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CHAPTER 19 THERMAL PROPERTIES PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

Heat Capacity
19.1 Estimate the energy required to raise the temperature of 2 kg of the following materials from 20 to 100C (293 to 373 K): aluminum, steel, sodalime glass, and high-density polyethylene. Solution The energy, E, required to raise the temperature of a given mass of material, m, is the product of the specific heat, the mass of material, and the temperature change, T, as
E = c p m T

The T in this problem is equal to 100C 20C = 80C (= 80 K), while the mass is 2 kg, and the specific heats are presented in Table 19.1. Thus,
E (aluminum) = (900 J/kg K)(2 kg)(80 K) = 1.44 105 J E (steel) = (486 J/kg K)(2 kg)(80 K) = 7.78 104 J E (glass) = (840 J/kg K)(2 kg)(80 K) = 1.34 105 J E (HDPE) = (1850 J/kg K)(2 kg)(80 K) = 2.96 105 J

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19.2

To what temperature would 11 kg of a 1025 steel specimen at 25C (298 K) be raised if 130 kJ of heat is supplied? Solution We are asked to determine the temperature to which 11 kg of steel initially at 25C would be

raised if 130 kJ of heat is supplied. This is accomplished by utilization of a modified form of Equation 19.1 as
Q m cp

T =

in which Q is the amount of heat supplied, m is the mass of the specimen, and cp is the specific heat. From Table 19.1, cp = 486 J/ kg K for steel.

Thus
130 103 Joules = 24 K (11 kg)(486 J/kg K)

T =

and
T f = T0 + T = 298 K +24 K =322 K (49C)

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19.3

(a) Determine the room temperature heat capacities at constant pressure for the following materials: aluminum, silver, tungsten, and 70Cu30Zn brass. (b) How do these values compare with one another? How do you explain this? Solution

(a) This problem asks that we determine the room-temperature heat capacities at constant pressure, Cp, for aluminum, silver, tungsten, and 70Cu30Zn brass. All we need do is multiply the cp values in Table 19.1 by the atomic weights (values are found inside the front cover), taking into account the conversion from grams to kilograms (for the atomic weights). Thus, for Al
C p = (900 J/kg K)(1 kg/1000 g)(26.98 g/mol) = 24.3 J/mol K

For Ag
C p = (235 J/kg K)(1 kg/1000 g)(107.87 g/mol) = 25.4 J/mol K

For W
C p = (138 J/kg K)(1 kg/1000 g)(183.84 g/mol) = 25.4 J/mol K

For brass it is first necessary to compute the alloy atomic weight (Aave) using Equation 4.11a as follows:
100 CCu CZn + ACu AZn

Aave =

100 30 wt% 70 wt% + 63.55 g / mol 65.41 g / mol

= 64.09 g/mol Thus


C p = (375 J/kg K)(1 kg/1000 g)(64.09 g/mol) = 24.0 J/mol K

(b) These values of Cp are very close to one another because room temperature is considerably above the Debye temperature for these metals; therefore, the values of Cp should be about equal to 3R [(3)(8.31 J/ mol K ) = 24.9 J/ mol K ], which is indeed the case for all four of these metals.

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19.4

For aluminum, the heat capacity at constant volume Cv at 30 K is 0.81 J/ mol K , and the Debye temperature is 375 K. Estimate the specific heat (a) at 50 K and (b) at 425 K. Solution

(a) For aluminum, Cv at 50 K may be approximated by Equation 19.2, since this temperature is significantly below the Debye temperature (375 K). The value of Cv at 30 K is given, and thus, we may compute the constant A as
A = Cv 0.81 J/mol K = = 3.00 105 J/mol K 4 3 T (30 K)3

Therefore, at 50 K
Cv = AT 3 = (3.00 105 J/mol K 4 ) (50 K)3 = 3.75 J/mol.K

and
cv = (3.75 J/mol K)(1 mol/26.98 g)(1000 g/kg) = 139 J/kg K

(b) Since 425 K is above the Debye temperature, a good approximation for Cv is
Cv = 3R

= (3)(8.31 J/mol K) = 24.9 J/mol K

And, converting this to specific heat


cv = (24.9 J/mol K)(1 mol/26.98 g)(1000 g/kg) = 923 J/kg K

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19.5

3 The constant A in Equation 19.2 is 12 4 R/5 D , where R is the gas constant and D is the

Debye temperature (K). Estimate D for copper, given that the specific heat is 0.78 J/ kg K at 10 K. Solution For copper, we want to compute the Debye temperature, D, given the expression for A in Equation 19.2 and the heat capacity at 10 K. First of all, let us determine the magnitude of A, as
A = Cv T3

