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MILLENNIUMEDITION

ITHITIB$TNOTIIS

F0n

DIIOKOFFICDIIS

by

Arcenio G. Padilla Jr.

/fl;\

GOLDEN

IT{ARITIME

SUCCESS

CONSULTAI\ICY

["s9*'*)

\

-#:

lnq[m8K,/,/

FORDECK AND ENGINE OMCERS

Sth FloorA.msir Bldg., P. Paredescor.

S. H. L.oyolaSts., Sampaloc, Manila Tel.Nos. 733-1243. 736-5949 . 736-5952 E-rnailaddress: golden@surfshop.net.ph

PhilippineCopyright @ 1994 by ArsenioC. Padilb Jr'

All rights reserved. Reproduction or use of editorial or pictorial contentin any manneris prohibitedwithout

"ipr"ri

permissionin wriiing. No patentliability

is

assumedwith respectto the use of the informationcontained

the preparationof this book, the publisberassumes no responsibitty

herein. While every prccautionhas been taken in

for errors or omissions. Neither containedherein

is any liability assumedfor danages resulting from tbe use of the information

REVISEDEDIT|On- -

JANUARY2000

rsBN 971-91521-0-9

I'rinted by:

One Way Multi-Media 2203 Tafl Avenue Manila, PhiliPPines

Center

PREFACE

This

bookwas prepared to assistDeck Officen by showingthem the multiple choicetype of Exami-

nation they may encounterin the LicensureExamination. All the answersto the questionsare basedon

studyand research.

The solutionsto the problemswere simplified for easierunderstanding. Formulas for Navigation and Seamanshipwere includedfor quick reference.

Candidatefor LicensureExamination should read this bookand studythe contentstloroughly. This will enablehim to gain confidenceduring the examination.

I would like to expressmy gratitudeto Capt. RomeoResultan, to Chief Mate RenatoSangalang, Chief Mate NelsonPrias, LCdr. Angelo Tagle,Chief Mate EdgarMartinez, the staff of Collegeof Marine Transporcation(PMMA), to PMMA Librarian Ltjg. Delia Mailed for their wholeheartedsupport.

Specialthanks are Resultan,Seafarers of the

owed to the following ReviewCenters - GoldenSuccess, Achievers, Romeo B. Philippines,Seacraft, and D' Navigators.

  • I want to give specialthanks to Third Mate RamiroBelleza for his artisticdesign of the cover.

And last,but not least,to my wife Angelitaand threechildren Angelica,Andrea Fe and ArsenioIII who demonstratedremarkable patience and understanding right up to the end.

ARSEMOC.PADTTLAJR. ReviewInslructor FormerAssistant Profes sor PhilippineMerchant Marine Academy

"

Success,s the product of determination,couraga, and hardwork. "

IY

A C

Padilla Jr.

TABLE OF GO}ITEilTS

 

Page

L

TIDES AI.IDCURRENTS

 

1

tr

WEATTIERELEMENTS

 

.............23

 

m.

ELECTROMCNAV[GATION

.................

..........

59

IV.

MARINET.AWSANDSHIPBUSINESS

....

 

.......

87

V

MARINEINSIJRANCE

 

.............. 107

u.

SIGNALINGAND COMMUMCATIONS

 

I2I

VII.

COLLTSToNREGLJLATTONS ..............

131

utr.

CHARTSAND PUBLICATTONS

 

..................... 161

 

x.

COMPASSAND MAGNETTSM..........

 

r71

X.

PILOTINGANDSAILINGS

 

181

)fl.

NAUTICALASTRONOMY

199

)fl.

CELESTIALNAVIGATION

279

)(Itr.

NAVIGATIONPROBLEMS

 

A

MercatorChart Construction

...........

.................

: ..

229

B.

Visibilityof Lights .....

 

231

C.

CompassDeviation

233

D.

CompassDeviation by Azinuth

236

E.

CompassDeviation byAmplitude .................

 

237

F.

RightPlane Triangle ...........

239

G.

Distanceby VerticalAng1e

..........

240

H.

ObliquePlane Triang1e

.................

.........

241

I.

Couneto Intercepta Vessel

 

242

J.

BearingProblems

243

K.

Bearingsand Distance Otr

..............

......

250

L.

PlaneSailing

252

M.

MercatorSailing

;

...........

254

N.

ParallelSailing

255

O.

MiddlelatitudeSailing

..

 

.......................

259

P.

TraverseSai1ing

..............

260

a.

GreatCircle Sailing

 

262

R.

CompositeSailing

268

S.

CurrentSailinC .................

 

270

T

Setand Drift ...........

 

271

U.

TrueandApparentWind

273

V.

TimeProblems ..............

 

276

W.

GeographicalPosition

 

280

X.

TimeDiagram

281

Y.

Bquationof Time

.......

........

283

Z.

OrthographicProjection

 

284

AA

RightSpherical Triangle.

287

 

BB.

ObligueSpherical Triangle

CC.

Correctionof Altitudes.

DD.

lnterceptMethod

m.

