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Introduction to Optical Networks

Introduction to Optical Networks

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Introduction to Fiber Optics Fiber Optic Networks PDH Technology SDH Technology SDH Networks Synchronization 

Next Generation SDH Networks Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing Optical Transport Hierarchy ASON Introduction GPON Introduction         

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Introduction to Fiber Optics

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The use of visual signals, as a means for long-distance communication, dates as far back as prehistory when fire signals were used. Fiber-optic communications - New application - Old idea.

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1956, Kapany came up with the concept of a glass-coated, glass rod to prevent light from leaking from the surface of the medium. The outer layer (cladding) must have a lower index of refraction than the inner layer (core) to confine the light inside the core of the rod. This concept is the basis of fiber-optic technology. 1966, Kao and Hockham proposed optical fiber as a suitable transmission medium if losses could be reduced from 1000 dB/km to 20 dB/km. 1970, Corning Glass Works broke the 20 dB/km barrier by producing a fiber with a specification of 17 dB/km loss at 632.8 nm. 1972, the first fiber with only 4 dB/km loss was produced. Today, losses are typically below 0.2 dB/km or 100 times smaller than what Kao and Hockham had originally suggested.

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Introduction to Fiber Optics - History
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1977, US military forces deployed a 2 km, 20 Mb/s fiber-optic link connecting a satellite earth station and a data processing center. 1977, AT&T and GTE installed operational fiber-optic telephone systems. During the early years of fiber-optic development (1977 to 1983), the technology matured rapidly. The development emphasis is now focused on increased transmission rates.

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Introduction to Fiber Optics - Construction

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Introduction to Fiber Optics - Carrier
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The refractive index - The ratio of light velocity in a vacuum to the light velocity in the specific medium. Refraction and Reflection. An optical fiber is a perfect application of the principle of total internal reflection.

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The simplest optical fiber has two concentric layers where the center or core has a higher index of refraction than the external layer or cladding.

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Introduction to Fiber Optics - Advantages
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Enormous bandwidth Economy Ȃ As compared to other Copper Systems Electrical Insulators Ȃ No Interference or cross talk Ȃ Free from EMI and RFI Very Low Signal Loss Ȃ Long distance links Ȃ Low Cost systems due to less repeaters Optical Components Life time Ȃ Generally more than 30 Years Enhanced privacy and Security Ȃ Quantum Cryptography

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Introduction to Fiber ptics Classification
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Criteria; inherent material from which they are made, refractive index profile of the core, and the way light propagates within the core. Selected with respect to different applications and requirements. Made of glass or plastic, although glass is far more common. Single Mode and Multi Mode Fibers: A mode can be thought of as the path that a light signal follows inside a fiber.

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Introduction to Fiber Optics - Classification
Single mode fibers: - Eliminate modal dispersion in long-haul links. - Core is comparable to the signal wavelength - Core diameter of 5 Ɋm to 10 Ɋm, - One mode for the two commonly used wavelength windows centered around 1310 nm and 1550 nm. Multimode fiber: - Large core diameter of 50 Ɋm or 62.5 Ɋm with a typical cladding of 125 Ɋm. -They suffer from inherent pulse spreading, or modal dispersion, caused by the difference in arrival times of the different propagating modes. -This phenomenon limits the usable bandwidth. -Multimode fibers have been very popular and widely used in short links.

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Introduction to Fiber Optics - Attenuation
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One-way drop in power level. Transmission distance between a transmitter and receiver. The attenuation coefficient of typical single mode fibers is about 0.2 dB/km. Cause of Attenuation: Scattering Ȃ Absorption Ȃ Bending. Scattering: light is redirected in all directions upon incidence on imperfections. Absorption: Fiber impurities absorb light energy and dissipate it as heat. Absorption is wavelength-dependent and, in silica-based fiber, high absorption is found at 950 nm, 1250 nm and 1380 nm. Micro-bending losses result from small bumps at the core-cladding interface, which cause optical energy to reflect at angles that do not allow total internal reflection. Macro-bending losses are due to large bends in the fiber.

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Introduction to Fiber Optics - Dispersion
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Broadening of light pulses as they travel through a fiber. Spreading limits the information-carrying capacity of the fiber by merging closely spaced pulses together. Modal, Chromatic and Polarization mode dispersion (PMD). Modal dispersion: difference in arrival times of the different propagating modes. A reduction in the number of modes or paths along which light travels reduces the effects of modal dispersion. Chromatic dispersion (CD) is the result of different wavelengths traveling at different speeds. The degree to which a communication link is affected by CD depends on the spectral width of the emitting source, as well as on the type of fiber used. Light emitting diodes, with larger spectral widths, suffer more CD than emitters with narrow spectral widths, such as lasers.