(0.78 J/mol K)(1 kg/1000 g)(63.55 g/mol) (10 K)3

= 4.96 105 J/mol K 4

As stipulated in the problem statement


12 4 R 3 5 D

A =

Or, solving for D


12 4 R D = 5A
1/ 3

(12)( ) 4 (8.31 J/mol K) = 5 4 (5)(4.96 10 J/mol K )

1/ 3

= 340 K

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19.6

(a) Briefly explain why Cv rises with increasing temperature at temperatures near 0 K. (b) Briefly explain why Cv becomes virtually independent of temperature at temperatures far removed from 0 K. Solution

(a) The reason that Cv rises with increasing temperature at temperatures near 0 K is because, in this temperature range, the allowed vibrational energy levels of the lattice waves are far apart relative to the available thermal energy, and only a portion of the lattice waves may be excited. As temperature increases, more of the lattice waves may be excited by the available thermal energy, and, hence, the ability of the solid to absorb energy (i.e., the magnitude of the heat capacity) increases. (b) At temperatures far removed from 0 K, Cv becomes independent of temperature because all of the lattice waves have been excited and the energy required to produce an incremental temperature change is nearly constant.

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Thermal Expansion
19.7 An aluminum wire 10 m long is cooled from 38 to 1C (311 to 272 K). How much change in length will it experience? Solution In order to determine the change in length of the aluminum wire, we must employ a rearranged form of Equation 19.3b and using the value of 1 taken from Table 19.1 [23.6 106 (C)1] as
l = l0 l T = l01 (T f T0 )
6 1 = (10 m) 23.6 10 (C) (1C 38C)

= 9.2 103 m = 9.2 mm

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19.8

A 0.1 m rod of a metal elongates 0.2 mm on heating from 20 to 100C (293K to 373 K). Determine the value of the linear coefficient of thermal expansion for this material. Solution The linear coefficient of thermal expansion for this material may be determined using a

rearranged form of Equation 19.3b as


l l 0.2 103 m = = l0 T l0 (T f T0 ) (0.1 m)(100C 20C) = 25.0 106 (C) 1

l =

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19.9

Briefly explain thermal expansion using the potential energy-versus-interatomic spacing curve. The phenomenon of thermal expansion using the potential energy-versus-interatomic spacing

curve is explained in Section 19.3.

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19.10

Compute the density for nickel at 500C, given that its room-temperature density is 8.902 g/cm3. Assume that the volume coefficient of thermal expansion, v, is equal to 3l. Solution In this problem we are asked to determine the density of nickel at 500C. Let us use as the

basis for this determination 1 cm3 of material at 20C, which has a mass of 8.902 g; it is assumed that this mass will remain constant upon heating to 500C. Let us compute the volume expansion of this cubic centimeter of nickel as it is heated to 500C. A volume expansion expression is given in Equation 19.4viz.,
V = v T V0

or
V = V0 v T

Also, v = 3l, as stipulated in the problem. The value of l given in Table 19.1 for nickel is 13.3 106 (C)1. Therefore, the volume, V, of this specimen of Ni at 500C is just
V = V0 + V = V0 (1 + v T ) = V0 (1 + 3 l T )
6 1 = (1 cm3 ) 1 + (3) 13.3 10 (C ) (500C 20C )

= 1.01915 cm3

Thus, the density is just the 8.902 g divided by this new volumei.e.,

8.902 g = 8.735 g/cm3 1.01915 cm3

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19.11

When a metal is heated its density decreases. There are two sources that give rise to this diminishment of : (1) the thermal expansion of the solid, and (2) the formation of vacancies (Section 4.2). Consider a specimen of copper at room temperature (20C) that has a density of 8.940 g/cm3. (a) Determine its density upon heating to 1000C when only thermal expansion is considered. (b) Repeat the calculation when the introduction of vacancies is taken into account. Assume that the energy of vacancy formation is 0.90 eV/atom, and that the volume coefficient of thermal expansion, v is equal to 3l. Solution

(a) In this portion of the problem we are asked to determine the density of copper at 1000C on the basis of thermal expansion considerations. The basis for this determination will be 1 cm3 of material at 20C; this volume of copper has a mass of 8.940 g, which mass is assumed to remain constant upon heating to the 1000C. Let us first compute the volume expansion of this cubic centimeter of copper as it is heated to 1000C. According to Equation 19.4 volume expansion is equal to
V = v T V0

where v, the volume coefficient of thermal expansion, as stipulated in the problem statement, is equal to 3l. The value of l given in Table 19.1 for copper is 17.0 106 (C)1. Therefore, the volume of this specimen of Cu at 1000C (V) is equal to
V = V0 + V = V0 + V0 v T = V0 (1 + v T )
= V0 (1 + 3 l T ) = V0 1 + 3 l (T f T0 )