MeridianAltitude .......

FF.

ChronometerError ...........

ClG. OtherProblems

IlH.

SpeedbyRevolutions and Fuel Conservation

)CV.

SAFETYOFUFEAf,SEA

xv.

SHIPHANDLING..............

X\{.

SHIPCONSTRUCTION

XVII.

CARGOGEARS

)Ofltr.

CARGOHANDLINGANDSTOV/AGB

)O(.

CARGOASSESSMENTS

)O(.

STABILITYANDTRIM ..........

)O(I.

STABILITYANDTRIMCALCULATIONS.................

)oil.

AREASANDVOLUMES

)Oiltr.

ADDENDIJM

 

A

Meteorology

B.

Marinelawsand Ship Business

C.

Navigation ..

D.

Seamanship ................

XXN.

ANSWERS

 

A

Tidesand Currents .................

B.

WeatherElements

C.

ElectronicNavigation

D.

MarinelawsandShipBusiness

E.

Marinelnsurance .............

E

Signalingand Communications

G.

CollisionRegulations

H.

Chartsand Publications ..............

I.

Compassand Magnetism ...............

J.

Pilotingand Sailings

K.

NauticalAstronmry

L.

CelestialNavigation

M.

NavigationProblems

N.

Safetyof Life at Sea ..............

O.

ShipHarrdlinC .................

P.

ShipConstruction ...........

Q.

CargoCrears

..........

R.

Cargotlandling and Stowage ..............

S.

CargoAssessmencs

T

TrimandStability

U.

Mensuration .............

)oo/.

COMMONCoIIVERSIONFACTORS

vt

Thble of Contents

Page 296 300 301 302 303 305 306 313 335 , ,,.343 353 , 363 ,
Page
296
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,
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476
477

TIDES

fide is the rise and fall of water.

fidal

Grrrent

or fidal

Stream is the periodic

horizontal movementof the water.

Ildd

Phemmenon is the periodic motion of the

watersof tbe seadue to differencesin the attractive

Atlantic coastof the U.S. are of this type.

Dlurnal Tlde. Only a single high and single low

water occnr each tidal My Ex Gulf of Mexico (N.

slnre), Java Sea, Gulf of To*in.

Mlxed fide.

Characterizrlby alarge inequality in

fores of

various celestid bodies, principally the

the high waterheights, low water heigbtsor in both.

moonand the sun,upon differentpartsof the rotating

Ex. Pacific cotnt of thc A.S.

earth.

Sprlng Tldes. Tideswith higher high and lower low.

Iltgh Ttde or Hlgh Water is the maximum height

Occurat times of new and full noon ( sun andmoon

reacied by tide.

are in conjrmctionand at oppositionwith the earth).

Low THc orlow

Water is the minimum level to

Neap lldes. Tides wifr lower high and higher lor.

which the tide falls.

The rate of rise and fall is not unifomr. From

low water,the tide beginsto rise slowly at first but at

an increasingrate until it is about halfray to IIW.

The rate of rise then decreasesuntil HW is reached

and the rise ceases. The falling tide bebavesin a

 

simihr manner.

Stand

is the period at tIW or LW during which

there is no sensiblechange of level of tide.

Rangeis the differenoein height betweenconsecutire

high and low waters.

Ildghtof

fide is the vertical distince fron the chart

soundingdatum to the water surfaceat any stageof

the tide.

RIse of,Tlde is the vertical distancefrom the chart

soundingdatum to a high water dafim.

TYPES OF TIDE

Semldlurnal Tlde. There are two high and two los'

waterseach tidal day with relatively small inequality

in Oe high and low water heights. Tides on the

Occur at times of fnst and third quarters (sun and

moon are in quadraturewith the earth).

$olar THe" High and low watersoccuf at aboutthe

same time each day due to the effect of Oe sun.

Examples are tlu areasof S. PaciJicand Indoncsia.

Ihuble Low Water

Double Hlgh Water

(as at Hoek Van Holland) and

(asat Southanpton,England).

At such placesthere is

often a slight fall or rise in

the middle of the high and low water period. The

praaical effect is to crcate a longer period of stand

at high or low tide.

PcrtgeanTlde. Occus whenthemoon is atthepoint

in its orbit nearestthe earth. The lunar semidiurnal

range is increased.

Apogcan llde.

Occun wbn the moon is farthest

from Oeearth. The semidiurnal rangeis decreased.

Iboplc llde.

Occurs when the moon is at its

maximrrmsemi-monthly declination N or S. Diurnal

effect is at a maximnm.

Equatorlel IHc.

Oocurs when the moon crosses

the equator. Diurnal effctis

rninimum.

r,h

i

A

v

NEW|TTOON

LOWWATER

A

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HIGHWATER

ruu-r,roor.r

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"HO;*9*

!rcwwnren

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SpRtNGTTDES OCCUR AT TIMES OF NEW

AND

FULLMOON. RANGEOF T;DE tS

GREATERTHAN AVERAGE.

NEAPTIDES OCCUR AT TIMES OF lsrAND

SmQUARTERS.

