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743 & ARMSTRONG 745 Broadway. plans.^ post-paid. $4. d. maps.00.. etc. Sent. . Svo. of the British Museum. cloth. with numerous illustrations. ASSYRIAN EXPLORATIONS AND DISCOVERIES.CO. New York. By GJ-EORG-E SjMITH. photographs.. Of One the 07-iental Depa7-ttnent vol.BY THE SAME AUTHOR. on receipt of price by the Publishers. SCRIBNER..



copy. . as my desire was first to obtain the recognition of the evidence without prejudice. and in the intervening period I have had. but there was so general a desire to see the translations that I have published them. amidst other work. compare. and translate.INTRODUCTION. hoping my readers will take them with the same reserve with which I I have given them. to collect the various fragments of the legends. altering to time. have avoided some of the most important com- parisons and conclusions with respect to Genesis. The present condition of the legends and recent discovery alike forbid me their to call this anything more than a provisional work. as my new fragments turned matter from time up. Little time has elapsed since I discovered the most important of these inscriptions. Even now I have gone to press with one of the fragments of the last tablet of the Izdubar series omitted. |0ME explanation ducing my necessary in intro- is present work.

but I may book are one of its safely say that I have placed the various dates as low as I fairly could. . believe that time will show the Babylonian to establish I tradi- tions of Genesis to be invaluable for the light they will throw on the Pentateuch. see passages which I have omitted. viii The weak chronolo2. clusion that I may add my present work is intended account. considering the evidence.ical notes in the points. I have added translations of some parts of the legends which I avoided in them as remain however some desiring here to satisfy the wish to perfect as possible . and I have aimed to do this rather than any system of chronology. but many blanks in at present there are so the evidence that positive conclusions on several points are impossible. and I have introduced only so in con- as a popular much expla- nation as seems necessary for the proper understand- ing of the subject.INTBODUGTION. October 26. there still my last work. 1875. but these are of small extent and obscure.

form Inscriptions. of of Assyria. —Assurbanipal Sennacherib. legends. — to Chapter II. . — Arrangement — Kouyunjik of tablets. . of Solar literature. —Discovery of Deluge condition of tablets. —Removal Saidanapalus. — —Sumir. List of texts legends. — library. . Babylonian dition. Legends. — of in Interest of collection. « . empire. library.— — — CONTENTS. JIAPTER The Discovery of the Genesis I. texts. — — Discovery Cunei— Babylonian of Historical origin of Assyrian literature. Cosmogony of Bevosus. Literary period. condition. his on Deluge — —" Daily Tele- Mutilated exploits. Akkad. —His — •—Later Babylonian . — Mythological tablets. or to Description of contents. Subjects. —New Assyria. —Fragmentary — Dates. page 1 Babylonian and Assyrian LiTERArtmE. of astrology. —Izdubar —Assyrian — and — Babylonian — Assyrian —Mutilated — Library — Sargon — Library Nineveh. — Hammurabi. Fall. — L^ddi. of creation records. City of Assur. — Expedition — Fragments Creation Myth. at Calah. Assyria. — Clay —Account " Daily Telegraph" — Creation — The graph" tablets. . king Ur." Babel. libraries . — Second journey —Tower " Telegraph. Difficulties as • . additions to library. — Lecture Texts. Creation copies. fall. of Syllabaries to date. con- — Babylonian — Babylonian Chronology. bilingual tablets. tablets. — Izdubar. —Babylonian — and — War Gods. to offer. fragments.19 source of literature.

. —Abyss — Crea- son with Genesis.. Mutilated condition of tablets. Babylonian Mythology. . local in origin. — Babylon. —Damascius. — Merodach. —Vul. heaven. banit. Sibyl. — — — Cannes. Titan. animals. —Armenia. gods. — Destruction of — . — Abydenus. — Fall. —The Ark.. — Tiamat. Triad. his histor. gods. Elu. Dispersion from —Babylonian —The — Titan and Prometheus. — Cronos —To\vei. — Bel Venus.. Belus. — — Anu. — —Damascius. — — Mythology — Congreat — great — Three Twelve — — Equivalent Angels. Tower Babel. Translation. or Ilea. — teaching. originally Tablet from Cutha. — CompariDoubtful fragments.. Ishtar.. documents. — Sun. colonies.———— — CONTENTS. to Pantibiblon. — — Sin moon —Ninip. wicked — Seven —-War spirits. Chapter VI. quests. Biblical account. tion of Zirat- god. — Variations of 101 Sin of Zu. God Zu. — Table . Chapter V. — —Three great — — —Moon.-. — Translation. Legends through transmitted Berostjs and other Ancient Authors. —Kissare and Assorus. Creation. first Icing. — Shagods mas. the of tablet. of Cuneiform of story accounts count of Berosus. . —Weapons. — Cory's translation. and Nicolaus — Damaseenus. of subjects. kings. moon.51 Greek accounts. Babylonian Legp:nd of the Creation. . — —Dragon Description Fifth or chaos. — — — Ac— Composite — Variations. — — Ten — —Deluge. — Seven — story. chaos. — Anunit.-Mutilation — Curse —Destruction men. Alorus. Chapter IV. Sisithrus. Stars. Obscurity of legend. — — Sacred —War with Tiamat. Eagle-headed men. — Anatu. of Hestiaeus. to Jupiter. — Tiamat. — traditions. —Bel 37 Moymis. ... — — His for disobedience. Berosus and his copyists. — Return — Larancha. List of gods. in The Sin of the God Zu.. — Succoth Benoth. — . Planets. kings. Creation of animals. ^Man. tree or serpent. Colonies. — Cannes. —Merodach. Parallel of —Age 61 Other Babylonian Accounts op the Creation. — Dragon Discussion. duties. — Alexander Poly- —Babylonia. — Apollodorus. Spirits. — . brothers. gods.. — Tauthe. — Generation of sea.- Poetical account of Creation Chapter VII. of Antiquity.^f Babel. — Nergal. X Chaptee Chaldean III. —Deluge. — — Chaldean — Xisuthrus.

— Tue Exploits of Lubaha. Itak. — people. — of the world. consort together. 123 Babylonian Fables. — Answer —Bird xi — — — to Yul. of — Shamas. of eagle. Lubara. . tablet. cunning. Dispersion.. Story of the fox. CONTENTS. quarrel. tablets . destruction of Erech. . God of Pestilence. of the ox. — Story the caught. Chapter X. air.. Ilea. —The —Eats —Anger — — Seven —Third — Speech — — His —Judgment Shamas. Babylonian cylinders. — — — Orders — Nusku. Calls his sons. sorrow. — Cutha. in animals.. — Riddle man. struction of drought.. Berosus. of universal ture of reed. of speech Serpent. of world. of the horse trast with the horse. fortune. in the East. the ox. and Sin Duran. — Speech — Fable and —They —Speech —His good — Con—Hunting — Speech Fables. —Prayer glory of of Lubara. —Further liorse. — —Notices Account of Deluge. serpent... — Age Legends. — Song —God Ner. rud. — The Itak goes — god great Syria. of Izdubar. —Punishment —Famine. to arrest the Chapter IX. wars. —Nimrod.. — — Seven — Anu. Offers to recount story. — Ark Izdubar.— Sin and warrior gods. Plague. of eagle of of of fox. The — Destruction of — Speech of Elu. — — Surippak. Zu Sarturda of prey. — Story ox. —Common — — —Power — Shamas.. Cuapter XI. Incantation. — —Dream.. lord of 113 Chapter VIII. — Sin — Mother and daughter —Zamu. . birds. — His show —His punishment. legend. destruction of Babylonians. Locality of representations Babil. — — —Assyiian 153 Atarpi. wise of Birs The Izdubar Legends.. . Sarturda. to —The Amarda Anu Speeches of Nebo. —Goddess Karrak.. Anu Speech of bird.———— —— . tablet. —Tower — — Obscurity of —Fragmentary —Not by —De— Babylon. — NimTower. of Nebo. gods. — Changes . 137 Fragments of Miscellaneous Texts. noticed frac- of Babel. Building. Description. —Internal — — IsLtar. of the of Ishtar. — Nature and presence —Divining by — Gods. to and —Power Blessings on his worship. of the eagle. Sinuri. Anger a to — of the gods. and Lubara. bird. Vul's answer. of City. Plague . Etana.

xii —Twelve tion. Traditions. of and wanderings Illness Meeting of Heabani and Izdubar. to forest. — building. — Extent of Legends. Ishtar's anger. — Ilumbaba. Ishtar's bull. — tablets. seven gates.. —His Erech. Eleventh . conclusion. Sphinx. of Izdubar. — —His —Journey Mas. Festival at Erech. The —Tempt of Heabani. Chapter XIII. — — Dates —Elamite of Isbtar. petition. Hum- of —Death . —Lament Chapter XV. of Izdubar. — — Forest —Dwelling — Journey The Adventures Chapter XIV. Her .. with Izdubar's answer. Command tablet. descent to . Sin of the world. Identifications. Ishtar's despair. —The Heabani and the trees.. — — —Introdnc—Destruction tyrant Meeting of HcaLani and Izdubar.. Conversation. . Chapter XVI. Chapter XII. — —Her — —The —Uddusunamir. Hasisadra 241 The Story of the Flood and Conclusion. • — Translation. — Harimtu —Entrance Humbaba. — Might His journey —Dream to — Zaidu. — — Its contents. —Fear — —The — of the gods. Dream of • Description. curses. • 193 —Meeting — Humbaba. Izdubar's curse. Ishtar's love. — to forest. Sambat. . of Isbtar. Description of Izdubar. dream. Izdubar. Tammuz Release 217 Illness and Wanderings of Izdubar. Izdubar king —His by — and —The midannu — Friendship with Heabani Petition to Shamas. — De—End of Deluge. build the ark. to —The Flood. Izdubar's Heabani. . Desert of paradise. of Izdubar. —The — Water — Ragmu. — Speech — or tiger. —Amours —Ascends Heaven. to Description.. Triumph . — — — Izdubar.— —— CONTENTS. bani. —Humbaba. of Conquest. —Heabani. Elamite dominion.. Destruction op the Tyrant Humbaba. of 207 of Ishtar.. conversation. for triumph. promises. — — of First Tablet. solitary life. feast. — His wisdom. —The —The — — Hades. Slain of Ishtar.. — Tammuz. — Adventures Deluge and — — Kingdom Nimrod. region.. —Her offer of marriage. — —Death of Scorpion men. Illness of Izdubar. Siduri and Sabitu.167 . of deatli. Kizir. refusal. and fame of Izdubar. The gods. struction of people. baba. — Hea- —The —Urhamsi.

cities. Creation. Ileabani. of Ur. legends. 'Eden. Ecsting of Ark. — — —Mount Heabani. — His — Lament over of gods. nation.— —Egyptian names. — Correspondence names. Dm-ation of generations. sacrifice. deluge. Points of toiitacl:. return. of Eesurrection of — Comparison with — — —Ten —Early Burial of warrior. —Abram. —Doubtful — —Izdubar —Urukh — Cannes. theories. birth. —The xUi descent from — Speeches —Translation Izdubar. seals. — Assyrian 295 Babylonian of Notices of Genesis. Age of descent. . Conclusion. 2G3 of Izdubar Chapter XVII. —The birds. of Chaldccs. Genesis. — —The — Cure — Syrian ark.— — - CONTENTS. —Ui — Sargon. — Ishmacl. Comicction of legends. tlie of Hasisadra. in ark.— His — Concealed — —Garden —Age Nimrod. of Berosus. sculptures .


7. showing the various fragments of which 3. from Babylonian cylinder. 2.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.C. Merodach or Bel armed in fiom an early Babylonian cylinder. conflict with a lion. 9. from Assyrian cylinder. 91. ninth century B. Fight between Bel and the dragon. from the seal of a Syrian cliief. 12. from Babylonian cylinder. Men engaged in building. Eagle-headed men. tree. Bel encountering the dragon. 4. to face p. Fight between Merodach (Bel) and the dragon. attendant figures and eagle-headed men. . containing the account of the Deluge. from Babylonian cylinder. 62. to face p. Oannes and other Babylonian mythological figures. 95. from Assyrian cylinder. from Nimroud sculpture. 39.. 11. 102. 99. Sacred tree or grove. from Babylonian cylinders. Tvevorse of inscribed terra cotta tablet. for the conflict with the dragon. seated figure on each side and serpent background. 13. 158. 10. 89. FRONTISPIECE. it is composed. from cylin- der. 5. 102. 159. from cylinder. lOG. 41. Composite animals. 6. Sacred tree. with attendant cherubim. 10. 14 and 15. Photograph. Men engaged in building. Sacred 8. Izdubar (Nimroil) in from an early Babylonian cylinder.

from an Assyrian bas-relief. and Izdubar. Mugheir. from strangling Khorsabad sculpture. 20. 262. 306. Cannes. 27. site of the temple of Ishtar. Izdubar p. xvi 16. Bowareyeh Mound at Warka (Erech). 164. View of Birs Nimrud. 26. to face p. from early Babylonian cylinder. . and Hasisadra (Noah) in the ark. to face 174. Izdubar and Ileabani in conflict with the lion and bull. 283. 237. 297. 25. 23. View of the Babil mound at Babylon. Composite figures (scorpion men). 162. from an Assyrian cylinder. the supposed site of Tower the of Bahel. 18. 21. composite figures. the site of Ur of the Chaldees. or Noah. 163. 188. from an early Babylonian cylinder. from Nimroud sculpture. the site of the temple of Bel. 19. 24. 257. Hasisadra. from early Babylonian cj'linder. Izdubar. Tower in stages. 239.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. a lion. 17. 22. Migration of Eastern tribe.

as this was three hundred years after the Jews were carried captive to Babylon. offer. THE DISCOVERY OF THE GENESIS LEGENDS. however." — " Daily Telegraph " — Interest of Creation legends.— Chapter I. literature. — Second journey to Assyria. who recorded these events. his works did not j^rove successors. collection. tablets. tablets. Fall. the Deluge. Historical texts. — Clay records. tablets. — The —New fragments. Fragments of Creation — Solar Myth. and other matters forming parts of Genesis. texts. 330 to 260. — Babylonian origin of Assyrian Mythological — Izdubar. and. lived in the time of Alexander the Great and his somewhere about B. texts. Cosmogony of Berosus. the period before the Flood. preserved the in works of various later writers. have shown that the Babylonians were acquainted with traditions referring to the Creation. — List of ^^P^^^HE fragments of the Chaldean historian. — Tower of Babel. — —Discovery of Cuneiform Inscriptions. tablets. his —Discovery of Deluge —Mutilated condition of —Lecture on Deluge — " Daily Telegraph " — Expedition to Assyria. B .C. &^ Berosus. Berosus. — Account of creation in " Telegraph. exploits.