6 1 = (1 cm3 ) 1 + (3) 17.0 10 (C) (1000C 20C)

= 1.04998 cm3

Thus, the density is just the 8.940 g divided by this new volumei.e.,

8.940 g = 8.514 g/cm3 1.04998 cm3

(b) Now we are asked to compute the density at 1000C taking into consideration the creation of vacancies which will further lower the density. To begin, this determination requires that we calculate the number of vacancies using Equation 4.1. But it first becomes necessary to compute the number of Cu atoms per cubic centimeter (NCu) at 1000C using Equation 4.2. Thus,

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N Cu =

NA Cu ACu

(6.022 1023 atoms/mol)(8.514 g/cm3 )


63.55 g/mol

= 8.07 10 22 atoms/cm3

Now, from Equation 4.1, the total number of vacancies, Nv, is computed as
Q N v = N Cu exp v kT 0.90 eV/atom = (8.07 10 22 atoms/cm3 ) exp 5 (8.62 10 eV/K ) (1000 + 273 K) = 2.212 1019 vacancies/cm3

We now want to determine the number of vacancies per unit cell, which is possible if the unit cell volume is multiplied by Nv. The unit cell volume (VC) may be calculated using Equation 3.5 taking n = 4 inasmuch as Cu has the FCC crystal structure. Thus, from a rearranged form of Equation 3.5
nACu Cu NA

VC =

(4 atoms/unit cell)(63.55 g/mol) (8.514 g/cm3 )(6.022 1023 atoms/mol) = 4.958 1023 cm3 /unit cell

Now, the number of vacancies per unit cell, nv, is just


nv = N vVC
=

(2.212

1019 vacancies/cm3 )(4.958 1023 cm3 /unit cell)

= 0.001097 vacancies/unit cell

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What this means is that instead of there being 4.0000 atoms per unit cell, there are only 4.0000 0.001097 = 3.998903 atoms per unit cell. And, finally, the density may be computed using Equation 3.5 taking n = 3.998903; thus

Cu =

nACu VC NA

(3.998903 atoms/unit cell)(63.55 g/mol) (4.958 1023 cm3 /unit cell)(6.022 1023 atoms/mol) = 8.512 g/cm3

Thus, the influence of the vacancies is almost insignificanttheir presence reduces the density by only 0.002 g/cm3 (from 8.514 g/cm3 to 8.512 g/cm3).

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19.12

The difference between the specific heats at constant pressure and volume is described by the expression
c p cv =
2 v v0T

(19.10)

where v is the volume coefficient of thermal expansion, v0 is the specific volume (i.e., volume per unit mass, or the reciprocal of density), is the compressibility, and T is the absolute temperature. Compute the values of cv at room temperature (293 K) for copper and nickel using the data in Table 19.1, assuming that v = 3l and given that the values of for Cu and Ni are 8.35 1012 and 5.51 1012 (Pa)1, respectively. Solution This problem asks that we calculate the values of cv for copper and nickel at room temperature using Equation 19.10, the data in Table 19.1, given that v = 3l, and also values of the compressibility. From Equation 19.10
2 v v0T

cv = c p

And, from Table 19.1 and the problem statement cp(Cu) = 386 J/ kg K cp(Ni) = 443 J/ kg K

v(Cu) = (3)[17.0 106 (C)1] = 5.10 105 (C)1 v(Ni) = (3)[(13.3 106 (C)1] = 3.99 105 (C)1 (Cu) = 8.35 1012 (Pa)1 (Ni) = 5.51 1012 (Pa)1
The specific volume is just the reciprocal of the density; thus, in units of m3/kg
1000 g 1 m 1 3 4 = v0 (Cu) = 3 100 cm = 1.119 10 m /kg 8.94 g/cm kg 1
3

1000 g 1 m 1 3 4 v0 (Ni) = 3 100 cm = 1.124 10 m /kg 8.90 g/cm kg

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Therefore, for copper


cv (Cu) = c p (Cu)
2 v (Cu) v0 (Cu)T (Cu)

4 3 5.10 105 (C) 1 (1.119 10 m /kg) (293 K) = 386 J/kg K 8.35 1012 (N/m 2 ) 1

= 376 J/ kg K And, also for nickel


4 3.99 105 (C) 1 m3 /kg) (293 K) (1.124 10
2

cv (Ni) = 443 J/kg K

5.51 10 12 (N/m 2 ) 1

= 433 J/ kg K

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19.13

To what temperature must a cylindrical rod of tungsten 10.000 mm in diameter and a plate of 316 stainless steel having a circular hole 9.988 mm in diameter have to be heated for the rod to just fit into the hole? Assume that the initial temperature is 25C. Solution This problem asks for us to determine the temperature to which a cylindrical rod of tungsten

