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# Unit 6 – Quadratic Equations

Maxima and Minima
  Completing the square is a process for expressing y=ax2+bx+c in the form y=a(x-h)2+k Rewrite a quadratic relation of the form y=ax2+bx+c in the form y=a(x-h)2+k by completing the square: o First, group the first two terms o Add the square of half of b, or b2 inside the bracket. To balance the equation, also subtract b2 o Take –b2 outside the brackets o Factor the perfect square trinomial and simplify To find the maximum or minimum point: o Factor a from the first two terms to make the coefficient the x2-term 1 o Inside the brackets, add the square of half of b, or b2. To balance the equation, also subtract b2 o Take –b2 outside of the brackets by multiplying by a o Factor and simplify the perfect square trinomial

 To solve a quadratic equation by factoring: o First, write the equation in the form ax2+bx+c=0, and then factor the left side. o Next, set each factor equal to zero, and solve for the unknown o Ex. x2+2x=3 x2+2x-3=0 (x+3)(x-1)=0 x+3=0 or x-1=0 x=-3 or x=1 These solutions to the quadratic equation are known as the roots

 Use factoring to graph a quadratic relation: o First, we need to find the x-intercepts. To do this, factor and solve the quadratic equation by letting y=0. o Once you have the roots, find the midpoint of them which will be your x-coordinate o To find the y-coordinate of the vertex, substitute the x-coordinate into the equation of the parabola o You now have the vertex and roots – everything needed to graph the parabola To find an equation from a graph: o When the x-intercept and one other point is known, the information can be substituted in y=a(x-r)(x-s) to find an equation representing the relation

 A quadratic equation of the form ax2+bx+c=0, a≠0, can be solved for x using the quadratic formula: o 

The x-coordinate of the vertex of a parabola and the equation of the axis of symmetry is: o –b/2a

Solving Problems
 Gravitational pull causes projectiles to have a height-time relationship that is quadratic, modelled by: o h=-1/2 gt2+v0t+h0 o G is acceleration due to gravity, which is 9.8m/s2 on Earth o v0 is the initial vertical velocity, in meters per second o h0 is the initial height, in meters, above the ground Length-area relationships are quadratic