RANGEoFTIDEISLESS

THANAVERAGE.

PRIMING

ril

MOON

i

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3.",o"*orr"i

,r

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R

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MOON

LAGGING

@

o

MOON

IHrGH WATE&

o

MOON

LOWWATER

2

Tidesand Currents

TIDAL CYCLES

METEOROLOGICALEFFECTS

Lunar Day. Vl hoursand 50 minutes.

Synodlcal or Lunar Month.

The moon revolves

around the earth with respectto the sun. About 29

Vzdays.

Tbopical Month. 27

th days. The effect of the

m@n's declination is repeatedin Vzof a Tropical

Month.

Anorralfstic Month. 27 Vz days.

The cycle in-

volving the moon'sdistance requires an Anomalistic

Month.

Nodal Period. 18.6or 19 pars. An importantlu-

nar cycle.

Luniddal Interval. The interval betweenthemoon's

meridian transit and a particular phaseof tide.

fidal Datum. Alevel fromwhichheightsanddepths

are measured.

Mean Low Waten The averageheight of all low

watersat a place.

Mean SeaLevel. The averageheight of the surface

of the sea for all stagesof the tide over a l9-year

 

period. Used in

Baltic Sea(tideless) as chart da-

tum.

Ilalf-fide

Level. The level midway betweenmean

high water and mean low water.

Mean High Waten The averageheight of all high

waters over a l9-year period. Heights of land fea-

turesare usuallyreferred on nautical charc

w a high

water daturn The level usedon charts of

the U.S.

and terrilories.

The depth of water available at anytime is ob

tainedby adding the height of the tide at the time in

questionto the charted depth, or by subracting the

predictedheight if it is negative.

  • 1. Onshore winds raise the level of the sea and offshorewinds lower iL

  • 2. During periodsof low annosphericpressure, the water level 0ends0o be higher than nomral.

TIDAL CURRENTS

Rotary Clrrreni

It flovs continuously, with the

directionschanging through all pointsof the compass

during the tidal period.The cycle is completedin 12

houn and 25 minutes.

Reverslng Current.

Flows alternately in

approximatelyopposite directions with an instant

or short period of slack water. Prevalentin rivers or

straits or where the direction of flow is more or less

resficted to certain channels.

Ilydraullc

Current.

Generatedlargely by the

continuouslychanging difference in height of water

at the two ends.The tides at the two endsof a strait

are seldomin phaseor equal in range.

Bore. The advanceof the low water trough is so

much retarded that the crest of the rising tide

overtakesthe low, and advancesupstream as a

churning, foaming wall of water.

Frldy. A quasi-circular movementof water whose

areais relatively small in comparisonto the current

with which it is associated.

fide

Rips. Small waves formed on the surface of

water by meeting of opposingtidal currents or by a

tidal current crossing an irregular boftom.

Flood. The movementof water toward the shoreor

upstream.

Ebb. The movementof water away from shoreor

docrnstream.

Set is the direction toward which the current flows.

Drtft is the speedor velocity of the current.

Tidesand Cuments

OCEANCURRENTS

Ocan Cumt

A welldefined curcnt extending

orcr a considcrable regim of the o pan.

Ferlodlc ftncnt

The speedordirtction of vfiich

c,hangescplicntly

u regular inbrvals, as a tidal

current.

ScrsmtCurncnts.

Has largechangesin s@

or

diroctim due to seasmal winds.

Pcrmmnt

Cur.mi

One whicb exocrienoesrela-

tively li[le periodic c seasmalc,hange.

Cablis

forc

is gncakr h

higlur latitudei atd is

nnre cfrcaive in deep water.

The difference between wind directim

and

surfre wind-ctrrent directim variesfrrom about 15

deg. along shallow msal

arcas to a maximum of

  • 45 &g. in the deepooeans. The speoddcurrent dpendsupon tbe the speed

of the win4 its @nstancy,the length d time it,bas

bloum"erc.

Corstrl 6rrat.

Flows rougbly paratlel to a otnlit,

mtside tbe surf zone.

Logrhore

QrcnL

One parallel o a'sbore,insirb

tbe surf zme. Gener-arcdby warresstriking the beach

at my angle.

 

OffshoneGrrcot.

Any current somedisance ftrm

the shore.

IBhc€ Currcn. Any cunent clce to tbe shorc.

Strc.m Cuncnt

A relatirrcly nanrow,deep, fast-

moving current.

IHfl

Curcnt.

A br@$ shdloq

slow-moving

currenL

CAUSES OF OCEAN CUR,RENTS

1. Wind

  • 2. Densitydifiercnes in the water

  • 3. Depthofwarcr

  • 4. Underwatertopography

  • 5. Sbapeof thebasin in whichtbe qrnent isnnning

  • 6. Ext€ntandlocuimof land

  • 7. Deflectimby the rotatio of tbeearth. Tbestress of windhwing &rossthe see curses

tbesurft€laycrof warc(bmw.

