of the missionaries Augustinians, Franciscans, Dominicans, Recollects and Jesuits Encomenderos To collect scattered Filipinos to reduccion (under the sound of the bell) (under the peal of the bell). Establish pueblos and reside.


indoctrination “Little brown Spaniards” Unbelievers went to the hill and was branded as remontados, cimarrones, ladrones, monteses, malhechores, tulisanes. Used colorful celebrations such as sinakulo, santa cruzan, moro-moro, processions “Hypnotized the indios”


churches Convents made of stone like fortresses New cultural elements from the Americas and the Pacific New Aztec ethnobotanic specimens like corn, cassava, camote, tobacco, fruits, vegetables and herbs Spanish customs and values, Christianity and language.

Taxation without representation – incomegenerating were introduced like personal tribute and income tax , customs duties and bandala, taxes monopolies, etc.

May be paid in cash or kind Partly or wholly Palay, tobacco, chickens, textiles, wax, regional produce. 1570’s 8 reales or 1 real =12.1/2 centavos or gold, blankets, cotton, rice, bells and raised to 15 reales until the end of Spanish rule.

Tribute of ten reales Diezmos prediales ( tithes) of 1 reales Town community chest of 1 reales Sanctorum tax for church support, 3 reales Total of 15 realesother special taxes (p. 82)

Descendants of Filipino chiefs who serves in the pacification campaign. Ex. Lakandula Laborers of the arsenal and artillery yard in Cavite Mediquillos (Filipinos who had medical experience but no title) Vaccinators College students from UST, Letran, San Carlos and San Jose

Tagalog word mandala Requisition of goods like rice and coconut oil. (p. 82) Replaced by cedula personal or personality identity paper. Filipino or other nationalities 18 years old and above.

From the corruption of the Tagalog word pulong meaning “meeting of persons and other things” or “community labor”. Laborers are called polistas Filipino or Chinese male metizos from 16-60 years old Render personal service to community projects For 40 days until 1884 reduced to 15 days Falla to be exempted (palya) Paid 1 ½ reales a day during the 40 days period Patterned after the Mexican repartimiento.

Upsetting of the village economy. Separation from family (from different location even outside the country) Decimation of male population (p. 83)

Encomendar meaning “to entrust” Encomendero is duty-bound to defend the encomienda. To keep peace and order Assist in missionary work Encomendero were granted rights to tribute.

Royal or crown Private Reserved for crown and included the principal ports Granted to individuals who were either the king’s protégée's or men who served with merit during the conquest and pacification campaigns. (p. 84) (85) PPT 2

Gov. Blanco – composed of leading men in business, industry and the profession, who he himself prodded to exploit the island’s natural bounties. Make the colony self-supporting in economy and self-sufficient from the annual Mexican subsidy. Plan General Economico – income generating monopolies such as tobacco, areca nuts, etc.

March 10, 1785 by Charles III Uniting American and Asian culture Monopoly of trade in the Philippines, including Chinese and Indian goods to Spain via Cape of Good Hope Opposed by Dutch and English, also competition to Manila-Acapulco trade Hardship for the Filipinos (p. 88-89) Preference to cotton production, black pepper, silk, indigo, sugar

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