This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

BooksAudiobooksComicsSheet Music### Categories

### Categories

Scribd Selects Books

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Scribd Selects Audiobooks

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Scribd Selects Comics

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Scribd Selects Sheet Music

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Top Books

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Audiobooks

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Comics

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Sheet Music

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

P. 1

Circuit Networks (Lecture Notes)|Views: 545|Likes: 15

Published by machineman

Circuit Networks - Calculations (Lecture Notes, ROWAN UNIVERSITY)

Circuit Networks - Calculations (Lecture Notes, ROWAN UNIVERSITY)

See more

See less

https://www.scribd.com/doc/20028650/Circuit-Networks-Lecture-Notes

04/19/2013

text

original

NETWORKS 1: 0909201-03/04

10 December 2003 – Lecture 8b

**ROWAN UNIVERSITY College of Engineering
**

Dr Peter Mark Jansson, PP PE

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & COMPUTER ENGINEERING

Autumn Semester 2003

admin

hw 7 due today, hw 8 due at final test review 5.15pm thurs. at end of lab last lab 6 due by end of next week’s normal lab day (no later than 5 PM) final exam: Next Mon 15 Dec 2:45pm

Rowan Hall Auditorium

**take – home portion
**

Assignment 8 (15%) Tool Kit (10%)

networks I

Today’s learning objectives –

master first order circuits build knowledge of the complete response use Thevenin and Norton equivalents to simplify analysis of first order circuits calculate the natural (transient) response and forced (steady-state) response

**new concepts from ch. 8
**

response of first-order circuits

to a constant input

**the complete response stability of first order circuits response of first-order circuits
**

to a nonconstant (sinusoidal) source

**What does First Order mean?
**

circuits that contain capacitors and inductors can be defined by differential equations circuits with ONLY ONE capacitor OR ONLY ONE inductor can be defined by a first order differential equation such circuits are called First Order

Circuits

**what’s the complete response (CR)?
**

Complete response = transient response + steady state response OR…. Complete response = natural response + forced response

**finding the CR of 1st Ord. Cir
**

1) Find the forced response before the

disturbance. Evaluate at t = t(0-) to determine initial conditions [v(0) or i(0)] 2) Find forced response (steady state) after the disturbance t= t(∞) [Voc or Isc ] 3) Add the natural response (Ke-t/τ) to the new forced response. Use initial conditions to calculate K

A plan for analyzing first-order circuits. (a) First, separate the energy storage element from the rest of the circuit. (b) Next, replace the circuit connected to a capacitor by its Thévenin equivalent circuit, or replace the circuit connected to an inductor by its Norton equivalent circuit.

Figure 8.0-1 (p. 290)

**RC and RL circuits
**

RC circuit complete response: RL circuit complete response:

v (t ) = VOC + (v (0) − VOC )e

− t /( Rt C )

i (t ) = I SC + (i (0) − I SC )e

− ( Rt / L ) t

**simplifying for analysis
**

Using Thevenin and Norton Equivalent circuits can greatly simplify the analysis of first order circuits

We use a Thevenin with a Capacitor and a Norton with an Inductor

Thevenin Equivalent at t=0+

i(t)

+

Rt Voc + –

C + v(t) -

Norton equivalent at t=0+

Isc Rt + v(t) L i(t)

**1st ORDER CIRCUITS WITH CONSTANT INPUT
**

t=0

R1 vs

+ –

R2 R3 C

+ v(t) -

v0

( )

−

R3 = vs R1 + R2 + R3

**Example (before switch closes)
**

If vs = 4V, R1 = 20kohms, R2 = 20 kohms R3 = 40 kohms What is v(0-) ?

v0

( )

−

R3 = vs R1 + R2 + R3

**as the switch closes…
**

THREE PERIODS emerge….. 1. system change (switch closure) 2. (immediately after) capacitor or inductor in system will store / release energy (adjust and/or oscillate) as system moves its new level of steady state (a.k.a. transient or natural response) …. WHY??? 3. new steady state is then achieved (a.k.a. the forced response)

Thevenin Equivalent at t=0+

i(t)

+

Rt Voc + –

C + v(t) -

R2 R3 Rt = R2 + R3

KVL

R3 Voc = vs R2 + R3

+ Voc − i ( t )Rt − v ( t ) = 0

dv ( t ) v ( t ) Voc + = dt Rt C Rt C

dv ( t ) + Voc − Rt C − v( t ) = 0 dt

SOLUTION OF 1st ORDER EQUATION

dv ( t ) v ( t ) Voc + = dt Rt C Rt C dv ( t ) Voc v ( t ) = − dt Rt C Rt C Voc − v ( t ) dv ( t ) = dt Rt C

dv ( t ) 1 = dt Voc − v ( t ) Rt C

dv ( t ) 1 =− dt v ( t ) − Voc Rt C

dv ( t ) 1 =− ∫ ∫ dt + D v ( t ) − Voc Rt C

SOLUTION CONTINUED

dv ( t ) 1 =− ∫ ∫ dt + D v ( t ) − Voc Rt C

ln(v ( t ) − Voc ) = − t Rt C +D

⎛ ⎞ t v ( t ) − Voc = exp⎜ − ⎜ R C + D⎟ ⎟ t ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ t ⎞ v ( t ) = exp(D ) exp⎜ − ⎟ ⎜ R C ⎟ + Voc t ⎠ ⎝