Esarhaddon. Mr. par- ticularly to those of the Assyrian kings with the Hebrew monarchy. and giving new Hght upon parts of ancient history before obscure. who made the preliminary examination of Mr. Sargon. Nabonidus. mound In the of Kouyunjik. On form the discovery and decipherment of the cuneiinscriptions. for a long . Mr. have been subsequently found by Mr. and could not afford testimony in favour of the great antiquity of these legends. Shalmaneser.THE BISGOVEBY OF 2 that these traditions were in Babylonia before the Jewish captivity. also forming parts of this library. Loftus. and who was the first to recognize their value. Rassam. Nebuchadnezzar. H. The stance attention of decipherers drawn was in the first in- to the later historical inscriptions. bearing on the Bible. Inscriptions of Tiglath Pileser. Sennacherib. estimated the number of these fragments of inscriptions at over twenty thousand. and further collections. Layard's treasures. Layard discovered part of the town of Royal Assyrian library. and we should thus gain earlier and more satisfactory evidence as to these primitive histories. Oriental scholars hoped that copies of the Babylonian histories and traditions would one day be discovered. and directly numerous other ancient sovereigns. and number inscriptions a very large importance rewarded the toil contemporary in this section of of texts of great of Assyrian scholars. and myself Sir Henry Rawlinson. opposite the Mosul.

who pointed out several coinci- dences between the geography of Babylonia and the Eden account of in Genesis. and overshadowed any work in other divi- sions of Assyrian literature. I noticed references to the Creation in a tablet numbered . it yet. and suggested the great probability that the accounts in Genesis had a Baby- lonian origin. it hostile to the could not be guessed beforehand that the peculiar national traditions of Babylonia would be transported to Assyria. as new texts were brought became evident that the Assyrians literature largely from Babylonian the events of Genesis into notice. Attention was early drawn to these points by Sir Henry RawHnson. Although civilization was known that Assyria borrowed its and written characters from Babylonia. Under the these circumstances.THE GENESIS LEGENDS. legends and K 63 . for cuneiform inscriptions were some years first after deciphered. as the Assyrian nation was mostly southern and older kingdom. When at work preparing the fourth volume of Cuneiform Inscriptions. nothing was looked for or discovered bearing upon but. in the Museum allusions in other tablets to similar I therefore set about searching through the collection. copied it their and sources. appeared likely that search among the fragments of Assyrian inscriptions would yield traces at least of some of these ancient Babylonian legends. 3 time occupied almost exclusively the attention of students. it .

" to find. and place and returning. Commencing among a steady search these frag- ments.THE DISCOVERY OF 4 collection. together prayers and similar subjects. and found speech from it was in the through form of a the hero of the Deluge to a person . some of these legends. if possible. all which the gods took a leading tablets all the legends in with part. while the remaining columns (the lost. This mythological collection was one of six divisions into which I had parted the Museum collection of cuneiform inscriptions for con- By placing venience of working. I then proceeded to read the document. The mythological contained division and relating to the mythology. followed by the account sending forth of the dove. my eye caught the statement that the ship rested on the mountains of Nizir. On looking first down and sixth) were entirely the third column. I soon found half of a curious tablet which had evidently contained originally text. all the tablets and fragments of the same class together. at any time any sub- to get a general idea of the contents of the collection. to easily find and ject required. two of these columns of and fourth) were (the third nearly perfect. two others six (the second and still fifth) were imperfect. which had previously selected under the I head of " Mythological tablets. I saw its of the finding no resting- at once that I had here discovered a portion at least of the Chaldean account of the Deluge. I had been able to complete several texts. about half remaining.

while on the one side I had gained as yet only two frag- ments of the Izdubar legends to judge from. however. 5 whose name appeared to be Izdubar. ment meaning. and then I commenced a search for any miss- ing portions of the tablets. on the other hand. series the tablet describing the Deluge was I afterwards Of this the eleventh and K 231. the unsorted fragments were so small. to the same hero Izdubar K. completed a considerable part of the and sixth columns. and found this to be their exact number. This search was a long and heavy work. I had discovered that the Izdubar series contained at least twelve tablets. 231. Numerous other fragments turned up at the same time. when joined together. them in one after another until I Portions of a greater part of the second column. and. proved successful. 1872. that it was extremely difficult to ascertain their search. I recollected a leo^end belonoino. fitting had completed the which. proved to belong to the same series. on comparison. which. and contained so little of the subject. I My found a frag- of another copy of the Deluge. for there were thousands of fragments to go over.TUB GENESIS LEGENDS. and gradually collected several other portions of this tablet. but these. Deluge I in the state in now had which first the account of the I published it at the Archosology. thhd copy next turned up. meeting of the Society of Bibhcal December 3rd. containing again the sending forth of the birds. while they hicrcuscd my knowledge of the legends. . the sixth.

including tne war of the gods and three fables. who is newspaper. I have related. I gave a sketch of the Izdubar legends. my In on the Deluge lecture tablets. in my discoveries. Soon after I commenced excavating at Kouyunjik. time happened the intervention of the proprietors of the " Daily Telegraph " Mr. I also found at the same time. and immediately after my in lecture he came armed with a proposition from the proprietors of the " Daily Telegraph " to re-open. on the site of the palace of Assurbanipal. on the direction of that paper. Some other fragmentary legends. " Assyrian expedition. and they directed me to go Assyria and make a short excavation. the excavations in Assyria. I found a ." the history of this brought me me to of for this work. but these were in such mutilated condition that I could not make a connected translation of them. which Just at this my contained inscriptions would prove of the highest Book interest. at their cost. had already sent to me expressing his interest these discoveries. leave the British absence for six months being granted to purpose. new information on the subject and gain some of these legends.THE DISCOVEBY OF 6 could not be arrano-ed in order from want of indicao tion of the particular tablets to which they belonged. E. and expressed belief the that Chaldean various other similar stories bearing upon the of Genesis. This proposition was submitted to the trustees of Museum. which the next fragments of these legends. Arnold.

trench the other having part of war between the gods and eyil spu-its. and gave a fragmentary account animals. At that time I did not recognize the importance of these fragments. excepting the one with the account of the creation of animals. relating and fill the ark. and nearly- up the most considerable blank in the story. an incident often depicted on early Babylonian gems. found the fragment in question I must have passed very near the place where the Assyrians kept a series of inscriptions belonging to the early history of Soon world. had immediately I made no after- further dis- . My next discovery here was a frag- ment evidently belonging to the of the creation world. as I wards to return to England. and not far from the place of the Deluge fragment. this was the upper corner of a tablet. further completed this tablet. other fragments. the after I discovered the fragment of the Deluge tablet. coveries in this direction. This fragment described the destruction of the bull of Ishtar by Izdubar and Heabani. which I found afterwards. I came upon a fragment of the sixth tablet of the same series in this trench. one giving the in man this . new frao^ment of the Chaldean account of the Deluo-e belonging to the the 7 command filling Some first to build column of the tablet. and. which was already still the most perfect one in the trench in which Izdubar The series. two Further on other portions Creation and the fall of of the creation of I discovered of this legend.THE GENESIS LEGENDS.

as I had not ascertained how from our far j)i"esent collections. The that they formed exactly twelve tablets. A." No. and started by Sir other scholars. I was. I Some months was engaged in my I think further do not warrant passed. first Henry Rawlinson. 2468. 1875. during which second journey to Assyria.THE DISCOVERY OF 8 On my return from the east. brought from Genesis legends Assj^ria several I fragments again of the which helped to complete these curious stories. Rev. each sign of the tablet representing a This opinion. and in realizing the results of that expedition. zodiac. Sayce. I published some of the discoveries I had made. which view. I will give as nearly as I can the contents of the Izdubar legends. which appeared in the " Athenaeum. they could be completed . was copied into several of the papers. H. and in January. on joining the fragments of the Deluge or Izdubar series. was at once ac- cepted by M. Lenormant. that that they symbolized the passage of the sun is. however. but I think myself it on too rests In a subsequent chapter insecure a basis to be true. at that time hardly prepared to publish these legends. fact that these leofends covci ed twelve tablets led to the impression that they were a form of the solar myth. I once more this a regular search for Very soon afterwards I these commenced fragments. succeeded in discovering a notice of the building of the tower of Babel. which at once attracted attention. through the separate heavens. and a notice of it. and I now found.

but I soon added several fresh portions to the fragmentary history of the Creation and Fall. and the different parts so be explained from the nature of the material which the tablets are composed. may legends are in so fragments. and the tablets still further broken. tablets were composed of fine clay of and the changes These and were inscribed with cuneiform characters while in a soft state were then baked in a furnace until hard. of the crystals further some of them being hterally . the rain. wards transferred to the library. to complete their ruin. and then. every spring soaking through the ground. and these chemicals form crystals in every available crack.THE GENESIS LEGENDS. tions was the extremely mutilated condition in which the tablets were were that. little dif- ficulty to the translator. and . The reason why these many scattered. undergone by them since they were written. Subsequently the ruins were turned over in search of treasure. splits The growth the tablets. they after- These texts appear been broken up when Nineveh was destroyed. shivered. The greatest difficulty with which I had to contend in all these researches and deficient There can be no doubt found. saturates them with water containing chemicals. if the inscrip- they would present very perfect. to have and many of them were cracked and scorched by the heat at the burning of the palace. 9 Subsequent search did not show that any further fragments of the Babel tablet were in the British Museum.

Many of the twenty years old fragmentary tablets which have been in the British to considerably Museum have by fragments which I been added found during . The clay records of the Assyrians are by these means so broken up. will exhibits the present appearance of one of the tablets. text. Reverse of Inscribed Terra Cotta Tablet containing the Account OF THE Deluge. Deluge In this tablet there are sixteen fragments. that they are in some cases divided into over one hundred fragments . and it is only by collecting and joining together the various fragments that these ancient texts can be restored. which rian tablets. showing the various fragments of which it IS composed.THE DISCOVEEY OF 10 Some idea of the mutilated condition of the Assy- and of the work of restoring a single be gained from the engraving below.

an account of sent home. which form part of the collection Museum by presented to the British of ' The Daily Telegraph.' the proprietors I venture once more to bring Assyrian subjects before your readers. among some remarkable texts. 1875 " Having recently made a Book series of coveries relating to the was : important dis- of Genesis. ' The Daily Telegraph When excavating at ' expedition to Kouyunjik during that expedition.000 fragments buried in the ruins without the recovery of which it is impossible to complete these valuable Assyrian inscriptions." which printed in that paper on the 4th of March. Being now many urged by friends who were interested in the subject. lowed by the proposal of your proprietors and the organizing of Assyria. and in the same trench I sub- sequently found the fragment which I afterwards recognized as part of the Chaldean story of the . I discovered the missing portion of the first which I column of the Deluge tablet. my conviction that all Genesis would receive tions the new Account of the 3. which I delivered on Dec. but I little thought at that time that so near to finding most of them. and yet tliere 11 remain at least 20.— THE GENESIS LEGENDS. my " In lecture on the Chaldean Deluge. I stated narratives earlier of inscrip- and Assyrian I was " My lecture. as your readers know. I sent the following account to the editor of the " Daily Telegraph. light from the so long buried in the Chaldean mounds 1872. was soon fol- . my two journeys.

the first lines in the note-book of my first subsequently found several smaller . far cuneiform tablet yet discovered. I found it. and of proj^rietors 'The Daily Telegraph. and of the when I was. I subsequently went a second time to Assyria. I down at Kouyunjik. Then. starting ' The Daily first noticed. I with the fragment of the Creation in Telegraph' collection. I excavated later on. the most interesting and remarkable this story. I think. on the eve of departing. where was presented by the it box in the it for arrived safely. On my return to England some other discoveries among pursuit my of these this fragment store. made I and in the was overlooked. of the temptation.THE DISGOVEBY OF 12 Creation.' with the rest of theu* collection. and re- turned to England in June. and had not time to properly examine my great prize. fall. another portion belonging to — more precious in fact. and these I soon found the overlooked fragment had excavated of which I took expedition. and I forthwith packed transport to England. whicli relic I liave noticed already in your columns. to the general public. to the British Museum. which I had began to among which I collect other portions of the series. 1874 . while still working under your auspices. This turns out to contain the story of man's original innocence. I only copied the two or three first lines. which (as I had then no idea of the general subject of the tablet) did not appear very valuable. but I had no leisure to look again at those particular legends until the end of January in this year.

that such a should have resulted from your exj^edi- tion. after the Fall of Linked with on series of legends pri- mitive history. the Creation and Fall. pieces in the old Museum and collection. form parts of a continuous series 13 all join or of legends. and the his- tory upon it corresponding is much account longer and fuller than the the in Book of Genesis. " The first series.' may The Story of when complete must have which I call ' consisted of nine or ten tablets at least. and treasure I am to inscriptions. the heritage of all Christian countries. and every possible meaning which the various passages could bear has been suggested. has been the centre of the The this controversy. Avorld-wide importance of these subjects will therefore give the especially the newly discovered one relating paralleled value.TEE GENESIS LEGENDS. and an un- glad. With respect to these Genesis narratives a furious strife has existed for many years. including the story of the building of the Tower and of Babel of the Confusion of Tongues. while the age and authenticity of the narratives have been discussed on all sides. particular. it may be said that the account of the In fall of man. giving the history of the world from the Creation doAvn to some period found also other these. I Man. every word has been scanned by eager scholars. for it is pivots on which one of the Christian religion turns. " Whatever the primitive account may have been . the Fall. indeed.

