technique called aversive conditioning or aversion therapy. including depression and chronic anxiety. Cognitive Therapies. Social skills training often can help people with schizophrenia function more easily in public situations and reduce their risk of relapse or rehospitalization. Therapists may spend considerable time deciding on appropriate goals." Although rational-emotive behavior therapists use many techniques. The goal for the therapist and patient would be for the man to pick up the spider. taking laxatives. Examples of irrational beliefs. Clients learn basic social skills such as initiating conversations.com/ekaunseling/id8. often those who are shy. In this technique. they emphasize changing beliefs and thoughts. a therapist might have them handle something dirty and then prevent them from washing their hands. take laxatives (see Bulimia). whenever they perform an undesirable behavior. however. The therapist may also encourage the man to walk gradually closer to the spider. Aversive Conditioning. constructive ways. Cognitive therapists believe that irrational beliefs or distorted thinking patterns can cause a variety of serious problems. the idea that one must be accepted and loved by everyone. Exposure and response prevention is a behavioral technique often used to treat people with obsessive-compulsive disorder. another technique pioneered by Joseph Wolpe. http://ramlanhamzah. 3.tripod. In his view. In this example. Problems are rarely as clear and simple as fear of spiders. negative events such as losing a job or breaking up with a lover do not by themselves cause depression or anxiety. controlling voice volume and pitch. the most common technique is that of disputing irrational thoughts. For some problems. which ones to pursue first.html . Cognitive therapies are similar to behavioral therapies in that they focus on specific problems. The therapist feeds the bulimic patients small amounts of food but prevents them from binging. For example. One popular form of social skills training is assertiveness training. First the therapist identifies irrational beliefs by talking with the client about his or her problems. therapists have found that immediate application of an unpleasant stimulus can eliminate self-mutilation and other self-destructive behaviors in children with autism. to make appropriate responses when someone does something to them that seems inappropriate or offensive or violates their rights. emotional disorders result when a person perceives the events in an irrational way.
Although trained in psychoanalysis. He observed that psychoanalysis did not help many of his patients change their behavior. Glasser felt it was important to help individuals take responsibility for their own lives and to blame others less. and later applied it to other disorders. clients often keep a daily log in which they write down distressing emotions. rational-emotive behavior therapists often use confrontational techniques. Reality therapy is based on the premise that all human behavior is motivated by fundamental needs and specific wants. interpret their experiences negatively. "Why must you? Do you think your entire career as a student will be through if you get a B?" The therapist helps the client replace irrational thoughts with more reasonable ones. or feelings is not an easy task. and alternative ways of thinking about the situation. In Beck's view.html . Therapist: Everyone? Every single person at work is smarter than you? Client: Well. Transactional Analysis. There are a lot of people at work I don't know well at all. maybe not. In therapy.To dispute the client's irrational beliefs and longstanding assumptions. In the 1960s Beck developed his own form of cognitive therapy for treating depression. F. Then the therapist helps clients explore the behaviors that created problems for them. Reality Therapy. Two such therapies still in use today are transactional analysis and reality therapy.tripod. Like rational-emotive behavior therapists. they function either as a parent. Largely because of this emphasis on personal responsibility. Berne felt that the complexity of psychoanalytic terminology excluded patients from full participation in their own treatment. Other Therapies Helping individuals change problematic behaviors. 1. Client: Everyone at work is smarter than me. school counselors. practitioners of Beck's technique challenge the client's absolute. the therapist helps the client formulate a concrete plan of action to change certain behaviors. which is often conducted in groups. humanistic. finding that it often did not help relieve depression for his patients. she seems to really know what's going on. if a student tells the therapist." 2. In the 1950s and 1960s Canadian-American psychiatrist Eric Berne developed a form of therapy he called transactional analysis. But my boss seems smarter. Most therapists who adopt an eclectic approach have a rationale for which techniques they use with specific clients. E. such as "I would like to get an A on the test. and feel hopeless about their future. Like Ellis before him. the situation that caused the emotions. thoughts. 