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Introduction to Fiber Optics - Dispersion
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CD: Step-index single mode silica fibers, point of zero dispersion exists near 1300 nm. Dispersion-shifted fiber uses a more complicated index profile to shift the zero-dispersion wavelength closer to the low-loss 1550 nm transmission window. CD: Overcome with various dispersion-compensating components. PMD: Optical fibers exhibit a small amount of birefringence, i.e. two different propagation times are associated with two main states of polarization. Birefringence arises from ovality of the core and asymmetric mechanical stresses within the material, such as bending. Although PMD has a far lesser impact than CD, it cannot be easily overcome. Can change according to local environmental conditions. PMD becomes a limiting factor for transmission systems reaching rates of 10 Gb/s and beyond.

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Introduction to Fiber Optics - Types
The ITU-T has standardized various fiber types.
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ITU-T G.651 (Multimode Fiber) - 0.8 dB/km at 1310 nm. - For short-reach optical transmission systems. - Can also operate in 850-nm band.

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ITU-T G.652.C and D Low attenuation around the OH peaks. Broad Range of wavelengths 1285 Ȃ 1625 nm Controlled PMD 0.2 dB/Km at 1550 and PMD: 0.1 ps/ξkm

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ITU-T G.652 (Single Mode Fiber Ȃ Most Commonly Deployed)
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ITU-T G.655 - Optimized for DWDM - CD around 4.5 ps/nm-km at 1550 nm - 0.2 dB/Km at 1550 nm and PMD: < 0.1 ps/ξkm

- Optimized for 1310 nm and can also operate in 1550 nm region - CD around 17 ps/nm-km at 1550 nm Ȃ Dispersion compensation must be deployed - 0.2 dB/Km at 1550 nm and PMD: 0.1 ps/ξkm
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ITU-T G.653 (Superseded by G.655) ITU-T G.654 (1550 Loss Minimized - Designed for Undersea Applications)

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Introduction to Fiber Optics Ȃ Communication Systems
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Fiber Span Analyses Transmitter Launch Power Receiver Sensitivity and Dynamic Range Power Budget and Margin Calculations Power budget (PB) = Minimum transmitter power (PTMIN) Ȃ Minimum receiver sensitivity (PRMIN) Span loss (PS) = (Fiber attenuation * km) + (Splice attenuation * Number of splices) + (Connector attenuation * Number of connectors) + (Safety margin) Power margin (PM) = Power budget (PB) Ȃ Span loss (PS) Input power (PIN) = Maximum transmitter power (PTMAX) Ȃ Span loss (PS) The design equation = Input power (PIN) <= Maximum receiver sensitivity (PRMAX)

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Introduction to Fiber Optics Ȃ OTDR

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Fiber Optic Networks

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Fiber Optics Networks Ȃ Technology
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PDH - Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy SDH - Synchronous Digital Hierarchy DWDM - Dense wavelength division multiplexing Ethernet Ȃ Metro Ethernet Ȃ Carrier Ethernet FTTx Ȃ Fiber to the Home , Fiber to the Business etc

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Fiber Optics Networks Ȃ Applications
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Voice Ȃ Video ȂData - National - International

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PDH Technology

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PDH Technology
The term Plesiochronous is derived from Greek plesio, meaning near, and chronos, time, and refers to the fact that PDH networks run in a state where different parts of the network are nearly, but not quite perfectly, synchronized. PDH allows transmission of data streams that are nominally running at the same rate, but allowing some variation on the speed around a nominal rate. No universal standard for electrical interface. There are only some regional standards. Each of them has different electrical interface rate levels, frame structure and multiplexing methods. This makes it difficult for international interconnect. No universal or regional standard for optical interface as well. Different vendors use different line codes. This causes many difficulties for network structuring, management, and network interconnection.

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PDH Technology
Step-by-step multiplexing/de-multiplexing. This method increases the cost, power consumption, complexity, and the impairment to the signal and decreases the transmission performance. Few overhead bytes used for operation, administration and maintenance function. No Universal network management interface. Different vendors provide different network management systems. This is an obstacle in forming an integrated Telecommunication Management Network.

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PDH Technology
PDH signals with a higher transmission rate are obtained by multiplexing several lower-rate signals. MULTIPLEX Operation: four input signals with the same nominal bit rate are combined to form multiplex signal and then relayed to the receive side via one common transmission path. DEMUX Operation: On the receive side, the sum signal is again distributed to the corresponding outputs. Standardized Bit Rates in the Plesiochronous digital hierarchy " PDH Dz - Three multiplex hierarchies are implemented world-wide. PDH Ȃ American Standard PDH Ȃ European Standard PDH Ȃ Japanese Standard

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PDH Technology
Low-rate signals cannot be directly added or dropped from high-rate signals. Therefore, adding and dropping must be conducted level by level.

Bit Interleaving Ȃ Bit by Bit Multiplexing

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PDH Technology
Multiplexing of PDH Signals

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SDH Technology

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SDH Technology
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A frame structure which would allow the transmission of different data rate signals specified by different PDH Standards. All the link sections are synchronous to each other. STM-1 (Synchronous Transport Module-I) with 155.520M as the base signal. All multiplex levels in the SDH are positive integer multiples of the base signal STM-1. World-wide uniform concept for the transmission of 155 Mbit data signals was provided.

