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Sacred Mysteries


and their Historical Teachings." "The Monuments of Mayax. CHALDEA AND INDIA FREEMASONRY Jtt ©iuwa Atttiertnr ta % ^tmpU BY of ^aUxman ILLUSTRATED AUGUSTUS LE PLONGEON Author of "A Sketch of the Ancient Inhabitants of Peru." "Essay on the Causes of Elarthquakes. A. Y. N." QUEEN MCX3 AND THE EGYPTIAN SPHINX aa a sequel to Sacred Mysteries THIRD EDITION PUBUSHED BY MACOY PUBUSHING AND MASONIC SUPPLY COMPANY NEW YORK CITY.Sacred Mysteries AMONG THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES.' 'Vestiges of the Mayas." "Essay on Vestiges of Antiquity. U. and their Civilization.500 YEARS AGO THEIR REIvATION TO THE SACRED MYSTERIES OF EGYPT. 1909 S." Religion of Jesus compared with the Teachings of the Church. 11. . GREECE.

by AUGUSTUS LE PLONGEON in the Office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington See List of Books on page 164 A* THE SETIY G£NTf.R . 1886. March 15.Entered according to Act of Congress.



was at best very crude. and other tourists who have hurriedly he hidden in the depths of those forests. for the majority of the people of the United even those well informed. have a vague idea that there exist the remains of stone houses built some time or other before the discoveiy. vis- Norman. They were ignorant of the . aver authoritatively that "their builders were but little removed from the state of savagism.PREFACE. when for the first ica who call themselves scientific and much a terra incognita. Their civilization. Stephens. having perused the books of J. ited the ruins of the ancient cities that L. A few. and that none of their handwork is worth the attention of the students of our age. as Amer- time he came in sight of the northern coast of South America. The States. they confidently say. and navigated along it from the mouth of the river Orinoco to Porto Cahello in the Oolfo Triste. forests of Yucatan and Central America are to-day. as was to the inhabitants of Europe before its discovery by Cristobal Colon in 1498.

or Chaldean archaeology: and American schools have been estabUshed at Athens and Alexandria. who for many years past have explored those old fields in order to obtain reHcs to itals fill the shelves of the museums of their cap- and turned up the soil of the Orient in search of archaeological treasures." In no wise can they be compared with the Egyptians or the Chaldees. They were in fact a race whose intelligence was for the most part of lower order. it is to Egypt. From what art of writing.VI PREFACE. to Chaldea. therefore. they did nothing is to be learned that has any direct on the bearing progress of civilization. and expeditions sent to Syria. They had no sciences. It is to Greece. are well nigh unintelligible. or Egyptian. it is not. to the shores of the Euphrates. In those countries must be established schools for study of Greek. that Americans must go in order to make new discoveries. in pictorial representations. much less with the Greeks or Romans. and they look with that reverence which true learning begets. But the European scientists. no mental culture or intellectual development. worth our while to spend time and money in researches among the ruins of their cities. and the scanty records of their history chronicled on deer-skins. now look to the Western continent in quest of the origin of those ancient civilizations which they have been unable to find in the countries where they once flourished. .

the the sciences. Pierre cates of the Lorillard of New York. dupli- same having been presented to the Smithsonian Institute at Washington by Mr. Desire Charnay has been sent to obtain molds of the sculptures and other precious relics that he hidden and lost in the recesses of the Central American forests. arts. These casts adorn the Trocadero Museum at Paris. in remote ages. spares no efforts knowledge respecting the architectm'e. some modern American '^ see established in Paris the Societe des Americanistes " whose sole object is the study of all Thus we things pertaining to ancient American civilization.PREFACE. That Society. American who and influence (he has spent 25.000 francs lias been offered for the discovery of an alphabet or key to the inscriptions carved on the walls of the monuments in Yucatan and Central America. vu on those ancient American temples and palaces that are objects of contempt for scientists. A premium of 25. the language. the to obtain various countries of this Western continent. M. composed of students.000 dollars) in expeditions for the recovery of facts and objects that may throw light on the ancient history of America. and the civiHzation of the people who inhabited. Then again we have in Europe the international This gentleman is the only has ever contributed with his wealth . Casts have been made from such squeezes as he obtained.

in fact. It bears his name.vm PREFACE. left a sum of money for the foundation of a museum to be specially dedicated to the collection of objects pertaining to American archaeology. there is in the University a large building especially dedicated to Central American archaeology. as I am informed by General Sir Henry Lefroy. George Peabody. Does it contain anything that may throw light on the history of the ancient inhabitants of this Western Continent? I once wrote to an influential gentlemen connected with the University asking him to propose to the trustees the purchase of a copy of my collections of casts and mural paintings. in the United States. But what have we in New York. Mr. a wealthy gentleman who has devoted his time and wealth to the work of obtaining facsimiles plaster in and photographs of the ancient monuments of Honduras and Guatemala. Massachusetts. at Cambridge. new data. the casts and photographs obtained by Mr. " "Congres des Americanistes that convenes every four years in one of the capitals of Europe for the purpose of collecting all terval. among his many benefactions. concerning ancient American In England. His answer dated July . Such museum exists at the University of Cambridge. to offer to students of American archaeology ? True. There are to be seen. obtained in the incivilization. Maudslay.

The time has come *' things should be got at any cost. enjoining him to accept its offer. nor the desire. IX was. "I will send your letter to one of *Hhe trustees. to run the risk of submitting and hardships that those who wish to visit the ruined cities. and object of study for the lovers of American archaeology who may not have the means. hunting *' when such We everywhere for things which were easily to be " had a few years ago. cellar. nor the time. Three years ago I had casts made from some of the to the privations ! stereotyped moulds made by me of the sculptures at for exhibition in the Met- Uxmal and ropolitan Museum want offered them of Art in Central Park. to the fact that in men of New York leisure and perfect fac- similes of the palaces and temples of the Mayas could be erected in Central Park.PREFACE. for of space against the wall. 23d. But alas aU in vain. he knows the value of my collections. I have done all in my power to caU the attention of American scientists." My correspondent has visited the ruined cities of Yucatan. They *' have been placed in the out of the way. 188^." The public has . of the money. but " I fear they will treat that proposal as they have so " many others and say no ! The collection of trac"ings they ought to secure. must inevitably encounter. "shaU soon be as they are in India. both as ornament to the place.

I PREFACE." What ! Americans not interested in American antiquities! in ancient American history! in ancient American civiUzation! Desiring to make the subject known before the lecture season was over. they are looked upon as of no value. Le Plongeon received my lectm-ed on the of monuments Columbia of Yucatan on the 2nd March last. During the last lecturing season I offered to sevhistorical societies. scientific and give lectures illustrated with views made by us of the monuments. but to fessor my great surprise Prooffer enthusiastically. at Col- . I had no hope of a favorable answer. and proposed to sell to the museum a copy of the collection of fresco paintings from Chichen Itza.X never seen them. "Our people are not interested in such a subject. en desespoir de cause. In every instance I received the same answer. to eral literary. last remnants of ancient American art. and enlarged with the stereopticon. The answer of the gentleman was "No! those things are not appreciated. some of the illustrations in this book are photographs of the same despised casts and mural paintings. of the School of Mines at Columbia College. John Stoughton Newbury. if he could give me a chance to present the subject before the members of the New York Academy of Science. I asked Dr. Newbury Mrs." Nevertheless. once remonstrated with one of the trustees.

Le Plongeon and I have written two works on Yucatan. Newbury accept our heartfelt-thanks for affording us an opportunity of presenting ancient America to a few appreciative minds. A lady. residing at 21 West 12th Street. Francis B. its ancient palaces and modern cities. " There is no money in the publication of such books.PREFACE. say if there is nothing worth seeing and studying in the remains of ancient American civilization. Arnold. Mrs. Mrs. gentlemen who were present Let again the ladies and at Mrs. was so pleased that she asked Mrs. to present to facts that I made up my mind American readers some of the historical have been brought to light by deciphering the bas-rehefs and mural inscriptions. One is: "Monuments of Mayax. by means of the ancient hieratic Maya alphabet discovered by me. Ufe and customs of the Aborigines. New York." for this subject." We have offered them to several publishing houses. lege. Xl Let the ladies and gentlemen who were present say if the facts and views presented to them were of sufficient interest to command their attention. but the same answer has been given by aU. Arnold and Dr. American readers do not care their historical teachings." Notwithstanding such rebuffs. Arnold's liouse. Let Mrs. Le Plongeon to lecture at her own house to a select party of friends. . if no more. and The other: "Yucatan.

zu PREFACE. Champollion le Ancient Maya Hieratic alphabet according to mural inscriptions. A . Jeune and Bunsen. Egyptian Hieratic alphabet according to Messrs.

to judge they are worthy your consideration." St. chap. remembering the fate of Professor Morse. I pre- sent only such facts as can be proved by the works of well-known writers ancient and modern. labor. and by the inscriptions carved on stone by the Maya learned men and if historians.PREFACE. . inent firms in In this small book (which two of the most promNew York have positively refused to it pubhsh behoving to be a bad speculation). Reader. when he asked Congress for permission to introduce his tric elec- telegraph in this country. It is for you.. XUl "your feet. . and money on the subject in the United States. vi. . Mark. verse 11 — for I shall consider it useless to spend more time.


Part of cornice surrounding the Sanctuary.* Symbolical stone found in the Mausoleum of high pontiff Cay at Chichen.. . Symbols from the turret dedicated to the high pontiff Cay in the palace of King Can. . . 80 Slab from Prince Coh's Mausoleum. 85 Dying leopard with human head. .. Cross bones and skeletons carved on the cornice of the . Part of a statue with apron on which is sculptured the image of an extended hand. 86 86 . . Prince Coh in battle (from mural paintings at ChichenItza). . .) 89 40 45 Symbolical slab with title of the high pontiff. Priest of Osiris making an offering (from the tombs of Thebes). View of the of the Dwarf. from Prince Coh's Mausoleum at Chichen-Itza. at Chichen. 19 pyramid called "House at Uxmal." 34 85 ... 65 Tableau of the creation. Ground plan of the Temple of Mysteries. . from the east facade of the palace at Chichen-Itza. 72 78 Prince Coh's body laid out for cremation (from mural paintings at Chichen-Itza). at Uxmal. (From Uxmal. .. 86 39 Sanctuary. leopard eating the heart of his enemies. Ground plan of the Sanctuary.ILLUSTRATIOI^S.

of Troano. ... eating the heart of her enemies. .. now in the National Museum in the City of Mexico. head dress of mother Earth.rvi ILLUSTRATIONS. found in his Mausoleum at Chichen-Itza. part I... of Troano M.S. Tableau of the Mastodon worship. 119 120 Yaxche. . * From drawings and pbotographs Bingler & Co..S. ... 115 PlateXVII. of Troano M. New York City...... . 87 . Plate XXIV. Sons of King Can. 88 . plate XVI.. F. . under the figure of a macaw. represented under the symbol of deer-heads. Plate XXV. PAQB Statue of Prince Coh. . part Troano M. 124 126 Worship of sacred tree (Papaya) from a Mexican M. . .116 118 Maps monument at Chichen-Itza.. at Chichen. Sculptures on monolith gate at Tiahuanuco (Peru). from a model in the museum of the Long Island Historical Society in Brooklyn. .137 II. totem of the country. representing Queen Moo. Plate VI.S. M. .S. . sacred tree of the Mayas... 134 in the library of the British Museum. made by 139 the author. ..S.S. ofTroanoM. 93 . 102 104 son's works on Egypt). part II. part II.. Bas-reliefs from small room at the foot of Prince Coh's . and engraved by A. Small terra cotta heads from British Honduras. Slab from Prince Coh's Mausoleum at Chichen. partll. . . Symbols of lower Egypt (from Sir Gardner Wilkin... of the Maya Empire. 118..

and legends. Ask do not know. following the Swedish system. their many Jewish names.SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. grees. Others. origm Masonry to the followers of Pythagoras. earnestly beheve that I Masonry existed before Adam was created. make it originate in the building of Solomon's temple. on account of the Christian symbols that have been incorporated in the decoration of things pertaining to Masonry. say that the Essenes and first Christians founded it. because some of the speculations of that Philosopher concerning the meaning of the numbers are to be found in the esoteric of modern Free THERE are authors who attribute the doctrines taught in the masonic lodges. . and I among them. taken from the having found way into the rites of initiation to several destill. Others. emblems Bible. While not a it few. again. them why — they make go back to Adam. Others.

. who was the only power to which. When. Dance of Villoison lodges. the Pope. moon and stars and these jewels of the firmament being represented on the ceilings of the M. and of France. resolved to destroy the Order. among the Knight this way — : Templars. . in a discourse dehvered in Paris in 1740. Eomans and a Scotch gentleman. enticed him to France. soon after. speaks of the Herculaneum as its birth place. On his arrival he was received with every mark of friendship: but. the King caused him to be arrested together with some of the other dignitaries. : ' . was preparing an expedition to avenge the wrongs and disasters suffered by the Christians in the East. then Grand Master of the Order. Clement V. am convinced that this preman is a myth and has never those of his school say that the Druids were the fathers of the craft. Jacques de Molay. King of the Templars and coveting their immense wealth. Michael Andrew Ramsay. and he explains it in The Pope. in the spiritual.ft SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG it. in the time of the crusades. suggested the possibihty of the fraternity having its origin. they Thomas Payne and being worshipers of the sun. the Templars owed allegiance. in 1308. because of many similarities that existed between the col- legia of the the lodges of the operative Masons of the middle ages. fearing the power PhiUippe-le-bel. believe because I tended ancestor of existed.

By order of the Archbishop of Sens cil. other officers Auvergne and several of the Order were burned alive on Guy March 18. being adverse to hasty measures. and pretending to reestablish the Order of the Temple. refused to recognize his authority. fleeing from the persecution. Jacques de Molay before dying had appointed Johan Marcus Larmenio as his successor to the office Grand Master. by a bull dated on the 2d of April. bears to this day.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. escaped to Portugal continued the They assumed the title of Knights of Christ. in Dauphine. and pubUshed on the 2d of May 1312. imder the allegory and title of Archi- tects. The Knights who. had taken refuge in Scotland at the of Court of King Robert Bruce. declared the Order abohshed throughout the world. laid the foundation of the Order of Free and Accepted Masons of the Scot- tish Rite in 1314. The Pope. the Council of Vienne. and of his provincial coun- Jacques de Molay. 1314. that he issued on his own responsibility. This new society soon forgot the meaning of the . The execution of the Grand Master and his companions gave the coup de grace to the Order. imputing them the secret rites of their initiation. but it who had which it never recovered its former prestige and power. to 6 accusing them of the most heinous crimes. protected by the King. Some of the Knights Order.

of Cromwell and of the Republic. says Preston. obligation of avenging on all new members the which they signified by striking with an unsheathed dagger at unseen beings. of England. century had scarcely of their association. the founders and their disciples having passed away. Masonry. having removed the object of their vengeance. although all their efforts were now directed to the restoration of the honor This allegory is well-known to the Knights of Kadosh.4 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG execratory oath that the members were obKged to take at their initiation the death of Clement V. . created the degree of Grand Master to prepare the tions The enemies King WilUam III. his supposed murderers. and the extensive use of words and texts from the Bible was then introduced. to impose it. of the accusers and enemies of Jacques de Molay and the other Knights who had been executed. was initiated. Still they continued to decorate their lodges with tokens commemorative of the death of the Grand Master. was very much neglected as early as the reign of James minds of the Masons for that event. . A elapsed when this idea also was abandoned. having in view the reestabhshment of the monarchy. Of their work but httle is positively known until the reign of Charles I.. Their successors saw only allegories in the symbols of the Order. when their mysterious initiabegan to attract attention. of PhiUippe-le-bel.

II. who with the spirit of damental laws. This origin of the craft is credited by many of the best authorities on the subject. its funThere are others. that for this reason was selected as patron of the Order. however. the fact is that after the establishment of the Grand Lodge at "Apple Tree Tavern. notwithstanding the bitter opposition of the Church of Kome that fulminated against it its most terrible anathemas as early as 1738 at the instigation of the Liquisition." Masonry spread over Europe at a rapid rate. and that the Grand Lodge preserved.. the first Grand committee Lodge was estabUshed in London. likewise claim to be well informed. who was elected Grand Master on at the tavern of the the 24th of the following June. day of St.. the ancient brotherhood. in February 171 Y. Pope Clement XII. but in the building fraternities of the Middle Ages.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. They found their opinion on the fact that many of the ceremonies practiced by the Architects are still observed among the Masons . Be the origin what it may. that pretend it did not originate in any order of chivalry. ress until 1714. on . Three years later. A from the four lodges then existing in that city met " "Apple Tree and nominated Anthony Sayer. when King George ascended the throne. John the Baptist. 6 and even after this period it made but slow progI.

making Masonry high treason. The Order was introduced in France in 1725. by another beginning with these words: Providas Romanorum Pontificum. caused a prohibitory bull to be issued against Free Masonry. all Masonic Associations were prohibited by a decree of the Chamber of Pohce of the Chatelet of Paris. of Spain. entitled In Eminenti. and the Cardinal Vicar of Rome. to be obHged to Inquisitors took row in the galleys without other retribution than scanty rations of victuals of the poorest quahty. many of whom were arrested and sent to the galleys. in consequence of the bull of Clement XII. . July 2 1751. renewed the ordinance on tinado. by edict in the name . but an abundant supply of basFernando VI. But in 1740. re- newed the bull of Clement XII. Pope Benoit XIV. They caused them to be loaded with chains. in which he excommunicated all Masons. promulgated an ordinance against the Masons in his kingdom. of the High Priest of the God of Peace and Mercy. King PhiUp V. and in the succeeding year in Madrid. and on the 14th of September 1732. The advantage of the opportunity to persecute the members of a lodge they discovered in Madrid. the capital of Spain...6 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG the 28th of April of that year. Lord Coleraine founded a lodge in Gibraltar. In 1727. the strong-hold of the Inquisition. decreed the penalty of death against them in 1Y39 and on May 18 1751.

which occurred the same year. issued a decree of prohibition against it. who issued his buU of 28th of April 1738. They were set at Hberty as soon as Francis of Lorraine became Grand Duke of Tuscany. met place of The same year witnessed rious cities of Italy. cis of its estabhshment in va- In 1735. and the craft flourished in Italy until 1737. He not only protected the Masons. It is its 7 appearance in Ireland not positively known if it existed in was imported " In a was held in Tun that year lodge in America. The brotherhood made in 1730. It was not long. 1733. but founded lodges the in Florence and other places in his estates. of Medicis. in Boston. In 1732 it crossed the Atlantic and which may be regarded as the birthAmerican Free Masonry. and sent an inquisitor to Florence who caused various members of the society to be cast into dungeons. Henry Price was the first provincial Grand Master appointed by the Grand Lodge of England on April 30th. Soon after his death. In 1735 a lodge was estabhshed in Lisbon capital of Portugal. Grand Duke of Tuscany. however. the Grand Duke Franinitiated. Lorraine was He protected the when Juan Gaston Masons. the lodges which had been closed were reopened.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES.. having previously *. the B. before they were denounced to the Pope Clement XII. " tavern in Philadelphia. the country before that time. It wiU be remembered that .

" Ma- sonry enjoyed under his reign such consideration. whilst still Crown Prince. These seem have met occasionally in traveling in Germany. and Conservator of the most ancient and most respectable association of ancient free masons or architects of Scotland. B. had been initiated. and from the time of his initiation took great interest in the welfare of the brotherhood. assuming the ^^ title of Great master universal. under the title of "Knights of Christ. known to have existed previous to the year when one without name was estabhshed in Hamburg." had kept aUve the ancient order in that comitry thunderbolts. and the lodge assumed the lom. Puttman. that many German initiated. eleven gentlemen and Brothopen one. princes. or to have corresponded with each other. but no is lodge 1737.8 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG some of the Knights Templars. title ers to of Absa- King Frederick II. although Grand Master Lord Strathmore had authorized in 1733. of the Hamburg lodge. In 1740. he continued to give it his support. were and so many of the nobihty joined .. Crowned King of Prussia. denominated the Great. in defiance of the Pope's a great to Among the Masons initiated in England were many Germans as early as 1730. received a patent of Provincial Grand Master from England. following his example.

owing to external persecutions on the one hand. and the many wars that took place during his reign. to internal dissensions. the Protestant clergy looked upon it as hostile to Christianity. made against it by its enemies. Notwithstanding his multifarious State duties. regarding it with suspicion attacked and persecuted it: the Catholics because it Germany for many came from Protestant England. on the other seemed ted on the eve of That constitution." bespeaks its motto "we The people believed in the accusation of witchcraft and sorcery. because of the teachings and symbols altogether Catholic of the 18th degree." and "in the name of the holy and indivisible Trinity. because of the vail of secrecy thrown over Jesuit origin. he found time to frame a constitution to cement together again the Order that at one time. the society. savedFree Masonry from annihilation in falling asunder. suscita- by the incorporation to it of the Eosicrucians and still more that of the Illuminati. their meetings.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. that to belong to as a it 9 came to be regarded mark of nobility and high breeding. which demanded his constant attention. signed by him in his palace at Berhn. those of Rosa Cruz. Authors have endeavored to show that free-masonry is modem not derived from the mysteries . on the 1st of May 1Y86. whose have the happiness of being in the pacific unity of the sacred numbers.

the decorations of the lodges. Chaldea. others at the time of the building of Solomon's Temple. says: "Seeing that the ancient sym- boHcal marks and ceremonials in the lodges bear a very striking resemblance to those of the mysteries of the ancients some have allowed themselves to be deceived. others having occurred in the early days of the Christian era. tokens. all of which had certainly nothing to do with the rehgious mys- Egypt. Greece. that were instituted ages before the pretended occurrence teries of of those events. according to the degrees into which modern Masonry is divided. and led others astray imagining they can trace back the history of the craft into the cloudy mists of antiquity. they have taken it for granted that they were derived from the rehgious mysteries of the ancients. J.10 of the SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG ancients. Etruria. some of which are said to have taken place in comparatively modern times. G. after the decline and final discontinuance of the ancient mysteries in consequence of the spread of Christianity. Findel. if we merely consider the tokens of recognition. an advocate of this opinion.. etc." Now. words and decorations nearly all taken from the Bible and symboUcal of events. real or imaginary. to ascertain how and when Instead of endeavoring these ceremonies were introduced into our present system. the pass words and secret words. then we may positively affirm that .