2. For example. and so forth depending on the situation. "I must get an A on this test or I will be a failure in life. meaning that they use ideas and techniques from a variety of therapies. based on the client's own goals and ability to make choices. or child. Many therapists like the opportunity to draw from many theories and not limit themselves to one or two. depressed people tend to have negative views of themselves. adult. Beck became disenchanted with psychoanalysis. their thoughts at the time. For example. he would characterize social interactions between two people as parent-adult. The therapist does not accept excuses from clients. whether the thoughts were distorted or not. behavioral. Clients are encouraged to examine the consequences of their behavior and to evaluate how well their behavior helped them fulfill their wants. and then suggest ways to change this thinking. American psychiatrist Aaron T. trusting relationship with clients in which they can express their needs and wants. and those working with clients who may be disruptive to others. He referred to social interactions as transactions and to analysis of these interactions as transactional analysis. clients learn how to change roles in order to behave in more desirable ways. Eclectic Therapy Currently. American psychiatrist William Glasser developed reality therapy in the 1960s. He sees these tendencies as a problem of faulty thinking. after working with teenage girls in a correctional institution and observing work with severely disturbed schizophrenic patients in a mental hospital. many therapists describe their approach as eclectic or integrative. but if I don't. In addition to identifying these roles. patients learn to recognize when they are assuming one of these roles and to understand when being an authoritarian parent or an impulsive child is appropriate or inappropriate. For example.com/ekaunseling/id8. corrections workers. The reality therapist first seeks to establish a friendly. some of which do not fall neatly into the major categories of psychodynamic. or cognitive. such as thinking about negative events in catastrophic terms. parent-child. Therapist: Notice how we went from everyone at work being smarter than you to just your boss. He developed a theory of personality based on the view that when people interact with each other. Therapists have tried many creative approaches to help patients. Beck's Cognitive Therapy." the therapist might say. adultadult. even when they understood the sources of it. extreme statements.and alcohol-abuse counselors. http://ramlanhamzah. I have strategies I can use to do better next time. They try to help the client identify distorted thinking. rather than just choosing an approach randomly or because it suits them at the time. Cognitive therapists often give their clients homework assignments designed to help them identify their own irrational patterns of thinking and to reinforce what they learn in therapy. Finally. The following example illustrates how a cognitive therapist might challenge a client's absolute statement. adult-child. his approach has found widespread acceptance among drug.
Moreno. They can try out new ways of behaving in a safe. In closed groups. Therapists will often screen potential participants to learn about their problems and decide whether the group is right for them. in which they can share their grieving and their hurts with the therapist. People may choose group therapy for several reasons. There are almost no pure cognitive or behavioral therapists. Some therapists have combined psychodynamic and behavioral therapies in ways to help their clients deal with fears and anxieties but also understand their causes. the same therapist may use a cognitive-behavioral approach with a person who reports being anxious most of the time. 2. G. group members try to change their own thoughts and behaviors and support and encourage other members to do the same. some groups may form specifically for individuals who are grieving the loss of a loved one. group therapy allows people to hear and see how others deal with their problems. For example. The client then reports the results back to the therapist. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy. and also because of its ability to treat a wide range of problems. For example. The therapist may also train her in relaxation techniques and have her try new behaviors that help her become more active and less depressed. Regular attendance is usually required in these groups. a therapist might find that clients who are grieving over the loss of a spouse may respond best to a humanistic approach. When forming a group. Another disadvantage of group therapy involves confidentiality. Other therapists may understand clients using two or three theories of personality and only use techniques to bring about change that are consistent with those theories. Also. Cognitive-behavioral therapy has rapidly become one of the most popular and influential forms of psychotherapy. Some groups are open or drop-in groupsnew clients may join at any time and members may attend or skip whatever sessions they desire. but also to discussions between group members that may be occurring quickly. Moreno brought his method to the United States in 1925. therapists may limit membership