10.000 mm in diameter must be heated in order for it of just fit into a 9.988 mm diameter circular hole in a plate of 316 stainless steel, assuming that the initial temperature is 25C. This requires the use of Equation 19.3a, which is applied to the diameters of both the rod and hole. That is
d f d0 d0
= l (T f T0 )

Solving this expression for df yields


d f = d 0 [1 + l (T f T0 )]

Now all we need do is to establish expressions for df (316 stainless) and df (W), set them equal to one another, and solve for Tf. According to Table 19.1, l (316 stainless) = 16.0 106 (C)1 and

l (W) = 4.5 106 (C)1. Thus


d f (316 stainless) = d f (W)
(9.988 mm)[1 + {16.0 10 6 (C) 1}(T f 25C)] = (10.000 mm)[1 + {4.5 10 6 (C) 1}(T f 25C)]

Now solving for Tf gives Tf = 129.5C

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Thermal Conductivity
19.14 (a) Calculate the heat flux through a sheet of steel 10 mm thick if the temperatures at the two faces are 300 and 100C (573 and 373 K); assume steady-state heat flow. (b) What is the heat loss per hour if the area of the sheet is 0.25 m2? (c) What will be the heat loss per hour if sodalime glass instead of steel is used? (d) Calculate the heat loss per hour if steel is used and the thickness is increased to 20 mm. Solution (a) The steady-state heat flux through the plate may be computed using Equation 19.5; the thermal conductivity for steel, found in Table 19.1, is 51.9 W/m K. Therefore,
T x

q =k

(100 + 273 K) (300 + 273 K) = (51.9 W/m K) 10 103 m = 1.04 106 W/m 2

(b) Let dQ/dt represent the total heat loss such that
dQ = qAt dt

where A and t are the cross-sectional area and time, respectively. Thus,
dQ = (1.04 106 J/s m 2 )(0.25 m 2 ) (60 s/min)(60 min/h) dt
= 9.3 108 J/h

(c) If soda-lime glass is used (k = 1.7 W/m K, Table 19.1),


dQ T = k At dt x
200 K = (1.7 J/s m K)(0.25 m 2 ) (3600 s/h) 10 103 m = 3.06 107 J/h

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(d) If the thickness of the steel is increased to 20 mm, then


200 K dQ T = k At = (51.9 W/m K)(0.25 m 2 ) (3600 s/h) dt x 20 103 m

= 4.7 108 J/h

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19.15

(a) Would you expect Equation 19.7 to be valid for ceramic and polymeric materials? Why or why not? (b) Estimate the value for the WiedemannFranz constant L [in W/(K) 2 ] at room temperature (293 K) for the following nonmetals: silicon (intrinsic), glass-ceramic (Pyroceram), fused silica, polycarbonate, and polytetrafluoroethylene. Consult Tables B.7 and B.9 in Appendix B. Solution

(a) Equation 19.7 is not valid for ceramic and polymeric materials since, in the development of this expression, it is assumed that free electrons are responsible for both electrical and thermal conduction. Such is the case for most metals. For ceramics and polymers, free electrons are the primary contributors to the electrical conductivity. However, free electrons do not contribute significantly to the thermal conductivity. For ceramics, thermal conduction is primarily by means of phonons; for polymers, the energy transfer is made by chain vibrations, translations, and rotations. (b) Estimated room-temperature values of L, in W/(K) 2 , for the several materials are determined below. Electrical conductivity values were determined by taking reciprocals of the electrical

resistivities given in Table B.9, Appendix B; thermal conductivities are taken from Table B.7 in the same appendix. (Note: when a range of values is given in these tables, an average value is used in the computation.) For intrinsic silicon
L= k 141 W/m K = = 1203 W/K 2 T 1 2500 ( m) (293 K)

For Pyroceram glass-ceramic 3.3 W/m K L = = 2.3 1012 W/K 2 1 2 1014 ( m) (293 K)

For fused silica


L =
1.4 W/m K = 4.8 1015 W/K 2 1 1018 ( m) (293 K)

For polycarbonate
L =
0.20 W/m K = 1.4 1011 W/K 2 1 2 1014 ( m) (293 K)

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For polytetrafluoroethylene
0.25 W/m K = 8.5 1013 W/K 2 1 1017 ( m) (293 K)

L =

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19.16

Briefly explain why the thermal conductivities are higher for crystalline than noncrystalline ceramics. Solution Thermal conductivities are higher for crystalline than for noncrystalline ceramics because, for

noncrystalline, phonon scattering, and thus the resistance to heat transport, is much more effective due to the highly disordered and irregular atomic structure.