India. were weU known. continued to observe the rites and ceremonies prac- to perpetuate the ancient Order of the It is therefore to be presumed that they . What were they ? but not their We are told that the aim tects of the Society of Archi- was Temple. whatever may have been the esoteric meaning given to them by the bound initiated of those countries. then origin to the order of we may trace its Knight Templars. and it is difficult to overlook it. link us to try to discover when that and by whom. Chaldea.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. and through It is well them to the ancient mysteries practiced in the East from times immemorial. If the theory of Chevaher Ramsay be true. " seems to favor that opinion. it is 11 not derived from these. secret rites in their initiations. if modern Masonry had its beginning in the riveted was Society of Architects founded in Scotland under the protection of King Robert Bruce. and Central America. But if. on the other hand. that is. we obsei've. of the charges his associates known that one made by against Jacques de Molay and their accusers was that they used Their four oaths rites of initiation. and the title of "Ancient and Accepted Masons of the Scottish rite. link exists we are to admit that a between the ancient mysteries and Free It is for Masoruy. that these symbols are precisely the same that we find in the temples of Egypt.

in itiated to the mysteries by the priests of Egypt. Were the intimate meaning of these rites analogous to those observed in the initiations to the symbohcal degrees ? These degrees were. the only ones originally recognized by the brotherhood. like the Emperor JuUan. to whom they communicated their symbols. it must be remembered. who had been inand their esoteric meaning. Clement of Alexandria and many other pagan philosophers. who indeed considered it a great honor to be phites —the — judged worthy of admission to the third degree. as there were anciently among the priests of the temples of Egypt. many Masons have alive as heretics. • . as there are but three in the Society of Jesus. lodges ? as Masons are to day. the connection of modern Masonry with the ancient . by being burnt From whom bols. the Bishop Synnesius. did the Templars receive those sym- which we plainly trace the doctrine of Pythagoras ? No doubt from the Christians who. by the Romish Church. be- In that case fore being converted to Christianity. of the crime of heresy. that is. since it has lost its hold and influence on the association.12 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG them at ticed in the chapters of the Templars. Was their explanation of the taught in M. the NeoCoadjutors and the Profess. to use the initiations of members into the new Society. to participation in the greater mysteries. and suffered death symbols similar to that The Templars were accused.

are concerned. and castles were built. and the resemblance of the symboUcal marks and ceremonials of M. and • . others to the Essenes and first Christians. has endeavored to prove that Masonry originated in the associations of operative masons that in the Middle Ages travelled through Europe. mental laws. These associations may have sprung from the building corporations of the Romans: if so. traditions. this is a title that came into use only when the Christian Masonic fraternities adopted it. their titles and duties. religious mysteries of Egypt. Krause. and by whom the cathedrals. we have a connecting link between the lodges of the Middle Ages and the mysteries of the ancients. whose fundamonasteries.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. and the constitution of M. customs and tools are now used in the lodges in a figurative sense." lodges. lodges with those of the mysteries naturally accounted for. Thus it is that many masonic authors may have been led to trace the origin of the craft to followers of Pythagoras. 13 consequently is with those of Greece and Samothracia easily traced. and the symbols . They styled themselves Collega or Incorporatus. They worked in buildings apart or in secluded rooms. so far as the officers. in his work. The initiates of the architectural collegia of the call Romans did not themselves Brothers. is so similar to theirs that one might .

With their lan- guage and customs they imported many. in order to preserve whole its numerous hierarchy. Eoman colonists settled in various parts of those countries. that. in aU probabihty. who flocked to Eome. These. of their institutions and associations. tokens and pass words of the Collegae.14 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG be inclined to believe that the early Masons imitated the Eoman collegia. all initiated to part of the when the sacerdotal class hav- ing lost in majesty. lesser mysteries. when of those countries freed themselves from the yoke societies of builders became the assooperative masons which inherited the symbols. That of the builders or collegia. either from the Chaldean magicians. is This theory bility. In the course of time. these ciations of the itinerant Eome at the beginning of the Christian era. or from some of the priests of inferior order. when the progress of philosophical incredulity had shaken the confidence in legal divination. not without semblance of plausiEome. held sway over Gaul and Britain. during several centuries. . as is manifest from the remains still existing of the magnificent roads and edifices of various kinds constructed by them. power and wealth. no members. had received them. repaired to the Capital of the world to escape misery by levying contributions on the creduhty and superstition of the people. The Collegae held their lodges wherever they estabhshed doubt initiated new themselves.

Leibnitz. died in Hanover. Herodotus tells that if any person di- called vulged any part of them. in 1716. These learned and wise societies lasted men formed secret societies to preserve and transmit their knowledge. the manner in which they were preserved. on the one hand. and there received an instruction he had vainly sought elsewhere. of science that ever lived. and it to abide in the was accounted unsafe same house . In these again may be found an explanation of why so many of the Pythagorean doctrines made their way into Masonry. Of the ceremonies performed at the initiation into the mysteries of Egypt we know but little at present. one of the greatest who among them. The trials Everything tends to and examinations to which those who applied for initiation were obhged to submit. the Koman emperors on the other. he was thought to have down Divine judgment upon his head.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. the Theurgists. for the initiated were very careful to conceal these sacred rites. at the age of seventy men years. fearing the influence of those magicians and priests. the nature of the secrets they possessed. These during the Middle Ages —the Eosicrucians. became a member of one of these societies. persecuted them even to death. Were make us their mysterious meetings ? remnants of the ancient learned initiations suspect it. 15 The Christian Church.

the murderer of the beautiful. although having embraced Christianity.16 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG with him. one can scarcely refrain from behoving that. That book is behoved to have been written at the beginning of the Christian era. under the yoke of the Roman emperors. the customs and rehgion of the Egyptians fell into decadency. after defacing and white- washing the ancient sculptures that covered their walls. learned and noble Hjrpathia. and what he learned in the mysteries before being con verted to Christianity. persecuted the worshipers of Isis and Osiris. daughter of the mathematician Theon. such as George. on which they painted rough images of saints. Cyril. Still. when. the author relates his experience at the initiation. and those of Xibalba. Fearing lest the learning of the priests of old and the . under the title of Visions. still retained in his heart of hearts a strong love for the ancient institutions that were fast disappearing in the midst of the political and rehgious dissensions that were raging at the time. and converted their temples into Christian churches. Theophilus. on reading the visions in the book of Henoch. He was even apprehended as a public offender and put to death. and comparing them with what we know of the trials to which were subjected the apphcants for initiation into the greater mysteries of Eleusis and Egypt. and the Christian bishops of Alexandria. It may be that its author.

for greater safety. Let us hope that further discoveries in the ruins of the temples. So they admitted the great philosopher Thales. The possession masonic objects found under the base of the obelisk. Cleopatra's needle. the dread of death being removed by the new order of things. now New York. I am ready to architects at least 1900 years ago. and admit that they belonged to the mysteries. who went to . show that many of as in Central the symbols pertaining to the rites of where used in modern Free Masonry. what he had seen and learned in the secrecy of the temples. Fanton. may put into our some papyrus whose contents will throw hght on the subject. 17 knowledge he had acquired by his initiation into the mysteries should become lost. and reveal these secrets. in favor of personages noted for their wisdom and knowledge. Egypt by building organizations and although I the conclusions of Dr. in the mouth of Henoch. The reluctance of the Egyptians to admit strangers to the holy secret of their mysteries was for a very long time insuperable. And do not agree with all recognize many of the emblems. they seem to have relaxed at rare intervals.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. notwithstanding they are approved by some of the high masons at Cairo and Alexandria. as instruct- ing his son. if their meaning anciently was not quite the same as we give them to-day. he put. known Park. However. or in the tombs.

the celebrated Greek poet. . who. itants of The Pelasgians had also initiated the inhabSamothracia. we must see what happened at the initiation into those of Greece. " From that it results that if we desire to obtain an insight of the Egyptian mysteries. according by the Egyptians and the Pythagoreans. Orpheus.18 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG Egypt to learn geometry and astronomy. who taught them to the Pelagic women. about 587 years before the Christian era. and to Herodotus. that presided over the crops and other fruits of the earth. Eumolpus. to cause It must be remembered that desire of Pythagoras. on account of his firmness. vere ordeals. was. king of Eleusis. on returning to his country. They in tm^n taught the ' ' Athenians the mysteries of the Cabiri. Speaking of the Thesmophoria festivals in honor of Ceres. Herodotus says: "These rites were brought from Egypt into Greece by the daughters of Danaus. after being submitted to extremely se- him to desist from his being initiated. which. but in the course of time they fell into disuse. instituted the mysteries of that name in honor of the goddess Ceres. Many of the rites and ceremonies were therefore brought from Egypt to Greece. obtained likewise the honor of the initiation. except among the Arcadians who continued to preserve them. next in importance to the mysteries of Eleusis. were observed alike estabHshed the Orphic ceremonies. granted the privilege of initiation.



Then. or whirl roimd and . After this the holy mysteries were read to them from a book called Petroma. in the city of Chichen-Itza. was admitted by night into an immense building called the Mystikos Sekos. He proposed certain questions. The priest who conducted the ceremonies was called hierophantes. 19 be admitted to the greater unless they had been purified at the lesser. last year. which was used instead of the acacia. to which answers were returned in a set form. because the fitly two stones cemented together. in Yucatan. being crowned with myrtle. Sometimes the place they were in seemed to shake. No one could The initiation to the greater mysteries when the Mystai took the degree of Ephoroi. that is the "mystical enclosui*e. except a few reserved for the priests alone." At their entrance they purified themselves by washing their hands in holy water. that is Inspector. was as follows: The candidate. without which external cleanhness of the body would by no means be accepted. by being instructed in the secret rites. in the mausoleum of high pontiff Cay. as if an earthquake was occurring. book consisted of I have discov- ered such stones. strange and amazing objects presented themselves.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. being at the same time ad- monished to present themselves vdth minds pure and undefiled. and one year at least had elapsed since they had become mystai or initiated.

Chap. to enable stand to the last such awful trials. . and terrible apparitions. only to make the dark- ness more dark. them to with- All the faint hearted were invariably rejected and refused admission to the next degree. and required to be stnmg by the most indomitable will and moral as well as physical courage. at intervals. of the terrible scenes they not entire forgetfulness. when peal after peal of thmider caused the building to shake to its very foundations. threatening consume the temple. Sometimes it appeared bathed in bright and resplendent Kght.20 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG if round as carried away in a tornado. Powerful narcotic drugs were ad- ministered to the timorous. soon to be re- placed by the most frightful noises and bellowings. The nerves of the appli- cants were tried to the utmost. and which they beheved to be produced by some frightful dream or dreadful nightmare. I will now quote from the book of Henoch. forth with extreme brilliancy. and the most to profound obsciu-ity succeeded to the dazzhng radiFlashes of hghtning. broke ance. that plunged them into a deathhke sleep. and all of a sudden they were extinguished by invisible hands. from which they emerged with if but confused recollections. had witnessed. and flames seemed to issue from the walls. These were succeeded by loud cries for help and laments of persons in great agony. the Epopteia^ or Inspection.

says they correspond to the words Cansha Om Pansha. they assumed the hkeness of men. which. its walls. O re- . were then dismissed with these three words Kon-x Om Pan-x. xiv. 5) tion of a great fire blazing and ghttering. 4. strange to say. which the Brahmins pronounce every day to anlanguage. (ver. — cold tain place fire. This dwelling was hot as " xvii. I beheld the operaterrific place where (ver. They raised me up into a cerwhere there was the appearance of burning — as ice.'* and when they pleased. xxi. ver. in his Essay on Egypt.) This was the place — — — — — — — — of suffering. (Ver 6. 3) and I beheld the receptacles of Hght and of thunder at the extremities of the place. The roof had the appearance of agitating stars and flashes of hghtning." " Then I passed to another Chap. vers. retire. 1. in the midst of which there was a division columns of fire struggled together to the end of the abyss and deep was their descent." Those who resisted to the last the trials of the Autopsia. 21 built — "I saw a spacious habitation with stones of crystal. 12.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. ver. religious ceremonies They have been " translated. There was a bow of fire and arrows in their quiver a sword of fire and every species of Kghtning. nounce to the devotees that the are over. Flames burnt around fire. as the initiation was called. its portals blazed with fire Chap. have no meaning in the Greek : Captain Wilford.

date back from a period far more remote than the most sanguine students of ever imagined. But let us return to the mysteries of Eleusis. not only to the banks of the Nile. but to those of the Euphrates. to dismiss the members of their mystic societies. whose sumptuous and aweinspiring ruins I have studied during fourteen years. still spoken by their descendants. Con-ex OmonPanex. and the shores of the Indian Ocean. of the language of the ancient inhabitants of Yucatan. the origin of Free Masonry consequently. the aborigines of that country. scatter ite missa ^^ est These words are not Sanscrit. America where Maya colonists transported their ancient religious rites and ceremonies.*. — to become Ephoroi. lodges. go. among which we find the seen even to-day in M. stranger.500 years ago. not less than 11. step by step.^^ ! are vocables. Masons no doubt recognize several of the ceremonies that took place . its history I will try to trace their origin. I will same symbols that are the temples of Egypt as in the endeavor to show you that the ancient sacred mysteries. They were probably used by the priests of the temples. In the trials to which the Mystai were subjected to try their fitness to —from to this continent which we inhabit.23 tire. SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG ! " Corresponding to the profane of the CathoHc Church. but Maya.

They were invited to freely enjoyment of all kind of mundane pleasures." Then all the seductions that human mind can imagine to excite the passions were placed within the grasp of those who aspired to become Epoptai. before they renounced them forever. a philosopher. If Free Ma- sonry had not its origin in the ancient Sacred Mysteries. Nothing that could possibly entice apphcants to fall from their state of moral and physigive way to voluptuousness. in divine his comjnentaries on of the Plato. the gods exhibit themselves under forms. Sometimes this hght appears under a human form. the impulsions of certain terrestrial demons become visible. and sometimes it assumes a different shape. at their initiation into 33 the craft. the Epopteia the most sacred of all. how could these rites have found their way into it ? The Ephoroi were now prepared for the third degree. Sometimes their unfigured Hght is held forth to many view. disciple " In all initiations the RepubHc of his master. and appear in a variety of shapes. to the ." And again.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. In this the Epoptai or "Inspectors of themselves" were — placed in presence of the gods. says: and mysteries. allming the initiated from undefiled good to matter. before the god appears. in his commentaries on the first Alci" In the most biades: holy of the mysteries. who were supposed to appear to the initiated. Proclus.

di- vides the mysteries into five parts. End and design of the revelation. supposed the prophet Ezekiel alludes to these initiations. or reception. the Theon of Smyrna. in 1. every man in the chamits bers of imagery. 2.24 cal purity SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG was omitted. The reception of sacred rites. the last and most awful of all the mysteries. wiU quote from the book of Henoch: thence I proceeded to another . If in a moment of weakness they allowed their to senses to obtain the mastery over their reason. scurity. xxii. ! before they had time to recall their scattered thoughts. his work Matematica. 3. when he speaks of the abominaIt is tions committed by the idolatrous ancients of the house of Israel in the dark. they never did with their reason. The friendship and interior communion with God. The Epopteia. they were plunged in the most dense ob- ground gave way under their feet. 4. I — " From Chap. and were they precipitated into a deep abyss. all that could be done to induce them to yield to temptation was resorted to. from which if they escaped with their hfe. woe them for before they could reaUze their position. Here again. the bright surroimdings disappeared as by magic. the building of the head and fixing of the crowns. The purification. 5.

14. reserving them for the heir apparent to the throne. 18. "Then I went to another habitation more spacious than the former. floor Ver. since Clement of Alexandria. whilst 21. even. nor degraded the secrets of divine matters by disclosing them to the profane. and that Pythagoras. a strong rock and four delightful places. So sacred were their secrets held that many of the members of the sacerdotal order." . were even more severe. were not admitted to a par- ticipation of them." It is said that the ordeal through which the candidates were obliged to pass previous to admission into the Egyptian mysteries. and for such of the priests as excelled in virtue and wisdom. xiv. —A fire of great extent con- tinued to rise up before him. spot where I 25 saw on the West a great and lofty mountain. had a narrow escape from it. of great glory sat upon the orb of the fire. Ver. wise philosopher as he was. —One above were Mghtning and agitated roof exhibited a blazing fire.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES." Chap. 24. Ver. tells us: "the Egyptians neither en- trusted their mysteries to every one. The priests alone could arrive at a thorough understanding of the mysteries. ver. —Its was on stars. its briUiant sun. but those alone who proved themselves deserving of the honor. Every entrance which was opened before me was erected — in the midst of a vibrating flame.

the greater classes. An inscription of a high priest at Memphis. and those of HeHopolis and Memphis. when the ancient customs had become relaxed owing to the invasion of the country by foreigners and to the government passing from the hands of native rulers to those of Persian. Great was the honor of ascending to the greater mysteries and it was difficult to attain to it. the mys- teries consisted of lesser. many and the The candidate for initiation had to be pure. his character without blemish. that nothing was concealed from him. appeared to the candidate. many. besides the priests. whose honor the mysteries were celeand whose name the initiates did not dare it pronounce. that he had penetrated the mysteries of every sanctuary. Samuel Birch. But all had to pass through the different grades and . king of Ethiopia. that he adored God and glorified Him in all all that he had seen. no doubt he would have told us that at one of the initiations the figure of the god Osiris. as did at HeHopolis to Pianchi.26 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG From all we can learn on the subject. At a later period. states: "That he knew the arrangements of the Earth. He was commanded to study such lessons as tended to purify the mind. in brated. came to be admitted to the lesser mysteries. says Mr. divided into two kinds. of Greek or Eoman governors." His works. and that he hid in his breast Had he not kept his secrets so carefully concealed.

conform to the prescribed
rules, as in


the case of

Eumolpus, Orpheus, Herodotus and others.


describe at length the initiations to the mysteries in honor of the Sun God,

will not here

Mithra, instituted by Zoroaster, but only state that Porphyrins, on the testimony of Eubulus, says that

philosopher and reformer having selected a

cavern in a pleasant locahty in some mountains near Persia, dedicated it to Mithra, the Sun, creator

and father of


beings; that

he divided



geometrical figures intended to represent the chmates and elements; in a word that he imitated in a small



the order and disposition of the universe by After him, it became customary to conse-

crate caverns for the celebration of mysteries; as see yet in Japan and India.


The candidates for initiation to the Mithra mysteries were submitted to the most awful trials among which one was to try the docihty and courage of the apphcant. He was ordered by the priest to kill a man. According to Plutarch, in his Hfe of Pompeius, these mysteries were brought to the
Occident by CiKcian pirates about sixty-eight years before the Christian era. They were weU received

by the Greco-Latin world, and the initiated were soon to be counted by thousands. In the time of the Emperor Adrian, the mysteries of Mithra had



become so popular that Pallas, a Greek writer, composed a poem on the subject, that Porphyrius has preserved in a special treatise on the abstinence from
the use of animal

The mysterious

initiations vividly impressed the


imagination, as at times and by way of expiation, victims were offered and immolated. The

ceremonies of the priests consisted, says Origenes, imitating the motions of the celestial bodies,

those of the planets, in fact of the heavens. The Initiated took the names of the constellations and
dressed themselves as animals.

A theology purely


was taught

in these

which they used the purification by water in honor of the goddess Ardvi goura andhita, "She of the celestial waters;" the confession of sins; and a sort
of eucharist, or offering of bread, still observed by the Parsis or fire worshippers in India. It may be
said that during the last years of the

Roman Empire,

the rehgion of Mithra had become the state rehgion. It is not, therefore, to be wondered at, if it extended
to the

of its


provinces of Gaul and Britain, and if rites have found their way into Free

Masonry, and are practised to the present day; thus again relating it with very ancient sacred mysteries,
estabhshed by Zoroaster, the author of the Zend-

Avesta at

least 1,100 years before Christ,


Hermippus, the Greek translator of his work, places him. 5, 000 years before the taking of Troy.



we go

to Hindostan, there


will learn of


secret society of wise
ject is

and learned men, whose ob-

the study of philosophy in all its branches, but particularly the spiritual development of man.

The leading



established in Thibet;


the high pontiff and other dignitaries of the Lama reHgion belong to it. They are known throughout

To India by the name of Mahatmas or Brothers. obtain this title it is necessary to suffer a long and
weary probation, and pass through ordeals
ble severity.

of terri-

Many of the Chelas, as the aspirants are called, have spent twenty, even thirty years of blameless and arduous devotion to their task, and

to the

they are in the earher degrees, looking forward happy day when they may be judged worthy

to have the title of Brother conferred

upon them.

These Mahatmas are the successors of those secret
societies of learned

Brahmins, so celebrated for their

wisdom, from very remote ages, in India; and of whose colleges or lodges, always built on the summit
of high mounds, either natural or artificial, Alexander, the Great, when he achieved the conquest of that country, was never able to take possession. Philostratus informs us, that their mode of defense consist-

ed in surrounding themselves with clouds, by means of which they could at will render themselves visible

thunder on their enemies.

or not, and hurling from their midst tempests and Evidently in those early



they had discovered gunpowder, or some other explosives of Hke uature, and made use of


mines and destroy their assailants. These same Brahmins claimed to have been the
to explode

teachers of the Egyptians, who, according to that, would have received their civihzation and scientific

knowledge from them, as
It is well

also did the Chaldeans.


that the Magi were strangers who to Babylon, possessors, says the prophet Dan-


not only of a special learning, but of a peculiar tongue. They formed a powerful society into which,
at the beginning, none but those of their



were admitted, as their science was both exclusive and hereditary, A certain rehgious character was
attached to the whole body; every priest must be a Chaldean, but every Chaldean was not a priest. They

passed their whole Uves in meditating questions of

Astronomy was

their favorite study;

but they acquired great reputation for their

ogy. They were versed in the arts of prophesying, of explaining dreams and prodigies, and the omens

furnished by the entrails of victims offered in sacrifice. The parents taught the children. At their head

was a high

pontiff with the title of Rab-mag, Veneror able, according to its meaning in the Maya lan'^ the old man.'''' At Babylon they guage, J/a6-mac,

were the ruling

order, the advisers of the King.


to-day of their rites of initiation;

that for the cultivation of science. surrounding them with mysterious allegories." or. wrote to Jerome: ignorant men understand the more they admire. the acquirement of knowledge. in fact of all times. the understanding thus bringing him into closer con- and study of the laws that govern the material and spiritual world. is to imitate its nature that escapes man's senses. and enigmatical symbols. as This similarity of the rites practiced in the initiations. proves that these rites and symbols had been commimicated from one to an- . of aU reUgions. I offspring from have endeavored in a cursory manner to show that the ancient sacred mysteries were estabhshed for the same purpose in every civihzed nation of is antiquity. since the civihzation of Chaldea and that of Egypt were twin sisters. 31 but they must have been very similar to those of the Egyptians.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. tact with Deity. favors." and as the priests of to-day. as says Strabo: "to surround the things that are holy with a mysterious obscurity is to make Divinity venerable. They kept their learning and discoveries a profound secret. they wished to be regarded "the less by the masses as dispensers of the god's mediators between the Deity and man. the development of his and mental faculties. the bettering of intellectual man's moral and physical nature. the same parents. the identity of symbols. for. as Gregory of Nazianze.

if we question them on the subject. and secret societies of learned men. from whom did the Brahmins learn them ? No doubt. may we not ask. the world over. but are said to belong to a very ancient form of speech now dead the Akkadian. the query arises as to where they originated. just as in are the same in the lodges. We know that from Egypt and Chaldea they were From whom did brought to Greece and Rome. have we who have taken care to preserve the words used at the closing of the ceremonies by the officiating priest. and with difficulty it were could gainsay their assertion.32 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG modern Free Masonry the initiations having travelers. not that Plutarch and other Greek writers. Admitting this assertion to be true. But with respect to the ancient Sacred Mysteries. they will answer that they are the originators of these mystic rites. the Grand Lodge of England. make use of words that are not Sanscrit. from the fountain head. — — . other. been carried to the most distant lands. and also made known It is well to us the name and shape they gave to their place of meeting. known that the Brahmins. described the Eleusinian mysteries. in many of their religious ceremonies. the Egyptians and Chaldeans receive them? The Brahmins asserted that the Magi and the Hierophants were their disciples. by colonists or missionaries.

The fact is that the words con-x om —pan-x. tians adopted it. had the form of a rectangle. it Maymeans the country. the Universe. the Earth. which is still the ver- nacular of the aborigines of Yucatan and other coimtries south of the Peninsula. as the word earth repre.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. 33 spoken by the inhabitants of the countries situated along the banks of the Euphrates. f and that it represented the "Universe. this language presents with the Maya. mean nothing in Greek. for they knew full well it was spherical. Fanton suggests. that the earth was square or oblong. are pure Maya vocables. as Dr. Strange as it may many affinities appear. The Egyp* . The Mayas selected the . not because they believed. sents it to ours. and the form of M. from which the word lodge has been derived. country and. — sha—om—Pansha by Captain Wilford. but because the sign of the word ma conveyed to their mind the idea of the Earth." Modern Masons have wrongly translated that idea by the Sanscrit word loga. lodges adopted. near its mouth. by extension. The shape of the temples was that of the Egyptian letter if called "ma". a word that also means place. as we have said. in the Maya language. that have the same meaning as that given to can- That is not aU. But ma is also the radical of ax. We are also told that the place or i temple where the initiated assembled to perform their ceremonies. but. therefore. and likewise.