in a group to individuals with similar problems and backgrounds. and problem. was developed in the 1920s by Jacob L. lessening the effectiveness of therapy for them. Aside from cost and efficiency advantages. therapists try to intercede when group members act in destructive ways. The typical group size is from six to ten people with one or two therapists. Usually therapists combine cognitive and behavioral techniques in an approach known as cognitive-behavioral therapy. Other eclectic approaches use other combinations of therapies. However. people with eating disorders. Format of Group Therapy. Although group members usually promise to treat all therapy discussions as confidential. such as by yelling at them or criticizing them harshly. and its use spread to other parts of the http://ramlanhamzah. and feelings. The length of therapy usually depends on the severity and number of the client's problems. but more often it extends for 20 or 30 sessions over four to six months. Humanistic therapists tend to respond to the feelings and experiences of other members. the first form of group therapy. both the therapist and group members will ask a member to provide an explanation for missing a meeting. The techniques used in group therapy depend largely on the theoretical orientation of the therapist. Psychodrama. Groups vary widely in how they work. supportive environment and learn how others perceive them. Group Therapy. a therapist may help her identify irrational thinking patterns that cause the distressing feelings and to replace these irrational thoughts with new ways of thinking. Often two therapists prefer to work together in a group so that they can respond not only to one person's issues. Group members who believe this may be less willing to disclose all of their problems. Psychodrama. Some therapists have one particular way of understanding clientsthat is. Generally. they adhere to one theory of personalitybut use many techniques from a variety of theories. 2. Group therapy also allows a therapist to provide treatment to more people than would be possible otherwise. people suffering from depression. Sometimes cognitive-behavioral therapy takes only a few sessions. First. group therapy is usually less expensive than individual therapy. Other groups are closed and admit new members only when all members agree.html . Groups also have disadvantages.One of the most influential eclectic approaches is cognitive-behavioral therapy. Psychoanalytic groups focus on childhood experiences and their impact on participants' current behaviors. group members receive vital support and encouragement from others in the group. 1. in part because it takes a relatively short period of time compared to humanistic and psychoanalytic therapies.com/ekaunseling/id8. In other cases. therapists try to make clear to potential participants the goals of the group and for whom it is appropriate. They may also interpret or comment on social interactions between group members. In cognitive-behavioral groups. In addition. For example. thoughts. or troubled elderly individuals. because group members share the cost. Other Eclectic Approaches. Individuals spend less time talking about their own problems than they would in one-onone therapy. individuals who abuse drugs or alcohol. to treat a woman with depression. All of the individual therapies can also be used with groups.tripod. gender. Therapists may use different approaches to treat different problems. some group members may worry that other members will share their secrets outside of the group. Sometimes therapists prefer diversity among group members in terms of age. 1. certain group members may interact with other group members in hurtful ways. an Austrian psychiatrist.
tripod. anger. an individual family member's psychological problems. Couples may seek therapy for a variety of problems. For example. many of which concern a breakdown of communication or trust between the partners. compulsive gamblers. and encourage change or recovery. battered women. suggesting how participants might act out problems and assigning roles to other group members. single-parent homes. also called marital therapy or marriage counseling. Child Therapy. and siblings. Couples therapy. an extramarital affair by one partner may cause the other partner to feel emotional pain. At certain times during therapy. For example. The therapist may then teach the partners new ways of expressing their feelings verbally. the therapist may encourage the couple to try sharing decision-making power. Therapists normally hold sessions with both partners present. For example. Some partners may feel distant from one another or experience sexual problems. frustrations. rather than meeting with family members individually. There are thousands of self-help and support groups in the United States and Canada. new stepparents. most family therapists prefer to work with the entire family during a session. therapists focus on improving communication between partners and on helping them learn to manage conflict. Other groups have formed for cancer patients. Typical problems that bring families into family therapy are delinquent behavior by a child or adolescent. mother. is designed to help intimate partners improve their relationship. J. brother. Instead. parents whose children have been murdered.html . the therapist encourages family members to air their feelings. Therapists work from the rationale that current family relationships profoundly affect. 