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SDH Technology - Advantages
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A variety of Telecommunication services. Large Capacity Integrated and Intelligent Networks. Universal Interfaces (wherever and whenever access Network) SDH provides universal standards for both electrical and optical interfaces, including standards on: Digital signal rate levels Frame Structure Multiplexing Method Monitoring and Management

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A lower-rate signals can be directly added or dropped from higher-rate signals. Abundant overheads bits or OAM function are arranged in the frame structure of SDH signals.

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SDH Technology Ȃ The Frame

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SDH Technology - Frame
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The two-dimensional representation of an STM-1 frame includes 9 rows with 270 Bytes each.(125 micro second length for 2430 bytes)

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SDH Technology - Frame
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An STM-1 fame consists of the three blocks:

SOH: Section overhead Pointer (PTR): Indicates the start address of the tributary information. Payload: Tributary signals/information

An STM-1 frame is repeated 8000 times per second. Thus, every byte in an STM-1 frame has a transmission capacity of 64kbit/s

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SDH Technology - Interleaving
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Multiplex Technique: The SDH uses the method of Byte Interleaving to generate the multiplex sum signal out of the sub-signals I and II.

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SDH Technology - Interleaving
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Through byte-interleaving of NxSTM-1 frames, one STM-N frame is obtained e.g. 4xSTM-1 ----> 1xSTM-4

New frame is also 125 microsecond long. (data rate is increased)

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SDH Technology - Mapping

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SDH Technology Ȃ Mapping 140 Mbit/s to STM-1
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Prior to its transmission in the STM-1 frame, the 140 Mbit PDH signal is interleaved into a container C-4. The position of the signal bits in the container is exactly defined. The term " mapping" describes this fixed bit arrangement. The size of the container C-4 amounts to 2340 byte. For a better understanding a two dimensional representation of the container is shown below (9x260) A C-4 is provided as network-synchronous transmission capacity every 125micro second.

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SDH Technology - Mapping 140 Mbit/s to STM-1
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A comparison of the number of possible, usable bits per container C-4: 260 bytes x9= 18720 bits and the number of bits (nominal bit rate: 139.264 Mbit/s) actually to be transmitted per container: = 139.264 Mbit/s: 8000 Hz = 17408 bit. This reveals an overcapacity of the C-4:

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SDH Technology - Mapping 140 Mbit/s to STM-1
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In order to transmit the container C-4 in the STM-1, container-specific supplementing must be effected: The C-4 includes a "path overhead" POH with a size of 9 bytes. The block resulting from the C-4 and the POH is called Virtual Container 4 = VC-4

The route a container and its overhead take through the SDH network is also called "path". The path is defined by the operator: At the beginning of the path, every container is assigned an identity, which can be checked at the end of the path.

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SDH Technology - Mapping 140 Mbit/s to STM-1
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There is a floating embedding of the virtual container VC-4 into the STM-1 frame of the payload, i.e. part of the virtual container VC-4 is transmitted in one STM-1 frame, and another part in the next frame. The pointer PTR indicates the start of the virtual container VC-4 in the payload. That component of the STM-1 , inside which the VC-4 is able to "float" and which is made up of PTR and payload , is designated : Administrative Unit 4: AU-4 (Payload + PTR)

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SDH Technology - Mapping 140 Mbit/s to STM-1
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In the AU-4, the pointer is abbreviated AU-4 PTR. To complete the STM-1 frame, the SOH is added to the AU-4.

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SDH Technology - Mapping 3x34 Mbit/s to STM-1
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Prior to its transmission in the STM-1 frame, the 34 Mbit/s PDH signal is interleaved into a container C-3 (=mapping). (9x84) A C-3 is provided as network-synchronous transmission capacity every 125 micro seconds.

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SDH Technology - Mapping 3x34 Mbit/s to STM-1
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A comparison of the number of possible, usable bits per container C-3 9-Byte x 84 = 6084 bits

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And the number of bits (nominal bit rate: 34.368 Mbit/s) actually to be transmitted per container: = 34.368 Mbit: 8000Hz = 4296 bits

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This reveals an over-capacity of the container C-3: The reason for the over-capacity is a recommendation by ITU-T specifying that the transmission of a 44.736 Mbit signal ANSI must also be carried out in the container C-3. = 44.736 Mbit: 8000 Hz: 5593 bit.

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When considering the number of payload bits per STM-1 frame: 9 byte x 261 x 8 = 18720 bits

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SDH Technology - Mapping 3x34 Mbit/s to STM-1
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It emerges that only three C-3 (3x6048 bit) at maximum can be transmitted per STM-1 frame; This means only 3x34mb instead of the 4x34 Mbit which can be transmitted in a 140 Mbit PDH signal.