At Uxmal.^^ the mother-land of the gods and of the ances- tors of the Egyptians. of The lower part is formed of the frustum an eUiptical cone 14 metres (45 feet 6 inches) in ." birth-place of the ancient sacred mysteries in those f^ "Lands of the ^ that "Land of Kui. awe-inspiring remains of grand old monuments. there exists an artificial mound of pecu- Uar construction. of the scientific and intellectual attainments of the mighty races that erected them. mementos of the power and civilization. where the god Osiris reigned supreme over the souls emancipated from the tram- mels of matter. and 33 metres (107 feet 3 inches) in width.34 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG i i oblong square to represent it. one of these ancient great metropolis in Yucatan. the ruins of ancient cities. under a cloak of verdure. he hidden. and have disappeared forever in the abyss of time. because it is the geometrical figure that is nearest in shape to the contours of the Yucatean peninsula. are to be seen the crumbling. So we have found a bridge to cross the vast expanse of water that hes between the Eastern and Western Continents —a clue that may lead us to the West. 66 metres (214 feet 6 inches) in length at the base. There. In the depths of the forests that cover the soil of Central America. The entire stinicture measured 29 metres (about 95 feet) in height.



35 height. and a truncated West. the upper plane of which supports the crowning edifice 6 metres high. wide. GROUND PLAN OF SANCTUARY. each 2 metres high. or west. whose ground plan cross with is made a double set of East. 25c. divided into 7 gradients. which forms a terrace 35 metres long by 10 metres wide. having originally no communication with each This building other. metres wide. . On the upper plane of the frustum. 29 metres long " West. is composed of three separate apartments 2m. Holy of Hohes.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. are constructed the Sanctuary. rectangular pyramid G metres high. facing in the shape of a arms. emblem of the " Lands of the 7 and that have Holes have been bored in the partition walls much weakened the construction for .

not because they were ignorant of how to construct circular arches since they erected edi- . GB0I7ND PLAN OF TEMPLE OF MYSTERIES. The ceihngs. 25c. The doors of the other rooms faced East. in length. while the middle chamber is Tm.36 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG it is what purpose The rooms 5m. form a triangular arch. elevated above the mists of the plains below. by means of a smaU stair. West. The door of this chamber faced west. at the extremities are of the same size. and led. and transthe naked eye. to a terrace formed by the roof of the East sanctuary. like those of aU the apartments in the monuments of Yucatan and Central America. difficult to surmise. This shape was adopted by the builders. where at times the atmosphere is so pure parent that stars are clearly visible to that require the aid of the telescope to be seen in other countries. in celestial the clear cloudless sides of Yucatan. could From without hindrance follow the course of the bodies. unless it be for the love of destruction. (about IT feet 10 inches) long. there the learned priests and astronomers. 50c.

we names traced are told. we learn from the book of Henoch.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. represented one of the nine in characters emblematical of the at- tributes of Deity. Mughier —in the center of the great pyramid Egypt in the most ancient monuments of Greece. letters. apex of which formed a key-stone with Each of the nine mirific characters inscribed on it. of Ghizeh. one of the Bia. again. One he placed in the deepest arch. the other he entrusted to Mathusalath. father of the world! hail. and traced two of the mysterious characters on each. This kind of arch is also found in the ancient at tombs of Chaldea. but in accordance with certain esoteric teachings pertaining to the mysteries and relating to the mystic numbers 3.5. to whom he communicated important secrets. triform God! AkorL .7. fices 37 roofed with domes. and thou art Hail. each apartment being roofed with the arch. Henoch then constructed two triangles of the purest gold. in the tombs of Etruria and other places. as the treasure room at Mikene. was in imitation of the nine vaults that were shown to tain. that the subterranean building that he constructed in the land of Canaan in the bowels of the moun- with the help of his son Mathusalath. in — Here. thou art Athor. Tbou art Bait (the soul). him by the an Deity.

ten centimeters in diameter. semispheres. Egypt. while those in Fie. Etruria and Central America. practised in The marks remote times. Fig. lines of the arch north room form a triangle (Fig. intended to represent the stars that at night so beautify the firmament. This chamber could be reached by walking on the nar- row terrace round the building. 2. were practised rites and ceremonies pei-taining to the third degree of initiation. in former times. figure a trapezium (Fig. Inside of the triangle formed at each end of said rooms by the converging are also several of these semispheres—those in the 1). seven meters. The middle chamber of is now devoid of decorations any sort. 2). Greece. the south room. 1. In the ceilings of the rooms situated at the north and south extremities of the building are carved in pecuhar and regular order. in India. in deep intagho. is to-day the only vestige which remains to indicate that in it.38 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG triangular arches appear. with one of these half spheres in the middle. Chaldea. Its length. therefore. as landof one and the same doctrine. five in number. but I feel certain it that those whose privilege was to assemble vdthin .



The exterior of the monument was once upon a .THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. situated on the north side of the sanctuary. situated on the east side of the mound. 39 got to it from the west side. The access to the north and south rooms was by a grand stairway of ninety-six. On the under part of this cornice are small rings cut in the stone. its walls. led to the upper terrace. leading from the court yard adjoining the priests' palace. and to the middle chamber. from which many curtains were suspended to hide the Holy of Holies from profane gaze. like that on the east side. A few centimetres above the to the sanctuary is it lintel of the entrance a cornice that surrounds the are sculptured these symbols. beautifully ornamented. is fourteen metres (45 feet 6 inches) wide. whole edifice. each 20cm. so steep as to require no Kttle practice and care to ascend and descend its narrow steps with comparative safety and ease. wide. steps. to the entrance of the sanctuary. that led to the upper terrace surrounding the whole edifice. high. This stairway. to the roof of that monument. On times repeated. and. There was a stairway nine metres wide. 40c. Thence another small stairway 2m.

symbol that will easily be recognized by members of the masonic fraternity. walls of the sanctuary. at the foot of the mound just described. and to modern Free Masonry. The ornaments that cover these walls are remarkable in more than one sense. 1880. among The part of the statue. longed to the ancient sacred mysteries of the EgypIn August tians. A . in great part. from the waist to the knee. They are not only inscriptions in the Maya language. the debris. particularly attracted tion. Still those that adorn the exterior disappeared.40 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG time ornamented with elaborate and beautifully executed sculptures. which have now. but among them are symbols known to have beacters identical vdth. I found pieces of what once had been the statue of a priest. written in char- and having the same meaning and value as those carved on the temples of Egypt. as seen in the adjoining illustration. my atten- Over his dress the personage wore an apron with an extended hand. remain as specimens of the beautiful handiwork and of the great skill of the artists. whilst the exquisite architectural proportions of the whole edifice bespeak the mathematical and other scientific attainments of the architects who planned the building and superintended its erection.

that were transported from Mayax to India. besides other emblems that I will endeavor to explain. an edifice adjoining that temple. representijig cross bones the sanc- and skeletons. that all communications between their people and the inhabitants of the "Lands of the West" had been interrupted for 9. This may be considered the oldest known edifice in the world consecrated to secret rites and ceremonies. right if submerged Are we not then we surmise that the monuments of Mayax 'i existed 11. in consequence of the great cataclysms.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES.500 years ago. when he visited them 600 years before the Christian era. What the ceremonies of initiation were among the . under the waves of the ocean. Etruria. in one night. tokens that many of the Masons again cannot fail to recognize. 41 must not forget that Plato informs us that the priests of Egypt assured Solon. which exist on the walls of the residence of the priests. and its builders the founders of the sacred mysteries. during which. the sculptures support that belief we have carved on the cornice that surrounds tuary. Egypt. with arms and hands uplifted.000 years. were celebrated in them the symbols already mentioned as existing in the chambers. Chaldea. and that mysteries. by colonists or missionaries. the large island We of Atlantis disappeared. similar To to those of Egypt. the construction of the chambers themselves.

When in presence of the council. ing ornaments as the awaited them. they sat as invited. one of mud. the other of blood. If. they were told to salute the King. after which they were asked to sit down on a certain seat. be- fore they reached the four roads that led to the place where the priests awaited them.42 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG it is difficult Mayas. forgetting the respect due to the august assembly. made . at Xibalba. to surmise at present. that led to where the council. and a wooden statue dressed and wearpriests. This was to try their discernment. The crossing of these rivers was fuU of dangers that were to be Then they had to journey along the four the roads. they soon had reason to regret their want of good breeding and proper preparation. and the wooden statue was pointed out to them. composed of twelve avoided. sacred book We learn from the Popolwere made to cross of the Quiches. the green and the black. for the seat. white. having been destroyed by the monks who came with the Spanish adventurers. a branch of the Maya nation. But they must have been similar to the rites of initiation practiced by the Quiches. Then they had to salute each individual. except four that still exist. the red. that the apphcants for initiation to the mysteries two rivers. veiled priests. giving his name or title without being told. all their books. a place in the heart of the mountains of Guatemala. Vuh. or soon after the conquest.

Still they had to wood and a be returned whole at sunrise. The fifth ordeal was not less terrible. death. to prevent the candidates from holding intercourse with the outer world. It consisted . against the attacks of the best spearmen. even. They had to prevent themselves from being overcome by the cold and frozen to death. selected for the purpose. when the officer in charge of the house came to demand them. This con" Ice sisted in being shut for a whole night in the house." There. These were not to be extinguished. and submit to the second trial. and had also to defend themselves. candidate. 43 de- was burning hot. Then a lighted torch of pine cigar were given to each. of stone. Guards were placed clined the invitation.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. they all round. they were judged worthy of the fourth trial." where the cold was intense. Woe to him who allowed his torch and cigar to get consumed Terrible chastisements. without communicating with any one outside." where they had to pass the night. one for each Coming out victorious at dawn. Having passed through this second trial success" House of fully. the third was to be suffered in the Spears. or bringing them at the time of their coming. Having modestly were conducted to the "Dark house. they had to produce four pots of certain rare flowers. during a whole night. awaited ! him.

Coming out unscorched. by the ferocious animals." This was a burning furnace where they had to remain from sunset to sunrise.44 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG company with wild tigers. Emerging safe from the den. appeared to the candidates and beheaded them. that he was tpld was the Tree of Knowledge." for the seventh trial. after sacrificing him for having failed to support the first trial of . does not the tamarind tree in — the midst of the earth. the sword of fire that other where he had in his visions? said he saw — — to cross the babbling stream. lastly. they had to submit to their " sixth trial in the Fiery house. where the God himself. the quiver of arrows. in in passing a night in the "Tiger house." exposed to be torn to pieces. or devoured ahve. Do not these initiations vividly recall to mind what Henoch house of That blazing hot and crystal. if off their guard. and the river of fire and those extremities of the Earth full of all kinds of — huge beasts and birds — or the habitation where appeared one of great glory sitting upon the orb of the sun and. the the bats. in the most severe of The sacred book " God of tells us it was the house of Camazotz. coming from on high. said to be the all." full of death-deahng weapons. in the middle of the road where those of Xibal- ba placed the head of Hunhun Ahpu. they were ready " House of the bats. find its simile in the calabash tree. burning icy cold that place where were the bow of fire.


ib .

in a milder form at the initiation into the Eleusinian mysteries ? and also the greater mysteries of Egypt. to keep lighted the torch and cigar and prevent them from being consumed. prince Cay Canchi. the title fnj ^ [p =. to defend themselves from the attacks of dexterous spearmen. to protect themselves against the intense cold of the "Icehouse. recalls that of the chief of These Avere the awful ordeals that the candidates High King Can at Uxthe Magi at Babylon. . before being admitted. feats said to be performed by the Mahatmas. in order to distin- guish the wooden statue pointed out to them as the King from the veiled Brothers.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. Do they not seem an exact counterpart of what happened. from which these were copied ? Does not the recital of what the candidates to the mysteries in Xibalba were required for initiation into the sacred mysteries to know. to produce the flowers asked from them while isolated from the world in a guarded chamber. VV Hach-mac. who had been initiated to the Brothers in India. "the priest in very man. the initiation ? 45 Even the true. to avoid seating themselves on a burning hot stone seat. son mal. of had to pass through in Xibalba. that we see over the bust of Pontiff." to remain unhurt amidst wild tigers." of the high Mayax. or unscorched in the middle of a burning furnace recall to mind the wonderful similar . the and of several of the passages of the book of Daniel.

there can be no doubt. in to acquire learning. science was the The sacerdotal privilege of the priests and kings. Garcilasso de la we find vestiges of them in various other countries of the Western Continent.46 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG mysteries of the Chaldeans or Magi which. class held the pre-eminence. Sacerdotal orders were . Etruria. Mayax. Even setting aside the proofs of their existence. it any one not belonging to the nobility There again. according to Eubulus. that we the gather from the description of the monuments of Uxmal. or Phoenicia to America ? Then I will ask when ? By whom ? What facts can be adduced to sustain such assertion ? Why cere- should the words with which the priest at the conclusion of the ceremonies in the Eleusinian mysteries. and the Brahmins at the end of their rehgious monies. be Maya instead of Greek or Sanscrit words ? Is it not probable that the dismissal continued to be uttered in the language of those who first instituted and taught the cere monies and rites of the mysteries to the others? That sacred mysteries have existed in America from times immemorial. dismiss the assistants. India. and the trials of initiation related in sacred book of the Quiches. were divided into three classes or genera. Chaldea. as in Egypt. was illicit for Vega informs us that in Peru. the highest being the most learned ? Will it be said that the mysteries were imported from Egypt or Chaldea or India.

tors did and hve to-day as their ances- many centuries back. and now in the library of the British Museum in London. at the beginning of the year 1631.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. The name Quichua. Mr. Frank Gushing. in Lima. by the civilization of the Europeans. they have been little influenced. of the general language of Pern. as we learn from an unpublished MS. If there from South America we go to New Mexico. Eev. they had to submit to very severe The rites and ceremonies of initiation were ordeals. who was commissioned by . not only the purity of their language. traditions. which was considered such important a great honor. written by a Jesuit father. and other Pueblo Indians. preserving "with great care. imported in Peru by the ancestors of Manco Capac. who were colonists from Central America. but their customs. which they teach their children to speak correctly. if at all. conferred only upon young of sufficiency for 47 men who had given office. Anello OUva.. we find the Zufiis. points directly to the Quiches as the branch of the Maya nation that carried civihzation to that country. the founder of the Inca dynasty. Having preserved their independence by shaking off at an early period the yoke of the Spaniards. proofs and before they could be received into the Society of the Amautas or wise men. and ancient rehgious rites and obsei-vances.

He has been initiated into many of them. from which in all probability. their initiations. Washington. learned practices. not the least is the existence of twelve sacred orders. as carefully guarded as the secrets of the ancient sacred mysteries to which they bear gi-eat resemblance. to and manners. make a study been adopted by the tribe. century a. Mayos. having been brought among them by Maya colonists and afterward Nahualt The Nahualts invaded and for a long time held sway over Mexico and some of the northern portions of Central America. and who inhabit the countries watered by the rivers Yaqui and Mayo in Sonora. end of the XIII. the inhabitants of the seven cities of Cibola. having had to submit to ordeals almost as severe as those of Xibalba from which no doubt they are derived. with their priests. has and has now become one at Among the many interesting things discovered by him.48 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG of their customs the Smithsonian Institution. neighbors of the Arizona. Some reached as far north as the guLf of CaHfornia and The Yaqui Indians. the adjoining nations. many of their rehgious and the institution . their territories. about the when they scattered in all directions.d. The aborigines of those countries at last expelled them from invaders. are descendants of a Nahualt tribe. their sacred rites. of their most influential chiefs. the Zufiis among them.

that expect to find the true signification of the symbols held sacred by the initiates in all countries. still them by their inventors. dwelt among the blessed. Whoever has read history knows that in all from the re- nations. civihzed as well as uncivilized. bestowed upon them . in all times. sacred mysteries. we have been brought over the vast . in that we may country. therefore. motest antiquity. and 7. well-nigh impenetrable. and which have reached us. of mystery woven round the long vista of ages. "Lands It of the West" where the souls of all good men. that recall the twelve presided at the initiation into the sacred mysteries at Xibalba.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. of which expanse of the blue to these mysterious sea. the priests have claimed learning as the privilege of their caste. is. 49 of the twelve sacred orders. through surrounded by the veil. the interpretation of which has puzzled many a wise head —the origin of the mystifi- cation and symboUsm of the numbers 3. My long researches among the ruins of the ancient temples and palaces of the Mayas. where Osiris was said to reign supreme. to this western continent. have been rewarded by learning at the fountain-head the esoteric meaning of some at least of the symbols. the Egyptians behoved. Seeking for the origin of the institution of the priests who Masonry seems to be the great-grandchild following their vestiges from country to country. 5.

50 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG special favor of the Euling Spirit of the universe. Judging from the numerous devices and emblems that formed the ornamentation of the temples and of palaces in the ancient ruined cities of Yucatan. They put into practice the principle. confined during many his ignorant brethren on and I might add the Jesuits among the Christians. under the cover of symbols. being their best guarantee power and honor. one of the most learned men of his time. the Adepts of India." enunciated by the erudite and celebrated English monk Eoger Bacon. although they are very inferior in knowledge to the others. This same principle is yet closely adhered to by the Brahmins. reserving their meaning for the initiated. They have carefully hid all their discoveries. scientific or artistic. and do still observe. For this reason they have zealously kept from the by gaze of other men their intellectual treasures. the secrecy they have observed for centuries. who was years in a prison cell by account of his great erudition. the Buddhist priests of Thibet. and surrounded them with the veil of mystery. the priests of Mayax seem to have been as addicted to . giving to the people only such exoteric or pubKc explanation of them as best suited their purpose. that "It was necessary to esoteric or secret keep the discoveries of the philosophers in the works of art or nature from those unworthy of knowing them.

the Egyptians. Chaldea and other countries. have consigned the re- lation in the Pentateuch. or even presumable. who Might bers it not be possible that. 51 symbology as their congeners in India. pride themselves upon their orthodoxy. or travelers. These. and the Jews. 5. which have reached us through the sacred books of the Hindoos. having received them from both the Chaldees and the Egyptians. in Mayax also. the Chaldeans. but now beheved by Matthew Henry and other commentators. and 7. Such abstruse speculations respecting the outological properties of . The study of the relics of ancient Maya civiUza- tion has made manifest to my mind the source of many of the primitive traditions of mankind. missionaries. Egypt. could be found the origin of the mystification of the num- regarded as mystic by nations of antiquity all over the earth ? 3. to have been written in times subsequent to the foundation of the Hebrew monarchy. not admissible. that the same idea and mysticism has been attached to these numbers by aU these different peoples without being communicated from one to another.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. Among these devices and symbols. several belong clearly to their sacred mysteries. all civilized Surely this mystification must have originated with one of these nations and been carried to the others either It is by colonists. a book long attributed to Moses.

in the material existence of man. to whom they tribute homage. to deduce things unseen from things seen. does not soar in the elevated regions of metaphysics or of philosophical and abstract theories. must have had its origin in material causes. The mysticism with which these numbers have been invested. are productions of highly culti- vated inteUigences. intellect. peoples living far by being away from by passing from mouth to mouth. Do we not see. palpable to physical senses. metaphysical speculations.52 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG numbers can not be ascribed to the first workings of the human mind in its incipient steps toward intellectual development. genera- . the memory of which became lost in the course of ages. in the secrecy of initiations. mighty beings. even in our midst. and address prayers tion inspire in filled with the superstitious conceptions. altered transported among the nation that conceived the idea. that men who hve in igno- rance ascribe the manifestations of the powers of nature to unseen. numeri- fears that these fancies of their untutored imagina- them ? Abstract cal combinations. philos- ophical hypothesis. as everyday occurrences. still In its awakening. of minds accustomed to reason on causes and effects. their symbohzation in the sacred mysteries. human unable to comprehend the causes of the natiu-al phenomena that take place. of whom they continually stand in awe.

" Proclus. They placed called the Divine Intelligence Kneph." In Chaldea. kings of the great in the Atlantic ocean.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. " Saturnian continent. the same as the three kings of Plato. king of the beyond the sea and Lybia. in his "Treatise on Principles. These three intellects. platonic philosopher. and the three intellects are the three kings. him above and apart from the Damascius." says " that they asserted nothing of the first principle of all things. who taught in the schools of Athens. he who exists. and Triads. he supposes to be the Demiurge. it was . the twin sister of Egypt. who created all things. says: " the Demiurges or Creator is triple. transcending all intellectual perception. and Kronos. seems to have been the universal behef in early ages. daughter of " Lands " Poseidon. from the earliest times. The idea of a sole and omnipotent Deity. among all the nations that had reached a high degree of civilizaThis was the doctrine of the Egyptian priests. an eclectic philosopher. and as the three whom Orpheus celebrates under the names of Phaenes. therefore. we find that notwithstanding the apparent polytheistic character which. but celebrated it as a thrice unknown darkness. director of the school of Athens in 450 after Christ. tion. he who beholds. about the year 526 of the Christian era. Ouranos. he who possesses. 53 tion after generation. possible for the priests rehgion had assumed.

to account by esoteric explanation for the multiplicity of their gods. above and apart from the personages which peopled their Pantheon and were reverenced with equal respect by kings and people. La. and other philosophers. so far removed from their first triad. if we give credence to Pythagoras. means "that which has existed forever. that they did not know how to worship it. Democritus. dedicated exclusively to the divinities. The eternal truth." mains a mystery. it is thrice affirmed that there are only three gods. Colebrooke. they recognized Ra. The same conceptions about Deity existed in India from the remotest antiquity. to which it is So the Triads were subordinate. evident that the ancient Chaldeans recognized a supreme being. The meaning of the name Ra seems to have been a superior deity. T. unknown it to the historians. a divine essence. The gods are three only. but its origin still reIn Egypt they gave that name " " Sun particularly. in his notice on "the Sacred Books of the Hindoos" says: "In the last part of the Niroukta. thus reconcihng the whole scheme with monotheism. and that these three gods designate one sole deity. H. . as the fount of all things.54 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG and learned men. in the Maya language. They only assert that means God emphatically. In fact. to the the Ufe-giver and sustainer of all that exists on earth. resolving them into the powers of nature. Ra.