TEE DISCOVERT OF 14 Book from whicli the earlier part of the was evident that the brief narration given copied. as it proceeds. " This rebellion leads to a conquest of the powers of war evil. "The narrative on commences the Assyrian tablets of the period before the world with a description was created. and the description of magnificent. hand against the sanctuary of the him is really of heaven. — for number of Genesis of incidents and instance. it is in the Pentateuch omits a explanations the fall pent. as to the origin of evil. as in the . the Such points as these are included in the I can say little Cuneiform narrative. We are told. The desolate and empty state of the universe and the generation by chaos of monsters are vividly The chaos is presided over by a female power named Tisalat and Tiamat. when there existed a chaos or confusion. the Assyrian account agrees rather with the Bible than with the short account from Berosus. but of course about them until ser- prepare full translations of the I legends. &c. and wielding a thunderbolt as a weapon. but. of the fall of the celestial being who appears to correspond bition he raises his God In his am- to Satan. wickedness of the of the angels. with the lightning playing before him. corresponding to given. through He is represented riding in a chariot celestial space. the Thalatth of Berosus . course creating the universe in in heaven and the the gods in due stages. surrounded by the storms. in the inscriptions.

besides. yielding to temptation. but I find time to search over fragments of tablets." This will serve to exhibit the appearance these . as upon the fragment which I first journey to Assyria. and the discovery of this single relic in creases falls him a my over the value of opinion in' The Daily Telegraph' collection. this condition of blessing does not last long before man. Deity then pronounces upon the curse. who is made upright from evil. and terrible the evils which have These last details are. I have before stated. 15 Mosaic narrative. excavated during my all many times . " The Deity then delivers a long address to the newly created being.THE GENESIS LEGENDS. number of important questions as to the date and origin of the legends. and pointing out the glory of his But state. a light upon any smaller may have escaped me. invoking on his head since afflicted humanity. it the noble faculty of speech. " I have at present recovered no and am not yet tions and details. their as to comparison with the Biblical narrative. and how far they may supplement the Mosaic account. and endowed by the gods with good. surveying each step of the work and 2^ronouncing nates in and free The divine work cuhnithe creation of man. instructing him in all his duties and privileges. story. hope during the spring to the collection of smaller and to parts of the legends which There will more of the in a position to give the full transla- arise.

me httle later I discovered a little to my my notice." and these legends and the Deluge fragments form the most valuable results of that expedition. The Genesis legends which I had collected from . On comparing and notes that my I this account with the translations have given in first notice this book.. was inaccurate will be evident it in several points. and last of all a further portion of the sixth tablet of these legends. new fragment of the to correct tenth tablet of the Deluge series. only enabling A minor fragments. and I had then to copy and translate the tablets as far as their mutilated condition would allow.- satisfactory- account of them could be given. the inaccuracies in the account being due to the broken state of my the tablets and recent knowledge of them. both as to the order and translation of the legends but I had not expected had not been time it to be otherwise. After I had published this notice in the " Daily Telegraph " I set to work to look over the fragments in the collection. no frao. in search of other and found several. but these added knowledge. This closed my discoveries so far as the fragments of the tablets were concerned. for there to collect and translate the ments. It is a notable fact that the discovery of these legends was one of the fruits of the expedition organized by the proprietors of the " Daily Telegraph. and. until that was done. THE BISGOVEBY OF 16 me legends presented to soon after I discovered them.

who insults Elu. A Bihngual legend of the history of the seven evil spirits. the father of the gods. and her return. apparently part of a third version of the creation. and Story of the Eagle and Etana. Legend of the god Sarturda. 7. and appear to belong to the same early literary age. 9. All these stories are similar of Genesis. 12. 5. 11. So far as I have made out they are as : A long account of the origin of the world. Collection of five tablets giving the exploits of Lubara the god of the pestilence. 4. A and a and man. the creation of the animals a sinless state. 17 the various Assyrian fragments included numerous other stories beside those Avhich parallel the account Book in the in character. the conflict fall of man from between the gods and evil. 10. second account of the creation having a closer correspondence with the account of Berosus. c dispersion. Legend of the good man Atarpi. Story of the descent of the goddess Ishtar or Veims into Hades. and the wickedness of the world. Legend of the tower of Babel. Story of the wise man who put forth a riddle to the gods. who turned into a bird.— THE GENESIS LEGENDS. the powers of 2. . follows 1. 8. Story of the ox and the horse. 3. 6. Legend of the sin of the God Zu.

Story of the fox. with the his- tory of Izdubar. 16. Izdubar legends: twelve tablets. show that there was a considerable These collection of such primitive stories almost unrepresented in our present collection. Legend of Sinuri. 15.TEE GENESIS LEGENDS. and an account of the flood. . 14. 18 13. Various fragments of other legends.

Babylonian library. — Sumir. and . — Izdubar legends. — Sargon of Assyria. —Assurbanipal or Sardanapalus. literature. Cliro- literature. Difficulties as to date. to to library. — Urukh. are nearly all in fragments. BABYLONIAN AND ASSYRIAN LITERATURE. —Library Calab. tablets. Babylonian astrology. fall. the latter belonging to the The tablets. and The fragments of their terra cotta tablets containing these legends were found in the dt^bris which covers the palaces called the South' West Palace and the North Palace at Kouyunjik. — His additions of contents. tablets. — War of Gods. —Babylonian lonian source of nology. all sizes. the former building being of the age of Sennacherib. — Assyrian — Syllabaries and bilingual —Mutilated condition. —Baby—Arrangement of —Literary period. — Akkad. — Hammurabi. from one inch long to over a foot square. the Babylonians Ancient Assyrians. libraries. — City of Assur. —Dates. — Sennacberib.— Chapter II. at library. king of Ur. which are of time of Assurbanipal. —Babylo— nian — Assyi'ian empire. — Removal of Library Nineveh. — Kouynnjik —Fragmentary — Subjects. —Later Babylonian — Creation and copies. Descrijition N order to understand the position of these legends it is necessary to give some account of the wonderful literature of the copyists. condition.

gical tablets. Difl'erent fragments of the same tablets and cylinders are found in separate chambers which have no immediate connection with each other. in cases they lay in groups or patches on the pavement. bore the . Thus. and have fallen on the deIn some of the lower struction of the building. the series of Astrolo- numbering over seventy tablets. or subjects were on other cases the commenced on tablets of the number of same tablets size Stories and continued and form. A consideration of the inscriptions shows that these tablets have been arranged according to their subjects in various positions in the libraries. Each subject or series of tablets had a title. chambers they lay covering the whole other floor. tablets in a series in some and on e amounting to over one hundred. and there are occasional clusters of frao-ments at various heig-hts in the earth which covers the buildings. the title being formed by the first phrase or part of single subject phrase in the subject. The other fragments through all are scattered singly the upper earth which covers the floors and walls of the palace. showing that the present distribution of the fragments has nothing to do with the original position of the tablets. appears It from a consideration of the present positions of the fragments that they were originally in the upper chambers of the palace.BABYLONIAN AND 20 in consequence of the changes which have taken place in the ruins the fragments of the same tablet are sometimes scattered widely apart.

catalogues of these documents written like them on clay tablets with titles oval upon them. apparently labels for the various series of works." this being the of the At first tablet. and custodians or librarians to It is probable that all these regulations were of great antiquity. title "When tlie commencement gods Anu. All these arrangements care taken with respect to literary matters.. &c. appointed for the store of the tablets. There had first at the were beside. consist- line of the following tablet. In considering a subject like the present one it is a point of the utmost importance to define as closely as possible the date of our present copies of the legends." the second tablet of Anu. every tablet in each series was written the work. Elu. and were copied like the tablets from the Babylonians. Elu. it appears probable that there were in the Royal Library at Nineveh over 10. show the and other small tablets. There were regular on the uj^per libraries or chambers. Elu. further .ASSYRIAN LITEBATUBE. By far the of the tablets brought from Nineveh . including almost every subject in ancient literature. in gods gods to preserve the proj^er position of each tablet." &c. take charge of them.000 inscribed tablets. Judging from the fragments discovered. and the most probable period at which the original copies greatest may have been number inscribed. every one except the last in a series ing of the end a catch phrase. and. probably floors of the palaces. thus : 21 " the first the end of its number When the "When the tablet of Anu.

equally stated and acknowledged on all is hands that these tablets are not the originals. copies were multiplied. but it tablets are conclusive and have not been called in question. and every copy of the Genesis legends yet found was inscribed during his reign. 670. and of course we have unfortunate that never preserved. or registering the highest efforts of their science on the became the standards for Babylonian literature. increased by the following The difficulty here is considerations : it appears that at an early period in Babylonian history a great literary development took place. these texts were held these texts fixed and stereotyped the style . was everywhere abundant. and by the veneration in which they other. in a noble style of poetry.BABYLONIAN AND 22 belong to tlie age of Assurbaiiipal. who reigned over Assyria B. the date of the original copies thus a wide door is is for difference of The Assyrians acknowledge literature was borrowed from Babylonian sources.C. Clay. and thrown open opinion on this point. the material on which they were written. them and science of that day. The statements on the present on this point. Written many of and appealing to the strongest feelings of the people on one side. but are only copies from earlier texts. and later generations were content to copy these writings instead of making new works for themselves. religion. themselves that this It is it is to Babylonia to look to ascertain the approximate dates of the original documents. and numerous works were produced which embodied the prevailing myths.

reason to believe that. and dry and unsatisfactory to most persons beside. where the language of devotion and the style of the Bible differ in several respects from those of the English of to-day. lano-uas^e fixed. and the language in which they were written remained the classical style in the country down to the Persian conquest. The private and in the time of Assurbanipal. of the day was in very different letters and despatches of this age which have been discovered differ widely from the language of the contemporary public docaments and relio. although is. Sargon. the Assyrians copied the Genesis legends. nezzar and Nabonidus. There the however. These considerations show the the age of a culty is document from further increased hangs over all Chronology its difficulty of fixing style. there being no sensible difference in style to match the long interval between them. have a slightly similar case in England.ious writin2:s. showino^ the chansre the Ian- guage had undergone since the style of these was We fixed. some . happens that texts of Rim-agu.ASSYRIAN LITEEATUBE. and who were one thousand rabi. and the diffi- by the uncertainty which Babylonian chronology. when the common speech style. 23 of Babylonian literature. Thus it Hammu- years before Nebuchad- show the same language as the texts of these later kings. is always a thorny subject. and of devotion literature remained speech of the bulk of the people was the gradually modified .

which had been centres of hterature suffering a decline. in order to and epochs fixed upon for the Genesis legends. fixes him century that the date B. because there is is of no evidence of these legends being written after his epoch.C. there ruled several . or obtained dominion there under a king named Hammurabi. Before this date we have a period of about 250 years. and consider no one. but nothing original home or race. It is is Berosus calls these known as to their supposed that this race came into Babylonia. The date of Hammurabi consequence in the question. king of Assyria. during which a foreign race ruled at Babylon. the great cities far as it we know..C. however.C. it is best to start chronology is not in question. however. This circumstance fact that accounted for by the during the period following the conquest of Hammurabi foreigners. with the generally received date of about B. to this.. so the sole capital. had been may be the government was in the hands of and was much more centralized than before. Babylon being. 1300 for the conquest of Babylonia by Tugultininip. 1550. be taken of show the reasons for the dates it here. BABYLONIAN AND 24 notice must. whose date is thus Many scholars do not agree Hammurabi much more ancient fixed about B. Before the time of Hammurabi.C. so later than the sixteenth 1550 may be accepted as the most moderate one possible for the epoch of Hammurabi. B. foreigners Arabs. In this case the later and.

It appears probable that previous to the reign of Urukh the two divisions of Sumir and Akkad were separate monarchies and it is therefore likely that any literature written before B. 2000. and in the present state of our may be researches he fixed B. The name satisfactory first ments is whose time we have the evidence of contemporary monu- monarch of the in read Urukh.C. be remarked that at a much earlier date. 2000 will show evidences taken by the kings is .C. 33°. The rough this period outlines of Babylonian chronology at may be arranged as follows. king of Ur. 2000 epoch of independent king- Babylonia . the metropolis. It must. always bear- ing in mind that the diff*erent dates are we can fairly assume. 2000. and be much more ancient that several of the lowest them may : Down doms in to B. possess numerous monu- These monarchs principally reigned at the races of kings. of this division. somewhere between latitudes 32° and B. 2000 to 1550. cities tions whom we 25 do not determine the length of their rule.— ASSYRIAN LITEBATUBE. Era of Urukh. many scholars place him From the time of Urukh to however.C. Their inscrip- of Ur. and Akkad." that is. the southern part of the country. a region on the Euphrates.C. Karrak. Hammurabi the that of title of honour principally " King of Sumir and Akkad.C. of ments. Larsa. Ur rise of Sumir. but they probably covered the period from B. the principal centre of activity being Akkad. King of Lower and Upper Babylonia. .

containing the bulk of their astrology. Asmun. certain that there before that date which I . of the period B. the great Chaldean and a legend which. Sumir. revival of the power of Akkad. appears to belong to the northern half of the country. Karrak the metropolis. mentioning kingSr I any gloss containing a royal name have not noticed later than the kings of Ur. and some parts. 1550. In the glosses. give also the kingdoms of Kassi. or Syria. Nituk or and Assan. 2000. want of a better title. and always speaks as a separate state. It and implies it to be the mentions besides. and Elam.C. body of the work there appear or the peoples. perhaps of later date than the body of the work. Rise of Larsa as metropolis. B. B. I call the Exploits of Lubara. Yamutbal.BABYLONIAN AND 26 B. Although we cannot ments before the time of Urukh. The work I have ^provisionally called " The Ex- . Martu. Era of Ismi-clagan. Kissati. namely. leading state. any monu- fix the dates of B. apparently later additions. the kingdoms of Subartu. that of Akkad is to Akkad.C. king of Akkad. Era of Sargon. king of Babylon. 1700. Era of Hammurabi.C. 1850. The Chaldean work. 2000 to 1850. king of Karrak. B.C. for work on Astrology. 1600. Gutim or Goim. it is quite were buildings and inscriptions and there are two literary works should judge to be certainly older than this epoch.C.C. Babylon the metropolis.

