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Computer Basics Vocabulary 1 Computer--machine that performs 4 basic functions: input, processing, storage, and output.

2 Hardware--physical parts of the computer that you can see and touch. 3 Software-- the programs or other "instructions" that a computer needs to perform specific tasks. Examples of software include Microsoft ffice, web browsers, or any other program!application installed on the computer. 4 Processor -- "he main body or brain of a computer, also called the system unit. #onsists of a plastic or metal enclosure, the motherboard $main circuit board%, and $typically% internal hard disk!dri&es, power supply, cooling fans, and whate&er circuit boards plugged into the motherboard, such as a &ideo!graphics card and '() ports. • *nside is the CPU which is housed on a tiny silicon chip that contains millions of switches and pathways that help your computer interpret and execute instructions. "his is where the mathematical calculations and logical comparisons are done. • +lso in the processor is the hard drive "he hard dri&e is what stores all your data. *t houses the hard disk, where all your files and folders are physically located. + typical hard dri&e is only slightly larger than your hand, yet can hold o&er ,-- .) of data. "he data is stored on a stack of disks that are mounted inside a solid encasement. ! "#put $evice %%de&ices used to enter data into the computer& mouse, keyboard, scanner, microphone, digital camera are input de&ices. ' (utput $evices --de&ices used to put out data processed by the computer & monitor, printer, and speaker are output de&ices. ) Stora*e devices-- a hardware de&ice used to record and store data, such as a hard dri&e, flash dri&e, floppy disk, #/ 0 M, memory card +,emory-- a computer1s temporary storage place, where it gets its work done. "here are 2 main types:
• -.,: 0andom +ccess Memory. *t is the main memory and stores data and programs while the computer is running. 3hen the computer is turned off anything in main memory disappears. #omputer can read from and write to this memory • -(,: 0ead nly Memory. + computer chip that stores specific instructions to manage the computer1s operation. 'nlike main memory, this type of memory is non-&olatile4the instructions remain permanently on the chip and cannot be changed. • ,easuri#* ,emory: )it: short for binary digit, a bit is the smallest memory unit. 5 bits 6 , byte. )yte: short for binary digits eight, , byte 6 , character $a letter, number or symbol% 7ilobyte: ,,-24 bytes Megabyte: ,,-45,89: bytes .igabyte: ,,-9;,94,,524 bytes "erabyte: ,,-<<,8,,,:29,99: bytes

/ (perati#* System %% loads automatically and controls =ust about e&erything on your computer. Example: Microsoft 3indows. 10 Bi#ary -- a two-digit numerical system, which computers use to store data and compute functions. "he reason computers use the binary system is because digital switches inside the computer can only be set to either on or off, which are represented by a , or -.