. In fact there is the *' It "great Soul" Maha-atma. Choueven in which he has preserved many ancient traditions. a con- . and of aU that does not move. Reason made and divided Heaven and Earth converted and perfected all things. about the beginning of the Explaining the character Y he says: In the first beginning reason subsisted in unity. is who hved under the dynasty of the the author of a Chinese dictionary called Hans. is their collective God. That the Y has neither body or That all that has body and shape was made by that which has no body or shape. is caUed the all beings. And Tao-Tse. and the sun. shape. 55 whose mansions are the Earth. The other gods are only parts or fractions of his person." but one God. during the Songs dynasty. the intermediate regions and heavens. The behef in a Triune God has also existed from very early ages among the Chinese philosophers. but Pradjapati. He wrote Christian era. a eleventh century of the Christian era. Tradition re" " counts that the Great Term or the " Great Unit " comprehends three. " Great '' " Term. of aU that moves." is the Great Unit says: That the and the great Y. that one one. Chinese writer. sun because the is the soul of Sun. the air. explaining certain passages of the Hi-Tse. that is the fire. who flourished toward the Lo-pi. is three and three are Hiu-Chin.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. the Lord of all creatures.

a book reputed very profound. in which we read. that both produced three. who wrote the Tao-te-King. although they raised a magnificent temple in his honor on the sea coast that rivaled in wealth and splendor those dedicated to the Sun at Titicaca and Cuzco. for which reason they called him Pacha camac. and whose names are Bitol the maker Atom the engenderer Qaholom He who — — — — — — — gives being. That one produced two. yet forming one. Sacred book of the Quiches. teU us that they worshiped a mighty unseen being who they beUeved had created all things. We are also informed that He stood at the head of a trinity composed of Himself Pachacamac Con and Uiracocha. Tao. produced one. they did not represent under any shape or figure. we see reflected the teachings of the Popolvuh. — — — In this conception of a Supreme Being. Creator of aU things. and that three had produced all things. being incomprehensible. " that an that exists is the work of Tzakol the Creator who by his wiU caused the Universe to spring into existence." All early writers who have given an account of the rehgion of the ancient Peruvians.56 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG temporary of Confucius. said more than five hundred years before Christ: "That reason. was universally prevalent . He. The fact that the same doctrine of a Supreme Deity composed of three parts distinct from each other.

and intellectual at attainments one to another. as is conjectured from the inferior quality of the bottles. found in the tombs of Thebes. a body of Ethiopians from the countries about the Indus river migrated and settled in the valley of the Chinese bottles. Asia and the Egyptians. the vase with Chinese inscriptions found by Dr. have imparted /their traditions. metaphysical speculations. Schliemann in the lowest stratum of his excavations at Hissarlik. prove. inscriptions that were partly deciphered by the eminent indianist Mr. when am- . Emile Burnouf and afterward thoroughly interpreted by the great Chinese scholar Fi-Fangpao. that in the reign of Nay more. communications and relations more or less intimate have existed between them. that some seem art of to believe were manufactured before the making objects of porcelain reached the high degree of perfection to which it attained afterward. that communications Nile. naturally leads to the inference that among some time or other. They must. then. beyond the least doubt. ^vith inscriptions in that language. king of Ethiopia. On the other hand. 57 the civilized nations of America. In fact. Eusebius asserts Memnon.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. And the many have existed between the inhabitants of China and the Egyptians in times very remote. all historians agree with Philostratus and admit that commercial intercourse did exist be- tween Egypt and India.

preserved in the works of the philosophers. India. ' But we do not learn from when or how said doctrine Whatever may have been the source originated. or China. without inquiring. and appropriated it. as they have many other of their teachings and theories. We need not seek for information among the fathers of the Christian Church. tions The councils pronounced them revelafrom on high. to the present day. to be . concerning their origin. and are still held sacred by many among Christians and Brahmins. it is certain that the priests and learned men of Egypt. for they are as silent as the tomb on the subject. and imposed them as dogmas. unfathomable mysteries not to be investigated. and proved to mention the fact of the vase having contained samples of Chinese gauze. These conceptions concerning the Triune God have come down through the vista of ages. They admitted into their tenets the notion of a Triune God as taught by the pagan philosophers. shows that active commercial intercourse was carried on by the Chinese with Greece and Asia Minor even before the siege of Troy.58 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG bassador at Berlin. without knowing. kept it a profound secret. and imparted it only to a few select among those initiated if in the sacred mysteries. they still knew the true history of its origin at the time they wrote. Chaldea. from which it sprang. their sacred books where.

implicitly believed. 69 with blind faith. So far as explaining the nature of the Deity all philosophers agree in admitting that it transcends the intelligence of man since man is finite. and what is finite will never be able to comprehend that which is infinite. and on the columns that adorn the temple. By fancies of the imagination.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. Such explanations of the symboKcal nature of the mystic numbers were given to them so as to make it well-nigh impossible to obtain a fair under- the perusal of the extracts just quoted it is easy to see that all the reasonings concerning the mystic value of number 3 and its relations to a Supreme Deity are mere standing of their purport. meaningless for practical and in- quiring minds. we read these " In the name of the holy and indivisiand further down. vague speculations. Some of the Greek philosophers reflected in their . in the working of one of the degrees. Through their adherents the idea of the three persons in the Godhead has found its way into Free Masonry. fallacious cavils. as they are to-day. by the followers of the Romish Church. "PFe have the inscriptions: ble Trinity. To those initiated to the lesser mysteries the doctrine was presented under the garb of the compUcated metaphysical speculations with which it has reached us.''^ happiness to dwell in the pacific unity of the sacred numbers.

assigned the perfect number 3 to the great God. the priests Memphis and Thebes. and by Orpheus. taught his disciples that God was number and harmony. We have said that Proclus asserts that the three component parts of the triple deity were three intellects or three Kings a fact corroborated by — who also had been admitted to the mysteries. and according to Sei-vius. Plato. that He'rodotus says were identical with the Egyptian mysteries. He caused them to honor numbers and geometrical diagrams with the names of the gods.60 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG teachings. by an equilateral triangle. is figured as an equilateral triangle. the great Aum that dwells in the infinite. From them we may gather a glimmer of dim Kght pointing toward the origin of the symbolization of the numof Heliopolis. as well as in their writings. which has served as model for many of their temples. who had received his knowledge of the numbers and their meaning from the Egyptians. the most perfect and beautiful of all triangles. who celebrated these three Kings. The Chaldees symbolized the Eusoph or great hght. and in the Sri-Santara or cosmogonical diagram of the Hindoos. The Egyptians Ukened nature to the equilateral triangle. Pythagoras. the nameless. the doctrines they had learned from their teachers. The Egyptians held the equilateral triangle as the symbol of " Nature " . in the ceremonies instituted by him. bers.

as weU as in those of Palenque and other locahties of Central America. not because they were built by the same architects. but because ." there again we wiU find that the triangle was also symbohcal among the Mayas and their neighbors. as symbol of Deity. the representation of an equilateral triangle containing the altar." figured the If from those countries that we have been accustomed to consider as the " Old World. beautiful 61 In the hieroglyphs it was the emblem of worship. words we have shown to belong to the Maya language." and guided by the three words of dismissal used by the Brahmins. We see it in the position of the three ary at Uxmal. We see. we carry our inquiries into the "Lands of the West. in fact in aU the edifices of Mayax. in all all-seeing eye of Osiris. The visit same emblem is familiar also to those is who masonic lodges as one under which " Great Architect of the Universe. over the main and fruitful. as already said. at the closing of their religious ceremonies. at each end of the noi-thern chamber of the building above the sanctu- next meet with it in the triform the ceihngs of the apartangular arches that ments in all the temples and palaces.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. We The general plan of these edifices is the same everywhere. the ancient CathoUc churches. or at the same period. semispheres carved. and the officiating priests of Eleusis.

whatever their size. pronounced Ma. It wiU be noticed by extheir that this was also the shape amining plans. Ma i i . intellect.62 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG was in accordance with certain their constniction teachings pertaining to the mysteries. In all the buildings. ceihngs). Ma is also the radical of Ma-yax. and by extension the Universe. hence. the ground plan was in the shape of an oblong square their letter M. above all things. no doubt. soul." was symboHcal of the and was the same Triune God. and the ancient is fire. the sun. that is of is the contrac- tion of Mam. The triangular ceihng in those there in the is countries. in Egypt and in in the hieroglyphs. He the . that of the tombs of the Etruscans. of the apartments in the temples and palaces of Chaldea. no doubt. or spirit. the figure for Earth and Universe. no reason for doubting that it " Lands of the West. as they denominated the Earth. was assigned to peninsula. the Mght. suggested that of the letter M. the Euling Spirit of the Universe. of Egypt and Greece. stands Mayax. In fact. that the later Platonists have described as power. (This accounts for the constellations of the firma- ment being represented on the According to Zoroaster. the name of the Yucatecan whose shape. the ancestor. in ancient times. i \ the masonic lodges in our days. both to the Mayas and to the Egyptians. supposed to reside in the heavens.



but also that the plan of their buildings was conceived in strict adherence to the mystic numbers 3. according to Macrobius. the number of planes forming the two of the ceihngs. . spirit of the world. the world. symbol of the mystic number 5 name. the number of courses of the stones forming the walls. whilst is Ho in Maya. as power of the world. that of the degrees of the stairs by which they were reached. hence the Deity. is a pentawhose gon. 7. the head. kosmos." will be noticed that the geometrical figure formed at the ends of each of these apartments. hght of the world.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. matter. also the radical of Hool. order. shows conclusively not only why the builders rooms— Then. lastly. made and perfect triangle. beauty. sides. in Greek also conveys the idea of Universe. 63 the sun in their mysteries. 5. the two of the ends. meaning 5. of these three he says. as we see by the height of the pyramids. by It the Hues of the ceiHngs. or their multiples. that Plutarch gives as intelligence. ^the — adopted the triangular arch instead of the circular. " universal nature who invoked may be considered to be son to conclude that the Egyptians liken this nature to tiful and there is reawere wont to what they called the most beauup. that of the terraces on which the temples stood. the two of the sides. theologians. and floor. penta. and that of the floor seven in all.

They were circular. One. and their conveys to vertical section. by the lords and nobles of the country. their centric circles ground plan formed three conrepresenting the Zodiac. stiU standing. in its general outlines. the mind that. These buildings were consecrated to the study of astronom}'-. having been shat1848. Mayapan. . moon. no doubt also to the performance of certain reUgious ceremonies connected with the worship of the sun. the architect wished to represent the figure of the mastodon. That place was destroyed. to put an end to the dynasty of the Cocomes that governed with tyrannical rule. which was venerated by the on Earth. and other celestial bodies. is to be seen in the most ancient city of Chichen. placed before the eyes of the masses yet hidden from them. Among the ornaments which beautified one of of Deity the seven turrets that adorned the south fagade of the north wing of the ancient palace of King Can. although much injured by the action of time and vegetation. tered now completely ruined. probably because people as image ^is pachyderm was the largest and most powerful creature that hved in the land.64 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG Only two edifices of different construction have been found among the ancient cities of the Mayas. in the year 1446 of the Christian era. by a thunderbolt in was in The other. according to Bishop Landa. in their inward or esoteric construc- tion.

Fig. through it passes a ribbon tied in a knot. and great island. of it who thus confirms the account given by the priests of Egypt. My knowledge ters used of the symbols and sacred charac- by the learned priests of Mayax. enables me to understand their exoteric meaning. under the waves of the ocean. the " Lands of the "West. are seen these symbols: Fig.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. 1. 1) is composed of an equilateral triangle with the apex downward. The triangle seems here to represent the whole country. that disappeared in the midst of an awful cataclysm. on that set apart to memorate the name of his eldest son Cay high pontiff. in the mural inscriptions and ornaments of their temples and palaces. America " "the "North and South of to-day.. the composing his family. The first (Fig." composed of three great continents. and were dedicated to each of the seven 65 members com(Fish)." called Atlantis by Plato. as described by the author of the Troano MS. 2. to Solon. The ribbon tied in a knot would indicate that .

that are emblematic of Mayax the seat or head of the government. were boimd to each other. tied This second emblem loops. The second emblem (Fig. the fourth angle being adorned with flat folds. and live and have our being. so his repreIt was placed . so arranged as to form the This accounts for steps 5 in number of a throne. in Mayax as in Egypt. ribbon. Its hidden meaning lateral triangle may have been that the equi- — always creating Nature in which we move. their god of the sea. to secrecy and to their oath. it was meant to represent the sun.66 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG initiates. in the middle of the square simply to that as the sun was the centre of the unisignify verse. the to whom the esoteric explanation of the symbol had been imparted. other symbols sculptured on the slabs that formed the external casing of the mausoleum raised to the memory of mysteries. since find it we among the high pontiff Cay." that the Greek mythologists figured by the trident of Poseidon. image of the Universe. is also a up so as to form three each oc- cupying one angle of an oblong square. the vivifying soul of aU things. As to the sign o. — — their being placed at the upper angle. The three round loops are symboHcal of the three great parts " composing the Lands of the West. in which all things are bound. 2) seems to have belonged more particularly to the highest degree of the sacred represented Deity ever watchful.

as symbols of the various degrees into which they divided them. It is diflicult to prog- . power likewise the first being syllable of the word article. All we can assert positively is that number 7 was the particular appendage of the third It was considered as endegree of the mysteries. the vehicle of life. What motives may have induced the foiuiders of the mysteries in Mayax to select the numbers 3. dowed with great potentiaUty. initial of Ah. containing soul and body. It is probable that certain natural causes. too Uttle of the religious tenets of the ancient priesthood of Mayax. or in that of the family of the founders of the dynasty that governed suggested their adoption. —Ah maya mascuUne denoting strength. was the Hght that illumined the secrets of the sacred mysteries by his wisdom. The fact is that the seven members of that family were collectively symbohzed by the emblem of the Ah-ac-Chapat it. or Seven Headed Serpent. 7. we can at present only sin-mise. O Is also the first letter of the Maya and Egyptian alphabets. was as Pythagoras says. sentative the 67 " Child of the Sun. 5. corresponding to our Latin letter A. to venture upon We know as yet an explanation.^^ the high priest. and whose knowledge made him the fit ruler of the country. or the com- memoration of important events which had taken place in the hfe of the nation.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. Ahau King.

and T. He entrusted to them the things of their office. from the mouths of the Mississippi Kiver and travel due south. it is necessary to it people If among whom start know something of the seems to have originated. even if to their hbraries.68 nosticate if SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG we shall ever obtain secret teachings of the Mayas. The vice to the lords . across the Gulf of Mex- we . if they saw them inclined for that profession. and in that they most concerned themselves. It was the high priest who nominated the priests for cities or villages which had none. for it is an insight into the we had access presumed that they did not confide them to the papyrus of their books. " The sons or the nearest relatives succeeded to says: to be m ' ' ' ' the high priest in his dignity. . employed themselves in the service of the temple and in teaching their divers sciences. because it was the priests who gave ad- and answered their queries. with him was the key of their sciences." In order to understand the explanation of the possible origin of the mystification of the numbers 3. 5. . Landa. They taught the sons of the other priests and the younger sons of the princes who were sent to them in their childhood. his Eelation of the things of Yucatan. examined them as to their proficiency in sciences and ceremonies. particularly how to wi'ite the books that contained priests them. and bade them give good example to the people.

and whose billows come to die. It is comprised between the 17° 30' and 21° 50' of latitude north. elevated a few feet only above the sea. not a hillock even. Catoche. its soil is of surprising fertility. Not a hill. therefore. The whole country forests. with gentle murmur. Cape one hundred and twenty miles from Its Cape San Antonio. in places only. and the 88° and 91° of longitude west from the Greenwich meridian. at the foot of the monument on which he stands. that seem like light-houses in the midst of that ocean of foliage. formed by the detritus of the stones and the decomposition of vegetable matter. bare for the most part. and its breadth 180 miles from east to west. A bird's eye view impresses the beholder with the idea that he is looking on an immense sea of verdure having for boun- dary the horizon. at 69 a distance of exactly four hundred and eighty miles. we come to the northern coast of the Yucatecan Peninsula. Yucatan divides the Gulf of Mexico from the Caribbean Sea. is north-easternmost point. Although its rocky surface. Its leng-th is. 260 miles from north to south.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. its maximum height in the interior being about 70 feet. covered with a few inches of tillable loam. the western end of the island of Cuba. . ico. is now covered with weU-nigh of it from impenetrable the top of one of the lofty pyramids. is. The whole country is a fossihferous limestone formation.

to that of Tehuantepec on the north. now well nigh depop- ulated. palm trees that loom here above the dead green level. from the isthmus of Darien on the south. the primitive land. in 1541. and by the edifices. The author of the Troano MS. —a Landa and other fanatical Catholic monks who accompanied the Spanish invaders. It gave its name to the whole empire of the Mayas. bas-reliefs. but the great emporium of . Anciently.70 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG is breaks the monotony of the landscape. that is. when. became masters of the country tells us that anciently — the peninsula was called May ax. and stupendous other interesting sculptures that equal in beauty of design and masterly execution those of Egypt and very ancient treatise on geology. The site of the government was at Uxmal. if we are to judge by the great number of large cities whose ruins exist scattered in the midst of the forests throughout the country. after a struggle of twenty years. which relieved only by clusters of and there. was thickly peopled by a highly civilized nation. the terra firma. once upon a time temples of the or gods. that comprised countries all the known to-day as Central America. they at last. whose walls are covered with inscriptions. this country. as islets. one of the four known books which escaped destruction at the hands of Bishop Babylon. palaces of the kings and priests.

and great civilization seems to have influence to the remotest parts of the to have exercised its controlling power among fact is. is sculptured. In its temples pilgrims from aU parts came to worship. there also are found vestiges of the language. their arts 71 and sciences. From Chichen this Earth. according to their conceptions. learned priests. and always with the meaning of wisdom and power attached to it. of was at Chichen-Itza. The creation of the world. of the religion. Many of these traditions have been recorded in the sacred books of various nations and have come to be regarded as the primitive history of mankind. well also mighty. as well as of America. Africa. consequently. that became a vast metropolis. the heart. to consult the H-Menes. Wherever we find it. were bearded men whose features vividly recall those of the Assyrians of old. and . There ' came the wise men from afar. Europe. Among these foreigners. by throwing themselves into the sacred from which the city took its name.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. and even offer their own persons as a sacrifice to the Althat marvellous civilization. The that we meet with the name Maya in many far distant countries of Asia. and the Afghans extended its of to-day. whose coUege still exists. To quote a few instances. of the customs. of the cosmogonical and historical traditions of the people of Mayax. and heterogeneous nations.

he holds a sceptre in his left hand. Creator. however. represented to him as a man. his In that egg is seated the body painted blue. speaking of Jupiter. he is surrounded by a serpent. . the Creator in the Orphic mysteries. his head is adorned with a plume of feathers. H. naked. that is the initiated. "the philosophers. aUuding part his immutable essence it is the upper upper of the body. and from other and more ancient works of the Brahmins. a book compiled. says the celebrated indianist. as we read of it at the beginning of the first chapter of the Manava Dharma Sastra. and floating in the midst of the waters where it had been deposited by the Supreme Intelligence. by the narrative of the myth according to the Egyptians as told by Eusebius in his work Evangelical Preparations. clothed from the waist below because the terrestrial things are those most hidden from view. says. symbol of the Universe. Said relation completed.72 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG forms an interesting tableau over the door-way. his loins surrounded by a girdle. It might serve as illustration for the relation of the creation. seated. Porphyrins. Colebrooke. in the tableau we see represented a luminous egg emitting rays. on the east fagade of the palace at Chichen-Itza. . Effectively. because in its portions (in the skies) that the Universe is seen most uncovered. T. about 1300 years before the Christian era. or ordinances of Menu.

JH> .hw.


or the Effiserts. or creative power. these. by the philosophers of India. Egyptians call Kneph the {Kneph. . a Maya word the meaning of which is serpent (dragon) they say intelligence.'''' roiuid his loins. but expressed in Uke manner and with the same symbols. . a Will any one with common these conceptions concerning the Creator. of Egypt. as a man of a blue color. in turn. and the heart is the seat of understanding man. ' ' cient Cause. sense pretend that we find not only identical. and that emblematically they figured him under the form of a serpent. are mere coinci- dences must they are not the result of hazard. that. and of Mayax. and Eusebius asThat they represented Kneph." And that regulates all the actions of " the again. in which the oldest. seems a cognate of can-hel. with a girdle crown on his head. {Thah is another Maya word. as we know them to their neighthe Egyptians did to the Greeks. civilization was the no doubt. a sceptre in his hand. the Creator).THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. and communicated to others. adorned with a plume of feathers. that this god threw from his mouth an egg in — which was produced another god called Phtha. or be it Kaneh. they have been conceived by the wise men of one ? If of these countries. it means the worker hence the Maker. 73 He holds a sceptre in his left hand because the heart is on that side. taught bors.

Very httle can be learned from the it ancient historians. they kept it a profound secret. He left his wife and sister Isis in . and only gave of such exoteric explanations as best suited their purpose. the writer of the book simply repeated the story he had learned from the Egyptian priests. concerning the murder of Osiris {in whose No doubt honor the mysteries were Set. having he under- took an expedition from Egypt. taught his subjects the arts of civilization. man murdered his The victim we are told was named Abel. making such alterations in his narration as not to divulge the secrets he had sworn to keep. in order to visit and dispense the same benefits to the different countries of the world. Osiris is represented as having become the culture gather from the book of Osiride.74 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG Again. although he asserts he is well acquainted with what pertained to the mysteries: and what Plutarch. instituted). is a version invented we hero of Egypt. by his brother through jealousy. After ascending the throne. a certain brother through jealousy. Herodotus always excuses himself from speaking on the subject. we read in Genesis that at a very early- period in man's history. de Iside et In it to satisfy the initiates of the lower degrees. If any of those initiated to the higher mysteries were still acquainted with the true histoiy of the murder. his murderer Cain.

preceptor Thoth. closed the lid and fastened it on it did not fit the outside with nails. StiU he desired to sit on the throne. but any as well as Osiris when he in turn laid himself down in it. but the victim was called Bali. This story of a brother being slain at the request of another brother. offered to give it to the person it AU tried getting into it one after anfitted best." are not informed by the author from where he obtained it. ing innovations in the government. being extremely vigilant. as if in jest. He invited his unsuspecting brother to a banquet. had no opportunity for makSet. 75 charge of the affairs of the kingdom which she administered aided by the counsels of her friend and Isis. other. together with a certain queen of Ethiopia named Aso who happened to be in Egypt at the time. The recital of this event being identical with that archived We Maya is represented and mural paintings still existing on the walls of certain edifices at Chichen-Itza. her other brother. the Ramayana. is also related in " Valmiki's ancient Sanscrit poem. Then Set. and as being his enemy. he conspired against him and persuaded seventy-two other persons to join with him in the conspiracy. He then. and caused a beautiful chest to be brought into the banqueting-room. through jealousy.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. and in the sculptures . aided by the conspirators. It was much admired by all. After the return of Osiris.

tive rulers in very ancient times. BaH not returning after a time was beUeved to have succumbed.76 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG it recorded in the second part of the Troano MS. at the south of the Indo-Chinese peninsula. and folk-lore from the mother country. traditions. They. Among these the tradition that. tries. After the death of their father. the son of one of their primimurdered his brother through jealousy. in very remote ages. brought to their new home with the language and customs. and his brother Sougriva ascended the mortal combat . of course. Maya challenged Bali to and allured him into an ambush. There were two princes named BdU and Sourecounts the murder of Bah. griva. and of the reins of the govern- ment. A terrible feud had originated between BdU and Maya on account of a woman they both coveted. being elected sole monarch and su- preme lord by the people. in order to possess himself of his wife. known to-day as Dekkan. would seem to indicate that the relation of the fratricide was brought to India with the account of by some nists traveler or missionary or maybe by the colofrom Mayax that Valmiki tells us took possession of and settled. in the coun- Maya . the civiHzation. with whom he had fallen in love. Bah the eldest was caUed to the throne. In the inflated style of the Hindoo poets Valmiki The story is as follows. sons of a king of the Monkey nation.