3. family systems therapy. For example. In most family therapy sessions. or have difficulty getting along with others at home or school. The therapist may also suggest that they try out new roles. The techniques used in therapy vary depending on the theoretical orientation of the therapist and the nature of the couple's problem. death of a parent or sibling. and hostilities. Therapists deal with children who are anxious. By observing how they interact. they can serve as an important source of help for people in emotional distress. Most often. They are usually free of charge to interested participants. One of the most influential forms of family therapy. a woman might reenact a scene from her childhood with other group members playing her father. The oldest and best known is Alcoholics Anonymous. if one partner makes all of the decisions in the relationship. however. In other cases. Rather than treating one person's symptoms in isolation. Therapists treat married couples as well as unmarried couples of the opposite or same sex. Because most couples therapists also have training in family therapy. Family Therapy. Some psychotherapists specialize in working with children. being homeless. which uses a 12-step program to treat alcoholism. a boy who begins picking fights with classmates might do so to get more attention from his busy parents. the therapist may choose to see the partners individually. Participants in psychodrama act out their problemsoften on a real stage and with propsas a means of heightening their awareness of them. Psychoanalytically oriented therapists may focus on how the partners' childhood experiences affect their current relationship with each other. support each other emotionally. and many other types of people. complex system or unit. how to listen to each other. children. the therapist can help them recognize their roles and relationships with each other. or being raised in an alcoholic family. By observing the partners as they talk to each other. and severe psychological disturbance or mental illness in a parent or child. For this reason. and distrust. a child's poor performance in school. Self-help groups are not strictly considered psychotherapy because they are not led by a licensed mental health professional. Some children have psychological problems resulting from family issues such as divorce. Therapists can help such partners separate in constructive ways. views the family as a single. I. obese people. the therapist can learn about their communication patterns and the roles they assume in their relationship. Couples Therapy. However. A self-help group or support group involves people with a common problem who meet regularly to share their experiences. one or both partners may have psychological problems or alcohol or drug problems that negatively affect their relationship. H. Groups who use psychodrama may do so weekly or simply as a one-time demonstration. Self-Help Groups. the therapist makes suggestions about how family members might adjust their roles and prevent future conflict. separation or divorce may be the best choice. Other children have emotional problems related to physical http://ramlanhamzah. and how to work together to solve problems.world.com/ekaunseling/id8. therapists try to understand the symptoms in the larger context of the family. hostilities between a parent and child or between siblings. Individual members are interdependent parts of the system. or sister. Family therapy involves the participation of one or more members of the same family who seek help for troubled family relationships or the problems of individual family members. The therapist tries to avoid assigning blame to any particular family member. The therapist serves as the director. depressed. For couples who cannot work through their differences or reestablish trust and intimacy. and are affected by. they often examine the influence of the couple's relationships with parents.
and clients want to feel that their investment of time and money has been worthwhile. goals of therapy change upon assessment of new issues or problems. in which the client lies on a couch. Because of these biases. and terminating therapy. The therapist usually asks about the nature of the problems. the individual may turn to a variety of people to get a referrala friend. psychotherapy involves a common sequence of events: finding a therapist. Managed-care companies generally limit the number of sessions they will subsidize to between 15 and 20. some health insurance plans may restrict a person's choice of therapist. resolving the problem. The answer does provide some information about how therapists and their clients perceive therapy. For many therapists. However. clients try to explain their problems to the therapist. puppets. The Process of Psychotherapy. hearing details. Both therapists in private practice and those in community mental health agencies have to negotiate fees depending in