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SDH Technology - Mapping 3x34 Mbit/s to STM-1
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The transmission of three C-3 in the STM-1 requires some container-specific supplementing to be effected for every C-3. Every C-3 receives a POH with a size of 9 byte. The block resulting from the C-3 and POH is called VC-3: (85x9) bytes Every virtual container VC-3 is assigned a 3-byte pointer PTR, which allows the VC-3 to float.(3x1)

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The area in which the VC-3 can float with the aid of the PTR is called Tributary Unit 3 = TU-3 The 3-byte pointer in the TU-3 is called TU-3 pointer. The PTR contains an address which indicates the start of the VC-3 in The TU-3.

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SDH Technology - Mapping 3x34 Mbit/s to STM-1
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A tributary unit TU-3 is always supplemented with six Fixed justification bytes which do not contain any information. The block resulting from the TU-3 and the fixed justification bytes is called TUG-3 (86x9)

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SDH Technology - Mapping 3x34 Mbit/s to STM-1
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The three resulting TUG-3 #1, #2, #3 are byte-interleaved into the VC-4 (=higher order VC) 3x (86x9) To adjust the three bytes-interleaved TUG-3 to the VC-4 it is necessary to add two columns of fixed justification bytes.

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SDH Technology - Mapping 3x34 Mbit/s to STM-1
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The VC-4 is transmitted directly in the STM-1 frame payload.

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SDH Technology - Mapping 63x2 Mbit/s to STM-1
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2 Mbit PDH signal is interleaved into a container C-12 (=mapping) The size of the container C-12 amounts to 34byte.b(9x4-2) A C-12 is provided as network-synchronous transmission capacity every 125 micro seconds.

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SDH Technology - Mapping 63x2 Mbit/s to STM-1
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Comparison of the number of possible, usable bits per container C-12 = 34 bytes x 8 = 272 bits And the number of bits (normal bit rate; 2048 Mbit) actually to be transported per container: = 2048mb: 8000: 256 bits, This reveals an over-capacity of the container C-12:

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SDH Technology - Mapping 63x2 Mbit/s to STM-1
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In order to transmit 63 containers C-12 in the STM-1 frame, containerspecific supplementing is necessary for every C-12: A POH with the size of 1-byte is added to every C-12: POH=1x1 There can be four different POH bytes for one C-12: V5, J2, Z6, Z7 Every C-12 contains one of these POH bytes in each case, which are assigned alternately, i.e. each of these POH bytes is repeated every 500 micro seconds (=4x125micro second) The combination of a container C-12 and a POH byte, is called: Virtual Container: VC-12 The block resulting from 4xC-12 plus the POH (V5, J2, Z6, Z7) is called; Multi-frame VC-12 A multi-frame VC-12 is transmitted via four or five STM-1 frames.

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SDH Technology - Mapping 63x2 Mbit/s to STM-1
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That component, inside which the multi-frame VC-12 can "float" with the aid of a pointer, is termed multi-frame TU-12. The four pointer bytes also count as part of the multi-frame TU-12. (TU-12 pointer) Every 125 micro second, one pointer byte is transmitted, i.e. the transmission of the complete pointer takes 500 micro seconds. The first two pointer bytes contain an address indicating the start of the multi-frame VC-12. The area inside which a multi-frame VC-12 is able to float starts after PTR-2 and ends 1 byte before the next PTR-2.

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SDH Technology - Mapping 63x2 Mbit/s to STM-1
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Three TU-12 (=3x2 Mbit signals) from different multi-frames TU-12 are multiplexed byte-by-byte to form a "Tributary Unit Grou-2" TUG-2. (12x9 bytes)

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SDH Technology - Mapping 63x2 Mbit/s to STM-1
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In a next step, seven TUG-2 (=21x2 Mbit signals) are combined to form a TUG-3, i.e. byte interleaved. To adjust the seven byteinterleaved TUG-2 to the TUG-3, a column of fixed justification bytes is added. The TU-3 pointer of a VC-3 is a "Null pointer indicator" NPI. The three resulting TUG-3 are byte interleaved into a VC-4. Remaining mapping remains the same (3x34 Mbit) towards STM-1.

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SDH Technology - Mapping Summary

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SDH Technology - Pointers

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SDH Technology Ȃ Pointers Ȃ AU-4 Pointer
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In the SDH, a Pointer (PTR) indicates the beginning of a Virtual Container (VC) The AU pointer block comprises 9 bytes, 3 of which are used to address a VC-4 (AU-4 pointer) The AU-4 pointer thus addresses only every third payload byte. (Address range 0-782) The address range inside which the VC-4 is able to float starts right after the AU-4 pointer block with the address-0 and extends until address 782 in the next STM-1 frame.

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SDH Technology Ȃ Pointers Ȃ TU-3 Pointer
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In each of the 3 tributary unit TU, one VC-3 is able to float. For this, every VC-3 employs a 3-byte pointer TU-3 PTR. The address range for the individual VC-3 starts directly after the H3 bytes with address 0 and ends with address 764.

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SDH Technology Ȃ Pointers Ȃ TU-12 Pointer
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The pointer TU-12 addresses a multi-frame VC-12, which enables this VC-12 to float in the multi-frame TU-12. The pointer bytes PTR1-PTR4 are designated V1-V4. The address range for a VC-12 multi-frame starts after the pointer byte with the address 0 and ends before the next pointer byte V2 with the address 139.