Aac . he challenged his brother to mortal combat. Bali returned 77 however. throne. sons whose names were Cay (Fish). Having received his promise to kill Bah. sent and killed slayer an arrow through the breast of Bah him. strong in the protection of such an ally. During the encounter that ensued. were: glory dost thou expect to reap from the death thou hast given me whilst I was not even looking toward who was thee ly ? Hidden thou hast wounded me in a coward- manner while my that duel. although he knew that alone he was not a match for him. seeing Rama who was that Sougriva was being badly beaten." And so attention was engrossed in Bali was treacherously slain. of his death to be circulated in order to usurp the reins of the Then he banished him from court. had three (Turtle). Sougriva met Rama. of these ancient cities.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. or We maybe the restorer. learn from the sculptures and mural paintings that adorn the walls of the palaces at Chichen-Itza and Uxmal that king Can (Serpent) the founder. sent him adrift without means. besought his help to avenge his wrongs. and finding his brother installed in his place accused him of treason in the council of the nobles and before the He charged him with causing the news government. present. depriving him of his home. people. The last word of that prince to his " What standing by him. his wife and his social position.

the eldest of the sisters. the country was parcelled among his children. the Greeks. he had conquered many nations and added to the glory and extent of the Maya greatly empire. and many other naPrince Coh was a brave and successful wartions. built on the summit of a high and very extensive pyramid whose ruins are became the goddess of fire. and it became in after times general. pians. on her part. loved him dearly and was proud of his exploits. Moo (Macaw). their father. whom he had often led to victory. Moo became the queen of Chichen. After the death of King Can. at the head of his followers. he was the one marry Moo. stiU to be seen in the city of Izamal.78 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG and Coh (Leopard). She. . the Pei-uvians. many and was worshiped in a magnificent temple. those of rior. It was the law among the Mayas that the youngest of the brothers should marry the eldest of the sisters to insure the legitimate and divine descent of the royal family. and Nide (Flower). Being the youngest of the brothers. It also prevailed with the Ethio- Mesopotamia in the time of the patriarchs. such alliance being considered fortimate. and to who had of the lords swore allegiance to her. This same custom of princes of royal blood marrying their sisters existed among the Egyptians from the earhest days. After her death she received the honors of apotheosis. and two daughters.



to obtain forcible possession of the sister he so much coveted. and sister him because more of that of the of his and wife. He allowed his evil passions to gain the mastery over his better feelings. In the carvings on the wooden lintels over the entrance of Coh's funereal chamber." at that place. his totem yet exist at the less . government. He was not a warrior but a courtier. with the object of killing his seize the reins of the own brother. ornamented with turtles. The law of the land and her own predilection for Coh were insurmountable barriers that prevented Aac from marrying Moo." His head- and legless statue is stiU to be seen over the main entrance on the fagade of the palace known as the "House of the Governor. 79 Aac. The flayed bodies of his two brothers and his eldest sister are at his feet their heads hang from the belt round his waist and the ruins of his private residence. To his lot had fallen the ancient metropoHs Uxmal. and become the supreme lord of the whole enipire. Still he was envious of the fame won by his yomiger brother .THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. He incited a conspiration agamst the friends of his childhood. was also in love with her. jealous of still love of the people. He spent his hfe in idleness amidst pleasures and frivoUties. "the three times rebuilt. the second son of king Can. : — — northwest corner of the second of the three races ter- on which the palace is built. in the paintings .

A similar custom prevailed among the Egyptians of high rank whose bodies were embalmed according to the most expenThe internal parts of the body having sive process. and the author of the Troano MS. partially cremated. and in which that part of the life of the personages concerned in these events is portrayed. and the of the spear with which he was slain. surrounded by his wife. in the second part of his work. The conspirators. then deposited in four vases that were placed in the tomb with the coffin.80 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG its walls. From the sculptures that adorned his mausoleum we learn that he was murdered treacherously by being stabbed with a spear three times in the back. . in giving an account of that murder and its consequences. embalmed in spices and various substances. Aac is represented full of wrath. his sister Nicte. the heart and other viscera having been extracted to be preserved in urns. engaged in a terrible altercation with Coh. being prepared for crema- tion. striving to seize the reins of the government. I foimd in an urn his heart.] In one of the tableaux of the mural paintings the body flint head of Coh. partisans of Aac.. has recorded this fact and illustrated it in the first section of plate xiv. holding that adorn three spears in his hand. been removed. were cleansed. his is children and his mother. At the death of Coh the whole country became involved in a civil war. [When I disinterred his statue.



and that she scorns the love of Aac who is seen on a lower plane. is the emblem symbol therefor of wisdom. looking as lovingly as a serpent can be made to look. Over his head is a serpent. Egypt the cynocephalus. Her extended hand shows that she declines to listen to the messenger who stands before her in an entreating posture. Can. At her feet. with begging her to accept his love a present of now that she was free.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. in order to obtain the preponderance. He renewed his suit for the hand of his sister. typical of his name. the woman. This monkey here. He sent messengers to her. the . Aac. The scene is vividly pictured situ- in the mural paintings. is a basket full of oranges. The tree is guarded by a monkey in a threatening attitude. 81 the friends of Prince Coh fighting to avenge his death and in defense of their queen. since in it we have a natural explanation of the myth pent. but outside of the house to indicate that she does not accept left it. as in of the preceptor of Moo. Queen Moo is represented seated in her house ated in the middle of a garden. of the temptation of the woman by the ser- Here we have the garden. The goddess of war favored at times one party. This tableau is most interesting and significant. at a Macaw perched on the top of a tree and above the figure of the queen whose totem it is. fruits. making an obeisance. then the other. had recourse to diplomacy.

its remains may be seen to-day in explanation of the tableau of the scene in the garden.. having been jilted by his lady-love. his elder brother. story of this familyincident passing from mouth to mouth. At last Moo and her lowers succumbed.out of spite at as the much Mayas did. who had sided with the queen of Chichen. She feU into the hands of Aac who. has be- come hold as disfigured probably by peoples that did not woman in as high esteem. she having jfled. put to death Cay the high pontiff. from generation to generation. where. also. hater of the fair sex. part second) as the artist who painted the scene just described asserts that she refused to listen — to Aa&s war entreaties. with right and justice.82 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG " The temptor. their heads being suspended from his belt —to be placed over the main entrance of the royal palace at Uxmal. from country to country. —(Plate xvii. in consequence of which the fol- civil continued. and the fruit. as I have said. if he himself did not make the alteration. after ill-treating her. The fact is that the author of the Troano MS. an old misanthropical bachelor. or did not honor her Perhaps. Aac caused his the flayed bodies of his kin. that the present of a basket I may add here . wrote a distorted account of the tradition. statue—the feet resting on In token of his victory. and his version was accepted by the author of Genesis.

THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. or sweetmeat. many of the customs of their fore- when a young man wishes to propose mar- riage to a girl to send by a friend as a present. nothing . The lover plants a flower in it. he weU under- stands he is not wanted. The acceptance of the presis ent the sign that the proposal of the suitor is ad- and from that moment they are betrothed. a young lady expects a proposal of marriage a convenient flower-pot is placed in a handy position on the window-sill. that yet retain fathers. 'Afghanistan and other countries in Central Asia. When mitted. If on the contrary. whilst the refusal of the present means that he is rejected. and of the governor of provinces in Persia. If next morning the flower is watered he can present himself to his lady-love knowing that he is welcome. The meaning of the writer of Genesis when he says that the serpent spoke to the woman and seduced her with a The account Kamayana. or flower. A similar custom exists in Japan. Can was therefore the family name of Aac. the flower has been uprooted and thrown on the side-walk. a fruit. or fruit is now easily understood. of the kings of The family name (serpent) as Mayax was Can of the Kings of Khan is still the title Tartary and Burmah. It is usual with the aborigines of Yucatan. 83 of oranges was the offer of marriage made by Aac to Moo. in the is in the papyri of Egypt. of the fratricide in Genesis.

Jr. who made the chemical analysis of part of the cremated remains found in the stone urn that was near the chest of the statue that occupied the centre of the mausoleum raised to the feet memory of the famous warrior Coh. on stone or wood. nay. except in Mayax. Esq. Thompson. There. or represented in the mural paintings that adorn the walls of the funereal of the victim. their mortal remains. Mass. 1880. has been handed down to us among the primitive traditions of mankind. Nowhere. Worcester. consigned in more or and poems. the weapons they chamber built to the memory used. or their marble statues in the round. more. we not only see their portraits carved in bas-rehefs.84 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG less. Sept. "Stephen Salisbury. than the story of the feuds of king Can's children. Nowhere. treasured by the priests of Egypt and India. 25. " Under microscope it presents a certain compact*'ness and horny aspect characteristic of animal . except in Mayax. twenty below the upper plane of the monument.. Principal and Professor of Chemistry at the Worcester Free Institute. with a slight variance.. This story.. The following is the certificate of Charles 0. do we find it as formtheir sacred books ing part of the history of the nation. do we find the portraits of the actors in the tragedy. but we discover the ornaments they wore. submits an un" known solid for qualitative examination.


^^^^^^K-^. .

that be regarded as unimpeachable proof that they all refer to the same event ? May not has any knowledge of philology will ever deny that A-bel A-bal Bal-^ Balam are identical words. more by combustion. when dried at 100° and 9 per After calcination. These results are consistent with the theory that "the mass was once part of a human body which "has been burned with some fuel. fenic oxide. cle. even to-day. the." "Charles O. Thompson. or are words having the same signification. but sometimes with it. ** 85 vessel. the Yumil Kaax the "Lord of the fields" the Leopard" — which they also call Coh. contraction of Ah. "cent. is for the superstitious aborigines. the spotted skin of the leopard. "a dross and residue remains which contains 3 per "cent. "Warm water exposed to action of residue shows "traces of potash and soda. The totem of the victim of Aac is the leopard: and it is so represented in the bas-reliefs and sculptures." ' ' is There is a fact certainly worthy of notice. In Egjrpt. a Httle alumina and much siUca. No one who — — — A.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. was al- . is the Maya mascuhne Balam '''^ arti- Bal is the radical of Balaw. and this that the names of the personages mentioned in the various accounts of the fratricide are precisely identical. usually without the head. matter which has been charred hi a close "it loses 9 per cent.

had been known skin.^g^ Osms was always i ng leopard with an open We must not lose sight of ard's skin eye over it. and rites of is used in the agnishtoma the initiation mysteries. A leopard skin is worn by the African warriors. Besides. It is mentioned in the earhest speculations by the Brahmins on the meaning of their sacrificial prayers the Aytareya Brah- weU mana. It was used in the Eleusinian as as in the Egyptian mysteries instituted in honor of Osiris. who are so fortunate as to possess one.86 SACRED MYSTERIES AMUi\Lr ways suspended near the images and statues of Osiris. the fact that the leop- worn by Nimrod and Bacchus was a sacred appendage to the Mysteries. It would seem as if the manner in which Coh met his death. when of ' ' represented as West" — the the Amenti — of King the symbol of a crouch. by being stabbed with a spear. as a charm to render them invulnerable to spears according to the French traveler Paul du Chaillu. When the neophyte to be born again he is covered with a "leopard is the Soma which he emerges as from his mother's womb. The skin of a leopard was worn as a mantle over the ceremonial dress of his priests." out of .



He. in the National Musemn in the City of Mexico. since populations of black people existed on the isthmus of Panama and other wearing his totem localities at of the Spaniards. . is a reality a warrior — whose mausoleum I have opened. That the inhabitants of Africa had communications with those of the Western Continent there can be no doubt. whose weapons and jade ornaments are in my possession. whose heart I have found. besides their pictures can be seen in themm-al paintings at Chichen. 87 and that they imagined that would save them from being wounded with the same kind of weapon used in killing him. Coh. Ozil is a Maya verb that means to to the to be a desire vehemently. professed for him. Bali in India. Abel in Chaldea. I have unearthed. by force of arms. whose statue. or be it Ozil. to their ancestors. who was very Osiris in Egypt. one of the most precious relics in that institution. therefore. are myths. in Mayax. by the Mexican authorities. first arrival the time of the name Osir. As much desired —dearly beloved. it would seem nickname given to Coh on account of the great love his sisters. and a piece of which was analyzed by Professor Thompson. having been robbed from me.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. with his name inscribed on the tablets occupying the This is now place of the ears. and the people in general.

It must not be titles forgotten that one of the of Isis was the royal wife and sister. sister as the vulture and wife of Coh and queen of Chichen. is of the Macaw. was a vulture. That bird was her totem and the peculiar type of maternity. a word certainly as suggestive of the name ing the Moo. Her headgear. as a goddess. Isis was often called the great mother-goddess Mau. .88 Isis SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG was the wife and a sister of Osiris. The word Isis may simply be dialectical mode of pronounc- Maya word ioin (idzin) the younger sister.

THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. ter My object is not here to enhistorical into long explanations on these I refer the reader disclosures. Sougriva. Authors." Maya word for a cognate word of the Maya Ze. as Aac is by kicking her to represented doing by the author of the Troano MS. revealed to me by the sculptures and the mural paintings of the temples and palaces of the Mayas. they the idea of something belonging to or convey having affinity with water. Can a name be more appropriate to designate one who has killed his brother with three Set is thrusts of his spear.. whose history is an exact counterpart of that of the children of Seh and Nut. who wishes to know more of of the subject to my " The Monuments work. by apocope. and adapted to certain phenomena of nature. do notbeheve that Osiris and his sister Isis were deified persons who had hved in the ancient history of whose history was founded on metaphysical speculations. to ill-treat with blows. all Mayax and their As to the names Historical Teachings. 89 who of course know nothing of the facts Mayax. were deified after their death and worshiped as on earth. Set. but fabulous beings. and contained in the pages of the Troano MS.? . Aac. and his sister death. gives Cay." Cain. gods of the elements. Cain. But the primitive rulers of the Mayas. the "fish.

"was a ' * statue of Set. from nup adversary and He also was the Sun God.90 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG Set. always shields Coh and his folds. the adversary. garded as the Evil principle that is. after being treated with the other members of the family of Seb." Both the hippopotamus and the crocodile are amphibious animals. The hippopotamus and the crocodile were emblems of Set. Serpent were inimical. while the serpent. emblem of the country. is the amphibious animal. the followers of In the bas-rehefs of the queen's chamber Aac are seen to render homage to the Sun. to say the Aac. same honor as the came to be reand was called Nuhti. in the sculptures of Mayax. having consequently ity with water. Here again a most singular resemblance. in Mayax a dire reahty. according to the Maya language. also an . name for the turtle. sister." at Chichen. is always pictured surrounded by the sun as his protecting genius. the Sun and the pent. in Maya. In Egypt this enmity was a myth. of the serpent.wife within its The escutcheon title of the city of Uxmal shows of that the of that metropolis was the " Land the Sun. much affin- Aac. which Plutarch says "that at Hermopolis there was a hippopotamus with a hawk upon its back fighting with a serpent. the friends of Moo to the serSo in Mayax as in Egypt. the enemy we have least. ti for.

ha. had kept in the archives of the temples a aU events worthy of being remembered. tranquil. and ha. lib. in one day and night. — The universal deluge is another tradition of the early days that was credited by certain civihzed nations of antiquity. derided the Greek philosophers when they spoke of the deluge of DeucaHon and the defaithful account of struction of the human race. in consequence of violent earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. . of the brother of Bali. 91 The name Sougriva. The Egyptian priests who. zuc. that from that time all the inhabitants of the communications between their people and "Lands of the West " had become interrupted. is a word composed of three Maya primitives. lib. quiet. Their answer was that as they had been preserved from it the inundation could not have been universal.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. the occurrence having taken place 9. They tis told record in their books Solon that the greatest cataclysm on was that during which Atlan- disappeared under the waves of the ocean. water "He who tranquilly rises on the water" as the turtle does. as there had been several other local catastrophes resembling it. zuc. from times immemorial. they even added that the Hellenes were childish in attaching so much importance to that event.000 years before his visit to Egypt. to ascend.

. An a description identical with that given by the EgypNearly all the nations living on the western continent have kept the tradition of it. on geology. is. dedicates several pages at the beginning of the second part to the recital of that fearful cataclysm. but they do not pretend that all mankind was destroyed. This leaves no longer room for doubting that a large continent existed in the middle which was destroyed within the memory of man. The author of the Troano MS. lost The Maya author represents the land by the figure of a black man with red Hps. in the main. the dark. anterior to the advent of the Spaniards. the presence of black- skinned populations on the Western continent. would be easily accounted for. or terrible writing. The building is known to this day by the name of Akab-oib. and that the narrative by of the Atlantic ocean. In it Mayax to be carved in intagho lintel the learned priests caused a relation of on the stone that forms the over the interior doorway in the rooms on the south side of their college. I have al- ready said. In this case.92 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG account of that fearful event was also preserved by the learned men of Mayax who give of it tians. and Plato of the submersion of Atlantis correct. The Mayas Uke the Egyp- . a work. and the phenomena which then took place. which would imply that it was mostly inhabited by a race of black men.



gives the of Iglesia. is a tableau representing the worship of that great pachyderm. South the left side. with its which Stephens. When the author of the Troano ** MS. whose head. not Indian fashion.. composed of a face intended for that of the mastodon. only we reckon the East as the right hand. North the right side.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. which has been destroyed by mahgnant hands. to his work on Yucatan. in a worshiping . blue. that is king Can he him sometimes with a human deified. It wore a is This tableau royal crown. Over the trunk and between the eyes formerly existed a human head. squatting. this conception has reached our days. the house of God. West the left. painted Master of the land ' ' On the called fagade of the building at Chichen Itza by the natives Kuna. a male and a female. are square niches On each side of the head containing each two now head- less statues. they are seated. but with the legs crossed and doubled under them. On the front of it is a small portrait cut in the round of some very ancient personage. speaks of the par excellence. This is still in place. body. North the face. forms the principal ornament of the temples and palaces built by the members of king Can's family. Plu- tarch says they called East the face. in name trunk. pictures and the head of a mastodon. tians represented the world as 93 an old man.

by the Cans. *— the lower cornice is made of two characters l^ the erected of the serpent. Emblematic composed of two letters juxThe corona of taposed. of many These symbols leave no doubt as to the fact that the personages represented by the statues are in the act of worshiping the mastodon. Amrita. since with the bark of the Balche tree. according to the Hindoos. are two triangles j^%< emblems of offerings and worship in Mayax as in Eygpt. and is the origin sanguinary quarrels among the tribes of equatorial Africa even in our days. totem of the nation or by which the mastodon Under these figures. honey formed the principal ingredient of Balche. SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG Each sacred. carries a symbol on their back. the manes and the saints. monogram of Can ^^. on the day of the full moon. that above the is formed of a peculiar wavy adornment often met with in the ornamentation of mastodon's head. an oblation most tribe was held grateful to the gods. The corona of the upper cornice.94 attitude. that beverage so pleasing to their palate: the same that under the name of nectar. So also was the other symbol image of a honey-comb. although it was the cause of the war between the gods and the Titans. it is monuments N | j . stiU enjoyed. Hebe It is the served to the inhabitants of Olympus. by the gods.

is seen an elephant couchant. a bird. as it were. or deified heroes. This goddess caUs to mind the goddess Moo of the Mayas. deified and figured by the same symbols as in Mayax. In Japan the seven members of the Can family. carrying her totem. that read in 95 Maya Ah oam. after whom appeared the Japanese themselves. who. The Japanese claim to be offspring of the gods. So in Chichen we see Moo. although they assert that these primitive gods were spiritual lable number substances. In the upper part of the shrine. we are informed the followers of queen by the author of the Troano MS. that the Egyptians told Hero- . In the midst of the flames that surround him is the head of a bird. of years in the coimtry. are said to have reigned an almost incalcusupport of their assertion. of the twelve gods. the god of fire standing on his back. He of the throne —the monarch. over and above aU the other attendants who have wings and beaked noses.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. became the goddess of fire. and produce two different genealogical tables in These gods amounting to seven. in their head-gears. or Isis of the Egyptians. incorporeal. They were succeeded by five terrestrial spirits. dedicated to the goddess symbolized by a bird. are worshiped to-day in the shrine of the palace at Tokio. Here again we have a reminiscence.

who had Mayax in times anterior to the great cataclysm when the Land of Mti was submerged reigned in . brought to light by me in December. by the Greeks into the twelve deities. From this short digression let us return to the worship of the mastodon which we find very prevalent in India in that of the elephant Ganesha.96 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG had governed their country. The twelve serpent heads. showing that they existed in very early times. of wisdom. adorn the east fagade of the palace with the tableau of creation. dead. also called che-cull-tse the twelve children of the emperor of Heaven. and to have reigned in times anterior to Ti-hoang. whose with the sign cimi. These gods were converted dotus. dwellers of the Olympus. No one would dream is He of writing a letter or a book without previously . again find a dim tradition in China in the Tchi. before the reign of Menes their first terrestrial king. at the outset of any business. of letters. Of portraits. are emblematic of the twelve rulers. Each of these Tchi are said to have lived eighteen thousand years. the god of prudence. from the center of the mausoleum of the high-pontiff Cay. at ChichenItza. an incalculable number of years. Tien-Hoang. repre- sented as a red colored man with the head of an invoked by the Hindoos of aU sects elephant. 1 883. who these rulers we — had the body of a serpent. sovereign of the country in the middle of the land.

of printing an impression of the himian hand. that for instance astride many of carrying the children on the hip. being the head. weU as in some conspicuous door of the pal- We have already seen that in the most ancient Mayax the mastodon's head edifices of with its trunk the principal and most common ornament. the offering of some pious devotee. If I wished to go further I might say that in Ganesha we have a dialectical pronoimciation of Can-ex. 97 His image is seen at the cross- ing of the roads. in Maya. as ace. pol. the head of Ganesha. saluting Ganesha. with toms. and his titles are so numerous ' ' the serpents.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. ' ' that hke Osiris it might be named Myrionymus " with ten thousand names. it may be safely assumed that its unknown. at one of the entrances of every Hindoo city. that is called Ganeshafice. May not its worship have other cus-- been introduced in India. Architects place it in the foundation of every edipainted at the door of every house as a protection against evil. No deity in the Hindoo pantheon is so often addressed. Are these mere coincidences ? The name Ganeshais pol would be according to the Maya language. dipped in red hquid. on the walls of the temples and other sacred buildings by devo- . It is sculptured or pol. oftentimes decorated with a garland of flowers." So many is phant origin are the legends accounting for the elehead.

and that this was the origin of their veneration being told that Apis ought to be regarded as a fair and beautiful image of their souL From the remotest antiquity the serpent was held by every people in the greatest veneration as who weU knew. and the symbol of nobihty of race among The elephant was not among shiped by them. replaced the worship of the mastodon. It is probable that the " Lands of the West " colonists from the who settled in the valley of the Nile. as those were initiated into the mysteries of Osiris for . by that of the bull. the animals wor- as do still though many those of India and Yucatan. But the imprint of the red hand. They do not seem to have been much acquainted with it.98 tees etc. which did not exist in the country. the largest and most useful of their domestic animals. so commonly seen on the walls of the temples of Mayax and India. SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG by colonists toms prevailed. neither did the Egyptian women carry their children astride on their hip. the bull Apis. has never been observed in the temples of Egypt. alother customs were common to the people of these countries. from Mayax where these cusand the worship of the mastodon if was widely spread not general? This surmise assumes the semblance of probability when sider that the body of Ganesha is painted color characteristic of the we con- red. . the Egyptians. the American race.

with bringing forth such facts as will conclusively show. Mr. the ancestor of aU beings." a work so fuU of erudition and interesting researches." was chosen Mr. Stanyland Wake. protected within the coils of the serpent. and that the Maya learned priests represented the engendered. 99 We have al- ready said that Eusebius asserts that the Egyptians figured emblematically Kneph. All authors who have written on the subject. James Fergusson in his work on " Serpent and Tree Worship. as a serpent. in the sculptures. and that it was the favorite symbol of peculiar deities. at least to unpreju- .THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. althat though they agree they are so intimately connected as to make it impossible not to believe it that their origin must have been the same. I wiU therefore content myself. whilst he conclu- The late shows that these worships were common to aU civihzed and half civiHzed natioiis of antiquity. The hmited scope of this book does not allow me to give the matter aU the space it deserves. sively fails to indicate the country where they originated. the embodiment of divine wisdom. the Creator. but why that animal rather than is for that purpose any other yet uncertain. in his book on the origin of the serpent worship writes: "the student of mythology knows that certain ideas were associated by the people of antiquity with the serpent. admit is still an impenetrable mystery.