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19.17

Briefly explain why metals are typically better thermal conductors than ceramic materials. Solution Metals are typically better thermal conductors than are ceramic materials because, for metals,

most of the heat is transported by free electrons (of which there are relatively large numbers). In ceramic materials, the primary mode of thermal conduction is via phonons, and phonons are more easily scattered than are free electrons.

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19.18

(a) Briefly explain why porosity decreases the thermal conductivity of ceramic and polymeric materials, rendering them more thermally insulative. (b) Briefly explain how the degree of crystallinity affects the thermal conductivity of polymeric materials and why. Solution

(a) Porosity decreases the thermal conductivity of ceramic and polymeric materials because the thermal conductivity of a gas phase that occupies pore space is extremely small relative to that of the solid material. Furthermore, contributions from gaseous convection are generally insignificant. (b) Increasing the degree of crystallinity of a semicrystalline polymer enhances its thermal conductivity; the vibrations, rotations, etc. of the molecular chains are more effective modes of thermal transport when a crystalline structure prevails.

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19.19

For some ceramic materials, why does the thermal conductivity first decrease and then increase with rising temperature? Solution For some ceramic materials, the thermal conductivity first decreases with rising temperature

because the scattering of lattice vibrations increases with temperature. At higher temperatures, the thermal conductivity will increase for some ceramics that are porous because radiant heat transfer across pores may become important, which process increases with rising temperature.

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19.20

For each of the following pairs of materials, decide which has the larger thermal conductivity. Justify your choices. (a) Pure copper; aluminum bronze (95 wt% Cu5 wt% Al). (b) Fused silica; quartz. (c) Linear polyethylene; branched polyethylene. (d) Random poly(styrene-butadiene) copolymer; alternating poly(styrene-butadiene) copolymer. Solution This question asks for us to decide, for each of several pairs of materials, which has the larger

thermal conductivity and why. (a) Pure copper will have a larger conductivity than aluminum bronze because the impurity atoms in the latter will lead to a greater degree of free electron scattering. (b) Quartz will have a larger conductivity than fused silica because fused silica is noncrystalline (whereas quartz is crystalline) and lattice vibrations are more effectively scattered in noncrystalline materials. (c) The linear polyethylene will have the larger conductivity than the branched polyethylene because the former will have the higher degree of crystallinity. Linear polymers have higher degrees of crystallinity than branched polymers. Since heat transfer is accomplished by molecular chain vibrations, and the coordination of these vibrations increases with percent crystallinity, the higher the crystallinity, the greater the thermal conductivity. (d) The alternating poly(styrene-butadiene) copolymer will have a higher crystallinity than the random copolymer; alternating copolymers crystallize more easily than random ones. crystallinity on conductivity is explained in part (c). The influence of

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19.21

We might think of a porous material as being a composite wherein one of the phases is a pore phase. Estimate upper and lower limits for the room-temperature thermal conductivity of a magnesium oxide material having a volume fraction of 0.30 of pores that are filled with still air. Solution This problem asks that we treat a porous material as a composite wherein one of the phases is

a pore phase, and that we estimate upper and lower limits for the room-temperature thermal conductivity of a magnesium oxide material having a 0.30 volume fraction of pores. The upper limit of k (kupper) may be determined using Equation 16.1 with thermal conductivity substituted for the elastic modulus, E. From Table 19.1, the value of k for MgO is 37.7 W/m K, while for still air in the pore phase, k = 0.02 W/m K (Section 19.4). Thus
k upper = Vp k air + VMgO kMgO

= (0.30)(0.02 W/m K ) + (0.70)(37.7 W/m K ) = 26.4 W/m K

For the lower limit we employ a modification of Equation 16.2 as


k air kMgO Vp kMgO + VMgO k air

k lower =

(0.02 W/m K)(37.7 W/m K) = 0.067 W/m K (0.30)(37.7 W/m K) + (0.70)(0.02 W/m K)

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19.22

Nonsteady-state heat flow may be described by the following partial differential equation:
T 2T = DT 2 t x

where DT is the thermal diffusivity; this expression is the thermal equivalent of Ficks second law of diffusion (Equation 5.4b). The thermal diffusivity is defined according to
k cp

DT =

In this expression, k, , and cp represent the thermal conductivity, the mass density, and the specific heat at constant pressure, respectively. (a) What are the SI units for DT? (b) Determine values of DT for aluminum, steel, aluminum oxide, sodalime glass, polystyrene, and nylon 6,6 using the data in Table 19.1. Density values are included in Table B.1, Appendix B. Solution (a) The units of DT are
DT =

k (J/s m K) = m 2 /s (kg/m3 ) c p (J/kg K)