part on the client's health insurance plan.tripod. a pastor or rabbi. most studies of effectiveness rely on other evaluations of a client's improvement: psychological tests given before and after treatment. At the end of therapy. For children. and may decide to change therapists. Asking psychotherapists or their clients. Sessions typically last from 45 to 50 minutes. Some therapists collaborate with clients in deciding the goals of therapy and what treatment methods will be used. play is a natural way of learning and relating to others. Measuring the effectiveness of psychotherapy is an extremely complex task. and reports from impartial interviewers who do not know the client or whether the client received any therapy. However. may arrange to go beyond these limits by negotiating a fee that the client will pay for services. Almost since the inception of psychotherapy. sandboxes. they may discuss several aspects of therapy. the therapist or client may move to a new city. Some therapists. health maintenance organizations. exploring the problem. Play therapy can help therapists both to understand children's problems and to help children deal with their feelings. what may make the problems better or worse. Clients typically meet weekly with the therapist. A. "How helpful has therapy been?" is only a start. others in the client's thinking patterns (cognitive therapy). VII. Therapists may use playhouses. the client sits across from the therapistexcept in classical psychoanalysis. finger paints. "Does it work? Does psychotherapy help people resolve their problems. the cost of therapy may also factor in the decision to end therapy. Ideally their decision depends on their judgments about the client's degree of progress and improvement.disabilities. VI. therapists and their clients have asked. reports from the client's friends and family. Some therapists are interested in unconscious forces and the early childhood years of the client (psychodynamic therapy). especially those in private practice. Effectiveness of Psychotherapy. and government organizationshave increased their scrutiny of the effectiveness of various psychotherapies in an effort to contain costs. Overall Effectiveness. and social workers that can also provide referrals to therapists. dolls. food. Assessment does not stop with the first session. although therapists may hold longer sessions during the initial stages of treatment. Therapists want to uphold their professional reputation and sense of competence. learning disabilities. Some clients may find that therapy does not seem to be making progress. and thoughts. During therapy. Sometimes therapy will end prematurely.com/ekaunseling/id8. feel better. For most people. or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. it does not answer the question of whether psychotherapy is effective because both therapists and clients have vested interests in believing that therapy succeeded.html . and yet others in all or some of these aspects. Some agencies do not require health insurance and have very low fees or a sliding scale that sets fees depending on the ability of the client to pay. the therapist may schedule a follow-up session several months later to check the client's progress. although some may meet twice a week or more. and other toys or objects to help children express their thoughts and feelings. behaviors. Also. One concern is availabilityis the therapist taking on new patients? Are there hours when both patient and therapist can meet? Another issue is fees. psychiatrists. the therapist may refer the client to other mental health agencies that have lower fees and do not require insurance. assessing the problem. the agencies that fund mental health serviceshealth insurance companies. In 1952 British psychologist Hans Eysenck reviewed the results of 24 studies of http://ramlanhamzah. and change the way they deal with other people?" Therapists and clients are not the only ones asking these questions. therapists who work with children are trained to understand and interpret children's nonverbal and verbal expressions. others in actions of the client (behavioral therapy). before the problem is resolved. As noted earlier. but continues through therapy. In other cases. The specific nature of the discussions between therapist and client differs greatly depending on the therapist's theoretical orientation. In recent years. even small ones. For example. When does therapy end? Clients and therapists discuss this issue together and determine when it is best to stop. When someone has a personal problem and seeks help from a therapist. a toy telephone. and how long the problems have existed. the therapist and client agree on what to do if the client's problems recur. helps them to assess the problems and to decide the best form of treatment. During the first meeting. or a family physician. Phone books list associations of psychologists. however. In addition to projecting a caring and gentle manner. Occasionally. When prospective clients call a therapist for an appointment. Play therapy is a special technique that therapists often use with children aged 2 to 12. Therapists often take notes during a session or make notes after the session has ended.