100 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG diced minds. or may ignorance of them. still so firmly rooted in the heart of the aborigines. that it is difficult to induce them to leave the spot where they are born. Still. that the serpent and tree worship in- deed originated on this "Western continent. the slayer was looked upon with horror." from the amor-patrice. and having to satisfy their curiosity. the destroyer. emblem of Kneph. who consider it one of their most beautiful symbols." and from the same cause. the good genius. to conceal either the real facts. Everywhere on the Eastern continents serpent worship ological is connected with myth- narratives. when it became emblematical of Set or Typho. the Creator. anxious to maintain the preponderance and power that be. far above the intellectual and scientific attainments of the mass of people among whom it prevailed. was the agathodcemon. ''the love of the country. It is stiU so regarded by the Chinese. or astronomical conceptions. the enemy of mankind. they imagined such explanations as best suited the notions current in their times and the ideas of the people. even to better their condition. Later. fictions invented These were mere by the priests and learned men. metaphysical speculations. In early days the serpent. It has ever since continued to be so held by of Osiris. their own knowledge gave them over the multitudes. as the evil principle. it .

to the ancient city of Tiahuanuco. Uke myself. the Mahometans. we find. There is yet to be seen a very remarkable doorway formed out of a single monolevel of the Pacific lith 13 feet 5 inches long. entirely similar to that discovered by Mr. the Bible. and 18 inches thick. the Christians. near the frontier of Bohvia. This monoHth has attracted the attention of d'Orbigny and the other travelers who. in the State of Ohio. Mayas. whose ruins are 13. in fact by all peoples whose rehgious tenets are founded on and serpent were worshiped throughout the Eastern continents from the shores of the Atlantic ocean to those of the Pacific. no doubt. Phene in Glen Feechan. 7 feet high above the ground.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. as in the tern- . Adams county. the effigy of a great was not We find vestiges of serpent 700 feet long. since its in the sculptures mentioned. on the high plateau of the Andes. 101 the Jews. from Scandinavia to Egypt and the Asiatic peninsulae. in Scotland. Argyleshire. John S." their worship less it everywhere on the Western from banks of Brush creek. If the tree spread amongst the nations that inhabited the "Lands of the West. were the unknown builders of that great city. on the crest of a mound. in the continent. have been struck with astonishment by the beauty of the sculptures that adorn south-eastern facade. where still exists.500 feet above the on the shores of lake Titicaca.

102 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG Moo. which as the sent colonists to the remotest parts of the earth. as of old they were in those of Egypt. we We have seen that the members now meet unimpeachable records of them. of his wife and sister (serpent). here a short digression in order to describe these sculptures. and had been constructed by giants hetions of mankind. at the foot of the great glaciers of Sorata and nUmani. fore the sun shone in heaven. afford us another proof that the builders of that city of Tiahuanuco belonged to a then highly civiUzed nation. the totem of prince Coh. carved of lake on very ancient monuments. as the natives said to the Spaniards when questioned as to its antiquity. and of their father king Can pies of Japan. EngUsh do to-day. that with the knowledge we I will make possess to-day of the history of the founders of the principal ruined cities of Mayax. are still worshiped in the temples of Japan. that these are mere coincidences ? The front of this monolithic gate was once upon . on the shores Titicaca. and to whose historical annals may be traced many of the primitive tradi- This city was already in i-uins when Manco Capac laid the foundation of the Inca's empire. of the family of king Can. as we have found them in mythoWill it be said logical lore of India and Greece.



totem of Moo. the form of which is not only conventional. trachite. signifies the mighty. these grecques are the symbol of power and strength. These small heads are separated by grecques having macaw's heads at their saHent sides. the powerful Moo.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. Its head. the uppermost of which sculptured so as to represent a human face. In the alphabets the grecque Ah is the Maya is equivalent to our latin letter H. and it conveys to the mind the ancient idea of might and power. but hkewise emblematical. adorned in a somewhat similar manner Seven of these. These three escutcheons as the three feathers of the is plume that adorns it. 103 a time as highly poHshed as the material. Hke it. The lower band contains seventeen small heads. The other bands are divided into squares of the same size. . in low relief. a badge that seems to be a plume composed of three feathers. where there is a figure 32 by 21 inches. those to that of the central figure. as its square eyes and mouth indicate. masculine article. will permit. this. the three dots on each cheek. taken in connection with the macaiv''s head. except in the center over the doorway. The whole space above the doorway is divided into four bands about eight inches high. directly under that figure wear. the triple throne on which the figure seems to stand. the queen of Maya and Egyptian Chichen. consists of three superposed layers in the shape of escutcheons.

of the indicates. to represent these countries. Each ray is terminated by a circle with a dot in the center O. the three macaw's heads at the extremities of the triple hands. pronounced Ma. I a word that signifies land. four on the top. four on each side. and in Mayax Egypt one of the signs for land. the sign that stands in heu of the mouth. country. are symboHcal of the three great western regions that the Egyptians ^^ Lands of the designated by the generic name of sceptre it holds in its Wesf^ and which is represented by the character iJljiiflM an image of the crown worn by some of the high chiefs in Mayax. in the radical of May- name of the is Maya empire. and four on the under part. and by extension I universe. The head is surrounded by rays divided into groups is of four. But Ma in Egypt as in Mayax. ax. It is the first letter of the ancient Maya and Egyptian alpha- . It is the letter M. particularly on the trunk of the mastodon's heads. a sign very often met with on the monuments of Mayax.104 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG the three oblong squares on the breast-plate. It is Maya and as Egyptian ancient alphabets. That the central figure was meant I.

f ' ' virvT'*^ .


and adoration. ruler of the empire. the initial of the Maya word Ahau. not only by their posture. Number /oitr according to Pythagoras. are in the act of worshiping as shown. personages that surround it. This would indicate that the central figure was likewise symboHcal of the king par excellence. rulers of Mayax. hkewise power. the ribbons that support it. and that he was a member of the Can family. the four oblong squares carved on the and the number of rays forming each group round the head. carved on the neck of the macaw-headed figures. king. those at the extremities of the breast-plate.THE MAYAS AND THE QXHCHES. 105 and correspond to our letter A. as the deity intellectual gifts to who imparted man. In Maya four is can. which again in Mayax as in Egypt is the symbol of offering. bets. but also by the sign ^. and those in the middle side of the escutcheon. was particularly connected with Mercury. The name of this great king we whom the kneehng read in the four heads of leopards. This fact the name is indicated by the serpent heads at the lower angles of the escutcheon. the followers of the queen Moo (macaw). but can also means serpent. and in the four rays of each group. terminating the rays at the upper angles. Thoth of the Egyptians. we find that Can Coh was on each of the potentate. Translating these symbols by means of the Maya language. The Tetrahtus or number . worship.

seem intended as an emblem cated. having been. worshiped in many countries under different names. number within totem. refer more and to the role they in detail to these personages." and four containing every The four leopard heads are his Further on. The lower was meant to represent that extensive island that sunk beneath the waves of the Atlantic ocean. I will it. wis- dom. sister and wife of Coh. Kancoh. di- vided into two great parts united by the Isthmus of Panama. and being still. The peculiar shape of the sceptre held in the left hand of the figiu-e. two. 3. and in later times it meant intellect. about 11. and its undulations. " " Do not see that what are four to Pythagoras: you are ten and you oiu* oath ? those (1.) added together. like those of a serpent in motion.106 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG four represented the mystic name of the Creative Power. forming ten. 4. all that is active. sceptre is symboUcal of the The upper portion of said Western continent. have played in the civilization of the world. totem of the queen Moo of Chichen-Itza.500 years ago. The sceptre held in the right hand of the central . Pythagoras asks: "How do you count ? " Mercury: " one. three. the upper part of which is bifurend terminating with the head of a macaw. 2. four. each of the three great regions that composed the empire that is Mkewise portrayed in the three rows of kneel- ing winged personages. Coh being leopard.

and the seventeen signs of land that adorned the arms. paid as their suzerain. that presented by the kneeling beaked nosed personages in attendance at the shrine of the bird deity at Kioto.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. The whole is tableau recalls vividly. in token that they recognize her as their All these figures are ornamented with suzerain. that here. whilst the sash they carry across their body from the shoulder to the waist on the opposite side. 107 entire would show that the country was governed by a potentate to whom the rulers of the seventeen nations. that we have said stood for the word Ahau. figure being whole. the well known French archaeolo- . homage and acknowledged These seventeen divisions of the empire are indicated by the seventeen small heads sculptured on the lower band. and the ribbon from which it is suspended. Mr. twelve serpents. that king. carry her totem as a badge or sign of recognition. Angrand. whilst the others have human heads. those of the middle row are portrayed with the heads of macaws to signify that they are the particular adherents of queen Moo. terminates in a peculiar knot adorned with the four circles. arranged in groups of three. Of the small kneeling winged figures. as in Mayax. indicating that their lord paramount is a member of the Can (serpent) dynasty. but wear on their crowns her totem. into which the empire was divided. the breastplate.

In Mayax. him. as a symbol. Its head forms the base. true meaning of the serpent as sire to inquire as to the motives that led to ship. the image of the serpent. especially at Chichen-Itza. of which place it seems to have been the particular protecting genius. as defending the ascent. founded many centuries before those mentioned by calco. If we. if we dewish to its wor- necessary to question the learned priests . We see it on almost every edifice iu every city. havIn ing a corresponding symbohcal significance. SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG and with reason. is most commonly met with. indeed. them he sees the proof of the identity of origin. and be nearer to the those of the cities of Mayax. its body the shaft. There it is found everywhere. Chichen may indeed be called the " City of Serpents " par excellence. finds. grand stairThe columns that support their porticos are representations of it. that were truth. It guards the entrance of aU pubHc edifices. It is if at the foot of their ways. The nobles and other personages of high rank wore adornments made in the shape of serpents. It is one of the favorite ornaments. of the intimate relationship of the builders of Tiahuanuco and those of Palenque.108 gist. and Xochi- He might have added. Ocosingo. it is know the a symbol. it is where. therefore. a coincidence between these sculptures and those of Central America.

was the love of the country. A clue to this mystery can no doubt be found in the cosmogonical notions prevalent among the ancient civilized nations. living and vicars of the Deity on earth. that was the same used by the Mayas. they seem to have been ahke with all. read in the Manava-dharma-sastra that the We visible universe in the beginning was nothing but darkness. images In order to comprehend the first. but they fail to inform us what may have been their motives for thus had received symbolizing the First Cause. or from whom they this symbol. inculcated initiated. taught only to a few select of those initiated tor. to consult the books in which the philosophers of Mayax have consigned their knowledge and their esoteric doctrines. homage The greater mysteries. One. is the to be tributed by the creature to the Creain the other. Horapollo asserts. was of a blue recall to color as to with yellow scales. can be traced to two apparently distinct causes. or esoteric. we must spect due mind that Eusebius says that the Eygptians represented emblematically Kneph the Creator. Then the great. on the unand the re- by the subjects to their rulers. strange to say. the esoteric.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. The origin of the " Serpent Worship " they tell us. self -existing Power dis- . under the figure of serpent. the exoteric. and the world also. which. for. 109 of that city.

and the spirit of God moved upon the face of the water. attributed to Hermes Trismegistus. and darkness was upon the face of the deep. and on them the divine moved Narayana Berosus. Let there be hght and there was light. After a while a horrid shadow. we read these words of Thoth. the Supreme Intelligence. in all His splen- He first produced the waters. " I had then before my eyes a most prodigious specAU things had resolved themselves into tacle. And God said. (the sea). that is in steadiness). hght. recounting the ancient legend of the creation according to the Chaldeans. in Greek Thalassa . agitated itself with terrific noise. " pecuhar forms. dor. and assumed a humid nature.110 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG and appeared spirit. A marvellous. that modern critics consider the most ancient and authentic of the first philosophical books of Egypt. pleasing and seducing sight it was to contemplate. Her name in Chaldee is Thalath. and . It fiUed me with dehght. pelled that darkness." In Primander. therein were generated monstrous animals and strange and A woman ruleth them all. Maya Thallac (a thing without Genesis recounts that: "In the beginning the Earth was without form and void. which ended in obhque folds. in the dialogue between Thoth and Primander. Prom it escaped smoke with . says: "In the beginning all was darkness and water.

thus explained: " The things existing is God. existing in But the holy hght broke forth. All was immobihty and silence in the darkness. we read: " This is the recital of silent. HI uproar. and renovation. that verb ried upon the humid principle. and matter. and a voice was heard above the din. and a subtile spirit. The earth and the water were so mixed that the surface of the Earth covered by the water appeared nowhere. and water. spirit-Uke. only the tranquil sea was. the origin of things principle of all lect." And in what are termed the modern Hermetic books. they who . void everything was was motionless and was the immensity of the heavens." In the Popol. only the Creator. the Sei-pent covered with feathers. It seemed as the voice of the Hght. and rising. intellectual in power. in the night. boimdless darkness in the abyss.Vuh. Out of forth the fire pure and hght. occupies the intermediate space between the water and the fire. watery essence. the Dominator. and energy. the face of the Earth did not manifest itself yet. all how without Ufe. was carit came it was lost in the air that. the sacred book of the Quiches. and fate. and the intelis and and nature. the Maker. For there were conclusion. and the elements were produced from among the sand of a chaos. calm and quiet. and the verb came forth from that voice of Ught. and the space of the heavens.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES.

or rehgious beliefs. are carried from country to country. in high relief. have sprung simulta- neously among all the various nations which make . Egypt. or. is piirely accidental. electric telegraph. and been taught to the others just as our modern scientific discoveries. they who create. arrived at by the wise men of India. in the brain of a particular man. were on the waters as an ever increasing hght. and many other of the latest inventions. The notion and its explanation must have originated with one. and made known to their inhabitants. their name is Gucumatz. instead of having originated in one particular country. identity of ideas about the origin of things. more." We have already said how the Maya sages have taken care to perpetuate their cosmogonical conceptions. without communicating one with the other. by causing the narrative of the creation to be doorway of the east and that these conceptions were identical with those of the Hindoos and the Egyptians.112 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG engender. It cannot be argued that this carved. What should we think of the man who would pretend that the railway. that they have arrived separately at the same conclusions on the sub- ject. over the fagade of the palace at Chichen-Itza. and Mayax. even the most remote. and expressed in as nearly the same words as the genius of the vernacular of these various countries admits. nay. They are sun-ounded by green and blue.

cannot fail. forcing upon us the conclusion that the Mayas and the Egyptians either learned the art of writing from the same masters." I have shown point directly to Mayax as the birthplace of the Egyp- tian civihzation. and were communicated by them their to all the other nations among which we find name. Sphinx. so widely spread. discovered by me. is as near ahke to the ancient hieratic alphabet of the Egyptians as two alphabets can possibly be. originated with the Mayas. of the tableau of creation. or that the Egyptians learned it from the Mayas. How the ancient Maya hieratic alphabet. but who brought them to the "Lands of the West" and when can say they did not arise among the " and were " Western inhabitants of the continent.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. There is every reason to beheve that the cosmogonical conceptions. use of them ? 113 Would a fit not that man be regarded as ? a born idiot or subject for a lunatic asylum We can easily understand how these cosmogonical notions have passed from the Egyptians to the Chaldees or to the Hindoos or vice versa. carved An analysis on the fagade of the palace at Chichen-Itza. several the ing images when interpreted by means of the Maya language. ? Who not conveyed by them to the other nations ? In my work "Queen Moo and the Egyptian how the legends accompanyof of the Egyptian deities. .

appeared on the water as an increasing brightness that bathed the Creator. author of the Popol-Vuh. This is why on each side and on the top of the tableau they placed the symbol of water i5^^J^A/v. a portion equal to two-fifths of its length. says the Quiche. to prove interesting.114 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG In it therefore. that. and that water being a com bination of gases (oxygen and hydrogen). because they compared the waves of the ocean to the undulations of . why came to be The philosophers of Mayax must have known that the waters cover the greatest part of the globe (about three fifths). in green and azure. The rays of the light into which says of physiology Thoth. the feathered serpent. must have been the first form of matter produced. all things resolved themselves. that is a germ. that no being exists on Earth. the most subtile of fluids. It is weU to notice that the symbols of water termi- nate with the head of serpents. but that is born from an egg ? They represented the egg emitting rays. the Kneph. In the midst of the waters they represented the figm-e of an egg. at the upper part. we shall find a proof of the scientific attainments of its designers. and also the reason all worshiped the serpent over the Earth. taking care to leave without /WVV\A it. as the Egyptians would name it. an egg and not any other seed ? Is it because their study Why had made them acquainted with the fact.

the Egyptians.. represented the world. they placed a serpent within the egg. is. 115 the serpent's body while in motion. the genius of the lower country. 1. that it Fia. behind the creator to indicate that this symbol is the totem of the ancestor of all beings. and it is doubt . the In Egypt the goddess Uati. as a serpent. by extenThus it is that sion.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. the Hindoos. the Mayas. is at times represented as a serpent with inflated breast. with inflated breast. as a winged serpent. At times again. is said to be the crown of lower Egypt. the lower part resting against a figure resembhng our numeral 8. the maker of it. For this reason the Mayas named the sea Canah. we are not informed. Why the Egyptians selected such symbols to represent the lower country. And here we have one of the origins of the serpent worship: that adoration of the Creator. the great. Fig. the sea is always designated by a serpent's head. the powerful serpent: and in the Troano MS. 2. and. wearing on its head a cap or crown of peculiar shape. This explains why the Quiches. the body standing erect over a basket or sieve.

). at other times as a serpent with part of the body bent in the shape of the Yucatan peninsula.* and the artists who executed the * An interpretation of the lustration may Maya legend explanatory of the ilnot be amiss. . the empire. of the Troano MS. sometimes pictures Mayax as a serpent with an inflated breast Maya The author (Plate.116 ful if SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG the learned Egyptologists could explain the motive. inasmuch as it shows that the ser- peant was the symbol of the country.. Now tists it is a most remarkable fact. that these are the very symbols used by the and artists to figure their Maya hierogrammaown motherland.. XVn. Part II.

. with the back painted green. the belly yellow. it: abundant fluid sub- A glance at the illustration will suffice to show that the interpretation I give is correct. I simply wish to consign here such facts as cannot be attributed altogether to hazard. to represent vS^j^^^^^jJ the gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean sea. its tail ending with a peculiar dart resembling in general contour the southern continent of America. 117 paintings in the funereal chamber of Prince Coh. In my work " The Monuments of Mayax. it reads as follows: © @ ® © © Ahau A-ha-u that is literally: Eb Kan cib Lamat Lam-a-ti Heb Kanaan cib fluid He-wuter-Basin turn abundant submerge the land. is exactly the same that forms the symbol /^--v\^^^^^^~^ used in the Troano MS. wearing a blue crown on the head. a more complete explanation . of the lower country. Freely translated. typified the country as a winged serpent." of it. whose waters bathe the Beginning at the top of the column. not the place to give minute explanations of these symbols which I have considered in another This is work. The Master of the basin of water turns merges the land. So the peculiar twist emblem against which rests the body of the serpent. etc.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES..

Mayab.118 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG erect peninsula of Yucatan. The crown one of the names of the peninsula. by the natives of that country. in Egypt at the back: may be as a mark of respect on the part of the Egyptians toward their mother country. ^ certain chieftains. Egypt must stand behind its parent. it is called. are merely emblematic representations connected with the mys- We . Mayab was. As to the sieve. There the peak was worn in front. is precisely that portraits worn by see in • whose we the bas-reUefs at l/^""^ Chichen-Itza. to signify that as the child. may it not be inferred that the same cause prompted their selection ? must not lose sight of the fact that the winged serpents introduced into the paintings of Egypt. that seems as if standing between them as the serpent in the Egyptian sign. \^— of Lower Egypt . as customary for children to do among the aborigines of Yucatan. it is Since the Egyptians and the Mayas used identical signs as symbols of the country in which they hved. in past ages.

between the asp and the counbetween the asp and the office of king or the attributes of Deity ? Still it was the badge of royalty. played a conspicuous part in the religious mysteries. the counof the divinities. we may ask why ? What possible relation can exist try. try of Mayax. terious rites of the dead. forefathers in the West. and was universally honored. was one settlers In early days Uati or Mati. worn as an ornament on the head-dress of kings and gods. the geographical contours of the land of their and the way it was rep- resented in the books. Here. worshiped by the on the banks of the Nile. not that predilection be assigned to the fact when angry. after being liberated from their mortal body.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. from which they had studied in their childhood? If we look at a map of the Western continent. again. 119 and the mode of being in Amenti. in the "Lands of the West" where the souls of the departed were supposed to return and exist. that is. it dilates its breast. and when in that condition it recalled to the minds of the colonists. in a position similar to that of the em- — Maya . and the asp. it will be easy to perceive that the contours of Central America —that is the empire of old figure a serpent with an inflated breast. not any other snake. Is the selection of the asp as a ? mark of distinction to be ascribed to a mere whim May that.

The green color of back.). the blue crown on its head. the yellow belly.120 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG blem of lower Egypt (Figs. as pictured by the Maya artists. anciently the seat of the government. the smoke of the volcanoes. the internal volcanic fires its that cause the surface to wriggle hke a serpent. the wings. the blue canopy of heaven above. the fins. the verdant tropical forests that cover the land. the high peaks of the chain of mountains that traverses the country from north to south. and that the southern continent would be the dart of its tail. The intense love of their country is one of the . 115. that are as the backbone of the continent. 1 and 2. p. part of the Cordilleras. the head being the peninsula of Yucatan.

In the Serpent mantra. the supreme deity of the Assyrians. the honors of apotheosis. amount to fanaticism. It mal. After their death these rulers. images of Deity on earth. in the Aytareya Brahmana. the high-pontiff. and the mother of all that moves. as ceremonial dress. In it we find another origin of the serpent worship. as the priests of the sun received theirs from the name Kin of that luminary.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. dweUers in the vaUey of Cashmere. This feathered rattlesnake adorns is the walls of the royal mansions. emblem of Asshur. and this symbol is . Their emblem however. the queen of the serpents. a passage speaks of the Earth as the Sarpa Rajni. In Assyria the symbol of the winged sei-pent was replaced by that of the winged circle. emblem of the motherland. still worshiped by the Nagas. but a rattlesnake covered with image of the feathered mantle used by the king. most striking the 121 characteristics of the aborigines to That love may be said to present day. with a dart at the end of the feathers. In Mayax the primitive rulers derived their title Can (serpent) from the shape of the contours of their empire. was not a winged serpent. tail. and other high dignitaries. received They became gods and goddesses and were worshiped as such. on the east fagade of the west seen at Uxof king wing Can's palace and at other places.

the royal In the sculptures the king is often represented by this emblem with seven rattles at the end of the tail. nations. the tree closely identified. is serpent. James Fergusson it tells us that he is incHned to believe that was in "the mud of . None. Maya. of the people that first instituted traditions it. of their and pecuHar notions. another origin of " Serpent Worship. the heroes were deified and worshiped as divinities. It seems to be also closely related with the sacred or symbohcal tree." in that of the kings of Mayax under the sym" feathered bol of the of the Here again. From aU antiquity and by aU and serpent worship have been so same." is One names for rattlesnake. Many learned students have published the results of their researches on the subject. Ahau-Can. possible analogy may vdthout a knowledge of the place where it origialthough it seems difficult to what exist nated. The late Mr. In Egypt the kings and queens were honored as gods after their death. however. seven having been the number of the members of king Can's family.123 SACRED Hn^STERIES AMONG seldom found in the sculptures except in immediate connection with the monarch. in serpent. is as to guarantee the inference that their origin the comprehend between them. has yet assigned a birthplace to the tree or serpent worship. In Greece and other countries.