(b) The values of DT for the several materials are given below. (Note: values for k and cp are taken from Table 19.1; density values are from Table B.1, Appendix B, and converted to units of kilograms per meter cubed): For aluminum
DT = k 247 W/m K = = 1.0 104 m 2 /s cp (2.71 103 kg/m3 ) (900 J/kg K)

For steel
DT =
51.9 W/m K

(7.9 103 kg/m3 ) (486 J/kg K)

= 1.4 10 5 m 2 /s

For aluminum oxide


DT =
39 W/m K = 1.26 105 m 2 /s (4 10 kg/m3 ) (775 J/kg K)
3

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For soda-lime glass


DT =
1.7 W/m K = 8.1 107 m 2 /s 3 (2.5 10 kg/m ) (840 J/kg K)
3

For polystyrene
DT =
0.13 W/m K = 1.06 107 m 2 /s (1.05 10 kg/m3 ) (1170 J/kg K)
3

For nylon 6,6


DT =
0.24 W/m K = 1.3 107 m 2 /s 3 3 (1.14 10 kg/m ) (1670 J/kg K)

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Thermal Stresses
19.23 Beginning with Equation 19.3, show that Equation 19.8 is valid. Solution We want to show that Equation 19.8 is valid beginning with Equation 19.3. examination of Equation 19.3b,
l = l T l0

Upon

it may be noted that the term on the left-hand side is the same expression as that for the definition of engineering strain (Equation 6.2); that is

l l0

Furthermore, elastic stress and strain are related through Hooke's law, Equation 6.5:

= E

Making appropriate substitutions and algebraic manipulations gives


l = = = l T l0 E

Or, solving for

= E l T
which is the form of Equation 19.8.

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19.24

(a) Briefly explain why thermal stresses may be introduced into a structure by rapid heating or cooling. (b) For cooling, what is the nature of the surface stresses? (c) For heating, what is the nature of the surface stresses? Solution

(a)

Thermal stresses may be introduced into a structure by rapid heating or cooling because

temperature gradients will be established across the cross section due to more rapid temperature changes at the surface than within the interior; thus, the surface will expand or contract at a different rate than the interior and since this surface expansion or contraction will be restrained by the interior, stresses will be introduced. (b) For cooling, the surface stresses will be tensile in nature since the interior contracts to a lesser degree than the cooler surface. (c) For heating, the surface stresses will be compressive in nature since the interior expands to a lesser degree than the hotter surface.

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19.25

(a) If a rod of 1025 steel 0.5 m long is heated from 20 to 80C (293 to 353 K) while its ends are maintained rigid, determine the type and magnitude of stress that develops. Assume that at 20C the rod is stress free. (b) What will be the stress magnitude if a rod 1 m long is used? (c) If the rod in part (a) is cooled from 20 to 10C (293 K to 263 K), what type and magnitude of stress will result? Solution

(a) We are asked to compute the magnitude of the stress within a 1025 steel rod that is heated while its ends are maintained rigid. To do this we employ Equation 19.8, using a value of 207 GPa for the modulus of elasticity of steel (Table 6.1), and a value of 12.0 106 (C)1 for l (Table 19.1). Therefore

= E l (T0 T f )
=

(207

12.0 106 (C) 1 (20C 80C) 103 MPa )

= 150 MPa The stress will be compressive since its sign is negative. (b) The stress will be the same [150 MPa], since stress is independent of bar length. (c) Upon cooling the indicated amount, the stress becomes

= E l (T0 T f )
12.0 106 (C) 1 [ (20C (10C) ] = (207 103 MPa)

= +74.5 MPa This stress will be tensile since its sign is positive.

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19.26

A copper wire is stretched with a stress of 70 MPa at 20C (293 K). If the length is held constant, to what temperature must the wire be heated to reduce the stress to 35 MPa. Solution We want to heat the copper wire in order to reduce the stress level from 70 MPa to 35 MPa; in

doing so, we reduce the stress in the wire by 70 MPa 35 MPa = 35 MPa, which stress will be a compressive one (i.e., = 35 MPa). Solving for Tf from Equation 19.8 [and using values for E and l of 110 GPa (Table 6.1) and 17.0 106 (C)1 (Table 19.1), respectively] yields
T f = T0

E l

= 20C

35 MPa (110 10 MPa)[17.0 106 (C) 1 ]


3

= 20C + 19C = 39C (312 K)