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SDH Technology - Overheads

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SDH Technology - Overheads
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In the SDH, a distinction is made between SOH and POH. The upper block of an SDH is called Regenerator SOH. Regenerator-SOH is evaluated and regenerated in the Regenerators. The MSOH is switched through the regenerator and evaluated only in the MUX.

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SDH Technology - Overheads

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Framing Bytes These six bytes have a fixed bit sequence and are used as frame alignment signal for one STM-1. A1= 11110110 A2= 00101000 C1: STM-1 identification byte Every STM-1 frame is assigned an identification number before being multiplexed to an STM-N. During De-multiplexing, the identification is used for determining or checking the position of the individual STM-1 in the STM-N.

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SDH Technology - Overheads
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Regenerator Section BIP-8 Byte The B1 byte transmits a parity code, which is used for bit error monitoring on STM-1 regenrator sections. The B1 byte is transmitted only in STM-1 # 1 of an STM-N. It is evaluated at each Regenerator section and regenerated.

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SDH Technology - Overheads
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Order-wire bytes These two bytes provide service channels and can be used for voice communication 64kbit/s in each case The E1 byte is used as a voice channel between regenerator. E2 byte is used between Muxes. E1 and E2 are defined in STM-1 of an STM-N signal only.

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SDH Technology - Overheads
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User channel Byte The F1 byte is reserved for the network operator and can be used as 64k auxiliary channel e.g. data communication via PC this byte, too, is only transmitted in STM-1 #1 of an STM-N signal.

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SDH Technology - Overheads
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Data Com channel bytes DCC These twelve bytes are provided for the transport of monitoring and control data in a network management system. D1..D3 are DCCr. D4..D12 are DCCm.

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SDH Technology - Overheads
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Multiplex Section BIP-24 Bytes. The three B2 bytes transmit a parity code used for bit error monitoring on multiplex section. All B2 bytes are defined for transmission of an STM-N signal.

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SDH Technology - Overheads
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Automatic protection switching bytes APS. The entire K1 byte as well as bit 1-5 of the K2 byte can be used for an automatic, bi-directional 1+1 switchover to a standby line. The bytes k1 and k2 are transmitted only in the STM-1 #1 of an STM-N signal.

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SDH Technology - Overheads
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K1:K2

Multiplex section AIS (MS-AIS) Multiplex section FAR end receive failure (MS-FERF)

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The bits 6,7 and 8 of the K2 byte fulfill error indication functions. If these bits are set to 111 and then transmitted, the receiver interprets the message as MS-AIS If these bits are set to 110 and then transmitted, the receiver interprets the message MS-FERF (bit error greater than 10 ^ -3

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SDH Technology - Overheads
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Synchronization status message byte The S1 byte is used for synch of a network and is transmitted only in the STM-1 #1 synch status message. This byte indicates the quality of the incoming cock and can thus synchronize an entire network like in a chain reaction. In order to avoid synch loops, the content of S1 in the backward direction is always " do not use for synch"

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SDH Technology - Overheads

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These bytes are of the MSOH are provided for future functions as yet undefined by ITU-T MS-FEBE (Far end block error byte) By evaluating the 3xB2, the M1 byte can report back the number of parity code violations, when BER is greater than 10 ^ -6

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SDH Technology Ȃ Overheads Ȃ STM-4 Signal
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Frame alignment signal A1 and A2 of every single STM-1 frame are transmitted in the MS of STM-4. The STM-1 identification C1 of every single sTM-1 fame is transmitted in MS. The B2 bytes of every single STM-1 is transmitted in MS. K1 and K2 of the first STM-1 are only transmitted. B1 byte of only first STM-1 is transmitted. E1 and E2 are only in first STM-1 is transmitted. The user channel F1 is only in first channel. STM1. The DCC of only first STM-1 are transmitted. The S1 of only first STM-1 is transmitted. The Z1 and Z2 bytes of every single STM-1 is transmitted in the MS. The M1 byte is transmitted at the position of the third Z2 byte in the MS of STM-4.

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SDH Technology - Overheads
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ETSI has specified three POH in the SDH

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SDH Technology - Overheads
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VC-4 Path Overheads

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SDH Technology - Overheads
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Using the J1 byte, every path can be assigned a trace. This trace enables the path to be trailed through the SDH Network. This is of particular importance in the case of cross-connect controlled through-connections.

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The B3 byte transmits the parity code of an VC-4. The bytes is generated at the beginning of the path and is evaluated only at the end of the path. The bit error monitoring is performed in accordance with a parity procedure.

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SDH Technology - Overheads
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The C2 byte indicates type and composition of the VC-4 tributary information.

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The G1 byte is used to report back the fault from path end to path start.

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SDH Technology - Overheads
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Path user channel byte

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Multi-frame indicator byte for TU-12

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These 3 bytes of the VC-4 POH are reserved for future purposes which ITU-T has not yet defined.