Athens. the chief god of the Phoenicians and other eastern nations. Dodona. for an explanation of it. Under it the Druids performed their most sacred rites in honor of CEseus. In Egypt the tamarisk was the holy tree chosen to over- . 133 the lower Euphi-ates. The inhabitants of the island of Delos believe the gigantic palm tree to be the favorite production of Latona. Nowhere.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. do we find the origin of that worship mentioned. Fergusson advises us to look to the Egyptians. these being the most ancient civilized people. as in the island of Ceylon: in the courtyard of every monas- tery a bo-tree (ficus Indicus) is planted. The ash was venerated by the Scandinavians." This is truly indefinite. The people of Samos. however. worshiped in sacred groves. the tree was symboHcal of eternal Ufe. averring that it undoubt- edly prevailed among them befoi-e the multifarious Theban pantheon was elaborated. In India the worship of the tree is of very ancient date. the Supreme Being. Arcadia. Mr. and with them as with the natives of the Eastern world. the query: what about the tree and serpent worship among the inhabitants of the Western continent ? For they also had their sacred trees. as those of Canaan. The oak tree was dedicated to Baal. and spread thence to every country of the Then comes old world. among a people of Turanian origin.

that is. So the trees were particularly sacred to the deities connected with Amenti. From them we learn that certain trees sacred.124 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG of Amenti. The sycamore was consecrated to Nut. frequently represented in the paintings of the tombs. Landa. shadow the supposed sepulchre of Osiris. . often identified with Isis. even as as the time of the Spanish conquest. the aborigines beUeved in the immortaUty of the soul. pouring from a vase. standing in its branches. relationship To understand the between the tree. it cle" in Assyria. this As would seem that the worship of the close relation to. a liquid which the soul of the departed. the regent of the West. if deified heroes it is tree bears a not typical of. Cogol- Mayas held ludo. mother of Isis and Osiris. and other far down early writers teU us that. It is the water of eternal hfe. to the deified kings and " queens from the Lands of the West. that of the and kings. the winged serpent or "circle" and the "monarchs" it is again necessary to consult the annals left wise the carved in stone or written in their books by the men of Mayax. catches in his hands. under the form of a bird with a human head. the king The persea was sacred to Athor." We are told that the sacred tree was an emblem found in frequent association with the " winged cirsymbol is always met with in immediate connection with the monarchs.

Thus we find a natural explanation of the tradition relation to the current among the ancient nations. that is of civilization. It is again the worship of the country symbohzed by a tree. according to the author of the Troano MS. of the garden. which they would enjoy. as it also was by a serpent. of the primitive country {Mayax) of the race.. for its deeds whilst in the body.) Here we have the key to the origin of the tree worship. where there would be an abundance of deHcious food.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. (See map. Their reward was to consist in dwelling in a delectable place. its The Maya empire was of formed by the Yucatecan peninsula. in front of the main entrance of the churches. in the cool shade beneath the evergreen and spreading branches of the yaxche (ceiba tree). 135 that would be rewarded or punished in the Ufe beyond the grave. even to-day. of knowledge. that in some locahties are replaced by the gigantic palm tree {Palma real). the tree of hfe. with eternal repose. that the tree par excellence. Sometimes the churches are built in the midst of groves of ceiba trees. which is found planted. page 120. old. figured as a tree. the empire of the Mayas being placed . and its intimate principal branch being winged serpent and the king. or by the Euler. throughout Yucatan and Central America. planted in the continent known to-day as South America. was placed in the middle of the land. where pain was unknown.

North and South " * America. has who was risen. Can's foot sank." The legend reads commencing from the top column * — of the left hand to Can WJ Ahau the King Cimen dead ^ eb for heb forcing its © Ezanab § Kan P earthquake has risen master of the basin of water way (beginning again at the top of the second column) ED Can foot cib ik air lamat filled sank —wind up — uac six crater or bosom of the volcanoes — = luumilob fertile IH umukan umukan •*•• • ^ Timanik Timanik dead. the master of the basin of water. his way by means of the earthquake. forcing can four : kak-mul volcano lands Freely translated Can. .126 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG between the two great continents. forming the Lands of the West.

is also called Hoang- kiun. reason why they are called Che-cull-Tse. is confirmed by the Chinese writers. Yong-ciii says: of a serpent. says that Kan means the tru7ik of a tree. sonaetimes represented the Earth under the figure of an old woman ajid called it mam the grandmother. one of the most ancient hterary monmnents of China. or the son prin- the engendered. commentators on the Chouking. in order to determine the place of the year. She is here represented holding in her left hand the sign of the smoke. He was He gave names to the ten Kan. The deer head represents the The Maya writers. heaven. the serpent and the country in the middle of the World.) as the author of the Troano. 127 This relation of the tree. the twelve weU to remark here that the children of king Can were called Can-chi. that is.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. — Maya Empire. etc. and in her right hand she holds the symbol of the "Land of the Scoi-pion" " Zinaan. and darting a javelin emblem of the volcanic energy. king of the Earth. and that Tchi are the branches. Speaking of the Tien-Hoang or kings of Tien-hoang had the body the origin of letters. Six fertile lands have appeared in Umukan (Cuba) and four volcanoes in Timanik (one of the small Antilles. ciple. the Brahma of the BDindoos. the air having filled up the crater of the volcano. reigns sovereignly in the midalso Tse-yuen. another writer. which is stiU a family name among the aborigines. It is Ti-HTJANG. and to the twelve Tchi. and Yuen-leao-faii.." the West India Islands of our days. . he who and dle of the earth. children.

being the emblem of the life to come. from its mere deUneation scratched on the rock. China. Copan. was emblematical power and eternity. and various locaHties of Central America. Assyria. In India. and other ancient cities of Guatemala. civiUzed and semi-civilized. and Britain. the Phoenicians and the Chaldees. the Menen of the Mayas." called the "Key It of the Nile. but all may back to the primitive form which resembles the Latin cross. sometimes was placed on the as a simple T represented as supported on the fulcrum of a cone. There are be traced several varieties of crosses. to the stately temples and admirably hewn caves of Elephanta in India. sometimes on a heart. It breast of the deceased. and . still nowhere do we learn of its origin.128 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG Kneph cross the of the Eygptians. In of Egypt." was the "symbol of symbols" among the Egyptians. Nicaragua. ages before the estabUshment of Christianity: and although we find representations of it in almost every part of the world. The is another sacred symbol much rever- enced by all nations. Everywhere it was associated with water. Among continents the earhest type known on the Eastern is the "Crux Ansata. It is also seen adorning the breasts of statues and statuettes in Palenque. In Babylon creative it was the emblem it of water deities.

rec- ommending the natives to take great care of them when he left. on their authority. maintains that the stone crosses found afterward in the island were made in imitation of that of Cortez. although a most zealous missionary. Berna) Diaz del Castillo. in their respective works. made by two of his carpenters. not mention the existence of such symbols in Cozumel. and near it a wooden cross. Scandinavia of heaven and immortality. to be erected. have affirmed the same thing. Dr. under Cortez. landed at the island of Cozumel. Eemesal and Torquemada assert. found crosses which the natives worshiped as they Hernan gods in their temples. having ordered the destruction of the idols that were in the sanctuaries. but emphatically says that Cortez. breast of the initiate after his new birth was accomplished in the Bacchic and Eleusinian mysteries. seems to have been a mistake. however. a fact he would . who accompanied Cortez. the Spaniards. does not mention the existence of crosses in Cozumel before the advent of the Spaniards. After them many writers. was placed on the ing. of rejuvenescence 129 In Mayax and freedom from physical sufferThe cross. as a symbol. Pedro Sanchez de Aguilar. does 'rhiB. that when in 1519. caused an image of the Virgin Mary to be placed in their stead. another of the early writers. intent on con- verting the aborigines to the Catholic faith. and Bishop Landa.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES.

had he been satisfied that the symbol really existed. at the beginning of our month of May. met with Only one image of a perfect cro^s have I ever in the ancient edifices of Yucatan besides the ground plan of the sanctuary at Uxmal. the Southern Cross. simply as a notion of their fore- The ancient Maya astronomers had observed that at a certain period of the year. mother of the gods. but held fathers.) It forms part of the inscription carved on the the doorway of the east fagade of the palace at Chichen. This is why the Catholic church celebrates the feast of the ado- . (See page 35. the good dame. the cross was an emblem the sacred mysteries. and would not have failed to mention in his work. m very re- mote ages.^' If so.130 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG certainly have taken advantage of in his predication of the gospel. they made no image of it. There can be no doubt that in Mayax. Still tradition tells us that the " God cross was symboHcal of the of Rain. such as those seen at Palenque and other places of Central America. nor did they celebrate lintel of any festival in honor of it it at the time of the con- quest. No symbol are to be found among the remains of the pertaining to external vestiges of the temples and palaces of the Mayas. that owes its name to the god- dess ^^ Maya. ^^ appears perfectly perpendicular above the Hne of the southern horizon.

the virgin MaB-ia. and with it joy and happiness. A shining cross stands erect above the southern horizon. In aU localities situated within the 12th and 23d degree of latitude north. which it has consecrated particularly to the Mother of God.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. new hfe to aU creatures. for indeed it is a god for him. the dry season sets in and no more rain falls during several months. that the so longed for wiU shortly descend from on high. seems to threaten aU creation. death. It is the heavenly messenger that brings good tidings to aU. all Hving beings thirst for a drop of moisture. for of want it. Man hails with thankful heart. aU things become parched. nature looks desolate. lose their characteristic shyness and venture near the haunts of man. the God of . In May and April in the countries Hke Yucatan. 131 ration of the holy cross on the third day of that month. for it announces that the flood-gates of heaven soon shall be open. this briUiant harbinger of the life to come. welcomes with rain songs of gladness. mad with thirst. the birds and other wild creatures. where there is no water on the surface of the ground. about the beginning of January. But four bright stars appear in the south. or the goddess Isis anthropomorphised by Bishop Cyril of Alexandria. the Good Lady. imperil- ing their hves in search of water. the trees and shrubs lose their leaves.

and meaning of the mystical T. not the creative power that is eternally renovating and revivifying all things on the surface of the earth ? Is it then strange that all nations. also met with in the ancient edifices of Mayax. in the temples. origin of The . and held it in so great veneration ? It must be remembered that aU the civiMzed nations " Lands of the West " and in the " Eastern in the "^ Continent. with re- newed Ufe. in every age. should have worshiped the cross as symbol of the life to come and immortality. found on aU Egyptian monuments. From it was transmitted to the others fur- ther north.132 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG Kain that rejuvenates nature. and in aftertimes many speculations have been indulged in concerning its origin: but the unsophisticated natives. brings felicity to them —heaven therefore Is it —and. dwelt in latitudes where the constellation known as "the Southern Cross" is visible during the month of May. and that the first showers soon follow its these of course apparition above the horizon. rejoice at the sight of the " Southern Cross " and prepare to sow their fields. immortality. in the tombs on the breast of the mummies. that accepted the symbol. in the hands of the gods. frees man and all other creatures from physical sufferings. in the midst of their forests to-day. that "hidden wisdom" as it has been desymbol nominated by scholars of our days. without understanding its meaning.



the tau and the criLX-ansata . a for ha. has been denominated by the Egyptologists crux-ansata. Its leafy top. The complex form of the mystical T which is formed of a cone with two arms extending. savants. the sacred tree of the Mayas.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. and on the statues and Palenque. The cone. modem nature —for the new Ufe to come. under the roots of which. the natives assert. is always to be found a source of pure cold water. one each side. although its name TAXJ says plainly. It has its prototype in the conoidal pillar. used by the Babylonians as symbol of hfe and death. death being but the beginning or nursery of life. here. presents the appearance of a half sphere of verdure. It is not of Eygptian origin. from the foot to the top. seen from a dis- tance. and u month. This emblem was only a reminiscence of the yaxche. that it is nothing more or less than a representation of the ''God of Rain^^ the "Southern Cross. The trunk of the yaxche. and an oval placed immediately above them. has given the part of altars in the rise to 133 temples at many speculations on They have not reached yet any conclusion. forms a perfect cone from which the main branches shoot in an horizontal direction. surmounted by a sphere. water. which translated freely means " This is " hence for the resurrection of the month for water." Effectively tau is a Maya word composed of the three primitives ti.

134 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG initiated to the mysteries the were for those same symbol. of the rehgious symbols ized nations of antiquity. always represented their sacred trees with two branches shooting horizontally from the top of the trunk. m. in the sculptures or paintings. b. From a Mexican MS. of the life to come. emblematical of Deity. common by to all the civil- dispelling the mists vista that have accumulated around them in the long . of the dual powers. The Mayas and other peoples of Central America. MS. 9789. of fertility. in British Museum. (Add. thus presenting the appearance of a cross or tau.) In straying apparently so far from the main ob- and tracing to their true origin the primitive traditions of mankind and many ject of these pages.

" of Mayax. so far as external practices were concerned. That Eumolpus. us that the daughters of Danaus instituted the Thesmophoria in honor of instituted. difunlike. of the Ancient sacred mysteries. to the Gymnosophists of India ? The mode of bols. but who taught the rites of initiation. and taught them to the Pelasgic women. Chal- from ages so remote that it is no longer known by whom or where they were first and India. 135 aim has been to show that they all emanated from one and the same source. As we do not find show that . instituted in his own country the Eleusinian mysteries on his return from Egypt. these mysteries originated with one people. whose rehgion. the use of the same symsignification ascribed identical to them. of ages. where he had been initiated by the priests as Orpheus who founded in Thracia those that bear his name. have been celebrated in the temples of Eygpt. with an initiation. to the Hierophants of Egypt. king of Eleusis. and were carried to and promulgated among the others. the use of the symbols and their meaning. to the magi of Chaldea.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. and that my this source was the country West. in the "Lands dea. tells Herodotus the goddess Ceres. by peoples Uving so far apart whose customs and manners were so at least fered so widely. in imitation of the mysteries celebrated in Egypt in honor of Isis.

Chal- dea and India were subjected.136 it SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG mentioned anywhere that they originated either with the Eygptians. Nachan (Palenque of to-day). or Hindoos. and as these rites and trials were identical with those to which the appHcants to of Central initiation in the mysteries of Egypt. used by the initiates in aU. and the palaces of their kings ? Their history may afford the clue to the original meaning of said symbols. of the mystical Tau. Greece. is it not natural that institution of the mysteries we should look for the among the Mayas. or by the Brahmins and as it has revealed the so long hidden mystery at the end of their reUgious ceremonies. Copan and other places America there can be no doubt. Chaldees. we see the rites and the trials of initiation described in the Popol-Vuh. and we have seen that their primitive traditions have been derived from the history of the early rulers of Mayax. in two distinct instances. walls of the temples of their gods. the other countries. since besides the symbols sculptured on the walls of the temples and palaces. since carved on the we find the same mysterious symbols. we are justified in . as their language has given us the true signification of the words used by the celebrating priest to dismiss the initiates in the Eleusiiiian mysteries. That sacred mysteries were celebrated from times immemorial in the temples of Mayax. Xibalba.

North and South America and Mu. instead of the even 2. 137 seeking in Mayax for the causes that may have induced the founders of the sacred mysteries to select the odd numbers 3. and 7." which the latter also figured as the sacred tree with three branches. that Plato says was the first king of Atlantis. The emblem / placed in the hands of Vul the his three-pronged trident being hX god of the *ji^ ) mythology. doo gods.* a * The legend literally translated reads as follows: I® that is: PPeu. and is represented by the Greek mythologists as being a son of Kronos. . that now lies buried under the waves of the Atlantic ocean. 5. and 6 for mystic numbers. caban for cabahaan has struck again @ ^ —bat —ax. may hkewise represent the three worlds or great regions that atmosphere in the Chaldean found also in those of the Hin- the Egyptian and Maya hierogrammatists designed by the character the hieroglyph for the ililMili in name of the "Lands of the West. Freely translated: PPeu has struck again the tree with his ax. One is sug4.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. gested by the sceptre of Poseidon. The symboUzation of number 3 may possibly be accounted for in two different ways. an allusion to the three great islands that formed his kingdom.

three concentric circles of the Zodiac. the three We meet with ways of salvation. platform in all sacred edifices . and surrounded with an aureola. in every nation. The deification of the "World" com- ash Yggdrasil. in the vyahritis or three sacred words. the three principal classes. . in the 21 metres (3x7) of in the the principal pyramids in Yucatan.138 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONO which we the find in Scandinavia. among find it the ancient nations of the mystification all and probably 3. the temple where the mysteries were performed in the three steps that led to the first or lower . where they are placed. in the three simile of roots of sacred tree. by water. was prophesied by Vishnu. or Triune god. may have been the origin of the Trimourti. and the three worlds posed of three parts forming a great whole. Deified after his death he became one of the protecting genii of the land. so prevalent antiquity. led to of nimiber We symbolized over the in earth. We see it in Mayax the three platforms on which are raised the most ancient edifices in the three rooms that formed . mystic-world heavens. over the trunks of the mastodon's head. the three ornaments or saranas. the three fetters of the soul PPeu was the name of one of the twelve ancient rulers who governed the country in times anterior to the great cataclysm during which the Atlantic island was submerged. and the tliree whose destruction. between the eyes. whose effigies still adorn the east fagade of the palace at Chichen Itza. all it constantly in India.

the triple phallus car- ried in procession at the festival of the Paamylia in honor of the birth of Ukewise in Chaldea. is by taking heed of the indications of Orpheus. and also the triads. seems to have still existed among the Amer- * Symbol of the three sons of King Can represented under the emblem of the three deer heads — Uluumil ceh. They tell us that the three intellects of the Demiurgos. government Of that fact aborigines of Central # a faint tradition." being one of the names of the country of the Mayas. of the triple deity. as Another way of accounting for the mystification of number 3. relates at of some length the history the three sons of king Can. In Egypt the three thonged flagelum of Osiris.u. very much distorted. were " three kings.'''' The author of the Troano MS. fell after the death of their father.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. and of the troubles that arose among them when. the three eyes in Siva's forehead. and the other Greek philosophers who had been admitted to the participation of the secrets communicated in the mysteries to those worthy of being entrusted with them. — . Plato. "the land of the deer. 139 or gunas. Osiris. the reins of the into their hands.m. Proclus.. the three strands of the sacred cord worn by the initi • ates of the three principal classes: the three letters of the sacred word A.

the number of the members of their family. personages mundane only have their portraits. took as symbol of the various degrees into which they divided them.. the elder brother and high-pontiff having instituted with his father the sacred mysteries. in order to perpetuate their name and history through the coming ages. ^'Numero Deus impare Hoang-ti. if we remember that us that the Egyptians represented the supreme Deity under the shape of a serpent (Canhel) that was as superior to the triads. brothers. They recall vividly the existence. the ruins of which still exist buried in the depths of the forests of Yucatan un- three sons of Adam.140 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG " That ica at the time of the Spanish conquest. who have since we not certainly Uved a three sons of Seb. governed the country together.''^ In this connection the three of Chinese mythological times. and their ornaments." Those three brothers. as the father tells is Eusebius to his children in whom he rejoices. and the The author of the Troano MS. informs us that the members of the family of king Can were deified after their death. for Bishop Landa time states: is was said that once upon a three lords. but also their mortal remains. der a shroud of verdure. might . This explanation seems the more plausible. and worshiped in temples. are reahties. It is not at all improbable that Cay. gaudet. their weapons. the three sons of Kronos. sons of king Can.

wood. of the five relations of hfe be- tween men. and spleen. 5. 5 is also In India nimiber very prevalent in things . bitter. also be mentioned. black. of the five seasons of the year. metal. lungs. a father and his children. those between a king and its ministers. 141 They too had the shape of ser- Among tic. and white. celestial or perfect numbers. are called in the y-king. or Canonical book of Changes. of the five virtues. prudence. decorum. the ancient civihzed nations of the east- ern continents number 5 was also considered mys- Frequent mention is made of it in their sacred books. or elementary generations. and between friends. philanthropy. of the earth. uprightness. elder and younger brothers. of the five principal mountains of the empire. water. salt. Of the five parts that form the heavens. a husband and his wife. five tones in and sweet. of the five colors. so highly esteemed by the wise philosopher Confucius (Kong-fou-tse) that he was seldom seen without fire. it. as 1. fidehty. 7. of the five kinds of grain. of the five tutelary mountains.ti. a very ancient work. 3.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. red. acid. green or blue. of the five organs of the body. yeUow and five tastes. of the five genii that govern the five elements. Hver. of the music. sour. of the five Chang. There we read of the five elements. pents. In China it occupies a conspicuous place among the 9. kidneys. heart.

of the five organs five of action. of the children of king Can. in the mysteries. of the five gi-eat sacrifices. set apart for the and other It is the edifices at Uxmal. are composed of five characters. the head. he had. that is ho-ol. by means of which the external objects are perceived. appears in the number ing from the courtyards or terraces to the principal " " the apartments in the House of the Governor.142 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG pertaining particularly to psychological conceptions or religious observances. the five great oblations. since we find this simbol each end of the southern apartment fice carved at • •in the ediof steps lead- consecrated to the celebration of the sacred It mysteries. for besides and Coh. in remembrance of the number his three sons Cay. In the rites of modern Freemasonry. This number may have become sacred. the five elements. so they speak of the organs of intelligence. the compartments into which the work is divided. In the Troano MS. to indicate that said legends are the headings. In Maya^x it was Uke^wise a mystic • • number. by his . the five great fires." palace of king Can'''' and in other buildings.. number particularly second of the three platforms that compose the base on which all the ancient temples and palaces of the Mayas are raised. as in chapters. the beginning. among the Mayas. Aac. etc. the legends of all it is still the sacred number related to the second degree.

but well known to the blessed Theurgists. calls it the "Vehicle of it is containing body and soul. That it was the number of numbers for those initiated to the sacred mysteries there can be no doubt. Set. 143 wife Zoo. whose names bear a striking resemblance to T-Mau. Seven seems excellence ? to have been the sacred all number par among civiHzed nations of antiquity. Pythagoras. Em- peror Juhan. according to the peculiar tenets of their rehgion. Why This query has never been satisfactorily answered. just as Seh Isis number five. who had borrowed his ideas on numbers from the Egyptians. and Nike. one of the names of Can by his had by his wife Nut in Egypt. two daughters. had five children. these being Aroeris. since formed of a quartenary. which the Chaldees bac- chised. give us a knowledge of the origin of the mystification of and Nihe her sister. respecting the seven-rayed god. I should say things unknown to the rabble. Each separate people has given a different explanation. Mghting up the soul through him. and a trinity or action and matter. expresses " Were I to touch himself thus: upon the initiation into our secret mysteries. Isis. that may. very unknown. in Matrem and in Oratio. Moo and Nicte. however. So king wife Zoo. that is: Wisdom and life." Intellect." Whatever that knowledge may have been. Strange coincidence. and .THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. Osiris.

of the seven Bichis or holy personages who assisted them. nmnber worshiped . governed the world in the night of times. or the seven primitive gods regarded by the Japanese as their ancestors and said by them to have governed the world during an incalculable of years. have been the origin of the tradition of the seven divine rulers of Egypt. have been worshiped in various countries. have seen that the family of king Can was composed of seven members. excite the admiration of the These personages. of the seven Ameshas- pants or first angels. and the seven councillors of the ting. only not improbable that it was to be found their esoteric explanation of the cause of the tification of day. of that according to the Brahmins. of the seven great gods of the Assyrians. the massiveness and finish of the walls of their temples and palaces. who became still We rulers of the seven cities that bear their names. death. the ruins of which exist in the forests of Yucatan. and by the beauty and richness of the ornamentation. deified after their beholder. under different names.144 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG number myscan be surmised toseven. the seven Manous of the seven princes of the Persian court. but it is in some event in the early history of the race whose traditions we find scattered broadcast over the Earth. of the seven Cabiri. and are yet in some. May not the remembrance of the existence of these seven ancient rulers of Mayax.

since we find the seven cities dedicated members of king Can's family. the Indian creator. the seven days of the feast of the tabernacles. that is of the seven members of king Can^s family. the seven great gods in theogony of the Nahuatls ? Do we not see a simile of the Ah Ac chapat or seven- headed serpent of the Mayas. the seven pyramids that adorned the city of Uxmal. the seven days of the festival in honor of the buU Apis. by the Pelasgians at 145 Lemnos and Samothracia. each turret inscribed with the name of one of the members . of which the emperor Juhan was so reluctant to speak ? It would seem that the duration of certain rehgious festivals was fixed to commemorate the exist' ence on Earth of these seven primitive gods or rulers. in Mayax. a symbol of Osiris. or in the seven serpents that form the crown of Siva. the seven turrets that ornamented the south fagade of the to each of the north wing of king Can's palace at Uxmal. in the seven-headed heavenly Serpent on which rests Vishnu. The septenary system. was also adopted for the same purpose no doubt.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. that corresponds to the Egyptian Kneph or the Mehen {Canhel) of the Mayas. or again in the Sevenrayed god Heptaktis. the tradition of which we find in all countries where we meet with vestiges of the Mayas. So we see the seven days of the festival of the Eleusinian mysteries. totem of their seven primitive Rulers.