Thismotim is

transmittcdto eacb suooeedinglayer below the sufia, but&ptointemel ftictim within thewatcr, ttv ratcof motiondecnasswith&pth A wind-driven currcnt is being deflcctcdby

qxlus rcrce drc b therotrtiqt of the carth. The dcflectio is ffiNardt}r,, right in thc N. IDnisphcre

and oward thc lcft in thc S. Ikmbphcrc.

Tbc

CURRENTS RELATED TO DENSITY DITTERENCES

In an area of high density, the waEr snrhoe is

bn er then in an areaof lon, &nsity. Water teods'to

flow Aon an area of higher water (low demity) to

oneof lower water (high density).but &re to rotati@

of t[e eartb, it is being deflectodbwad the nglr in

the N. lbmirybere,

and toward the lefr in tbe S

Ihispberc. Tbe grearertbe density gradient (rare

of ciange with disance), the faster ttre related

qrrenL

MAIN CURRENTS OF THE OCEANS Nfith EquetorlelCurcnr Florvswtstward in the

general arpa ofNE trades.

Somh Equeea|e| Currcnt. Fhrys c/estwardin tbe

generalarea ofSE trades.

Esrtorlrl

C.rnntorcurrent. Sels iowdd the east

in the generalvicinity of the doldrums. It reachesa

maximrrmduing July and August and minimrm in

DEcemberand January.

Gdf Strr.n. The most remartable of all ocean

cur€ots. 13fcillws gmelly along tbe east@Gt d

  • N. America, fhuing arormdnffidC

northmrd and

tben northeastwtrd bwad Cspe llilteras. Gulf

Strem isawatm ctrrcnl

Lrbnfu Cuncd. Originating frm old arctic

mtcr f,owhg suthca*umd.

tiesof ie.

Canics laAe quenti-

Tldesand Cunenn

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NorthAtbntlc

Current. A vast slow-moving cur-

runt in the generd vicinity of the prevailing wester-

lies.

Brazll Crnent.

Flcn's southwestwa"dalong the

Brazilian coast.

SouthAtlandc Cun ent. A broad,slow-moving cur-

rent in the generalvicinity of the prevailing wester-

lies.

Benguela Current. A strongcurrent flowing north-

ward 0ofollow the west coastof Africa

Agulhas Currrcnt.

A generally southwestward-

flowing ocean culent of the Indian Ocean, flon's

along the eastcoast of South Africa

Kuroshlo (Japan C\urmt). Carries large quanti-

ties of warm tropical water to higher latitudes and

then curves toward the east 6

a major part of the

generalclockwise circulation in the N. Hemisphere.

mania.

Peru Curnent or Humboldt Chrrcnt. A narrow,

fairly sable oceancurent that flows no'rthwardclme

to the S. American c@st. It originates offthe oast

of

Chile at about Lar 40S and flows past Penr and

Ecuador0o the southwestextremity of Colombia.

Rcsel Current. A weak northern branch of the S.

Equatorial Current flowing toward the west and

northwestalong both the southernand northeastem

coastof New Guinea

Monsmn Cument. Flows eastwardand southeast-

ward acrossthe Arabian Seaand the Bay of Bengal.

Wcst Australla Culr.ent. An Indian OceanCur-

rent whicb generallyfirst flows northward and then

northwestwardoff the west coastof Australia.

Wcst Wlnd Drtft. An

o@an qurent that flows east-

ward through all the o@ansaround the Antarctic

continent.

Callfomla

Grrrent.

A N. Prcific Ocean curent

flowing southeastwardalong the west coast d N.

Wcst Greenland Cument. An oceancurrent flow-

America ftom west of Vancouverto the west of Bqia

ing northward along the west ooantof Greenlan4

Califomia.

into the Davis Strait.

Davldson Curent.

A weak countercurrentflowing

East Greenland Culrent. An oceancurrent flosr-

northwestwardalong the west coast of N. America

from Southem California to VancouverIslan( in-

shore of the southeasterlyflowing California Cur-

rent.

Oyashlo. Formed by cold water flowing southward

through the western part of Bering strait between

Alaska and Siberia and joined by water circulating

counterclockwisein the Bering Sea It brings quan-

tities of seaice but no icebergs.

Alaska Current. The northern branch of the

Aleu-

tian Current orving

in a counterclockwisedirec-

tion. generally follows the ooast of Canada and

Alaska.

Aleutbn Current. An easnvardflowing N. Pacific

OoeanCurrent which lies north of the N. Pacific

OceanCurrent.

ing southward along the east coast of Greenland.

carrying water of low salinity and low temperanrre.

Canary Cunent. The southembranch of N. Atlan-

tic Current (which divides on the easternside of the

oean). It moves south past Spain and southwest-

ward along the NW coastof Africa and pastthe Ca-

nary Islands.

Falkland Current. Originating mainly from the

Cape Hom Current in the north part of Drake Pas-

sage.It flows northwardbetweenthe continent and

the Falkland Islandsafter passingthrough the strait.