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19.27

If a cylindrical rod of nickel 100.00 mm long and 8.000 mm in diameter is heated from 20C to 200C while its ends are maintained rigid, determine its change in diameter. You may want to consult Table 6.1. Solution This problem asks for us to determine the change in diameter of a cylindrical nickel rod

100.00 mm long and 8.000 mm in diameter when it is heated from 20C to 200C while its ends are maintained rigid. There will be two contributions to the diameter increase of the rod; the first is due to thermal expansion (which will be denoted as d1), while the second is from Poisson's lateral expansion as a result of elastic deformation from stresses that are established from the inability of the rod to elongate as it is heated (denoted as d2). The magnitude of d1 may be computed using a modified form of Equation 19.3 as
d1 = d 0 l (T f T0 )

From Table 19.1 the value of l for nickel is 13.3 106 (C)1. Thus,
13.3 106 (C) 1 (200C 20C) d1 = (8.000 mm)

= 0.0192 mm Now, d2 is related to the transverse strain (x) according to a modified form of Equation 6.2 as
d 2 = x d0

Also, transverse strain and longitudinal strain (z) are related according to Equation 6.8:

x = z
where is Poissons ratio. Substitution of this expression for x into the first equation above leads to
d 2 = z d0

Furthermore, the longitudinal strain is related to the modulus of elasticity through Equation 6.5i.e.,

z =

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And, therefore,

d 2 = d0 E

Now, from Equation 19.8 stress is equal to

= E l (T0 T f )

which, when substituted into the preceding equation leads to

E l (T0 T f ) d 2 = = l (T0 T f ) d0 E
Solving for d2 and realizing that, for nickel, = 0.31 (Table 6.1) yields
d 2 = d 0 l (T0 T f )
= (8.000 mm)(0.31) [13.3 10 6 (C) 1 ](20C 200C)

= 0.0059 mm Finally, the total d is just d1 + d2 = 0.0192 mm + 0.0059 mm = 0.0251 mm.

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19.28

The two ends of a cylindrical rod of 1025 steel 75.00 mm long and 10.000 mm in diameter are maintained rigid. If the rod is initially at 25C, to what temperature must it be cooled to have a 0.008-mm reduction in diameter? Solution This problem asks for us to determine to what temperature a cylindrical rod of 1025 steel

75.00 mm long and 10.000 mm in diameter must be cooled from 25C in order to have a 0.008 mm reduction in diameter if the rod ends are maintained rigid. There will be two contributions to the diameter decrease of the rod; the first is due to thermal contraction (which will be denoted as d1), while the second is from Poisson's lateral contraction as a result of elastic deformation from stresses that are established from the inability of the rod to contract as it is cooled (denoted as d2). The magnitude of d1 may be computed using a modified form of Equation 19.3b as
d1 = d 0 l (T f T0 )

Now, d2 is related to the transverse strain (x) according to a modified form of Equation 6.2 as
d 2 = x d0

Also, transverse strain and longitudinal strain (z) are related according to Equation 6.8:

x = z
where is Poissons ratio. Substitution of this expression for x into the first equation above leads to d 2 = z d0

Furthermore, the longitudinal strain is related to the modulus of elasticity through Equation 6.5i.e.,

z =

And, therefore,

d 2 = d0 E

Now, from Equation 19.8 stress is equal to

= E l (T0 T f )
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which, when substituted into the preceding equation leads to

E l (T0 T f ) d 2 = = l (T0 T f ) d0 E
And, solving for d2 from this expression d 2 = d 0 l (T0 T f )

The total d is just d = d1 + d2, and


d = d 0 l (T f T0 ) + d 0 l (T f T0 ) = d 0 l (T f T0 )(1 + )

The values of and l for 1025 steel are 0.30 and 12.0 106 (C)1, respectively (Tables 6.1 and 19.1). Incorporating, into the above equation, these values, as well as those for d, d0, and T0 cited in the problem statement gives
6 1 (0.008 mm) = (10.000 mm) 12.0 10 (C) (T f 25C) (1 + 0.30)

And, finally, solving the above expression for Tf yields Tf = 26.3C.

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19.29

What measures may be taken to reduce the likelihood of thermal shock of a ceramic piece? Solution According to Equation 19.9, the thermal shock resistance of a ceramic piece may be enhanced

by increasing the fracture strength and thermal conductivity, and by decreasing the elastic modulus and linear coefficient of thermal expansion. Of these parameters, f and l are most amenable to alteration, usually be changing the composition and/or the microstructure.