The seven gradients into which is divided the third or uppermost of the three platforms that serve as a substructm-e to the temples and palaces. and their multiples. The seven courses of the stones used in the construction of the walls and of the triangular arches that form the ceilings of the rooms. The prevails in the arrangement of the in the centre of the great pyramid at grand gallery Ghizzeh in Egypt." though in this Egyptian pyramid the gradients are more numerous. for . The which the sacred mysteries were predilection of the nations of antiquity in celebrated. In that monument as in all the same system antique edifices of Mayax. the most perfect form of Chaldee "temple and the " pyramid degrees " at Sakkara. the proportional scale followed by the architects in the drawing of their plans is in accordance with the numbers 3. 5. the seven superposed gradients^ forming the pyamids. The seven rooms buUt on the west side of the conical mound that supports the temple which the mysteries were performed at Uxmal: each room again being dedicated to one of the in members son to whom of king Can's family. the bust of the perit was consecrated being affixed over the doorway. Y. calling to mind the seven terraces of the temple of the seven hghts at Borall sippa. those dedicated to the females being on the east end of the wing.146 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG of his family. altower.

the seven Apris or shapes of the flame. lad<iler in the cave of Mith- The Aryans had the seven horses that drew the chariot of the sun. as we read of it in the Bhagavata purana. we lamps of the ark. and the seven years of famine. The Egyptians had divided their nation into seven classes. and in the hierarchy of Mazdeism. according to the Chaldeans. number seven appears in 147 many ways.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. and of Zacharias vision. the seven rounds of the ra. the seven steps of Buddha at his birth. the seven Marouts or genii of the winds.ew branches of. according to Genesis. on account of the seven days of rainfall the Babylonian priests used seven va^es in the sacrifices. the sei. the seven trumpets of the angels. the seven heads of the beast that rose from the sea. the seven rays of Agni. the seven golden candlesticks. the seven seals of the book. and the seven days of the prophesy of the same event. The seven days that the rainfall that produced the deluge lasted. made by the Lord to Noah. the seven years of plenty. the week into seven days: according to them the creation was com- the Hebrews. is reproduced in the seven days of the prophesy of the deluge by Vishnu to Satyravata. the . find the seven Among temple. the seven days of the feast of the dedication of the pleted in seven days. the golden candlestick. In the Christian dispensation. the seven churches with the seven angels at their head.

is purely accidental fication ? The origin of its mysti- It has been has never been explained. without knowing of the third why it was made the sacred nmnber .148 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG seven vials full of the wrath of God. identified by some with Palenque. transmitted to us by our predecessoi's. ' ous and living so far apart. the seven heads of the hydra killed by Hercules. In the seven caves from which the ancestors of the Nahualts are reported to have emerged. It frequently occurs in the Popol. In Greek mythology. In the seven Antilles. in the Seven heroes who. the seven islands sacred to Proserpine mentioned by Proclus. the site of which has been accurately fixed by Mr. the seven last plagues of Apocalypse. and from the remotest ages. said We find it besides in the seven families to have accompanied by Sahagim and Clavigero the mystical personage named Votan.Vuh. who them- selves had accepted it from theirs. described by Coronado and Mza. the reputed founder of the great city of Nachan. Frank Cushing in the immediate neighborhood of the village of Zuni. Can it be maintained that this acceptation of seven as a mystic number by nations so heterogenetold. In the seven cities of Cibola. we are escaped the deluge. The prevalence of seven as a mystic number " " among the inhabitants of the Western Continent is not less remarkable.

of the highest de- number gree of the sacred mysteries in May ax is evident. Troano MS. study of the sacred book of the Quiches. a knowledge of their all its spoken by their descendants. . 149 degree in the rites of initiation into Freemasonry. We have seen that 3 was the number of the male children of king Can. T was consequently that of the members of the whole family. as in the vicinity of Peten. civiHzation. True.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. and in some places. and that tification. without commentaries. in the deciphering of certain mural the inscriptions. 5 that of his sons and daughters. T not therefore improbable was made the third degree of their sacred this was the origin of its mys- In these pages I have presented. but this meaning does not give the origin of its mystification. in receiving the degree the initiated are told the esoteric meaning attached to it in modern times. and the interpretation of passages in the pristine purity). re- and practices of the ancient inhabi- tants of Yucatan. cosmogonical conceptions. a few of the facts that twelve years researches among (stiU the ruins of the antique temples and palaces language of the Mayas. That it In fact. have disclosed to ligious tenets me concerning the history. it was the sacred is an invention of our days. that to It is commemorate sacred number of the mysteries. that fact..

They have not. and of the truthfulmy assertion that a knowledge of the his- tory of the primitive dwellers in these "Lands of the West" will help to raise the veil that has covered during so many centuries the origin of the traditions of mankind. to such facts are ness of worthy your consideration. I differ because have seen and photographed the constructions left by the mighty races that have preceded us on this continent. whose sentiments and emotions were confined within a narrow range. in situ. From what it was or what it did. whose intelligence was for the most part of a low order.150 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG judge if It is for you. I beg to differ from their opinion expressed so emphatically." we read " The study of American archaeology relates indeed to the monuments of a race that never at- tained to a high degree of civilization and that has left no trustworthy records of continuous history. Because I have studied for years." any direct bearing all on the progress of civil- With due respect for the learning of attached their names to so I the gentlemen who have astounding an assertion. and whose imagination was never quickened to find expression It was a race of itself in poetic or artistic forms of beauty. nothing is to be learned that has ization. reader. Although in the first annual report of the executive committee of the first that: "Archaeological institute of America. these monuments that attest to the .

and read some of said They have not. on this continent. all nations. not far from New Orleans. of history. Will nothing be done in this country to preserve what remains of the ancient American civilization? of that civilization which seems to have been the fountain-head at which the philosophers of tiquity. as deserving the attention of aU students of archaeology. if not more so. and are being destroyed by the hand of ignorance and cupidity. of ethnology. and Italy. and philology. Indeed. and all intelligible traces of them wiU have disappeared. and in the papyri found in the tombs in Egypt. in Alexandria. on the obeUsks. that are crumbUng every day more and more. least of their history in in- scriptions carved on stones.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. Greece. A few years more. for the decipherment of the inscriptions carved on the walls of the temples. exist the reUcs of past generations which are as interesting. as those of Egypt. is it not time . Americans have established in Athens schools for the study of Greek Archaeology. in the remotest an- have come to acquire knowledge and drink inspiration from the learning and wisdom of the Maya sages. They have not. It is time yet to save from utter destruction the last records of ancient American history. Because I have learned the language in which they have consigned part at inscriptions. Babylonia. 151 high civilization of their builders.

what the Maya sages knew of man's origin.. Why then not found in Yucatan. etc. Beta. of his intellectual development. and sur- . in the midst of the ruins of the temples and colleges of the learned priesthood of Mayax.152 SACRED MYSTERIES AMONG on that students in United States should direct their attention to the ancient history of the continent which they hve ? tongue in which it It is is not altogether lost. unaided by any government or scientific society.. etc. it form a curious epic poem There are many interesting inscriptions in that only await decipherment to illumine the past records of the race in America. having to encounter opposition. sciences. Greek alphain that lang-uage. " they will tell us of the origin of many of our primitive traditions. of the colonists they sent to other parts of the world. and rehgion of the mother country and our own is descended ? its civilization from which After twelve years of incessant labors and great hardships. coeval. bet. if Maya is one of the oldest forms of speech. Many of these precious doc- uments exist in the City of New York. a school where students of American archaeology can learn with their language. where they carried the arts. Gamma. The names Alpha. of the past of their people. and the written is not a dead language. They will reveal the history of the mighty nations that have dwelt on this "Western Continent. of the letters of the not anterior to Sanscrit.

after saving from destruction many important docu- ments and relics. the veil that has hung so long over the history of mankind in America in lifted. robbed of our finds by the Mexican government which has even refused to indemnify us for the money expended in making these discoveries. Shall it be allowed to remain closed much longer ? We have in part at least. Le Plongeon and myself. Shall it be allowed to fall again? Will no efforts be made by American students.THE MAYAS AND THE QUICHES. mount our 153 countless difficulties placed maliciously in way by those whose duty it should have been to afford us all protection. by men of wealth and leisure in the United States. have at last found a key that will imlock the door of that chamber of mysteries. Mrs. remote ages. to remove it altogether ? .


Alexander the Great. on the creation of the world according to the Bird soci- Chaldees. 57. Aum. 56. the creator. quoted. Bottles. Ah . 106. its ago.500 years 91. murdered. 67. Brothers of Egypt. Auvergne. 11. 33. beverage of the gods. renews bull of excommunication. amrita. 78-79. Emperor. (in India). badge of royalty. 71. 120. 50. 3. — figure of Central America. Angrand. protecting genius of. 119. figured as an equilateral triangle. Benoit (Pope). — Egypt and Mayax. triangular. record of submersion of. 90. 37. 56. Birch. 57. 94. 60. — figured as a black man. a myth. 108. foundation of ety of. 29. Robert. Samuel. 87. quoted. in 92. Japan. 41. nectar. 26. of. deity at Kioto. of) burned — — Abel. 83.chapat. why. Emile. 37. 107. Architects. — destruction. 74. . Building Associations. Akkadian language. Asp. Balche. 6. offer of marriage by. 28. 29-32. in the ruins of HissarUk. 77. Bdli. Roger. seven-headed serpent. Black populations in America. Ro- Bumouf. 110. Arch. submerged. Atlantis. AaCy his history. 14. (godBitot. quoted. gives protection to the Knights Templars. Bacon. Adam. . creator. 1. Adrian. 29. Bearded men in Mayax. Alom. Ardvi goura anahita dess). murder — meaning of the name of. found in the tombs Brahmins. Bnice. Berosus.INDEX. (Guy ahve. 8. Chinese. Amautas. man. 47. its meaning. 3.

64. — members of his family worshiped in Japan. Coh. seven cities of. Church of Rome opposes Freemasonry. Molay — Itza. 19. c i a n s and Egyptian priests. . can Government. first. H. 54. nations. his family. quoted. Chichen- — death of. and eternity. Can. Cibola. 4. T. Cilician pirates. statue of. Conceptions concerning a — accuses M. the city of serpents. 109. 72. myth found in Chichen-Itza. 1. 108. 112. all Clement XII. Cay. of. in various coun- — its origin traced to Mayax. murdered by his brother. analysis of remains of. 6.". 2. 6. excom- sacred symbol of deities municates Free- water among life all — masons. (Pope). king of Mayax. — persecutes Chaldean magi.. 56. 87. prohibit Freemasonry. — Templars. 95. Camazotz. 44. 58.Coronado. entices Jacques de to Paris. Cromwell. 54. quoted. 12. 45. robbed by Mexi- with a mastodon's head. Colebi'ook. Coleraine. of heresy. 48. Cross. their use. Circular buildings in Yucatan. and represented — — — 80. Communications between Egypt and India and China. 78. 5. of the to persecutes them. Cogolludo. Creation of the world. who was. 84. 4. Triune God. 83. 77. — — — Cabiri (mysteries). myth of. burns them alive. abolishes the order of Knights — 72. — portrayed on East faQade of tries. come. Palace at of. 93. 124. 111. 25. 55. C7iristians. Confucius. 14..156 INDEX. 6. Clement V. high pontiff. 3. quoted. 13. tableau as explained. 7. (Pope). 114. 57. 144. founded a lodge in Gibraltar and another in Madrid. — quoted. 2. Clement of Alexandria. quoted. King. 45. 27. Chichen-Itza. 148. royal titles deified. Chamber of Police of Paris. 4. Lord. Charles I. 56. Collegia of Romans. 53. 18. god of bats. 128.

Fergusson.. 47. initiated to Egyptian sacred mysteries instituted those of Eleusis. many similar in In- Mayax. Frank. F Fanton. prophet. Fratricide. Findel. Roman. 12. 54. 18. James. .) opinion of. Druids. founds lodges. quoted. 23. Dem. Essenes. Cross. and Eusoph. 99. and Eleusinian mys- — — — teries. Epoptai. 123. 57. Eumolpus.ooritus. J. 53. Deluge. name Maya 90. and mural 92. its meaning. number. 7. (Dr. southern. 60. Daniel. account of the inscriptions. common to all nations where the among Fi'Fangpao. 46. Etcsebius. 113. 10. Ramayana. 15. 19. Customs. in Troano M. in America. Danaus'' Daughters. persecuted the worshijjers of Osiris. (3) VI. (Bishop) murderer of Isis Hypathia. of. 129. is found. 30. 130. 1. D Damascitis. 105.INDEX. Cushing. 97. and the Egyptian priests. as 157 symbol in Bacchic E Egyptian place civilization. of. 57. 18. quoted. opinion Four. quoted. dia. god of rain. of Spain. — relation of. Cyril. quoted. quoted. — what the Egyptians said of. Emperors. 16.S. Francis of Lorraine (Duke) initiated. papyri of Egypt. Ephoroi. 91. 132. ?. of lower Egypt. 122. and Egypt. 118. same in Genesis. 6. quoted. Eubulus. 27. equilateral triangle. the Jesuits. 22. inscriptions of Mayax. 84. tradition of. 45.. Degrees in Freemasonry. G. Fernando. protects masons. of the. persecuted the Chaldean magicians and Egyptian priests to the death. treason. makes Freemasonry high. birth- symbol 129. Crown same as that worn by kings in Mayax. 148. 17. 72. 99.33.

ice. 5. in Germany. 87. 96. 6. G. of. 111.158 . 15. — of bats. dark. but little — into known. established in France and Hach-mac. persecutes 4 19. •. G (jfanesha. Lodge. 23. its worship. 134. — Herodotus. INDEX. 74. 25. created. Hunhun Appu. totem. relation of creation in modern. Italy. title. Greeks. persecuted. 24. quoted. Hierophantes. Hermippus. first establishin London. H 45. ascends the throne. House. Hermetic books. America. — — — Spain. — 43. 7. of Egyptians. itiated. 5. Grand ed 31. 32. frames a constitution. 60. Mayas. origin of. — quoted. Gregory of Nazianze. god of letters. quoted. Gucumatz. 21. Gods. II. winged the creator. 28. 55. 44. 112. in- Henoch.". 5.. Grand Master. 96. traced to America. — — in of. — fiery. Lisbon. 22. spears. 8. 19. Qareilasso de la Vega. 37. 44. of 43. 8. concerning the phoria. Hluminati. Inquisition Masons. incorporated into Freemasonry. 1. Japanese. 16. 44. 46. 16. — origin of 97. in Ireland. quoted. 43. George I. Thesmo- Frederick of 9. 9. 6. meaning — her her of the name. 2. of Prussia. 20. Initiations into Egyptian mysteries. . Universal. assumes the title M. twelve. 32. 5. George (Bishop). Hiu-chin. book quoted. 44. its re- House presentation. 16. Eleusinian mysteries. Freemasonry various opinions concerning orig- serpent. — tiger. 22. degree of. 88. 44. persecutes the worshipers of Isis and Osiris. quoted. 24. its elephant head. Chinese. 18. Isis.

159 believed to be a fabulous being. 31. Leibnitz. Maria. 15. founder Inca empire. the brothers. Challenges . St. custom among the Mayas. Order. 30. name found B41i. initiated into Free- — John the Baptist. Kneph. 29.. Lopi. quoted. Johan Marcus appointed Grand Master of the K. 4. 54. Landa (Bishop). 53. of the Larmenio. Japanese. " Kronos. 89. worship of. 78. James II. Isis. selected patron of the M. quoted. offspring twelve gods. of. title of high priest among the Mayas. 3. 47. Larmenio. his meaning of the Khan. 76. the great 55. '. 7. 63. masonry. Leopard skin as a symbol. 124. take refuge in Scotland and — — Portugal. Jerome. titles of kings in Asia. 5. 64. Mastodon. Templars. 12. Maha-atma. 33. 83. Juan Gaston of Medieis. (Duke) persecutes Masons. 45.INDEX. king of the Lands of the West. name of the creator. 68. Magi. Macrohius. it. 70. 60. Krause. received their symbols from Christians initiated into Egyptian mysteries. La. 13. Maha-atma^. 3. M. 3. goddess MaiaIsis anthropomorphised. explanation of tableau representing the worship — of. 95. triangular arch. refuse to recognize the authority of J. 30. 12. Knights of Christ. three. the world. meaning of the word. origin of Kings. Virgin.. quoted. Manco Capac. of the Knights Templars. 86. order founded. 32. M K Ma. in various countries. Saint. Marriage. soul. 131. 55. Lab-mac. Maya." 53. 93. 94. 71.

its meaning. 49. 142. Osiris. wise men of the Mayas. N Nahuatls. 148. as a symbol. 126. de Molay. 3. 82. forms the ground plan of temples and palaces. not written by Moses. as a ser- Maya empire figured Number — — — pent. into Egyptian sacred mysterfounds the orphic. empire the land of the deer in the middle of the earth. Annello. Niroukta. 51. Henry. 28. 62. origin of its bolization. its 28. of Cain plained. 136. 60.160 INDEX. Niza. Memnon. country of. empire figured as a tree. burnt 51. Mithra. 34. 47. 19. 89. Pentateuch. appoints his successor. 69. 125. alive. Payne. 73. 53. enticed to — — Paris and arrested. 116. 2. mysteries of. 87. 63. Ouranos. 127. ex- 56. Jfewes. according to the Chinese represented as a tree. origin of its symbohzation. 149. being. 7. Mystai. Molay.. 74. — meaning of the name. 62. — murder — culture hero. 5. Names. — believed to be a mythical 74. Orpheus initiated ies 53. 27. Mathusalath. Pallas. 48. 19. Orphic Mysteries. of. 51. Jacques de. various. Phillippe-le-bel. 2. of Ethiopia. Moses. :^ejects conspiracy. 141. 37. quoted. Oliva. 75. 54. 89. Pachacamac. Pentagon. 18. origin of its symbolization. 2Ioo. Parsis. Matthew. origin as symbol. 78. its meaning. O Oblong Square. . Origenes. causes the arrest of J. 143. . 71. description of the — — 34. Number — 3. the love of Aac. 81. — — history of against. 28. King 57. who she was. 2. — his history. 3. 135. Path. Thomas. the initiated. sym- Petroma. May ax.

Rooms in temples. . persecutes 161 Pythagoras. 89. his explanation of the image of the creator. — meaning of the name. 72. God number and to. Rosicrucians. 93. 53.. Set. PMllippe-le-hel. — Ramsay. relation of submersion of Atlantis correct. 137 (note). their shape Porphyrins. 26. 53. death of.. 92. 6. most ancient Egyptian book. 56. 84. 55.INDEX. Plutarch. 54. G. 53. 111. Sanctuary at Uxmal. also Supreme Intelligence. — his protecting emblem. planation (note). masons. [60. 27. 4.S.. 47. Plato. 27. PMlostratus. King of Ethiopia. tion 57. 89. 139 B Ra. 89. his narrow escape when in- itiated. 3. in Mayax and Japan. 4. first American 7. 106. first 1. ex- Quichua language. quoted. — Pythagoras.inode of. initiated. 42. Plates from Troano M. 90. Q Qaholom. 25. of. 56. Grand-master. PhcBTies. becomes the evil principle. quoted. J. 60. Proclus. 57. Grand-master in Germany. 41. name of the creator. Primander. creation of the world in. 53. 35.. 90. scribed in. 30. Pianchi. 27. — enemy of the sun. — origin of Freemasonry according to. quoted. 63. 90. name of the chief of the Magi. Poseidon. 110. B. meaning of the name. Pradjapati. initiations dePopol-mih. Rab-mag. Philip V. their incorporation into Free- masonry. — quoted. — his genius. Salisbury. descripSchliemann. — harmony. Stephen. quoted. 28. Proposal of7narriage. Henry. 11. — symbolical. Preston. Price. 117 (note). of Spain. quoted. Michael Andrew. Henry. Piittman. of. according on number four. 54. 12G (note). 32. 63. 83.. 9. 8. 74. Pompeius. 29.

Temptation. 77. king of the country in the middle of the land. INDEX Symholization of 100. GrandLord. 102. of Smyrna. Thompson. certi- — meaning of the name. 24. 132 its origin. complex form of. — — America 11 masonic. 136. <8owZ. identical in the temples of Egypt. 124. 121 of. and Thales. number of its worship unevil — — known. 142. ac- cording to 109. 100all — traces of worship over the world. 132. tree worship garden. chil[124. Ceres. 94. — — three. India. Sougriva. his twelve dren. quoted. in Uxmal. and Cen- chemical analyletters ThotJi. 65. 18. its creator. when considered an genius. meaning of mystic. found under the base of Cleopatra's needle.162 Serpent. Chaldea. title of the Kings of Mayax. mysteries of O. 36. number seven. JStrathmore. tral Tiahuanuco. 66. 101. — origin 98. 85. — symbol of the country in Mayax and in Egypt. of of number five. explanation of sculptures on Monolithgate. still Temple of mysteries at Uxmal. Egypt. 16. 100.. 41. 55. of worship. Symbols. JStrabo. his description of the creation. masonic. priests.and Peru. in America. 83. — origin of worship its T Tao-tse. 96. 84. 128. 8. 134. Billi. image of the 109. quoted. the same in Ti-Hoang. causes the death of Thesmophoria. . — worshiped in India. persecutes the worshipers of (Bishop). Theon. 123. master. 90. TheopMlus Isis Maya belief in immortality of the. origin of temptation of the woman in the — 121. god of in Egypt. Charles ficate of sis. and Osiris. initiated to Egyptian sacred mysteries. — TieU'Hoang. 17. — origin /Solon. 116. their meaning. Mayax. Tree worship in America. the Maya — Tau. at. 96. 67. 105. 82. 31. 149. 110.

42. Triangle as a symbol. circle. Scandinavians. 133. Ceylon. 75. Egypt. sacred tree among the Egypt. among the Mayas. William III. Druids. Winged 134. goddess. Zend-anesta. Yaxche. quoted. 60. 63. of. — origin Mayas. of the cruz-ansata. 45. of Zihalba. between the serpent and tree wor- — Words of dismissal. 48. the inhabitants of 16S Wilford^ Captain. god. 3. their meaning. Zoroaster. symbols 63. 63. — his explanation of the triangular arch. naan. Villoison. 47. 124. 33. quoted. Arcadia. 99.. 132. masonry. Assyria. 49. 33. U Uati. — relationship — — 134. ZuM Indians. Uiracocha. King of England. initiated into Free- Samos. 134. 27. Triangular Arches. 56. 22. sacred. 134. a Triune God. India. Athens. institutes the mysteries of Mithra. quoted. genius of lower Taqui nation. Stanyland. 16. Theophilus. 76. 48. its symbols. 4 symbol 21. its meaning among the 61. CaDelos. of the cone as symbol of the mystic Tau. 48. quoted. 28. its meaning among the Egyptians.INDEX. persecuted by Bishops George. — Mayas. W Wake. Dodona. . 115. Dance de. Cyril. Z Valmiki. Worshipers of Isis and Osiris ship. 28. Tree worship by the Phoenicians.

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