East Afrlca

Costal

Clrrrent. An Indian Ocean

Current which originat€s mainly from that part of

the Indian South Equatorial Current which turns

northward off the NE oast of Africa in the vicinity

of Lat 10" S (Somali Current).

Eest Austrelle Currnent.A S. Pacific Ocean Cur-

re.ntflowing southwardalong the eastooast of Aus-

tralia ftom the Coral Seato a point northeastof Tas-

Ect

Slbertan Coostol Cuncnt. An cean curent

in the Chukcbi Seawhicbfriins the northward flow-

ing Bering Currentnorth of EastCape.

OCEANWAVES

YYevesare undulationsofthe surfaceof the water.

CAUSES OF WAVES:

l.

Wind

  • 2. Submarineearthquakes

  • 3. Volcaniceruptions

  • 4. Tides

Ripples. Small waveletscaused by abreezn of less

than 2 knots starting to blow acrosssmooth water.

Disappearrapidly as the breezedies.

Gnoup Veloctty. The speedat

which

the wave sys-

tem advances.

Oscllllatory Wave. A wave in

which only

the fomr

advances,the individual

particles of the

medium

moving in clmed orbits, as ocean waves in deep

water.

Wave of Tianslatlon. A wave in which the

individual particlesof the medium are shifted in the

direction of wave travel, as oceanwavess in shoal

watars.

Gravity \ilaves. More stableand gradually form if

the wind speedexceeds 2 knos. They progresswith

 

the wind.

Swell. A relatively long wind wave,or seriesof waves

that

has travelled out of the generatingarea. Waves

that continue on without

relation to local winds.

Sea.Waves generated or

sustainedbywinds within

their fetch.

WAVES CHARACTERISTICS

Oceanwaves are

very nearly in the shapeof an

inverted cycloid, the

figure formed by a point inside

the rim of a wheel rolling along a level surface.

Crests.The highestparts of waves.

Thoughs.The inte,rveninglowest parts of waves.

Wave IIeighL The vertical distancebetween trough

and crest.

Wave Leng$.

The horizonal distance between

successivecrests, measur€d in the direction of travel.

Wave Pcriod. The time interval betweenpassage

of successivecrests at a stationarypoint.

Waveheight,length and perioddepend on wind

speed,the length of time it has blown and its fetch.

Fetch. The straight distance qlsvs hns travelledov€r

the surface.The disance wave has travelled from

formation 0odecay.

EFFECT OF CURRENT.ON WAVES

A following current increaseswavelength and

decreaseswave height.

An opposingcurrent decreaseswave length and

increaseswave height.

WAVESAND SHALLOW WATER

When a wave encountersshallow water, the

movementof the individual particles of water is

restrictedby the bottom, resulting in reducedwave

speed.The shallowerthe waterthe slowerthe wave

speed.As the wave speedslows, the period remains

the sameso the wavelengthbecomes shorter. Since

the energy

in the waves remains the

same, the

shorteningof wavelengthsresults in

increased

heights.

Tsrnamis are ocean waves produced by sudden,

large-scalemotion of a portion of the oceanfloor or

the shore, as by volcanic eruption, earthquakeor

seaquakeor landslide.

Selsmlc Sea Waves. Caused bv submarine

earthquake.

Epicenter. The point dircctly abovethe disturbance,

at which the wavesoriginate.

fidal

Wave. Either a tsunami or a stonn tide that

overflows the land.

Tlunrmis.arc oeriesofwavcs.In deepwater,th

wavebeigbt of a tsunarniis rever greatertban 2 or 3

fer

Since the wavelcngth is rsually onsideraHy

pqp thsn 100mites, thewan is not conspicttousat

sc&

Storm Ttdcs c

Storm Surges or Ttdel Wrvcs.

Cmsist of a single wave'crestand baveno period or

 

uaveleng0.

Three efiects ln r stmlndua

r rbc ln sce hvcl.

  • 1. Wind stresson tbe seasurftce which results in piling-up of water.

  • 2. Tbe covergencedwinddriven currelts, which elewrcs the sea surfrce along the oonvergence line.

  • 3. The lonr atmosphericpressnre that mompanies severestonon catnes t[e

"inverted

barmeter".

An inch of menry

is equivalent to about 13.6

incles of water and the adjusment of the sea

surfroe to the reduced pressurecan amormt to

severalfeet at equilibdum.

Oil has prorad efrectivein modifying the effects

of

breaking wavqs,and bas proved useful to vessel

at

sea.Its fict is greatestin &ep nater, where a

srnrll quantity sffces if the crilcan be made to spread

to windu/ard.In shallow uatr where the wabr is in

motion over the bottom, oil is lesseffective.

The heaviestoil, notably animal and vegeable

oils, are the mct effective.

t

Tldcsand Cuncnts

TIDESA]ID CURRENTS

  • 1. In certain areasof the S. Padfib, tides oaur almosi at the sametime eac,hday due to th influene by

the:

 

a.

Sun

c. Planetsin onjrmction

 

D.

