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Cesar Lemus Rangel Psychology

Sigmund Freud
 One of the most important
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psychologists of all times is Sigmund Freud. Sigmund Freud was born May 6, 1856, in Freiberg in Moravia. Freud studied in the University of Vienna (1881) Founder of psychoanalysis; Conscious & Unconscious Mind Psychoanalytic Therapy Dream theory Psychosexual theory Freudian slips Free Association

 Psychoanalysis can be defined as a

therapy that strives to help people get the perspective of their life. Psychoanalysis by the year 19161917.

 Sigmund Freud founded

 Freud's aim was to release repressed

experiences and emotions, by making the unconscious conscious, by using psychoanalysis therapy.
 Psychoanalysis is mostly used to treat

anxiety disorders and depression.

Conscious & Unconscious Mind
 Sigmund Freud made popular the idea

of humans having a conscious and unconscious mind. According to McLeod (2007), “Freud believed that people could be cured by making conscious their unconscious thoughts and motivations”  He stated that the conscious mind is what we humans are aware of for example our thoughts, memories, feelings and fantasies. • The unconscious mind is what we humans are not aware of or are not easy to notice, such as our drives or instincts and the memories and emotions based with trauma.

 Freud as a psychoanalytic psychologist believed that

the psychological problems were found in the unconscious mind.

 Freud assumption was that manifest symptoms were

caused by hidden disturbances in a persons life. issues during a repressed trauma in their life.

 Some of the typical causes included unresolved

 Freud wanted to focus on the treatment of the

repressed conflict by making it conscious in order for the client to deal with it.

Psychoanalytic Therapy
 Freud did many psychoanalytic
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therapies. The patient would be laying on a sofa. Freud would tell the patient to relax and asked him to talk about his dreams and childhood memories. Freud would ask him more questions related to the patient’s conflict. Freud would use different techniques to encourage the patient to develop insights into their behavior and the meanings of the symptoms.

Theory on Dreams
 Freud based his idea of dreams on two parts, the manifest and

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latent content. Based on Freud the manifest content was when people were able to remember their dream as soon as they wake up. Meanwhile latent content was when the real thoughts the unconscious desires are forgotten, and not clear to them. (Wilson, K. 2005) Freud categorized the aspects of the human mind into 3 different parts; Id-centered around primal impulses, pleasures, desires, unchecked urges and wish fulfillment. Ego- concerned with the conscious, the rational, the moral and the self-aware aspect of the mind Superego- the censor for the id, which is also responsible for enforcing the moral codes of the ego

Psychosexual theory
 One of Freud's most interesting and

controversial theories is the psychosexual development theory.  The psychosexual theory focused on the Interpretation of dreams, id, ego, and super ego.  The theory was based on the Greeks tragedy by Sophocles Oedipus Rex and is often referred to as the Oedipus complex.  This theory is divided into five stages these are oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital. Freud’s theory was an important factor to his teachings based upon the development of the human personality.

Oral stage
 The oral stage begins from birth to 18
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months of age. This is when the infant focus on getting oral pleasure. Oral pleasure can happen when a baby gets breast fed or the baby sucks on a pacifier. Freud believed that when an infant receives too much or too little of this, consequently they will develop a personality trait that can be fixated with oral gratification. it is known that these people can focus on activities that involve the mouth such as biting their fingernails over eating.

Anal stage
 The second stage is anal, this stage

begins between 18 months and three years.  This stage is related to a child's awareness of bowel control movements and the pleasure of eliminating feces.  A person can get obsessed with control, perfection, and cleanliness due to the fact that the child received pleasure through controlling and eliminating feces.  The opposite of anal retentive is anal expulsive.

Phallic stage
 The third stage occurs at the age of three to the age of six.  This theory relates to the belief that female children develop sexual attraction to their father and male children harbor unconscious, of sexual attractions to their own mothers.  But later on these feelings resolve naturally once the child begins to identify with their same sex parent.  According to Stevenson (2001), “fixation at the phallic stage develops a phallic character, who I reckless, resolute, self-assured, and narcissistic— excessively vain and proud. The failure to resolve the conflict can also cause a person to be afraid or incapable of close love; Freud also postulated that fixation could be a root cause of homosexuality.”

Latency Stage
 This stage starts from 6 years

old to the age of 12 before starting puberty.  At this stage, Freud believed that the sexual impulse was suppressed in the service of learning.  Freud believed that while most children seem to be calm sexually, perhaps about a quarter of them are masturbating or playing doctor.

Genital stage
 The last stage, genital, starts at

puberty, and represents the resurgence of the sex drive in adolescence.  Freud believed that oral sex, homosexuality, and masturbation were immature.  Freudians believe that we all go through these stages, in this order, and pretty close to these ages, which makes this theory true.

Freudian Slips
 Sigmund Freud made popular the tongue slips, which

are known as “Freudian slips”.  He explains that the unconscious thoughts and feelings can be transferred to the conscious mind in the form of parapraxis.  He said that we say what is really on our mind by saying something we didn’t mean to.  According to Saul McLeod an example of Freudian slips is when a nutritionist gives a lecture intended to say “We should always demand the best in bread”, but instead said “bed”.

Freudian slip example:
- So how’d you do? -Ugh. I probably failed. -But its not my fault! Something was clogging my brain. -your Brain? -I meant Brain!

Free Association
 Free theory is when a patient says

something of whatever comes into their mind. This happens when a therapist reads a list of words and the patient has to immediately respond with the first word that comes to their mind.  When a patient resists and is reluctant to say what he or she is thinking free association may not be prove useful.  Freud recorded that most of his patients on free association occasionally experiences such an emotionally intense and vivid memory that they almost relived the experience, these intensely emotional experiences provided Freud a valuable insight into the patient’s problems.

 McLeod, S. A. (2007). Psychoanalysis-Simply Psychology. Retrieved from .html
 Stevenson, D. B. (2001). Freud's Psychosexual Stages of Development. Retrieved from

 Wilson, K. (2005) Introduction to Sigmund Freud’s Theory on Dreams. Retrieved from
 Felluga, Dino. (2002) “Modules on Freud: On Psychosexual Development.” Introduction Guide to Critical Theory. Retrieved from

 Comer, R. J. (1995). Abnormal psychology (2nd ed.). New York: W. H. Freeman.