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SDH Technology - Overheads
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VC-3 Path Overhead The H4 byte is used for ANSI hierarchy signals only. The C2 byte indicates the type and composition of the VC-3 tributary information. (34 Mbit, TUG with ANSI signals or unused)

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SDH Technology - Overheads
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VC-12 Path Overhead

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SDH Technology - Overheads

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The V5 byte is used for bit error monitoring, signal detection and path status indication on the VC-12. Bits 1 and 2 carry the parity code of a VC-12. It is generated at the beginning of a path and evaluated only at the end of the path. Bit 3 is set to 1 and returned in the opposite direction if one or more errors were detected via the BIP-2=path far end block error. Bits 5 to 7 indicates the type and composition of the VC-12 tributary information. 000: Unused VC-12 010: Asynchronous 2 Mbit signal in the VC-12 (no direct access to the individual TS possible) 100: Byte-synchronous 2 Mbit signal in the VC-12 (direct access to the individual TS possible) Bit 8 is an alarm indicator and is returned as 1 in the opposite direction if: No valid signal or an AIS A wrongly through-connected path J2 Was received in the VC-12 = path far end receive failure.

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SDH Technology Ȃ Error Monitoring

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SDH Technology Ȃ Error Monitoring
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A special parity procedure is employed for bit error monitoring in an SDH signal/path, the so-called bit interleaved parity procedure (BIP).

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SDH Technology - Overheads
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BIP code is generated in following way: for example BIP-4 Code. The message to be monitored (test block) is subdivided into " 4-bit units" and passed to the parity generators. The generators generate a code to be used as BIP-4 parity.

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SDH Technology - Overheads
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BIP-N Code: On the transmit side of an SDH system, a code world (e.g B1=BIP-8 Code) is generated via a test block STM-N frame # 1 and is inserted in the next test block STM-N frame #2.

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On the receive side, too, a Code word is generated on the basis of the same procedure, and is then compared to the code word on the transmit side.

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SDH Technology - AIS
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Alarm indication Signal AIS

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AIS is sent in the forward direction, if urgent line alarms were detected in the MUX/REG. If BER > 10^-3 at the entry point of the MUX then MUX must send AIS on forward path. There are two types of AIS: Path AIS: e.g with the VC-4 the entire AU-4 including the pointer is set to 1. Section AIS: Bites, 6, 7 and 8 of the K2 in the MSOH are set to "111". AIS is sent in the forward direction if the following conditions are detected in the MUX/REG: PATH AIS: B3 BER > 10^-4 : No signal in the VC-4: Wrong path trace in J1 byte: Path AIS already received Loss of frame alignment (in regens): Internal functional disturbances in the MUX/REG systems.

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SECTION AIS: Section AIS already received (in regens): NO signal in the STM-N ( in regens):

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SDH Technology Ȃ FEBE (REI)
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FEBE Example

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SDH Technology Ȃ FERF (RDI)
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FERF Example

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SDH Technology Ȃ AIS
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AIS Example

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SDH Technology Ȃ Maintenance Interactions

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SDH Technology Ȃ Maintenance Interactions

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SDH Networks

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SDH Networks Ȃ Network Elements

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SDH Networks Ȃ Transport Design

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SDH Networks Ȃ Circuit Provisioning

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SDH Networks Ȃ Topology Structures
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An SDH Network consists of Network Elements interconnected with optical fiber. The efficiency, reliability and the cost-effectiveness of the Network highly depend on its topology. SDH Networks topology structures can be classified intoǥ

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Chain Networks Star Networks Tree Networks Ring Networks Mesh Networks

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SDH Networks Ȃ Chain Networks
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In Chain Networks, all the Nodes are connected one after another on a line with both ends open. Chain Networks are used when the networks nodes are arranged in a long line, e.g. along railway lines, highways, power supply lines, etc. Advantages: Economical to build: easy to operate, administrate and maintain. Disadvantages: Services are difficult to protect.

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SDH Networks Ȃ Star Networks
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In Star Networks there is a central node to which all the other nodes are directly connected. There are no direct links between other nodes. Start Networks are mainly used in access networks or rural telephone networks in which nodes are scattered here and there and the services are not very important. Advantages: Capability of managing the bandwidth comprehensively and flexibility. Disadvantage: Potential bottleneck of the bandwidth at the central Node. An equipment failure of the central node may cause breakdown of the entire network.

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SDH Networks Ȃ Tree Networks
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A tree network can be considered as a combination of the chain and the star topologies. Tree Networks are suitable for broadcast Networks. Advantages are similar to those of chain and star Networks Disadvantages: Not suitable for bi-directional services.

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http://www.blogvlog.info

SDH Technology Ȃ Ring Networks
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Ring Networks are such structures in which all nodes are connected one after another to form a circle. Ring Networks are widely used in SDH Networking due to its high survivability. Advantages: High survivability High reliability Disadvantage To implement self-healing ability, the network nodes must be configured very complex. Difficult to maintain.