Moon

d. Regressionoftbenodes

 
  • 2. T\e amount that a crrrent travels in one hour is termed as:

 

a.

Set

,.

Ftood

c.

Drift

d.

Ebb

  • 3. Tides having higher lows and lower highs occur when:

 

a, T\e moon is at its marimrrm north declination

 

D.

The sun and the mmn are in

conjunction

 

c.

The sun and the moo are in oppoaition

d.

Tfu moon is at first and last quarter

 
  • 4. When two conseqrtivehigh

or low watersare d large differencein heights, tbey are called:

a.

Diurnal tides

 

c. Mixed tides

 

D.

Semidiund

tides

 

Tropic tides

  • 5. When there are small difrerene

betweenthe heights of two suc@ssivehigh or low tides, tbey are

called:

 

4. Diurnal

 

b. Senidiurnal

c.

Solar

d.

Mixd

  • 6. A tide is called diurnal when:

 

a.

Only

ore

high and one low wat€rocors in a hmar day

 

D.

me high

tide is higher and low tide is lower tban normal

c.

The high

tide

and low tide are six burs apart

 

d.

Two high tides ccur duing a luar

day

  • 7. Tropic tides arc causedby

 

a.

Itfioonbeing

at its maxim,m doclination North or South

 

D.

lfioon crossing the equator

 

c.

Sun andmom arc in line

d.

Sun and moo ar€at quadraturewit[ tbe earth

 
  • 8. Neap tides q the 6des that bave lmrer higbs and higber lows occur when the noon is at:

a.

Oppoeitfunwith tbe earth and sun

 

c.

Qtadrature with tbe eart[ and sun

\

D.

Cmjunctim with the

earth and sun

d.

|+pge,

  • 9. Spring tirbs a tides that

have higber highs and locrer bws ocor when tbe moon is at

a.

Oppoeitionor in

mjunctim

with the earth and sun

 

D.

Quadraturc with

tbe earth and sun

 

c.

Apogoe

 

d.

Perige

  • 10. Mean low water is cmroctly delined as the averageheigbt d

 

a.

tb two daily bw tides

 

c.

all lon, wateG

D.6ehigbrndlowtides

d. tbbwerlowtidcs

frdes and Currents

11.

Althougb, tide ables list the times and heightsof tides at a speciftclocale, thesecm be alteredby:

  • I. onshorewinds tending to rise the level of tides

tr.

bw atmosphericprssure causing tides o be higher than normal

  • a. I only

D. tr only

c.

both I and tr

d.

neither I nor II

  • 12. T\e diurnal inequality of tides is causedby:

 
  • a. the moon being at perigee

c.

changing

weatheronditions

  • b. the declination of the mmn

d. the moon being at apo3iee

  • 13. In cenain areasof the worl4 there is often a slight fall of tide during the middle of the high water period. The practical effect is to createa longer period of stand at high water.This specialfeature is called:

  • c. double high water D. perigeantide

c. apogeantide

d.

bore

  • 14. When a strong curcnt sets ove,ran irregular bosom, or moets an opposing qxrent, which of the

following mayoocur?

 
  • a. D. bore

tide rips

c. etrbcurrent

d. slack water

  • 15. The period at high or low wat€r during which there is no changein the height of the water is called:

4.

range of the tide

b. plane of the tide

c. standof the tide

d. revening of tide

  • 16. "Stand of the tide" is that time when:

 
  • a. the vertical rise or tall of the tide has stopped

  • D. slack waters occur

 
  • c. tidal current is at ma:rimum

  • d. the actual depth of water equalsthe charteddepth

  • 17. What doesthe term 'tide" refer to?

    • a. horizontalmovementofthewater c.

mixing tendencyofthewater

  • D. verticalmovementofthewater

d. salinitycontentofthewat€r

  • 18. The rangeof tide is the:

    • a. distancethe tide movesout from the shore

    • b. duration of time betweenhigh and low tide

    • c. differencebetween the heights of high and low tides

d, maximum depth of the water at high tide

  • 19. Itrowmany high waters usually occur each day on the East coast of the united states? c.

one

b.

nvo

  • 20. Currentsrefer to the:

    • a. verticalmovementofthewater

    • D. horizontalmovementofthewater

  • 21. T:heset of the curent is the:

    • a. speedof the current at a particular time

  • !.

    6p1i6rrm speedof the current

    • 22. Setof the current is:

      • a. iB velocity in knots

      • D. directionfromwhereitflo$/s

    c. three

    d.

    fow

    c. densitychangesinthewater

    d. noneoftheabove

    c.

    direction ftom which the current flows

    d.

    direction to which the current flows

    c.

    estimatedcurent

    d. directiontowardswhereitflon's

    23.

    Which of the following describesan ebb current?

    '

    a.

    horizonal

    mo\'mentof

    D.

    horizontal

    morrementof

    c.

    horizontal

    movementof

    d.

    horizontal movementof

    c.

    revening

    D. €bb

    a.

    nohorizontalmotionofthefater

    D.

    no vertical motion of the water

    a.

    new

    D. fuU

    a.

    meanhigh water

    D. half-tide level

    of mean:

     

    c.

    lowerlowwater

    D. highwater

    I.