⎛ t ⎞ v ( t ) − Voc = exp(D ) exp⎜ − ⎟ ⎜ R C⎟ t ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 0 ⎞ v ( 0 ) = exp(D ) exp⎜ − ⎟ ⎜ R C ⎟ + Voc t ⎠ ⎝

exp(D ) = v ( 0 ) − Voc

SOLUTION CONTINUED

⎛ t ⎞ v ( t ) = (v ( 0 ) − Voc ) exp⎜ − ⎟ ⎜ R C ⎟ + Voc t ⎠ ⎝

⎛ t ⎞ ⎟ v ( t ) = Voc + (v ( 0 ) − Voc ) exp⎜ − ⎜ R C⎟ t ⎠ ⎝

**so complete response is…
**

complete response = v(t) = forced response (steady state) = Voc + natural response (transient) = (v(0-) –Voc) * e -t/RtC) NOTE: τ =RtC

⎛ t ⎞ v ( t ) = Voc + (v ( 0 ) − Voc ) exp⎜ − ⎜ R C⎟ ⎟ t ⎠ ⎝

Figure 8.3-4 (p. 301)

(a) A first-order circuit and (b) an equivalent circuit that is valid after the switch opens. (c) A plot of the complete response, v(t), given in Eq. 8.3-8.

WITH AN INDUCTOR

t=0

R1 vs

+ –

R2 R3 L i(t)

i0

( )

−

vs = R1 + R2

Why ?

Norton equivalent at t=0+

Isc Rt + v(t) -

R2 R3 Rt = R2 + R3

L i(t)

vs I sc = R2

Why ?

KCL

+ I sc −

v( t ) − i( t ) = 0 Rt

1 di ( t ) L + I sc − − i( t ) = 0 Rt dt

Rt di ( t ) Rt + i( t ) = + I sc dt L L

SOLUTION

Rt di ( t ) Rt + i( t ) = + I sc dt L L

dv ( t ) v ( t ) Voc + = dt Rt C Rt C

Rt 1 ⇔ L Rt C

⎛ t ⎞ ⎟ v ( t ) = Voc + (v ( 0 ) − Voc ) exp⎜ − ⎜ R C⎟ t ⎠ ⎝

⎛ Rt ⎞ i ( t ) = I sc + (i ( 0 ) − I sc ) exp⎜ − t⎟ ⎝ L ⎠

**so complete response is…
**

complete response = i(t) = forced response (steady state) = Isc + natural response (transient) = (i(0-) –isc) * e –t(Rt/L)) NOTE: τ =L/Rt

⎛ Rt ⎞ i ( t ) = I sc + (i ( 0 ) − I sc ) exp⎜ − t⎟ ⎝ L ⎠

(a) A first-order circuit and (b) an equivalent circuit that is valid after the switch closes. (c) A plot of the complete response, i(t), given by Eq. 8.3-9.

Figure 8.3-5 (p. 302)

Figure E8.3-1 (p. 308)

Figure E8.3-2 (p. 309)

Figure E8.3-3 (p. 309)

Figure E8.3-4 (p. 309)

Figure E8.3-5 (p. 309)

**Stability of 1st order circuits
**

when τ>0 the natural response vanishes as t ∞

THIS IS A STABLE CIRCUIT

**when τ<0 the natural response grows without bound as t ∞
**

THIS IS AN UNSTABLE CIRCUIT

**forced response summary
**

Forcing function y(t)

(steady-state before)

Forced response xf(t)

(steady-state after)

Constant y(t) = M Exponential y(t) = Me-bt Sinusoid y(t) = M sin (ωt +

Constant: xf(t) = N Exponential xf(t) = Ne-bt Sinusoid xf(t) = Asin (ωt+ ) + Bcos(ωt+ )

)

**Unit step or pulse signal
**

vo(t) = A + Be-at for t > 0

Example

8.6-2, p. 321-323

Figure 8.6-12 (p. 322)

The circuit considered in Example 8.6-2

Figure 8.6-13 (p. 322)

Circuits used to calculate the steady-state response (a) before t = 0 and (b) after t = 0.

HANDY CHART

ELEMENT CURRENT VOLTAGE

R

V I= R

V = I∗R

1 t vc = ∫ ic dt C −∞

C

L

dvc ic = C dt

t 1

di L iL = ∫ v Ldt v L = L L −∞ dt

**IMPORTANT CONCEPTS FROM CHAPTER 8
**

determining Initial Conditions determining T or N equivalent to simplify setting up differential equations solving for v(t) or i(t)

**Don’t forget HW 8 (test review)
**

Thursday 5.15 pm 11 Dec after lab

Modbus Tutorial for NI

CRC Error Detection Algorithms

Béla Lipták Defines 5 Levels of Process Control

Multiprotocol Chip Interface for Industrial Communication an 01 En

Σχέδιο Τεχνικού Κανονισμού Φ.Α.

"Correspondances" (Baudelaire)

Modbus RS485 Communications - Wilo Pumps

Francesco Petrarca - Laura

Olympus Climbing Info

Intro to Operating Systems - NTUA Lesson Lecture Notes

Intro to Mechanisms - Exercise 1 - NTUA Lesson

Freehand Engineering Drawing - Drafts

SCADA Sensors Tutorial by DPS Telecom

Control Panel Design Guide - UL508 by Eaton

Algo for Modelling (Pre)2005

Common_Modbus_Registers

ANSI C Quick Reference

Delphi Quick Reference Guide

C Programming Language Reference Manual

Least Squares Polynomial Approximation Method

One Dimensional Permanent Flow of Non-Cohesive Fluids (notes in Greek)

- Read and print without ads
- Download to keep your version
- Edit, email or read offline

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

CANCEL

OK

You've been reading!

NO, THANKS

OK

scribd