there is no conclusive answer about which type of therapy is best. Are some types of psychotherapy more effective than others? This question has been hotly debated for decades. Later studies have confirmed that overall. Their study found that the average psychotherapy recipient showed more improvement than 80 percent of untreated individuals. Because of these problems. and cognitive approaches were all about equally effective. therapists of the same theoretical orientation may vary in their techniques and in the skillfulness with which they apply them. However. parents disclose abuse of children. According to Eysenck. Researchers have also studied how quickly people improve with psychotherapy. and research on this issue presents many difficulties. researchers may limit the groups to people with the same severity of depression. Finally.tripod. within each treatment group. In general. If a person does not trust a therapist enough to describe deeply personal problems. mental health researchers agree that some types of therapy are best for particular problems. Such relationships may reduce the therapist's objectivity and ability to work with the client. and this expectation alone may lead to some improvement (a phenomenon known as the placebo effect). Being accepting means that therapists should appreciate clients for who they are. In conducting studies that compare different therapies. In helping their clients. Also. In 1980 American researchers statistically combined the results of 475 studies on psychotherapy outcomes using a technique known as meta-analysis. For panic disorder and phobias. Ethical therapists also do not engage in sexual relationships with http://ramlanhamzah. humanistic. In the 1990s a major study by the National Institute of Mental Health compared the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy. psychodynamic. First. Comparing Different Psychotherapies. accepting. Cognitive-behavioral. The study found that all three types of treatment helped individuals become less depressed. post-traumatic stress disorder.com/ekaunseling/id8. In addition. and warmth that clients feel from their therapist lets them know they are cared about and respected. which reviewed data from more than 2400 psychotherapy patients. Mental health professionals agree that the effectiveness of therapy depends to a large extent on the quality of the relationship between the client and therapist. people in psychotherapy may find that simply being able to talk freely and openly about their problems helps them to feel better. One analysis. despite the things that they may have done. for example. However. Although researchers soon exposed flaws in his analysis and problems with the original studies. but they must accept them. which may positively affect their mental health. Eysenck's findings touched off hundreds of new studies on the effectiveness of psychotherapy. believed that the most important qualities in a therapist are being genuine. behavioral and cognitive-behavioral therapies seem most effective. generalized anxiety disorder. For clients. People who begin therapy often expect that therapy will help them.html . The founder of person-centered therapy. patients do not come to therapy with simple problems that fit easily into studies. The meta-analysis of 475 studies mentioned earlier. However. being friends outside of therapy or maintaining a business relationship. a roughly equal proportion of patients who had been on a waiting list for therapy improved with no treatment. For instance. about 75 percent of people show improvement. trusting that the therapist can provide help for their problems is essential for making progress. therapists avoid dual relationships with clientsthat is. B. are also an effective treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder. the patients on the waiting list showed spontaneous remissionrecovery without treatment. Most studies have failed to demonstrate that any one approach is superior to another. the better the outcome of therapy. Being empathic means that therapists understand the client's feelings and experiences and convey this understanding back to the client. Almost all therapists today would agree that these qualities are important. and sexual dysfunction. interpersonal psychotherapy (a form of short-term psychodynamic therapy that focuses on social relations). no one method was significantly more effective than the others. and empathic. researchers seek to make sure that each treatment group is as similar as possible. The Therapist-Client Relationship.psychotherapy and came to a controversial conclusion: Although two-thirds of patients who received psychotherapy showed improvement. and that these qualities account for the similar effectiveness of therapies despite quite different techniques. Although different therapeutic approaches may be equally effective on average. all therapists follow a code of ethics. and humanistic approaches all provide moderate relief from depression. the better the rapport is between therapist and client. Furthermore. or two months. it appears at least as effective as drug treatment for most psychological problems. behavioral. About 10 percent of people who receive psychotherapy show no improvement or actually get worse. C. the support. most people required about a year of psychotherapy for relief from severe symptoms. found that 50 percent of people receiving once-a-week psychotherapy showed significant improvement after eight sessions. Therapists do not have to agree with clients. Therapists notify others of a client's disclosures only in exceptional cases. often in combination with medication. all therapy is confidential. After six months. psychotherapy is better than no therapy at all. such as feelings of worthlessness. or clients disclose an intention to harm themselves or others. encouragement. researchers try to make sure that therapists are using the same techniques and are trained similarly. psychotherapy is not effective for everyone. or 26 sessions. Carl Rogers. Furthermore. all therapies offer people hope for recovery. the therapist will have trouble helping the person change and improve. For example. Also. Being genuine means that therapists care for the client and behave toward the client as they really feel. found that psychodynamic. Behavioral techniques. Some researchers suggest that all therapies share certain qualities. and drug therapy for people with depression. Furthermore. such as when children disclose abuse by parents.