Sutu. of the Creation. Elam. closely agreeing in some respects with the account handed down by Berosus. only contained five small This work notices a large number of peoples tablets. and at least as early as B. is much a shorter one. It seems. Avhich I should provisionally place about the same date. and were common The in some form to all the story of the Creation and Fall belongs to the uj^per or Akkad division of the country. on the other hand. The Izdubar legends. for while there are over seventy large tablets of the astrology. About the same time tion.C. These legends were. that . containing the story of the Flood. as the account of the Crea- on evil spirits. Kassi. Goim. Lullubu." and which also bears evidence of antiquity. traditions before they were committed to writing. 2000. Akkad .ASSYRIAN LITEBATUBE. from the indications in the inscrij^tions. a series of tablets a totally different probably written . were probably written in the south of the country. this. which was accomplished at least B. Assyria. tradition and there which contained is was a third account from the City of Cutha. but rather an argument is for a later date than I have chosen. the principal being the people of the coast. the uniting of Sumir and Akkad. ploits of great 27 Lubara. or states.C. the notice of the Assyrians is not mentioned. country. however. Subartu. and may not have been committed to writing so early as the Izdubar legends. 2000. but even this is of great antiquity. and what I beheve to be the history of Nimrod.

it must be noticed that the Assyrians themselves state that the documents were copied from ancient Babylonian copies.BABYLONIAN AND 28 there happened in tlie interval B. when our only copies in many cases are Assyrian transcripts made in the reign of Assurbanipal.C. and probably most of the syllabaries. 1600. Some at least. and no other that this .C. but a few are of later date." vol. and in some cases state that the old copies were partly illegible even in their day. siderations may show view. logical tablets about B. in the seventh century B. is but one or two cona perfectly reasonable likely period can be found the original composition of the documents unless ascend to a greater antiquity. and other similar legends. sions many it may seem hazardous to persons to fix the dates of original documents so high. historical allu- and other evidence. king of Akkad. Flood. Again. ii. bilingual and explanatory tablets. together with a long work omens these ajipear to belong to the on terrestrial kingdom and period of Sargon. names of states and capitals. . A little later. 2000 to 1850 a general collecting and development of the various traditions of the Creation.C. in one case there text. in " is actual proof of the antiquity of a an Assyrian copy of part of which Cuneiform Inscriptions. grammars and . Nos. Tower of Babel. In the first for we place. In spite of the indications as to peculiarities of worship. is published plate 54. belong to this period also. a new set of astro- was written. vocabularies.

C. the documents embodying these tradi- identical with. and of it the to the time of in some points Book of Genesis.C. according to the to about B. belonging. and some of these traditions. it roughly synchronizes with the period from Abraham to Moses. showing that they had passed through many changes. those given in the Many of tions have been discovered but there can be dition. we may say. 2000 to 1550. existed history parallel creation down to. 3 & 29 In a collection of tablets discovered by Mr. as embodied in the various works. 4. according to the ordinary chronology of our Bibles. IGOO. is part of an ancient Babylonian copy of very text. Taking the period of literary development in Babylonia as extending from B. which will one day clear up the difficulties which now explorations meet us So at will reveal perfect copies.ASSYRIAN LITEBATUBE. the this Babylonian copy being about one thousand years older than the Assyrian one. Loftus at Senkereh. kings mentioned in it. exhibit great difference in details. every step of their consideration.- the present volume had treated of in existed traditions in the country long before they as were com- mitted to writing. in sadly mutilated con- no more doubt that future and numerous companion and explanatory texts. probable that most of the legends is. and human Nimrod. far as known contemporary inscriptions are . and during this period appears that of the traditions universe. It however.

almost every sented by contemporary specimens. measures. however numerous and important are the Genesis legends. lists of the gods. The principal inscriptions of this period consist of texts on bricks the latter down may and on signet cylinders.— BABYLONIAN AND 30 concerned. cube . 2. to the period of the Passing kingdoms of Karrak. and some of be of much greater antiquity. v It is generally considered that the earliest inscrip- tions of any importance which we now possess belong to the time of Urukh. king of Ur. Larsa. neighbourhood have come our earliest its specimens of these literary tablets. and Mathematical works. tables. but already they were arranged in collec- tions or libraries. and Akkad. 3. square root. and. we find a great accession of material. titles. calculations. literary being repre- class of writing It is certain that even then the inscribed clay tablets were not isolated. and explana- tions. and these some of the principal collections were placed at From Senkerch and cities. whose age may be placed with great probability about two thousand years before the Christian era. we cannot consider our present researches and discoveries as anything like sufficient to give a fair view of the literature of Assyria and Babjdonia. lists of words. and their manifestations and Grammatical works. including 1. they form but a small portion of the whole literature of the country. the following being some of the contents of this earliest known library: Mythological tablets.

and omens. astrology. only known to us through later but which' certainly had their origin as early as this period. wills and loans. and of towns lists and countries. being in the B. He who ascended rebuilt the city of Calah the (Nim- roud). In Assyria the first centre of Literature and seat of a library was the city of Assur (Kileh Shergat). throne B. 7.C. Beyond the scanty records of some of the monarchs nothing of value remains of this library for several and the Assyrian known from later copies.C. A literary works are only revival of the Assyrian empire began under Assur-nazir-pal. known cylinder). centuries. Such are the inscriptions from the libraries of the early inhabitants of Babylonia.C. Historical cylinders. Legends and short historical inscriptions. for find only detached inscriptions.ASS TBI AN LITERATURE. sale and barter. evidence of the gradual shifting both of the political power and activity literary from Babylonia to Assyria. 8. 885. Astronomy. 1500. 31 5. and this city became the seat of an Assyrian library. and the earliest known tablets date about B. 6. Tablets were procured from Babylonia by . Passing we down from some centuries accompanied by this period. 1600 (the earliest Kudur-mabuk. Laws and law cases. one of 4. texts. British Museum. and beside these there are numerous copies. Geographical tablets. king of Assyria.

B.C. Early he appointed Nabu-suqub-gina principal and this officer set to work making new copies of all the standard works of the day. 812. who founded the last Assyrian dynasty. literary and had Assurnirari. to make the Assyrian royal hbrary worthy of the empire. son of Sennacherib.C. and the study of this early literature became a marked feature of the time. continued to add to his father's library at Calah.C. son of Sargon. neser. During the whole of his term of office copies of the great literary works Were produced. work. during the reign of Nabu-bal-idina. In the period which followed there was a general aU the ancient works which had escaped destruction. 705. enlarged the library. however.C. B. B. revival of Sennacherib. 681.BABYLONIAN AND 82 Shalmaneser. further . It was. 755.C. 745.C. B. and these were copied by the Assyrian the royal library. but late in his reign he removed the collection from that city to Nineveh.C. B. grandson of Shalma- added to the Calah library. king of Babylon. and placed in Vul-nirari. and placed in it various copies of historical inscriptions.C. Esarhaddon. in his reign librarian. 860. some mythological tablets beiiio' a dated in his reio-n. B. O Tiglath Pileser. B. the majority of the texts preserved belonging to the early period previous to B. son of Assur-nazii'-pal. where from this time the national library remained until the fall of the empire. tablets written at Nineveh. 722. continued the scribes. 1600. reserved for Sargon.

33 increased the national collection. by this collection of inscriptions. Assurbanipal. the Assyrian capital to enrich the great collection there. and he on account of is his magnificent far more memorable patronage of learning than on account of the greatness of his empire or the extent of his wars. need only be mentioned here. varying D Ac- from legends of the . Erech. Larsa. Nipur and various other cities were transferred to . we owe our knowledge of the Babylonian myths library than and it is almost to tablets Avritten in his reis^n that all and early beside history. the Sardanapalus of the Greeks. The agents of Assurbanipal sought everywhere for inscribed tablets. The fragments brought over to Europe give us a ofood idea of this librarv and show the rano. 673. brought them to Nineveh.ASSYRIAN LITERATURE. son of Esarhaddon. many other important matters. most of his workf being of a religious character. companying them we have a series of mythological tablets of various sorts. Assurbanipal added more to the Assyrian royal aU the kings who had gone before him. the different classes of texts. Ur. B. Cutha. Akkad. was the greatest of the Assyrian sovereims. and thus the literary treasures of copied them there Babylon.e of the subjects embraced Among stories place .C. as they will be further described in the present volume. Borsippa. the Genesis and similar legends occupied a prominent these.

songs. and many copies of banipal. &c. Historical texts formed another section of the . of the prayers were for use on special occa- such as on starting on a campaign. on the occurrence of an eclipse. cerns One fine series con- cure of witchcraft. a superstition the believed in in those days. down to of these texts take the form of charms to be used in sickness and for the expulsion of evil spirits some of them . Some sions. prayers. There is a fragment of one Astrological tablet which professes to be copied from an original of the time of Izdubar. as I have already stated. one of the most ancient texts in the Euphrates valley. Astronomy and Astrology were represented by various detached inscriptions work on and reports. which appears to date from the time of Sargon. 1600. king of Akkad. In this work everything in nature is supposed to portend some coming event. psalms. about B. which were in the Library of Assur- This work on Astrology and Astronomy was. being at least as old as the creation and Izdubar legends.BABYLONIAN AND 34 2:ods. Izdubar is fully mentioned in one of these tablets as lord of the oaths or pledges of the world.C. and hymns. mere allusions and lists Many of names. but principally by the great these subjects covering over seventy tablets which was borrowed from the early Chaldeans. are of great antiquity. There were also numerous copies of a long work on Terrestrial omens.

There are codes of laws. tribute. trees. reptiles. including sion lists of the signs and explanations. All &c. histories of the relations between Assyria and Baby- Elam. species. procla- lonia. of property. sale. fishes. barter. In Geography the Assyi-ians Avere not very forward . Grammar and Lexicography were better represented. treaties. and these included tions of early numerous copies of inscrip- Babylonian kings chronological tablets with officers. law and civil of In matters the library was also rich. Mathe- matics had a place in the library. and taxes. examples syntax. bihngual tables. posed nature and by earths. according to the sup- of the various and show considerable advance in the sciences. and the tablets serve to show that the same laws and customs prevailed in Assyria as in Babylonia. reeds. loans. Natural animals history mammals. but this branch of learning was not studied so fully as in Babylonia. &c. explanatory lists. . lists are classified affinities of and birds. was represented &c. stones. there were beside. these tablets were copied from the Babylonians. there being many works on these subjects. hsts lists of titles and trades. there being problems. mations. grasses. and Arabia.. and reports on the state of the empire and military affairs. declen- of nouns. library. ASSYRIAN LITEBATUBE. of kings and annual of various Assyrian monarchs. and calculations. conjugation of verbs. These tables and grains. figures. despatches. insects. plants. law cases. inscriptions 35 lists .

' . discovered his seat of a library rival- ling that of Assurbanipal at Nineveh. rivers. lists cities. and Nebuchadnezzar and successors made Babylon the development of Bab}lonian literature explorations being still light the texts of this epoch. but these remarkable inscriptions have preserved to us texts which show the wonderful advance made by the people of Chaldea before the time of Moses. after Of this later we know very required to bring to Few by wandering Arabs fragments only. or by recovered chance travellers. have yet turned up.ASSYBIAN LITEBATUBE. mountains. Such are some of the principal contents of the great librar}^ from which we have obtained our copies of the Creation and Flood legends. little. most of the tablets were copied from early Babylonian inscriptions. 36 but there are of of countries and their productions. which had been the parent of Assyrian writing. but there is in them evidence enough to promise a rich reward to future excavators. Babylonian literature. the original copies of the works have m most cases disappeared . and peoples. revived the fall of Nineveh.

translation. — Larancha. from his position as a .- Titan. and. whom as I 330 to tlie principal extracts have mentioned in Chapter 2 GO. Berosus. are I. first kings. lived. Belus. —Kissare Return to Babylon. Berosus and his copyists.— Chapter III. of colonies. laus Sibyl. —Tauthe. —The Ark. — Cannes. — Xisuthrus. but are of doubtful origin. HAVE included in this chapter the principal extracts from ancient authors respecting the Babylonian accounts of Genesis. Triad. king. — and Assorus. — Damascius. — ApoUodorus. Polyhistor. —Alexander —Creation. from copied. Pantibiblon. — — De— —Ten Abydenus. Sisithrus. Alorus. of luge. teaching. — Cronos and — Babylonian Damascenus.. his — Chaldean kings. — Dispersion from Titan and Prometheus. CHALDEAX LEGENDS TRANSMITTED THROUGH BEROSUS AND OTHER ANCIENT AUTHORS. — Tower Babel. and of less immediate interest to my subject. Many others are known.C.—Bel. The — — Tower Babel. — Deluge. about B. —Moymis. — Cory's — Babylonia. — —Nico—Armenia. Hestiseus.