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SDH Technology Ȃ Mesh Networks
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Mesh Networks are such structures in which many nodes are interconnected together via direct links. Advantages: No traffic bottleneck problem exists Highly reliable Disadvantages: Complicated Costly Difficult to maintain.

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SDH Technology Ȃ Sub-Networks
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The concept of sub-networks is introduced in order to facilitate network topology management, security management, tributary interface expansion and service management. In practical applications, it simplifies the topology structure of complicated networks and thus enables hierarchical management. In backbone networks or large region networks, there are a large number of NEs and links. In order to simplify the networks management, a large network can be divided into several sub-Networks according to the administrative regions.

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SDH Technology Ȃ Survivable Networks
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A Network that is capable of restoring services within a very short period and without any human intervention in the event of a failure is called a survivable network. Requirements for survivability of a Network includesǥ Standby Routes Powerful cross-connect capacity Intelligence of NEs Classification of Protection Mechanisms: Linear Multiplex Section Protection: 1+1 Protection : 1:N Protection Protection Rings: Multiplex Section Protection (MSP) Rings 2-Fiber bi-directional MSP Ring Sub-network connection protection (SNCP)

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SDH Technology Ȃ Survivable Networks - 2xFiber MSSPRing
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If a fault occurs between neighboring elements B and C, network elements triggers protection switching and control the network by means of the K1 and K2 bytes in the SOH. Switching Time < 50ms Maximum Nodes in the Ring = 16 Maximum Ring Length < 1200 Km

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SDH Technology - Survivable Networks - 2xFiber MSSPRing

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SDH Technology - Survivable Networks - 2xFiber MSSPRing

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SDH Technology Ȃ Survivable Networks - 2xFiber MSSPRing
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Special Case: Transoceanic Links

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SDH Technology Ȃ Survivable Networks - SNCP
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SNCP is mainly used for protecting services across sub-networks. Protection is realized by implementing Dzconcurrent sending and selective receivingdz function. Restoration Time < 50 ms No limit on the no of NEs. No limit on the length of Fiber Optic Network.

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SDH Networks - Synchronization

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SDH Technology - Synchronization

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SDH Technology - Synchronization

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SDH Technology - Synchronization

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SDH Technology - Synchronization

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SDH Technology - Synchronization

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SDH Technology - Synchronization

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SDH Technology - Synchronization

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Next-Generation SDH Networks

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Next-Generation SDH Networks
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NG SDH = classic SDH + [GFP+VCAT+LCAS]

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Inexpensive Interfaces High Bit Rates Packet Friendly Subscribers are familiar with ETHERNET Most have their transport infrastructure entirely based on SDH/SONET. There is a lot of experience in managing SDH/SONET.

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Next-Generation SDH Networks Ȃ Packet Friendly

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Next-Generation SDH Networks
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The Next Generation of SDH/SONET is offering: Data-packet interfaces TDM interfaces New functionalities The objective is: To support efficiently any type of traffic (including data packets) Get the best of Legacy SDH including:
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- resiliency - reliability - scalability - centralized management - rerouting

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SDH cannot be considered anymore as a Dzlegacy technologydz: The evolution to Next Generation SDH is the future Future proof at least for the next 10 years NG SDH can deliver packet and TDM services Carriers are already migration from static, circuit-oriented SDH to Multiservice NG SDH packet-friendly

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Next-Generation SDH Networks Ȃ Network Elements

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Next-Generation SDH Networks Ȃ Choosing the Best Standard
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A judicious combination of standards is required to successfully deploy Ethernet as a WAN technology. Privacy and security must be assured. Point-to-Point link or a complex mesh. Support: IEEE 802.1Q VLAN tagging, CoS, Uni-cast, Multi-cast and broadcast services. Common popular Ethernet standards that are already deployed in most subscribersǯ LANs.

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Next-Generation SDH Networks
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GFP (Generic Framing Protocol) Encapsulation procedure for the transport of packetized data on SDH/SONET. VCAT (Virtual Concatenation) Assigns granular bandwidth sizes rather than the exponential provision of the Contiguous Concatenation. LCAS (Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme) Modify dynamically the allocated VCAT bandwidth by adding/removing members of a pipe in use. Diversity or Traffic resilience.

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Next-Generation SDH Networks - GFP

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Next-Generation SDH Networks Ȃ GFP

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Next-Generation SDH Networks - Concatenation
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Concatenation is the process of summing the bandwidth of X containers of the same type into a larger container. There are two concatenation methods: (I) Contiguous concatenation (II) Virtual concatenation

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Next-Generation SDH Networks - Concatenation
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Contiguous and Virtual Concatenation

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Next-Generation SDH Networks - Concatenation
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Contiguous vs. Virtual Concatenation

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Next-Generation SDH Networks - LCAS

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ITU-T as G.7042, designed to manage the bandwidth allocation of a VCAT path. LCAS can add and remove members of a VCG that control a VCAT channel. LCAS cannot adapt the size of the VCAT channel according to the traffic pattern.