    In general, the s@

    tr.

     

    indented one.

    a.

    I only

    D. tr only

    I.

    tr.

    The time

    a.

    Ionly

    D. tronly

    a.

    rise

    D. magni$de

    c.

    at,timesofnewandftrllmmn

    D.

    betweennew and fust quarter

    a.

    betweenfust quarter and frrll noon

    D.

    betweennew and first

    quarter

    a.

    16 days

    D. 19 yers

    4.

    rneanlow water

    water away ftom the land following low tide

    tide

    tide

    waEr towards the land following low

    water away ftom land following high

    wabr towards the land following high tide

    • U. The movementof water away ftom shoreor downstreamis called what type of cunent?

    c.

    flood

    d.

    slack

    c. aweakebborflmdcurrent

    • 25. Slack warer occunrwnen Oerei:

    d. neitber a vertical nor a horizontal motion

    d. alloftheabo,e

    d. mean low water

    2f ..

    The velocity of a rotary tidal current will increasewhen the moon is:

    c. atperigee

    • 27. Ttre referencedatu4

    used in determining the heigbts of land featureson most charts is:

    c. meansea level

    • 28. The shorelineshown on nautical chars of waterssubject o large tidal fluctuations is usually the line

    c. bnrwater

    d. tidelevel

    • 29. Which of the following statementsregarding curents idare correct?

    of tidal currents are less along straight coaststhan indentedooasts.

    Strongersets Dward or awayftom the shorecan be expeaedwhen passinga straight omst than an

    c.

    botb I and tr

    d.

    neither I nor II

    • 30. Regardingtides and currents, which of the following iJare correct?

    The time of slack water doesnot generallycoincide with the time of high or low water.

    of maximum velocity d the current doesnot wually coincide with the time of the most

    d.

    neitherlnorll

    d. heigbt

    rapid changein the vertical height of the tide.

    c. bothlandtr

    c.

    range

    • 31. The vertical distanoebernreen trough and crestof a wave is called:

    • 32. Prining of the tide occu$:

    c. betweenfirstquarterandfullmmn

    d.

    betweenthird quarter and new mmn

    c.

    d.

    betweenfull moon and third quarter

    noon and earth are at quadrature

    • 33. Iaggrng of the tide occur''s:

    • 34. An important lunarcycle

    affecting the tidal cycle is called the nodal period. How long is this cycle?

    c.

    6 years

    d. 18 months

    the tide over the 19 yearperiod is called:

    d. 'half-tide level

    • 35. The averageheight of the snrftcc of the seat'or all st4gesof

    c.

    D. mean high water

    rncansea lewl

    36.

    The datum from which the predictedheights of tides are reckonedin tbe tide tablesis:

    a.

    D.

    is called the:

     

    a.

    llarmonic

    constant

    D.

    Tide cycle

    Coastchart?

     

    a.

    Ilalf-tide level

    given in the table 3 of the tide tables

    c. meanlow water

    d. the sameas that usedfor the charts of the tocality

    the highest possiblelevel

    • 37. Tbe interval of the averageelapsr I time from the meridian transit of the moon until the next high tide

    c. Establishmentof tbe port

    d. Ilalf-tide lerrel

    • 38. Which d tbe fi. is a referencedatun usedfor determining the depth of water as shown on an East

    D. Mean .righ water

    c. Mean low water

    • d. Mean sealevel

    ,

    • 39. The term 'flood curnent" refers !o that time when the water level is:

    4

    Moving towardsthe land

    c. Not changing

     
    • D. Falling

    d. Falling becauseof a rapid changein the wind

    • 40. Ibw many slack tidal curreng usuallyoccur eachday?

     
    • a. D. TWo

    One

    c. Three

     

    d.

    Four

    • 41. In a river subject!o tidal currents,the best time to dock a ship without the assistanceof tugs is:

    • c. When the slac* water and stand coincide

    c.

    At stand

     
    • b. At high water

    d.

    At

    slack water

    • 42. Chafid depth is Oe:

      • a. Vertical distanceftom

    the chart soundingdatum to the oceanbottom

    • D. Vertical distancefrom Oe chart soundingdatum to the oceanbottom plus the height of tide

     
    • c. Awrage

    height

    of

    water over a specifiedperiod of time

     
    • d. all low watersat a plre

    Arerage height of

    • 43. When utilizing a Pacilic Coastchart, the referenceplane of sormdingis:

     
     
    • a. low water springs

    Mean

    c.

    Mean lower low water

     
    • D. Mean low

    water

    d.

    Lowest normal low water

    4.

    \\e

    drift and set of tidal stream,river and ooeancurents refer to the:

     

    Fosition & araof

    • a. the current

    • D. Speed& direction oward which the current flonn

     
    • c. Tlpe & characteristicof the current's flow

    • d. Noneoftheabove

    • 45. The velocity of a rotary tidd current will be docreas€dwhen the moon is:

     
     
    • a. D. At perigee

    At apogee

    c.