who copied in the main from Berosus. birds. The others are later writers. and of the memorable And actions which they had achieved. and whose notices may be taken as giving abridgments of his statements. barley. also palm-trees . preserved at Babylon with the greatest care. informs us that And the son of Philip. he mentions that there were written accounts.CHALDEAN LEGENDS. tlie best means of knowing the Babylonian traditions. which are food. He were fit for nutriment similar to barley. and of the kings. p. 21). in the lakes also flight. contained histories of the heaven and of the sea . in the book of first lonia. comprehending a period of above fifteen and that these writings myriads of years. and and apples. and and ocrus. and made without prejudice from recent discoveries. and sesame . and in respect to That there were variety of fruits fish which are merely of the lakes. in the first place he describes Babylonia as a country situated between the Tigris and the Euphrates . Berosus. (Cory. 38 Babylonian had priest. Baby- his history of he lived in the age of Alexander. the translations of Cory as being standard ones. of the birth of mankind. and that produced the roots called gongas. Extract from Alexander Polyhistor I. that it abounded with wheat. and a both those and those which frequent adds that those parts of the country . I have preferred as usual.

subjoined to the fish's His voice. and language were articulate and human . from that part of the Erythraean sea which borders upon Babylonia. He and . an animal endowed with reason. and a representation of him is preserved even to this day. 39 bordered upon Arabia were without water. H'liich and barren. there was (in these times) who resort of people of various nations. but took no food them an at that season insight into letters every kind. among and he gave sciences. whose whole body (according to Apollodorus) was that of a fish . and lived in beasts of the In the a lawless a great inhabited manner like the field. Oannes and otheu Babylonian Mythological Figtjres fkom cvlinder. but that the parts which lay on the other side were both hilly and At Babylon fertile. and arts of taught them to construct cities. with sirfiilar tail. Chaldea. to . to those of a the account of that under the fish's feet below also man. head he had another head. first year there appeared. too. by name Oannes.CHALDEAN LEGENDS. This being was accustomed to pass the day men.

of which Berosus proposes to give an account when he comes to the history of the kings. Other human figures were to be seen with the legs and horns of a goat . sun had sea. tlie He made them distinguish the seeds of the earth. some were furnished with two wings. to compile laws. There appeared men. and explained to them principles of geometrical knowledge. wherein resided most hideous beings. others with and with two two heads . the other of a woman. After this there appeared other animals like Oannes. resembling in shape the hippocentaurs. while others united the hind quarters body of a man. which were produced of a two-fold principle. of whom four. for he was amphibious.— CHALDEAN LEGENDS. he instructed them in every thing which could tend to soften manners and humanize their lives. . 40 found temples. and the fol- lowing is the purport of what he said : " There was a time in which there existed nothing but darkness and an abyss of waters. and showed them how to collect the fruits in short. set this being Oannes retired again into the and passed the night in the deep. Oannes wrote concerning the generation of mankind. nothing material has been added by way of And when the improvement to his instructions. They had one body. and of their civil polity. some had horses' feet. From that time. and likewise in their several organs both male and female. . faces. Bulls likewise were bred there with the heads of men and dogs with fourfold of a horse with the . but the one that of a man. Moreover.

"was an allegorical description the whole universe consisting of . the sea. other's shape and countenance. "All this" (he says) of nature. men. 41 bodies. with other which assumed each fishes. being in this woman situation. terminated in their extremities with the tails of horses also with the heads of dogs. but which in might equally be interpreted the moon. For. Of all which were preserved delineations in the temple of Belus at Babylon. with the heads and bodies of horses. tails creatures in which were combined the limbs of every species In addition to these. too. and of the other half the heavens. of animals. monstrous animals. The person Avho presided over them was a woman named Onioroca. and of one half of her he formed the earth. reptiles. there were of fishes. and the In short. Belus All things and cut the asunder. Greek Thalassa.CEALBEAN LEGENDS. and at the same time destroyed the animals within her (or in the abyss). came. and other animals. *^Bfc> 1 i=S Composite Animals from Cylinder. which in the Chaldean language is " Thalatth. serpents. "fishes.

" is the (Such.) (In the second book was contained the history of the ten kings of the Chaldeans. be capable of bearing the air. 42 moisture. Belus upon this. though fruitful.— CHALDHAN LEGENDS. hundred and thirty-two thousand years the time of the Deluge. by nature commanded one of the gods to take off his head. or four reaching to For Alexander. as it gushed out. account which Berosus gives in his first book. manner) who is : "After the death of Ardates. not being able to bear the prevalence of light. and reduced the universe But the animals. enumerating the kings from the writings of the Chaldeans. of divine knowledge. which consisted collectively of an hundred and twenty sari. . This Belus. after the ninth Ardates. to order. divided the darkness. in this the tenth. died. and the periods of the continuance of each reign. and the moon. proceeds to called by them Xisuthrus. Belus formed also the stars. and animals being continually generated tliei'ein. and from thence to form other men and animals. On this account it is that they are rational. and partake head . according to Polyhistor Alexander. and from thence formed men. the deity above-mentioned took off his own upon which the other gods mixed the blood. In his time happened a great . and to mix the blood with the earth. his son Xisuthrus reigned eighteen sari. and the sun. and the five planets. by signify Jupiter. whom they and separated the heavens from the earth. which should seeing a vast space unoccupied.

is 43 thus described. upon Avhich he mankind. he was to sail. The and deity Cronos appeared to him in a vision. ' and two in Into this he put everything which he had prepared. and trust himself fear- Having asked the Deity whither he was answered. breadth. built a vessel five stadia in length. and all conveyed into it his wife. warned him that upon the fifteenth day of the month Dsesius there would be a flood. To the Gods lessly to the deep. and was in time abated. and to bury it in the Sun at Sippara. . his friends. Xisuthrus sent out birds from the vessel. all both birds and quadrupeds. but they returned to from whence he judged that the surface of the earth had appeared above the waters. and He offered up a prayer for the good of then obeyed the divine admonition. and to build a vessel. After an interval of some days. returned to him again. and last of his children. He therefore enjoined him to write a history of the beginning. He made a trial a forth a second time. he sent them and they now returned tinged with mud. procedure. which not finding any food. with their feet third time vdth these birds him no more . After the flood had been upon the earth. and take with him into it his friends and relations and to convey on board every thing necessary to city of the sustain together with life. and conclusion of all things. CHALDEAN LEGENDS. nor any place whereupon they might rest their feet. deluge the history of which .'. : . by which mankind would be destroyed. the different animals.

The rest having heard these words offered sacrifices to the gods. it of Armenia. as it para. hear him admonish them to pay due regard to religion . was ordained. and likewise informed them that it was upon account of his piety that he was translated to live with the gods. his daughter. upon looking out found that it was stranded upon the side of some mountain upon which he immediately quitted it with his wife. and the people scrape with which use of it some yet remains in the Corcyrsean mountains it off" the bitumen had been outwardly coated. and make by way of an alexipharmic and amulet. finding that their companions did not return. and of Xisuthrus. all man- moreover. that his wife and daughter and the pilot had obtained the same honour. and . disappeared. Xisuthrus then paid his adoration to the the pilot. quitted the vessel with many name lamentations.CHALDEAN LEGENDS. that the place wherein they then were was the land of Armenia. The part of vessel being thus stranded in Armenia. with those within. who remained They. and. To this he added that they should return to Babylonia. and. and could air. and. earth and. . offered altar. called Him continually on the they saw no more they could distinguish his voice in the but . 44 He therefore made an opening and in the vessel. : sacrifices to having constructed an come out of the who had vessel with him. the gods. search for the writings at Sip- which they were to make known to kind. journeyed towards Babylonia. taking a circuit.

the shepherd from Pantibiblon. having the same form with those above. sea. a Chaldean. in whose time appeared the Musarus Oannes. from Apollodorus (Cory. says Apollodorus. Chron. Chron. xxviii. in his time (he says) appeared again from the Erythraean sea a fourth Annedotus. for the Then reigned Euedorachus from Pantibiblon term of eighteen sari. then Ammenon the Chaldean. 30). but Apollodorus says that forty sari. Syncel. (All particularly fish and a man. p. And when 45 they returned to Babylon and had found the writings at Sippara they built cities and erected temples. reigned ten sari.— CHALDEAN LEGENDS. v. and after him Daonus. tells us that the first king was Alorus of Babylon. he reigned ten sari. Euseb. has said that he appeared in the first year. however. makes the second appear after twenty-six sari. the shape of a fish blended with that of a man. This the history which Berosus has transmitted is He to us. the Annedotus from the Erythra3an (But Alexander Polyhistor. in his days there appeared another personage from the Erythraean sea like the former. Berosus. related and circumstantially whatever Oannes . Annedotus it was after Abydenus. and after- wards Alaparus and Amelon. anticipating the event.. and he reigned eighteen sari . 8. and Babylon was thus inhabited again.) Then succeeded Megalarus from the city of Pantibiblon. who came from Pantebiblon . having the same complicated form between a Odacon. whose name was these.

he reigned ten sari . from Abydenus (Cory. — SynceL Chron. It is said that the first king of the country was Alorus. from Larancha. to him succeeded Amillarus from the city of Pantibiblon. So much concerning the wisdom of the Chaldeans. 46 had informed tliem has of.the eiohth Then reigned in order reigned ten sari. p. upon the death of sari. and he reigned eight And. v.) Then reigned Amempsinus. and a sossus sixty. after Amillarus reigned who was Am- of the city of Panti- then Megalarus of the same place reigned eighteen sari . then Daos the shepherd governed for the space of ten time four sari. in his time happened the great So that the sum of Deluge. Chron. Otiartes. . all the kings is ten .CHALDEAN LEGENDS. his son Xisuthrus reigned eighteen sari . . concerning these Abydenus made no mention. a Chaldean. and he beino. now a sarus is esteemed to be three thousand six hundred years. and that he gave out a report that God had appointed him to be the shepherd of the people. Euseh. in his time came up from the sea a second Annedotus'. 32). he was of Pantibiblon . and the term which they collectively reigned an hundred and twenty sari. reigned thirteen sari. a Chaldean from Larancha. in his double-shaped personages came up out . a semi-demon very similar in his form to Cannes menon twelve biblon. a neros six hundred. xxxix. Berosus. Otiartes. who After him Alaparus reigned three sari. sari.

Upon the third . 8. Chron. Evan. Avards in the time of Euedoreschus appeared another. v. xxxvili. Eneugamus. and Anementus after- . trial And when upon the third he succeeded. their feet stained with Syncel. Eneuboulus. that he might judge whether the flood had after the cessation of the rain Sisithrus sent out birds by way of experiment. Pr^wp. others To him the deity Cronos foretold that on the fifteenth day of month Daesius there would be a deluge of rain and he commanded him to deposit all the writings whatthe ever which were in his possession in the city of the sun in Sippara.. so that in the amounted and the term of their reigns to ten kings. 47 whose names were Eueclocus. returned again to Sisithrus. hundred and twenty to an whole the number sari. . sailed immediately to Armenia. With respect to the vessel. But the birds. for the birds then returned with mud. of the sea to land. it is a custom of the inhabitants to form bracelets and amulets of its wood. Sisithrus. . repeated with other birds. the gods translated him from among men. which yet remains in Armenia. Euseb. passing over an unbounded sea without finding any This he place of rest. After these reigned other kings. Anodaphus.— : CHALDEAN LEGENDS. and last of all Sisithrus. ix. and was presently inspired by God. lib. Chron. (And among other things not irrelative to the subject he continues thus concerning the Deluge) After Euedoreschus some : reigned. when he had complied with these commands. Euseb. and then Sisithrus.

and the gods introduced a diversity of tongues among men. CHALDEAN LEGENDS. PrcBp. and its ruins are said to be . Eiiseh. and overthrew the work upon its contrivers. the tower is called Syncel. xliv. . who till that time had all spoken the same language and a war arose between at still Babylon . for confusion is by the Hebrews called Babel. Euseh. and that the remains of the vessel were long preserved upon the mountain. . 48 Of the Tower of Babel (Cory. 49). 3 . Evan. the Ark. i. this was the same individual of legislator of the Jews. There is above Minyas very great mountain which it is said that many Armenia a Baris. 34). now place in which they built Babylon on account of the confusion of tongues. ix. from Nicolaus Damascenus (Cory. to which in the land of is called persons retreated at the time of the Deluge and were saved. and that one in particular was carried thither in an ark and was landed on its summit. has Jud. whom made mention. Proep. ix. that the first inhabitants of the earth. undertook to raise a tower whose top should reach the sky. Of . Euseh. Chron. Evan. the Jos. The Cronos and Titan. p. own glorying in their strength and size and despising the gods. in the place in which Babylon now stands but when it approached the heaven the winds assisted the gods. lib. Chron. They say p.— — . xiii. Perhaps ]\Ioses. Ant.

ix. p. when Titan undertook a war against Cronus. Of the Tower of Babel. Ant 4. i. Titan and Prometheus. led them to occupy. ix. The Theogonies. Jud. i. Prccp.—. which is the reason that the name deluge lived of that city is After the Bab}ion.Sy?2C. Evan. . But they were again driven from thence by the introduction of a diversity of tongues upon which they founded colonies in various parts. and gave to each tribe a particular language of its own. making Apason the husband of Tauthe. xliv. c. c. 318). who escaped took with them p. The priests 49 trom Hesti^eus (Cory. like the rest of the barba- over in silence the One principle of the and they constitute two. Prcep. . from Alexander PolyHisTOR (Cory. But God sending forth a whirlwind : confounded their design. p. each settling in such situations as chance or . Jos. Euseb. from Damascius But the Bab}lonians.— CHALDEAN LEGENDS. Evan. Ant. rians. Jos. God the direction of Jud. and universe. Tauthe and Apason. E . 50). 4 Euseh. and came to Senaar in Babylonia. 50). that they might climb up into heaven. pass (Cory. the imple- ments of the worship of the Enyalian Jove. The Sibyl says That when all men formerly spoke the same language some among them undertook to erect a large and lofty tower. Of tiie Dispersion.

From them also another progeny is derived. who. Kissare and Assorus. minus. Dache and Dachus and again a third. which I conceive is no other than the intellio-ible world proceeding from the two principles. from which last three others proceed. and .CHALDEAN LEGENDS. Moymis. Anus. and Aus. the Demiurgus. the world. is is born a the fabricator of . they say. And of Aus and Davce son called Belus. And from these proceeds an only-begotten son. 50 denominating her the mother of the gods.