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Next-Generation SDH Networks - LCAS

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Next-Generation SDH Networks - MPLS
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Multi-Protocol Label Switching may be used as the workhorse of the Ethernet network. End-to-end services. Statistical gain. Partitioning of subscriber traffic. Quality-of-Service (QoS). Service Level Agreements (SLAs). MPLS creates virtual pathways called Label Switched Paths (LSPs). Bandwidth class and a Service grade: The bandwidth class specifies the sustained and peak bandwidth guarantees. The service grade determines the delay, jitter, and drop precedence aspects.
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Real-time or Expedited Forwarding Business Data With or Without Burst Best-Effort

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Next-Generation SDH Networks - MPLS

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Next-Generation SDH Networks - MPLS

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Next-Generation SDH Networks - MPLS

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Next-Generation SDH Networks - MPLS

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Next-Generation SDH Networks

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Next-Generation SDH Networks - Migration

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It is only necessary to migrate the edges to get a full Next Generation SDH network IT IS TODAYǯS BEST COMBINATION FOR DATA AND CIRCUIT TRANSPORT

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Next-Generation SDH Networks - Unification
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Unifies and standardizes transport infrastructure for any type of client network - Ethernet, PDH, Frame Relay, UMTS, etc Universal standard: multivendor Reduces the number of network elements needed to provide advanced services Competitive and cheaper Simplifies the management because of centralized configurations

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Next-Generation SDH Networks
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Just a few carriers and operators around the world are setting up Core Networks removing SDH and relying only on Ethernet and/or DWDM It has always been difficult to justify in economic, technical and management terms a completely new separate network. Ethernet reduces leased access costs SDH resilience is critical to deliver 24/365 Ethernet services Next Generation network (such as MSPP, MSSP) elements will be as fundamental to telecom networks in the coming decade as routers were to the Internet of the 90s

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DWDM - Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing

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DWDM Ȃ Why?

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The Challenges of Todayǯs Telecommunication Network Resolving the Capacity Crisis Capacity Expansion and Flexibility Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM)

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DWDM - Principal

Single fiber unidirectional trunk

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DWDM - NEs

1.OTM 2.OADM 3.OLA 4.REG

O T M OADM

O T M

R E G

R E G

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DWDM - Architecture

SDH

OTM

OLA

OLA

OTM

SDH

SDH

OTM

OADM

SDH

SDH

OTM

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OTH - Optical Transport Hierarchy

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Optical Transport Hierarchy
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The OTN architecture has been defined in the ITU-T G.872 standard and the interfaces under G.709. The standards allow for multiple client signals, including SONET/SDH, GFP mapped data signals (Ethernet, Fiber Channel, ESCON, FICON) and ATM client protocols to be mapped into an Optical Data Unit (ODU). These can then be multiplexed onto a single Optical Channel (OCh), allowing for multiple services to be delivered over a single wavelength.

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Optical Transport Hierarchy
OTN introduces several enhancements to the transport network including:  Flexible multiplexing/de-multiplexing of services onto an Optical Channel (OCh), including standards based support for 40Gbit/ and above.  Powerful Forward Error Correction (FEC) techniques, improving the optical performance of the platform and extending the reach and distance between regeneration sites. Transparent transport of timing and synchronization signals.

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ASON Introduction

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ASON Introduction
Service still alive after several times fiber broken !!!
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ISB

PWR
1 2 4

LHR

FBD

MUL
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Fiber Cut Cases: 1. Fiber cut 1 occurred 2. Fiber cut 2 and Fiber cut 3 occurred 3. Fiber cut 4 occurred 4. Fiber cut 5 occurred 5. «....

KHI

HYD

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ASON Introduction
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ASON (Automatic switch optical Network) High reliability next generation optical transmission network with automatic topology and resource discovery, end to end service management and multiple SLA provision functions. Rapid service supply Bandwidth utilization Service protection and dynamic service restoration Discovers the topology and resources automatically Provides mesh networking Supports different services which are provided with different levels of protection Protection and Restoration Reduction of operation cost Real-time network management

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ASON Introduction Ȃ Network Structure
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Network Structure

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ASON Introduction - Components
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RSVP-TE: Resource Reservation Protocol-Traffic Engineering OSPF-TE: Open Shortest Path First-Traffic Engineering LMP Link Management Protocol

http://www.blogvlog.info

ASON Introduction Ȃ LSP Creation
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LSP Creation

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ASON Introduction - Services
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Diamond Services

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Gold Services

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Tunnel Services

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Silver Service

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ASON Introduction Ȃ Service Comparison
Diamond Service Service Level Protection Policy permanent 1+1 protection Odd time: 1:1Protection Even time: restoration Automatically rerouting in Real-time No protection No protection& preempted Gold Service Silver Service Copper Service Iron Service

Protection Time

<50mS

Protection Ƶ50ms RestorationƵ2 s M edium

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Bandwidth Utilization

Low

High

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Very High

Revenue

Service customer

Banking, Enterprises Customers, Airlines, Governmental leased lines

PSTN, GSM Voice Services

Residential users, Internet data, low priority leased lines

Temporary service , Festival burst service

Temporary low cost preempted Service

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