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DESIGN PROBLEMS
Thermal Expansion
19.D1 Railroad tracks made of 1025 steel are to be laid during the time of year when the temperature averages 10C (283 K). If a joint space of 4.6 mm is allowed between the standard 11.9-m long rails, what is the hottest possible temperature that can be tolerated without the introduction of thermal stresses? Solution For these railroad tracks, each end is allowed to expand one-half of the joint space distance, or the track may expand a total of this distance (4.6 mm). Equation 19.3a is used to solve for Tf, where the value l for the 1025 steel [12.0 106 (C)1] is found in Table 19.1. Thus, solving for Tf from Equation 19.3a leads to
Tf = l + T0 l l0

4.6 103 m + 10C 6 1 12.0 10 (C) (11.9 m)

= 32.2C + 10C = 42.2C (315.2 K)

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Thermal Stresses
19.D2 The ends of a cylindrical rod 6.4 mm in diameter and 250 mm long are mounted between rigid supports. The rod is stress free at room temperature [20C (293 K)]; and upon cooling to 40C (233 K); a maximum thermally induced tensile stress of 125 MPa is possible. Of which of the following metals or alloys may the rod be fabricated: aluminum, copper, brass, 1025 steel, and tungsten? Why? Solution This is really a materials selection problem in which we must decide for which of the five metals listed, the stress in the rod will not exceed 125 MPa, when it is heated while its ends are mounted in rigid supports. Upon examination of Equation 19.8, it may be noted that all we need do is to compute the ElT product for each of the candidate materials, and then note for which of them the stress is less than the stipulated maximum. [The value of T is T0 Tf = 20C (40C) = 60C.] These parameters and their product for each of the alloys are tabulated below. (Modulus of elasticity values were taken from Table 6.1, while the l values came from Table 19.1.) Alloy Aluminum Copper Brass 1025 Steel Tungsten

l (C)1
23.6 10 20.0 10 4.5 10
6

E (MPa) 69 10 97 10
3

lET (MPa)
98 112 116 149 110

17.0 106
6

110 103
3

12.0 106
6

207 103 407 10


3

Thus, aluminum, copper, brass, and tungsten are suitable candidates.

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19.D3

(a) What are the units for the thermal shock resistance parameter (TSR)? (b) Rank the following ceramic materials according to their thermal shock resistance: glass-ceramic (Pyroceram), partially stabilized zirconia, and borosilicate (Pyrex) glass. Appropriate data may be found in Tables B.2, B.4, B.6, and B.7 of Appendix B. Solution

(a) This portion of the problem asks that we cite the units for the thermal shock resistance parameter (TSR). From Equation 19.9

TSR =

f ( N/m 2 ) k (W/m K) = W/m E ( N/m 2 ) l (C) 1

(Note: in reducing units in the above expression, we have assumed that units of temperature in K and C are equivalent) (b) Now we are asked to rank glass-ceramic (Pyroceram), partially-stabilized zirconia, and borosilicate (Pyrex) glass as to their thermal shock resistance. Thus, all we need do is calculate, for each, the value of TSR using Equation 19.9. Values of E, f, l, and k are found, respectively, in Tables B.2, B.4, B.6, and B.7, Appendix B. (Note: whenever a range for a property value in these tables is cited, the average of the extremes is used.) For the glass-ceramic
TSR =

f k E l

(247 MPa)(3.3 W/m K) = 1045 W/m 6 1 (120 103 MPa ) 6.5 10 (C)

For partially-stabilized zirconia


TSR =
(1150 MPa)(2.7 W/m K) = 1578 W/m 9.6 106 (C) 1 (205 103 MPa )

And, for borosilicate glass


TSR =
(69 MPa)(1.4 W/m K) = 418 W/m 6 1 (70 103 MPa ) 3.3 10 (C)

Thus, these materials may be ranked according to their thermal shock resistance from the greatest to the least as follows: partially-stabilized zirconia, glass-ceramic, and borosilicate glass.

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19.D4

Equation 19.9, for the thermal shock resistance of a material, is valid for relatively low rates of heat transfer. When the rate is high, then, upon cooling of a body, the maximum temperature change allowable without thermal shock, Tf, is approximately

T f =

f E l

where f is the fracture strength. Using the data in Tables B.2, B.4, and B.6 (Appendix B), determine Tf for a glass-ceramic (Pyroceram), partially stabilized zirconia, and fused silica. Solution We want to compute the maximum temperature change allowable without thermal shock for these three ceramic materials, which temperature change is a function of the fracture strength, elastic modulus, and linear coefficient of thermal expansion. These data and the Tf's are tabulated below. (Values for E, f, and l are taken from Tables B.2, B.4, B.6 in Appendix B.) Material Glass ceramic Zirconia Fused silica

f (MPa)
247 1150 104

E (MPa) 120 103 205 103 73 10


3

l (C)1
6.5 106 9.6 106 0.4 10
6

Tf (C) 317 584 3562

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