Nergal. Zirat-banit. BABYLOIS'IAN' MYTHOLOGY. but to identify the deities it is difficult in mentioned many by the authors. — — Angels. which appeared to them to correspond with the Babylonian names. In this chapter it is only proposed to give a general account of some parts of the Babylonian mythology. gods. — Cannes. to show the relationship between deities and their titles and work. —Yul. —Mythology —Antiquity. —Hea. — Bel Succoth Benoth. the . and the mention these divinities by the terms in their own mythology. god. gods. — — EquivaVenus. —Three great —Twelve great —Anu. — Table Shamas. N their accounts of the Creation the early history of the human and of race the Babylonian divinities figure very prominently. Anunit. of gods. Ishtar. Colonies. because the phonetic reading of the of the Babylonian gods classical writers often is cases Greek names very obscure. — —Sin moon — Ninip. local in origin. — Conquests. —Anatu.— Chapter TV. —Merodach. Spu-its. lent to the Elu. or Jupiter. — — — Greek accounts.

also considered their gods to be sons of the gods of the mother cities. and gave rise to numerous myths relating to the different personages in the mythology. of the gods had a particular city which was the seat of his worship. and thus came the sj^stem of difterent ranks or grades of among the some cities. It is probable that the gods were in early times only worshipped at their original cities or seats. Christian era two thousand years before the was already completed. and it is probable that the idea of weaving the gods into a system. In some remote age there appear to have been three great cities in the country. that the people of conquering cities should claim that their gods were superior to those of the cities they con- quered.BABYLONIAN MYTEOLOGY. and Nipur. and the Again. only had its origin at a later may be seen The time. by the antiquity of this mythology fact. in Avhich each should have his part to play. and Bel were considered . and its deities that it definitely connected into a with little system which remained change down to the close of the kingdom.- the various cities or settlements being independent of each other. gods. but some cities it was natural as wars arose. and their divinities Anu. and gained conquests over others. as they considered themselves sons of the cities they started from. to the rise and Political changes in early times led fall of various cities and consequently of their deities. and kings gradually united the country into monarchies. Eridu. Hea. Erech. colonies were sent out colonies. 52 Babylonian mythology was local in origin each .

lord of the city of Erech. the changes led to the decline of these 53 cities. father of the gods. 5. mother of the great gods. lord of the world. the strong god. 11. 10. lord of 4. also called great. lord knowledge. wisdom and fate. giant king of war. crowns. lord of the city of Nipur. of all.: BABYLONIAN MYTHOLOGY. creator. lord of the city of Babylon. Bel. 6. Nergal. wife of Bel. lord of canals and atmo- sphere. formed members of a These gods of twelve gods. Merodach. the lofty god. lord of the city of Nipur. Belat. maker of brightness. w^arrior of the warriors of the gods. These three leading circle and deities their titles are given as 1. Hea. maker of 3. Anu. Vul. 9. lord of the city of Ur. Ninip. holder of the golden sceptre. 7. Shamas. destroyer of wicked. just prince of the gods. king of angels and spirits. god of lord of the city of Eridu. the " great gods " of Subsequent country. 2. of the deep. 8. Sin. lord of the city of Cutha. lady of the city of Nipur. Nusku. . judge of heaven and earth. du'ector lord of the cities of Larsa and Sippara. deities still retained their position at the but their head of the Babylonian system. lord of birth. lord of the city of Muru.

Yadukku. while the lower region or earth was called Anatu. raising the face of warriors. Ekimu. 50. body of gods forming the bulk of the pantheon. or angels of earth.BABYLONIAN MYTHOLOGY. and they are Anu was as the . one of the manifestations of two forms Lahma and Lahama. Below these again came various classes of spirits or genii called Sedu. some good. and the Anunnaki. The relationship of the various principal gods and Below these deities there their names. and when these were divided the upper region or heaven was called Anu. 54 12. titles. or angels of heaven. and others. He represents the universe and lower regions. perhaps as the original principle of nature. and below these were arranged the Igege. represents abstract divinity. and the god of the whole of heaven and earth. These forms are said to have sprung out of the original chaos. his sign is the simple star. see p. and at other times the Maltese Anu cross. and was a offices large will be seen by the following remarks. sometimes considered as the ruler and god of heaven. and he appears as an original principle. the symbol of di^dnity. termed the old god. which probably correspond to the Greek forms Dache and Dachus. Gallu. Islitar. eldest of heaven and earth. At deity the head of the Babylonian mythology stands a who was sometimes identified with the heavens. as the upper Anatu being Anu is the female principle or wife of Anu. This deity is named Anu. some of these were evil.

he is the god of rain. Anatu represents depth and earth. Vul is god of the region of the atmosphere. the is mother of the god Hea^ the mather producing heaven and earth. when Anu represents height and heaven. sar means the upper hosts or expanse. His indicate height. was originally his Anu worshipped at the city of Erech. which was called the city of Anu and Anatu. of thunder and liirhtninff. antiquity. Latarak. the self-existent. Anu and Anatu their sons are desert. the wife or consort of Anu. purity. but is sometimes contrasted with him. Kusu. and the air-god. and he be taken as the general type of divinity. she also lady of darkness. have a numerous family. of storms and whirlwind. the king of the Abgula. thus. 55 followed by the two forms sar and kisar (the Kissare and Assorus of the Greeks). the names Alalu and Papsukul. or name is uncertain. Yul was space . and she is one of the many goddesses called Istar or Venus. between the heaven and earth. whose The air-god is usually called Vulj he has also the name Pur. and the great temple there was called the " house of Anu. the female fish-god. of floods and watercourses." or the " house of heaven. and Uban or Ben." Anatu. and the epithets Ramman or Rimmon.. may and and he bears titles generally divinity. among numbered Sar-ziri. kisar the lower hosts or expanse these are also forms of manifestations of Ann Anu wife. is generally only a female form of Anu. BABYLONIAN MTTHOLOGT. is also lord of the old city.

as the evening star. came to be regarded as the temple of Venus. was the god of fire . and the worship of Istar became one of the darkest features mythology. until in time his temple. it gradually superseded that of Anu. There were various other goddesses called among which may be Istar. The planet Venus. Vul in is alv^'ays lie Armenia he was ' bore called considered an active deity. of Daddi. it is probable that the first intention in the mythology was only to represent love as heaven-born but in time a more . goddess of Akkad. while the morning star was Anunit. and he is considered to be the most potent deity in relation to witchcraft and spells classical ffenerallv. sensual view prevailed. The most important of the daughters of Anu was named Istar she was in some respects the equivalent of the classical Venus. his name may be read some Tubal Cain and the possibility Bil-kan. and as she was goddess of love. daughter of Sin . Her worship was at first subordinate to that of Anu. noticed Istar. where name Teiseba. a son of Ann. was identified with the Islitar of Erech.BABYLONIAN MYTHOLOGY. with the connection with of the Biblical Vulcan. 56 in hiirli the esteem in Syria and Arabia. while Anu was god of heaven. Another important god. the house of heaven. . The fire-god mythological numerous takes an active part in the tablets and legends. As in Babylonian the worship of this goddess increased in favour. and was extensively worshipped.

these things do appear in the inscriptions. Merodach. Merodach or Bel was identified with the classical Jupiter.BABYLONIAN MYTHOLOGY. " the lord. of music. who is 57 sometimes confounded with the daughter of Anu. In later times. is god of is the sea and of Hades. The Dav-kina. he bears the titles lord of wisdom. of mines and treasures ." was only given to but the name him in times sub- . who was god of that city. after Babylon had been made the capital. and that he was the Oannes of Berosus. creation. the Davke of Damascius. Bel. and son was their principal Maruduk or Merodach. but is from his father to set right all Merodach is an active agent in always subordinate to his father Hea. in others to their Poseidon or Neptune. not. he is Hea called is god of the lord of ther sea or abyss lord of generation and of all human . appears in earlier inscriptions as the agent of his father all the Hea. He has two features. wife who of is however. Hea was the goddess of the lower regions. the consort of the deep. lower region. to the Merodach. he is lord of gifts. the moon-god. and corresponds in some respects to the Saturn or Cronos of the ancients. A Anu companion deity with who Hea. and receives commissions that appears wrong. and of Hades or hell. It has been supposed that the serpent was one of his emblems. he is beings. he goes about in the world collecting information. was raised head of the Pantheon. god of Bab}'lon. in fact of all the lower regions. the Bel of later times. of fishermen and sailors.

seem to when point to a time his city. so generally worshipped in early times that he came to be regarded as the national divinity. or Ishtar. and his temple at the city of type of all temples. 68 The wife of Mero- sequent to the rise of Babylon. Xipur was regarded as The extensive worship of 'the Bel.f and was city of Nipur. dach was Zirat-banit. A his third great god was united with Anu and Hea. and the notices of Beltis pro- bably refer to several different personages. and the high honour in which he was held. and was lord of the surface of the earth and the affairs of men. and had a consort Elu. as was also his consort Tasmit. and Bel. or Bel. . he was the original Bel of the Babylonian mythology. Elu. The same remark may be applied to the name Is tar. Beside Merodach Hea had a nume- rous progeny. the god of knowledge and was worshipped was a favourite at the literature." or " goddess. is a famous deity celebrated in all ages. but as the only " lady. Nipur. was the metro- polis of the country. meaning " goddess. Kaptu. the wife of Bel. deity in later times." for many it title Belat was was a common one goddesses. names were Enu. is the most the gods in the general affairs of mankind. his sons being principally river gods. who neighbouring city of Borsijjpa. the Succoth Benoth of the Bible. or Beltis. Elu was lord of the named Belat active o. or Beltis." which is apj)lied to any female divinity.BABYLONIAN MYTHOLOGY. Belat. Nebo.

an active deity or Yenus. Sin was presiding deity of the city of Ur. and during the time the country his Ur was city of capital of the worship became very extensive and popular in the whole of the country. but he to Sin. was another cele- brated son of Elu he was worshipped with his father Ninip was also Nipur. in later times generally termed Sin. his called Ur. Istar In the Babylonian system the moon takes precedence of the sun. much worshipped in Assyria as well as Babylonia. in some of the Izdubar is generally subordinate legends and fables. The following table will exhibit the relationship of the principal deities j but it must be noted that the . Ninip. the sun-god. or Samas. and of the city of Akkad. god of Cutha. god of hunting and war. like the other gods. Agu or Aku.BABYLONIAN MYTHOLOGY. Elnhad. presided over hunting and war. the deity of one city of Sippara. may like Ninip. Among the other deities of the Babylonians be counted Nergal. and early assumed an important place in the mythology. and the Shamas of Larsa was probably considered a different deity to Shamas of Sippara. who. Shamas is and a daughter. a was the moon-god Sin and Itu. eldest son 59 numerous family. at . his character as presiding genius of war and the chase making him a favourite deity with the warlike kings of Assur. and Anunit. Sin the moon-god had a son Shamas. The moon-god figures prominently in some early legends.

| -^ :^~ 1 . Bil-kan (Yulcan) (atmosphere). Hea -1 (upper expanse). I ?) I I Mummu (chaos ?) 1 I Lahma Lahama (force or growth). 60 Assyrian inscriptions are not always consistent. or Bel. (lower expanse). r Ilea (Saturn).— — BABYLONIAN MYTHOLOGY. Istar (Venus). . ^ (fire-god). Kisar (Kisare) r ^ (Ouranus) (heaven). Beltis. —. Anu — Sar (Assare) (Saturn). (earth). ^— ! . (the deep).. . ^r—^ A^'ul 1 Anatu r Elu. either as to the sex or paternity of the gods : Tavtu Absu (Apason (the sea).

^List of cbaos. — Destruction of Tiamat. or to give more than a general view of the whole subject. Sacred — Dragon or serpent. —War with Tiamat. — Doubtful fragments. duties. —Age of Mutilated condition of tablets. — Mutilation of documents. — Damascius. tablet. HAVE related in the first chapter the history of the discovery of this legend the tablets composing it are in muti- lated condition. — Generation of gods. — Parallel Biblical account. The fragments of the stoi:y which I have arranged are as follows : . —Moon. — Abyss or chaos. storj. — Three great gods. Chaptee v.—— . — Sun. Fall. — Discussion. —Man. agrees generally with the account of the Creation in the Book of Genesis. BABYLONIAN LEGEND OF THE CREATION. — Comparison with Genesis. sea. judge from the fragment. Stars. tree. but shows traces of having originally included very much more matter. — Description — Tiaraat. — Creation of moon. — Merodach. — His Dragon of — — Curse for disobedience. —Weapons. so far as I can The story. Fifth — — Planets. and too fragmentary to enable a single tablet to be completed. — of subjects. —Creation of animals.

the abyss also had not broken open their boundaries 4. Fragment of seventh? giving the creation tablet. doubt. sea) was the . 3. and probably including over one hundred lines of text. 4.: : BABYLONIAN LEGEND 62 1. fall Fragments of three tablets on the creation and of man. The of the first fragment in the story first tablet. 5. probably referring to the creation of land. is the upper part giving the description of the void or chaos. When 2. 6. The translation is 1. and below on the earth a plant had not grown above. 3. Part of the giving the creation of the fifth tablet. These fi-agments indicate that the series included at least twelve tablets. giving an account of the Chaos and the generation of the gods. and part of the generation of the gods. the writing on each tablet being in one column on the front and back. Fragment of tablet placed here with great 2. heavenly bodies. Fragment of subsequent tablet. perhaps the second on the foundation of the deep. The chaos (or water) Tiamat (the producing-mother of the whole of them. were not raised the heavens: up. Part of the first tablet. of land animals. 7. Fragments of between the gods and tablets relating to the war evil spirits.

w H pq H K O .o o < Q V a < w m w u «^ Q O Qi W iz.