    New

    d.

    Full

    • 46. The datum of sormdingsfc the Atlantic Coast of the United

    States,new in 1988 is:

     
    • a. mean low water

    c.

    mean high water spring

     
    • D. meanlower low water

    d.

    nean high water

    • 47. WhicX of tbe following is fre correct definition of height of the tide?

      • a. the vertical distanccfrom the tidal datum to the level of the warcr at any time

      • D. the vertical diftrence

    betweenthe

    heights of low and high water

    • c. vertical

    the

    diftreirce

    of darum plane and ooan bottom

    • d. distancefrom tle surfaceof the water to tbe oceanfloor

    the vertical

    4t. Mean high water is the averageheight of:

     

    a.

    b.

    a.

    D.

    c.

    d.

    a.

    spring

    • 51. Neaptideomrs:

     

    a.

    D.

    c.

    when the

    d.

    • 52. Spring tide occurs:

     

    a.

    D.

    c.

    wben the

    d.

    ables:

     

    a.

    is the rcnnldepth

    D.

    c.

    d.

    should be

    divi@

    a.

    unpredictable

    D.

    a.

    me hour after

    D.

    A rotary

     

    a.

    3hours

    5?.

     

    a.

    D.

    bore

    a.

    reversing

    tbhigherhighwater

    c. theloneroftheg,pedqilytides

    d.

    all high waters

    he lower higb water

    • 49. Which statementis true oncerning apogeantides?

    theyoccrn only at quadraturc

    they ocon when the moon is nearestto the eartb

    tbey causeddiumal tides o boome mixed

    tfuy bave decreasedftomnormal

    • 50. The classof tide that prevails in tbe greatestnrtmber of important harbrs in the Atlantic Coast is:

    D. mixed

    c. diunml

    d. semidurnal

    at the sart of sp,ring,the sun is orrerthe equator

    only c/hen the srm,moon and earth are in line in any order

    sun and moon are 90 deg. relative to the earth

    when the sun, moon and eartb are in line, in any cder

    at the start of the spring, when the sun is over tbe equaor

    only wben the sun and moon are on

    the sameside of the earth and neady in line

    sun and moon are 90 deg. relative to the earth

    when the sun, moon and earth are nearly in line, in any order

    • 53. In order to predict the acnral depth of warcr using the fide Thbles,the da0aobained from the Tide

    should beaddedor subraced from the charteddepth

    shouldbe multiplied to the c,harteddepth

    by the cbarteddepth

    • 54. The velocity of current in large oastal barborsis:

    c. generallycolntant

    predicted in the tidal current tables

    d.

    generally too weak

    c.

    30 minutesbefore

    d.

    6e conpass. The

    c. l2t/znovs

    • 55. To make sureof gecing full advantageof a favorablecurrent, you shouldreach an entranceor strait at what time in relation to the frrediced time of the favorablecurent?

    at the predictedtime

    30 minutes before flood, one hour after an ebb

    • 56. current sets brougb all direcfionsof

    time it takesto oompleteone of these

    d. ylhs0m

    cyclesis approxinately:

    D. 6%hours

    A tidal currcnt which floun alternatelyin approximaEly oppositedirections with a slrck waterat each

    c. tiderips

    d. hydraulic

    reversalof direction is called:

    reversingorrectilinear

    • 58. A current in a channel cansedbya difierence in the surhoe level at the two endsis called:

    D. bore

    c. eddies

    d. hydraulic

    • 59. A quasi-circular movmntof wag whosearea is relatirrly small in conparison to the cunent with whie,hit is associatedis called:

    c.

    bore

    D. tide rips

    c.

    ddy

    d.

    db

    60.

    In a &rv estuaries,the advanoe ^f tbe low wat8r trough is so muc,hretarded that the crest of Oe rising

    tide overakes the low, and advancesupsaeam as a chuning foaming wall of water is called a:

    c.

    bore

    b.

    tide rips

    c.

    hn, water

    d. hydraulic current

    61.

    Which current would you en@unteron a dirirt passaSeftom South Aftica to Argentina?

    a.

    Agulhas

    b. South Bquatorial

    c. Guinea

    d. South Atlantic

    62.

    Tbe main strean of the Califorrria current generallyseB in what directim?

    o.

    southerly

    D. northerly

    c.

    westerly

    d. easterly

    63.

    The North Equatorial cunent flows o the:

    a.

    southwest

    D. northeast

    c.

    *Est

    d.

    east

    64.

    Coriolis force affects the oean curr€ns as folloun:

    I.

    lI.

    a.

    Coriolis force is grcater in higher latitudes.

    Its efrect is grcater in deeperwater.

    Ionty

    D. tronly

    c. bothlandrl

    d. neitherlnorll

    • 65. Which of the following stat€mentsis/are correct regarding Tide tables:

      • I. which the predictedheighB are reckmed is the sameas that usedfor the charts

    The datum frm

    tr.

    of the locality.

    Tio find the actud deptb of the