CHAPTER 22

Nuclear Chemistry II. Radioactive Decay
I II III IV

(p. 705 - 712)

A. Types of Radiation
 Alpha particle (α)  helium nucleus  Beta particle (β-)  electron  Positron (β+)  positron
4 2 0 -1

He
10 +1

2+

paper

e

lead

e

1+ 0
concrete

 Gamma (γ)  high-energy photon

B. Nuclear Decay
 Alpha Emission
238 92

U→

234 90

Th + He
4 2

parent nuclide

daughter nuclide

alpha particle

Numbers must balance!!

B. Nuclear Decay
 Beta Emission
131 53

I→

131 54

Xe + e
0 -1

 Positron Emission
38 19

electron

K→

38 18

Ar +

0 +1

e
positron

B. Nuclear Decay
 Electron Capture
106 47

Ag + e →
0 -1

106 46

Pd

 Gamma Emission  Usually follows other types of decay.  Transmutation  One element becomes another.

electron

B. Nuclear Decay
 Why nuclides decay…  need stable ratio of neutrons to protons
238 92

U→ I→ K→

234 90

Th + He
4 2

131 53 38 19

131 54 38 18

Xe + e
0 -1 0 +1

Ar +

e

106 47

Ag + e →
0 -1

106 46

Pd

DECAY SERIES TRANSPARENCY

C. Half-life
 Half-life (t½)  Time required for half the atoms of a radioactive nuclide to decay.  Shorter half-life = less stable.

C. Half-life

mf = m ( )

1 n i 2

mf: final mass mi: initial mass n: # of half-lives

C. Half-life
 Fluorine-21 has a half-life of 5.0 seconds. If you start with 25 g of fluorine-21, how many grams would remain after 60.0 s?

GIVEN:

WORK:

t½ = 5.0 s mi = 25 g mf = ? total time = 60.0 s n = 60.0s ÷ 5.0s =12

mf = mi (½)n mf = (25 g)(0.5)12 mf = 0.0061 g

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