Three functional systems are distinguished that are conveniently designated as the id. called the latent dream content. beginning in childhood. and through dream interpretation. According to Freud's doctrine of infantile sexuality. the id thus is dominated by the pleasure principle. Instinctual Drives. to recognize its underlying meaning. Under the influence of the unconscious. because at this stage of development the child for the first time becomes capable of an emotional attachment to the parent of the opposite sex that is similar to the adult's relationship to a mate. In order to provide effective treatment. Theory of Psychoanalysis. Of crucial importance is the so-called Oedipal period. Cultural Factors. In his later writings. techniques that might be effective for someone from North America. Counseling Theories II. or drives. involving a variety of body functions or areas (oral.html . his or her adult mind can find solutions that were unattainable to the immature mind of the child. The technique of psychoanalysis and much of the psychoanalytic theory based on its application were developed by Sigmund Freud. The first of Freud's innovations was his recognition of unconscious psychiatric processes that follow laws different from those that govern conscious experience. A. that originate in childhood. The extent to which the child overcomes these emotional upheavals and to which these attachments. indispensable for conscious thinking. especially to parents. Ego. especially love relationships. and do not accept as clients people with whom they have been sexually intimate. Recognition of these modes of operation in unconscious mental processes made possible the understanding of such previously incomprehensible psychological phenomena as dreaming. His work concerning the structure and the functioning of the human mind had far-reaching significance. and fantasies continue to live on in the unconscious greatly influences later life.com/ekaunseling/id8. the child simultaneously reacts as a rival to the parent of the same sex. As these unconscious conflicts are recognized by the patient through analysis. The first system refers to the sexual and aggressive tendencies that arise from the body.clients. to the systematic structure of psychoanalytic theory. Physical immaturity dooms the child's desires to frustration and his or her first step toward adulthood to failure. as well. cultures of Asia and other regions commonly emphasize different values.tripod. Also basic in molding the personality of the individual is the behavior of the parents toward the child during these stages of development. and superego. psychotherapists and counselors have learned the importance of taking a client's cultural background into account when assessing the problem and determining treatment. unacceptable impulses and thoughts. that is. but also to fantasy distortions of reality. Intellectual immaturity further complicates the situation because it makes children afraid of their own fantasies. adult sexuality is an end product of a complex process of development. which is based on the relation of conscious and unconscious psychological processes. although no longer immediately comprehensible. as distinguished from the mind. are transformed into a conscious. thoughts may be dramatized in the form of images rather than expressed as abstract concepts. which stress the desirability of individualism and independence. However. and corresponding to various stages in the relation of the child to adults. and obeying one's parents. which is experienced as pleasurable. Id. A basic assumption of Freudian theory is that the unconscious conflicts involve instinctual impulses. The Unconscious. or Australia might be inappropriate for a recent immigrant from Vietnam. ego. Freud called these tendencies Triebe. Japan. occurring at about four to six years of age. two disparate ideas or images may be condensed into one. therapists must be aware of their own cultural biases and become familiar with their client's ethnic and cultural background. These inherent drives claim immediate satisfaction. thoughts and feelings that belong together may be shifted or displaced out of context. do not apply to these unconscious mental productions. Europe. Through analysis of unconscious processes. both practically and scientifically. and Superego. which literally means "drives. however. C. D. Knowledge of these unconscious mechanisms permits the analyst to reverse the so-called dream work. experience called the manifest dream. The fact that the child reacts. As more immigrants to the United States and Canada have entered therapy. Scholars recognize that most psychotherapies are based on Western systems of psychology. the process by which the latent dream is transformed into the manifest dream. Thus. Freud tended more toward http://ramlanhamzah. name applied to a specific method of investigating unconscious mental processes and to a form of psychotherapy. and it continues to influence contemporary thought. Psychoanalysis. such as conformity. dependency on others. This depiction of the role of instinctual drives in human life is a unique feature of Freudian theory. Thus. The effort to clarify the bewildering number of interrelated observations uncovered by psychoanalytic exploration led to the development of a model of the structure of the psychic system. although the resemblance between the symbol and the original object may be vague or farfetched. not only to objective reality. and certain objects may be represented symbolically by images of other objects. anal." but which is often inaccurately translated as "instincts" to indicate their innate character. greatly complicates even the best-intentioned educational efforts. Freud saw dreams as serving to protect sleep against disturbing impulses arising from within and related to early life experiences. and genital zones). B. The term refers. fears. or India. because these problems represent the earliest prototypes of such basic human situations as dependency on others and relationship to authority. The laws of logic. The conflicts occurring in the earlier developmental stages are no less significant as a formative influence.