he sought with dihgent eyes the wisdom of the inscribed tablets.. . Palace of Assurbanipal king of nations. to whom Nebo and Tasmit attentive ears have given 4. The wisdom of Nebo. any one of them. a plant had not grown. the gods also the great gods. and a long time passed 14. When at the. 16 On the reverse of this tablet there are only frag- ments of the eight tion of the passage 1. a flower had not unfolded. none those writings had sought. 8. the impressions? of the god yinstructor? aU dehghtful. and order did not exist 9. the A 13. 2. gods Sar and Kisar were made . 3. OF THE GEEATION.— : .. it reads but the restora- : When above" (name of Creation series). 12. 5. 7.. course of days. 6. beginning 63 were ordained but had not grown. the gods had not sprung up. Those waters 6. 5. which among the kings who went before me.. a tree 7. . lines of colophon. Were made 10. the god Ann 15. Lahmu and Lahamu they caused to come and they grew 11. . the gods Sar and . king of Assyria. is First tablet of " easy.

and i. the sea was the origin of all things. and these produc- find at ing Moymis. "In of creation. for the inspection my of people within my palace I placed This colophon will serve to show the value attached to the documents. which we are "sea." On comparing the fragment of the first tablat Creation with the extract from Damascius. and darkness was upon the face of the deep. " the deep. and the date of the present The fragment of the obverse. created the heaven and the earth. spirit of God moved upon And the the face of the waters. It evident that. the statement of Genesis. broken as copies.BABYLONIAN LEGEND 64 8. I observed." the same word as . and 9. I studied. And the earth was without form and void. agrees with the Thalatth of Berosus. it is. this also agrees 2. two verses of the the beginning first God This corresponds chapter of Genesis. but in the Creation tablet the ence is called Mummu first exist- Tiamatu. accord- is ing to the notion of the Babylonians. on tablets I wrote. of the we do not any statement as to there being two principles first called Tauthe and Apason. a name meaning the The name Mummu Tiamatu combines the two names Moymis and Tauthe Tiamatu appears also as Tisallat and of Damascius. and the movement first to the first 1.water" or "sea chaos. Mith where the chaotic waters are called omn." expressly told was the sea. 2. is precious as giving the description of the chaos or desolate void before the Creation of the world.

which is. this word is ('' History closd}' con- nected with the word tiamat or tanitn. rarer. Next we have in the inscription the creation of the gods Lahma or Lahmu. in tact. these are male and female personifications of motion and production. Beside the name of the chaotic deep called mnn in Genesis. and correspond to the L)achc and F . applied to this chaos. different Thalatth. which last is more probably the origin of the word Thalatth of Berosus. of the Assyrians we have waste. or formless. desolate. and one of its equivalents is Umun-. the sea. as I have said. confusion. the origin and groundwork of the uni\ersc. and formed. This appears to be the tehuta —a name of the sea-water of Assurbanipal. with the same sense however. and Bahama or Lahamu be suspected that tliis ." p. what same word used this chaos. both stating that a watery chaos preceded the creation. the in both narrati\-es as the and given Berosus has is also in the account of certainly the slightly name of Damascius. AVe have here not only ar agreement in sense. but. equal to the Hebrew pon noise or tumult. in Genesis the word inn. evidently the Tiamat of the Creation text. The correspondence between the inscription and Genesis is here complete. and Tisallat. 59). Tiamat. and it form might word was a corruption of Tiamat. 65 the Tiamat of the Creation text and the Tauthe of Damascius.OF THE CBEATION. but the Babylonian word is read Tiamtu. The Assyrian word Mumwu is probably connected with the Hebrew naino.

Kisar. are represented in which principles combine in the formation of the universe. wind. and Kissare names in these is probably closer than here represented. Here the cuneiform text becomes that little can be made out from from the fragment of was in (as it. the Anus. Elu. Illinus. being an ordinary sign for the supreme god of the Assyrians. and corresponding to the Assorus The resemblance of Damascius. sea. The successive forms Lahma and Lahama.BABYLONIAN LEGEND 6Q of Damascius. Sar and some of the god lists as names or manifestations of Anu and Anatu. so mutilated but it appears 14 that the next step line Damascius) the generation of the three great gods. and Daclius or spirit of Genesis. It is probable that the inscription went on to relate the generation of the other gods. In each case there appears to be a male and female principle. and Kisar. for Sar or Ilsar is generally read Assur as a deity in later times. the The next moving nn. Anu. and Hea the represents the heaven. and then passed to the successive acts of creation by which the world was fashioned. representing the upper expanse and the lower expanse. Anu writer. stage in the inscrip- tion gives the production of Sar or Ilsar. in this new form of the universe. The resemblance between the extract from Damascius and the account in the Creation tablet as to . and Aus of that Elu the earth. and Hea.

Certainly I will cover? . is the foundations of the ground of rock [thou didst make] 2. . of the dry land. thou didst beautify the heaven . thou didst give 6 There is more doubtful fragment which a second appears to belong to this space. and. Book of Genesis.... .— — OF TEE GBEATIOK 67 these successive stages or forms in -the Creation. When 3. from the day that thou . for it .. to the . god . seems to relate part of the creation of the dry land. The god Sar 2. When but it may belong to a later part of the part of a speech to one of the gods. to which alluded as probably belonging to this space is I have a small portion of the top of a tablet referring to the fixing of the drj^ land story. we may conjecture that this part of the narrative contained the description of the creation of light. .. is and leaves no doubt that there was a connection between the two.... 1. and of One fragment plants. to the face of the 5. is This fragment 1. heaven 4. striking. 4. of the atmosphere or firmament. the foundation of the ground thou didst call 3. .. pan . The three next tablets in the Creation series are absent. there being only two doubtful fragments of this Judging from the analogy of the part of the story. I give it here under reserve . . like the last.

... Pal-bi-ki which thou hast called 20 its name my hand 21 made? 22 may .... heaven ..... he rejoiced ..... Sar (or Assur) his to the 7. in 10. for ever they carry which in 27. (firmament?) which I front of the esara .. .. Pal-bi-ki the his father and temples of the great .. anyone 23.... may his city ... Within 12. god sea which the seat of is ... . below the place .. I strengthen it Let there be made also e-lu .. . .. having.. 17 18. over the earth 19 which thy hand has made having. .. .. . above 15. mouth opened and spake.. .. the god .... his of thee and over all him Avhich thy hand has made thee. hfted up . he opened • • the to after work which • • . have made 9..... the 16. (earth?) for the dwelling of [man?] 11... .. .BABYLONIAN LEGEND 68 6..... gods .. the gods 26. he build and from the sea he raised 13.. the place 14. When it . place . lifted up . 25. Above the 8. ... angry thou didst speak 5... the place 24. .

4. Obverse. OF TEE CREATION. 5. my translation being a conjecture grounded on some meanings of the individual monograms. in the eio:hth line I have translated firmament with a query. which is gives the creation of the heavenly bodies. The next legends recognizable portion of the this Creation the upper part of the fifth tablet. Stars. all that was fixed by the great gods. and in line 10. 2. Pal-bi-ki are the characters of one name of the city of Assur bination of two characters but I do not understand the introduction of name here. 3. This tablet opens as follows : Fifth Tablet of Creation Legend. I translate earth for a com- more obscure still. their appearance [in figures] of animals he arranged. and runs parallel to the account of the fourth day of creation in Genesis. . 1. This fragment is 69 both mutilated and obscure. It was delightful. from the day when the year commences unto the close.— . To fix the year through the observation of their constellations. twelve months (or signs) of stars in three rows he arranged. the sound and meaning of the word being- doubtful .

its That the month might not be broken. Hea he the positions of the gods Bel and fixed with him. 18. On the seventh day to a cii'cle he begins to swell. the night he overshadowed. the god Shamas (the sun) in the horizon of heaven.BABYLONIAN LEGEND 70 6. of the month. in the east. 22 23 formed beautifully and . the fastenings 11. he made a boiling. 13. When further. 8. At the beginning 1 5.. that they may not do injury. 7. and stretches towards the dawn 19. and may not trouble any one. 17. 9. 14. his horns are breakins: throuo'h to shine on the heaven. And he opened the great gates in the darkness shrouded 10.. 20 21. until the shining of the day. 12. In its mass were strong on the {i. He marked the positions of the wandering stars (planets) to shine in their courses. 16. Shamas was perfected the dawn Shamas should chano^e to the orbit goiog on its path .. the god Uru (the moon) he caused to rise out.e. and in amount be regular. left and the lower chaos) right. at the rising of the night. to fix it also for the light of the night.

and And let . " 15. 4. . And God made two light to rule the day. And to rule over the day and over the night. of the gods on his hearing. 1 he fixed 2 3. the appointment of the heavenly orbs. . Country of Assurbanipal king of nations king of Assyria. And God set them in night. This fine fragment style of this series. of tablet "When above" (Creation series). 5. great lights and the . the greater lesser light to rule the made the stars also. where day of Creation we read : " It in the first chapter And God said. a typical specimen of the is and shows a marked stage in the Creation. Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night for seasons. " 18. "16. he "17. and them be for lights in the of the heaven to give light was them be let and j^ears firmament upon the earth : and it so. the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth.: OF THE GEEATION. and for signs. for days. 71 24 giving judgment 25 to 26 a second time tame 27 Reverse. parallels the fourth of Genesis. . Fifth .

under the fourth day. V. And the evenino. y. probably with tablet The 8. while a subsequent tablet. leads to the inference that the events of each of the days of Genesis were recorded on a separate and that the numbers of the in the tablet. tablet which I think to be the eighth appears to give the Creation by several other and Fall of Man. the darkness saw that "19. 26 and following. tablets generally followed same order as the days of Creation in Genesis.: BABYLONIAN LEGEND 72 and to divide the light from. and is followed tablets giving apparently the war . probably with tablet 4. probably the seventh. probably with tablet 2. probably with tablet 6. thus Genesis." The fragment of the first tablet of the Creation series showed that that was rather introductory. and dealt with the generation of the gods more than the and the creation of the universe. probably with tablet 7. Chap. agree with tablet 5. Tablet 1. 6th and 7th day. fact that the fifth tablet" contains the Creation given in Genesis.and the mornino. gives the creation of the animals which. took place on the sixth day. were the fourth day. it : and God was good. I. probably with tablet 3. . according to Genesis.

" it detail. one north and one south of the zodiac. that The only difference It appears that the Chaldean was good. The that fifth the tablet previous creations satisfactory. 37-50). just as two sets of twelve stars each are mentioned by the Greeks. while the it at the close of each We then come to which are- act. record contains the review and expression of satisfaction at the head of each tablet. the creation of the heavenly orbs. I have translated one of these names . for days and scribes that the stars the year. so the inscription de- were The twelve and just set in courses to point out constellations or signs of the and two other bands of constellations are mentioned. zodiac. is. while the Bible says they were set as " lights in the firmament of heaven.- but all of very mutilated. described in the inscription as arranged like animals. " God saw that here commences • one of after each act of creative power. and no number can be positively proved however." book of Genesis says they were seasons. is Avith were the statement " delightful. while there does not appear to be anything like the same agreement between these inscriptions and the accounts transmitted to us through Berosus (see pp. Hebrew has set for as the signs and years." or agreeing with the oft-repeated state- ment of Genesis. reason to suppose that there was a close agreement in subjects and order between the text of the Chaldean legend and Genesis.OF THE CREATION. between the gods and the powers of are these evil. 73 fair beyond the There fifth tablet.

ninth line of the tablet opens a curious view as to the philosophical beliefs of the early Babylonians. for in those ages it was generally believed that the heavenly bodies gave. and rested or reposed upon a vast abyss of chaotic ocean which This dark infernal the space below the world. to the effect that the God who fixed places or habitations for Bel created the stars and Hea with him- self in the heavens.BABYLONIAN LEGEND 74 nihh\ " wandering stars" or " planets. but lators of the seasons as signs. and this was one of twelve supposed to be favourable to It is evident. that the functions of the stars were according to the Babylonians to act not only as regu- and the year. star scription on the tablet of the Chaldean astrology first and astronomy. for it is and Hea the divisions of the The he who shares with Bel face of the sky. god of the heavens. as in Genesis i. from the opening of the inBabylonia. and there Nibir near the place where the is is not a star called sun crossed the boundary between the old and new years. was considered to be the creator of the heavenly hosts . The passage given in the eighth line of the inscription. was shut in by gigantic gates and strong fastenings. to be also used 14." but this the usual word for planet. by their appearance and were coming on the positions. signs of events which earth. They evidently considered that the world was drawn together out of the waters. which jDrevented the floods from overwhelming filled lake the world. When the deity decided to create the . points to the fact that Ann.

arose the moon like a giant bubble.OF TEE GBEATION. but . to regulate and give light until the dawn of day. The stars. from this turmoil. at his bidding. The Babylonian account of the Creation gives the creation of the moon before that of the sun. passing through the open gates. then. and the regulator of the world. The Babylonian account continues Avith the regulation of the motions of the moon to overshadow the night. no further fragment of this tablet having been recovered. being considered the type of a judge. the creation of the sun perfection are extolled. are unfortunately lost. mounted on and. The phases of the moon are described its com: mencing as a thin crescent at the day of the month. while Book of Genesis makes the sun the greater light. destined way its across the vaults of heaven. 75 represented as drawing aside the gates of and creating a whirling motion like boil- ing in the dark ocean below. part of the first line Y. in reverse order to that in Genesis. Here it is evident that Genesis is truer to nature the than the Chaldean text. and its evening on the gradually increasing and travelling further into the night. its beauty and and the regularity of its orbit. of the sixth tablet. and evidently the Babylonians considered the moon the principal body. he is this abyss. details of the creation of the planets which would have been very important and to us. which led to its is first moon After the recorded. moon. gives us. The colophon at the close of tablet however.