Signs that your child may benefit from seeing a psychologist or licensed therapist include: · developmental delay in speech. known as defense mechanisms. or reality testing. Thus. significant life events such as the death of a family member. The totality of these demands and prohibitions constitutes the major content of the third system. physical abuse. The more the ego is impeded in its development because of being enmeshed in its earlier conflicts. and motor control that can accurately assess environmental conditions. originally the parents. originates in the struggle to overcome the Oedipal conflict. and academic or social functioning. friend. the establishment of a pattern of behavior directly opposed to a strong unconscious need. a family move/relocation/change of schools. Because the superego. To defend itself against unacceptable impulses. the superego. represent compromise formationsdifferent forms of an adaptive integration that the ego tries to achieve through more or less successfully reconciling the different conflicting forces in the mind. Kaunseling kanak-kanak Konsep: Child Therapy For children. not only as a result of a temporary need for postponing its satisfaction until suitable reality conditions can be found. it has a power akin to an instinctual drive. These include repression. are the fear of abandonment by or the loss of the loved one (the object). Dari masa ke semasa akan ditambah. which institutes appropriate mechanisms of defense against certain danger situations. as described by Freud. projection. finally. and overcome. How the conditions for satisfaction are to be brought about is the task of the second system. thinking. the superego. life stresses. language. having to mediate among the demands of the id. The ego.psychological rather than biological conceptualization of the drives. These danger situations. character and impulse disorders. the ego develops specific psychic means. appetite. the risk of losing the object's love. or the more it reverts to earlier satisfactions and archaic modes of functioning. verbal abuse. Such defense mechanisms are put into operation whenever anxiety signals a danger that the original unacceptable impulses may reemerge. Unable to function normally. a major illness in the family can cause stress that might lead to problems with behavior.tripod. the function of which is to control the ego in accordance with the internalized standards of parental figures. Anxiety. as well as sublimations. the ego must be capable of enforcing the postponement of satisfaction of the instinctual impulses originating in the id. is in part unconscious. neglect. mood. Sekian dahulu. If the demands of the superego are not fulfilled. or pet. the hazard of reproach by the superego. and the outside world. the greater is the likelihood of succumbing to these pressures. the ego.com/ekaunseling/id8. D. known as regression. An id impulse becomes unacceptable. and reaction formation. the danger of retaliation and punishment. In order to fulfill its function of adaptation. and perversions. sleep. a divorce. and can give rise to feelings of guilt not justified by any conscious transgression. the process of ascribing to others one's own unacknowledged desires. trauma. A cornerstone of modern psychoanalytic theory and practice is the concept of anxiety. the person may feel shame or guilt. may not be strong enough to reconcile these conflicting forces. in which the tensions are expressed in neurotic symptoms. sexual abuse. in Freudian theory. symptom formation. it can maintain its limited control and integrity only at the price of symptom formation. and. or toilet training · learning or attention problems http://ramlanhamzah. the exclusion of impulses from conscious awareness. called fixations or complexes. which is the domain of such functions as perception.html . Child therapy is known to help kids cope with. but more often because of a prohibition imposed on the individual by others.
e. or bullying other children · decreased interest in previously enjoyed activities · overly aggressive behavior (i. or relocation) · · · bereavement and grief issues sexual. divorce. or not wanting to go to sleep missing or skipping school mood swings · an increase in physical complaints (i. tearfulness.. biting.e. or emotional abuse exposure to traumatic events http://ramlanhamzah.e.tripod. physical. headache.e.com/ekaunseling/id8. separation.. or hitting) · · · · · sudden changes in appetite selective mutism (not speaking) problems sleeping. excessive anger.· behavioral problems (i. kicking.. acting out. stomachache. drug.. or not feeling well) despite a normal physical exam by your doctor · signs of alcohol. or other substance use · problems coping with life transitions (i. or depression social withdrawal or isolation · being the victim of bullying.html . bedwetting or eating disorders) · · · a drop in grades at school episodes of sadness.
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