. . that this dealt with the creation of creatures of the water and fowls of the and that these were the the companion deity to Anu. creation of Bel. they caused to be living creatures the gods in their assembly had created 4. were delightful the strong monsters 3. cattle of the field. and only valuable generally clear meaning. When 2. vfhich first I found in one of the trenches at Kouyunjik. seventh in the series. the upper broken..: BABYLONIAN LEGEND 76 not enough to determine its It is probable subject. and creep- ing things of the field 5. The next tablet. they fixed for the living creatures 6 cattle and creej^ing things of the city they fixed the assembly of the creeping things 7 the whole which were created 8 which in the assembly of 9 and the god Mn-si-ku my family (the lord of noble face) caused to be two 10. The translation of this frao'ment is 1. the assembly of the creeping things he caused to go . and recognized at once as a part of the description of the Creation. is pro- bably represented by a curious fragment. This fragment is like portion of a tablet Trom its some of the much others.. beasts of the field. the air.

here referring on to relate the creating of living animals on land. had given to Genesis i. ." The Assyrian tablet 'commences with that a statement of the satisfaction a former creation. apparently that of the monsters or whales. and everything that creepeth upon the earth after his kind and God saw : it was good. 14 pure presence in the assembly . the wording of the next fragmentary suspicion that this lines leading to the was the opening of the account of the creation of man. cion. 15 This tablet corresponds to the sixth day of Creation (Genesis. It is curious here. three kinds being distin- guished. and then we have in the ninth line a curious but broken account of Nin-si-ku (one of the names of Hea). Let the earth bring forth the living creature after his kind.: OF TEE CUE AT I ON. and creeping thing. however. creating two beings to be with the animals. 24-25) : "And God said. . to notice a tablet which refers . 77 11 flesh beautiful? 12 pure presence . 23. And God made the beast of the earth after his kind. . i. and beast of the earth after his kind and " it was so. 13 pure presence . for the lines are so mutilated nothing can be fairly proved is only a suspi- and obscure that from* them. cattle. however. This. exactly agreeing with the Genesis account. It then goes . and cattle after their kind.

) . . to thy prayer of the mouth and instruments god in reverence thou shalt carry. be the reverse of the tablet which. eaten is by the stomach . those which really relate to the first is great difficulty. on one side the muof the tablet renders the sense totally un- tilation certain man.. appears to give the speech it to (man and of the deity to the newly created pair woman) instructing K them 3364 obverse. heavy. consumed . mankind . 6.. 10. other side of the fragment It is probable that the is a discourse to the first woman on her duties. Every day thy god thou . which 3. (Many lines lost.BABYLONIAN LEGEND 78 to the creation of man. human ation of the In this tablet. growing . . and the support of 8. thee shalt approach (or invoke) 9. 5. race is K 63....... . for.. and all the references in other inscriptions*make this his work... in 4. sacrifice. . evil 2.. so I think it far as can be translated. in their duties. there in the . In considering the next fragments.. 1. space lost there may be a string of negatives which would entirely reverse the meaning. in fragment to be noticed.. extended.. the cre- given to Hea. . firmly thou shalt speak 7....

.. under? sjDeech thou shalt make good thy knowledge also 27 Reverse... 23.. thee to the end? presence of beauty and shalt speak 6. In thy knowledge and afterwards in the tablets in the fear also of shalt be holy. 26 .. fire? bring tribute... thy 3.. Sacrifice saving 18. hand . ... Beautiful place also 2... supplication. and bowing of the face.... divide of thy beauty and . . humility... shalt make? . in the . in beauty and .. thou shalt fix .. the fear of the angels thou shalt live in 21. 25... and thou to the presence 4. thou shalt give to him.... god thou 14. and thou shalt 13. 79 for divinity. to enemy? also ..... and enemy? speech thou . Whatever be suitable shall 12...... and 15.'orship and goodness shall be raised? ... . and not thy sentence 5.... . v.. 24.. 11.. thou shalt trust a friend . • • . (Many lines lost... thou . 17. When thou shalt trust also thou .. OF TEE CBEATION. the fear of god thou shalt not leave • • 20. and worship 19. When thou shalt speak also he will give ... 22. .. With friend • • .) 1.. (writing) 16..

.. The reverse of the tablet appears. This fragment because it is of importance. however. the companion of the man.. . to do evil thou shalt not approach him. various gods are mentioned by name. in connection with a revolt against the fragment is. at thy The obverse of this tablet is a fragment of the address from the deity to the newly created and his duties to his god... and alludes to the Karkartiamat.. to him distress . The give more deity. here only one god is mentioned. is it the lower corner of a tablet with the ends of a few lines. informing her of her duties towards her partner. may It possibly belong to the tablet of the Fall to be mentioned later. 10. . to be addressed to the sense can woman... his rising? . . but it would ground an argument on a sino^le frao-ment. the man beantiful and 7 8... to give drink? .. at thy illness 13. small as it is. his enemies he seeks . too mutilated to than a general idea of its contents.. The next fragment is a small one. . mentions a speech of Hea to man. it is man on curious that while." belong to the purest system of rehgion in this case be wrong to .. circle I fill? 9.. with the lord of thy beauty thou shalt be faithful.. or dragon of the sea. in other parts of the story. BABYLONIAN LEGEND 80 . 12. so far as the be ascertained. and simply The fragments of this tablet might as the "God. li...

5 his noble C his fear? Sartulku 7 his 8 to them. the dragon of the sea 9 against thy father fight might Connected with this fragment is the account of the curse after the Fall. man 1 Hea 2 height of his greatness 3 the rule of any god 4 Sartulku knew it called to his .. but containing at present many obscurities in the speeches of the gods. both in fair preservation . being part of the obverse and reverse. 11. 19. fairly perfect. lord lofty? 5 kingdom exalted 6 in multitudes increase Eeverse.. 5. on the remarkable fragment which brought over from I my first expedition to Assyria. there are glosses stating that the divine titles commencing these lines all apply to the same deity. These explanatory glosses show G .OF THE CREATION. 81 Obverse. This forms about half a tablet. 1 seat lier 2 all tlie o his lords might 4 the gods.. Before the commencement of lines 1. and so far as they go. 27. and 29 on the obverse.

11. saviour lf3. The god Zi which he had fixed 3. in the established. the breath of life was in him. and may his mouth of the dark will not races which his fail. may he exalt (noble crown) in concern. 10. The god of noble may he cut cfF. The god Mir-ku raised a protection? 12. good kinsman. another to us has come up. . may he speak. the accomplisher of restoration. may 5. in thy powerful advance spread over him good. them he made man. 17. and greatly increased. 19. 8. 1. 6. 14. causer to be fruitful and abundant. life) r . The god Ziku (Noble not fail in preparing ? . .BABYLONIAN LEGEND 82 that even in the Assyrian time there were difficulties in the narrative. Obverse. their account 4. may he glorify. his pleasure he established he fixed upon the gods his enemies. his majesty. 16. lips with his five fingers sin . 2. May he be 15. lord of noble lips. quickly called. master of perception and 7. establisher right. Director of purity. of fertility. hand has made. from death of the gods imprisoned. to fear 18. 9.

The god Libzu wise among the gods. . director of rig-ht 26. The god .. 24.. . Nissi 28. 22.. .OF TEE CBEATION. 33 Reverse. them Afterwards the people of remote ages may she remove. . . because the dragon Tiamat had 5. 30. the pourer out to swiftly them 31. Subduer of the unbeliever 25.. he re- joices their heart. in 32. the doing of evil shall not 23. not destroy .. of corruption 27. established in the come out of him. keeper of 29. . like a 8. like . 21. 9. for ever. 1 2 the star 3. may stars of sheep may they heaven themselves may . and watch The god Suhhab.... company of the gods. he shut up and surround.. by the 7.. who had chosen his possession. his he take the tail and head . punishment the planets possessing 6. . the gods tremble all of he bind Tiamat her prisons may 10. 20. who with his noble 83 charms removes the evil curse. may 4.

. His land may it bring forth but he not touch 27. May they put at enmity and may they plunder. to the place 12. all my seed may he destroy. In the language of the fifty great 20. gods and turned away in anger from him 21. father he created. : BABYLONIAN LEGEND 84 11. 30. and 18. by his fifty names he called. 28. 26. his back shall be broken and not be healed. and at once cut off. in the ranks of the angels curse. issue all of him. May they cause anger also to the lord of the gods Merodach. Wisdom and knowledge hostilely may they injure him. the his liver corrupted his purity. 29. 25. The god Hea heard and 15. He me like man had was angry. because his 16. 23. 24. 19. 14. Lord of the earth Elu name his called out. and it his will be un- . Hea may he punish also my course of 17. the pronounced their 13. them may he remove. his desire shall be cut answered off. also father and son and governor. 22. he made strong. at his urgent trouble no god shall receive him . May he be conquered. may they bend their ear.. to king. ruler. the opening of his mouth no god shall take notice of.

who was supposed to be under the especial care of the It happens in this case that there is deities. who is is evidently made of said to be established company of the gods and The various divine titles to rejoice their or names. and his mind be troubled 32. general meaning but the obverse. or part the of following tablet. and either forms a further portion of the same. no clue to the reason for these speeches. fragment giving the creation of the land animals. The obverse gives a series of speeches and state- ments respecting the newly created man." " the god of noble crown." are all most probably titles of Hea." and " the god of noble lips. and the approximate is position of the fragment in the story It evidently follows the is quite clear. in the hearts.. but a point the purity of the man. It appears from beings spoken of and line 18 that the race is of human the zalmat-qaqadi^ or dark race. in various other fragments of these legends they . his heart shall be shall 85 poured out. undoubted. " the god of noble life. the key portions of the inscription being lost. 31. to sin and wrong 33 his face shall come front 34 In a second copy which presents several variations lines 14 to 19 are omitted. This valuable fragment in some is unfortunately obscure especially on the parts. OF THE CREATION.

vi. It in the day when they were created. . which to have fallen.). where it breaks off leaves him in a state of of purity. The word Adam used human being is in these legends for the first evidently not a proper name." has already been pointed out by Sir Henry Rawlinson that the Babylonians principal races : the Adamu. which man is exactly the name in Genesis. two and the Sarku. and thus spread the evils which had commenced with the Adamites (see Genesis. We are informed in Genesis that when the world became corrupt the sons of God intermarried with the race Adam. probably in the same manner that two races are mentioned in Genesis. but certainly in we are (Genesis. It appears incidentally from the fragments of inscriptions that race of Adam. 1) : in the likeness of told on the creation of " In the some pas- human beings day that God created man. or light race. and where the narrative recommences on the reverse man has already fallen. The obverse of the tablet giving the creation of man. God made he him. Adam is appears as a proper name sages only used in the same sense as the Assyrian is word. and called their name Adam. but there is at present it was the was believed no clue to the position of the other race in their system. the sons of Adam and the sons of God. male and female created he them.BABYLONIAN LEGEND 86 are called Admi given to the or first Adami. recognized or dark race. ch. and in Genesis. and blessed them. but only used as a term for mankind. or the dark race. v.

and. 1). but nothing whatever is The said as to the origin or history of the serpent. for the birth or separation of the deities out of this chaos was the first step in the creation of the world. case is it is better to review the Biblical account. iii. the serpent addressed the Avoman (Genesis. and that he tempted the woman to sin. of man's innocence. iii. the Thalatth of Berosus. that the serpent was more subtle than any beast of the field. being concerned in bringing about the Fall. This attributes the relate (Genesis. which agrees with the inscription. This was the original spirit of chaos and disorder. Here it is difficult to say how 87 far the narrative of the inscription agrees with that of the Bible. and inquired if God had for- bidden them to eat of every tree of the Garden of . according to both the inscriptions and Berosus. existed before the creation of the universe. According to Genesis. fragmentary account of the Fall in the inscriptions mentions the dragon Tiamat. the female principle which. and compare it In this which with the fragmentary allusions in the inscriptions. or the dragon of the sea. and is . older even than the gods. the Bible goes on to After the statement 1). it connected with the original chaos. evidently in the same relation as the serpent. origin of sin to the serpent. self-existent and eternal. a spirit opposed in principle to the gods. according to the Babylonians.OF THE GBEATION. complete. dragon is is called the This dragon of tiamat or the sea generally conceived of as a griffin.

but outside these inscriptions. Euphrates. watered by the four rivers. iii. portion of the Creation legend however probable Hebrew and Babylonian it may is be that the traditions agree about the Garden and Tree of Knowledge. divine tree or grove is and this often represented on the sculp- tures. which a later fragment states was guarded by a sword turn- ing to all the four points of the compass. Surappi.BABYLONIAN LEGEND 88 Eden. or forest of the gods. in the it. the Tree of Life. Tigris. grove. as. Eden rivers. and Ukni. the fruit of was a which was forbidden to them. Euphrates. 22) . watered by the four and Pison. from the general body of Assyrian texts. the There present fragments indicating a is nothing in belief in the Garden of Eden or the Tree of Knowledge there is only an obscure allusion in lines 16 and 22 to a thirst for knowledge having been a cause of man's . Sir Henry Rawlinson has pointed out the agreement of the Babylonian region of Karduniyas or Ganduniyas with the Eden of the Bible. which certainly appears to correspond to the sacred grove of Anu. fall. Tigris. In several other places in the Genesis legends. and Gihon. The loss of this unfortunate. When . there are allusions to the tree. and especially in the legends of Izdubar. we cannot now prove There is a second tree. similar in description. both in the Babylonian gem engravings. Genesis account (ch. and on the walls of the Assyrian palaces and temples. Ganduniyas is is a fruitful place. eliciting from her the statement that there tree in the middle of the Garden.

but some passages in the cuneiform account are too mutilated to allow any certainty to be attached to the translation. corresponding to the passage. Although so much of the most important part of the text is of. iii. FROM Assyrian Cylinder. Throughout this. the serpent. 9 to 19. the notices in other parts. and the loss of the previous parts the text prevents our knowing what points the allusions are directed to. and the allusions in the mythological scenes on the Babylonian gems will serve to guide us as to the probable drift of the missing portion. tempted by ml J '!^_ ^^^ J a^^^^^ Sacred Tree. eat of the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge. According to Genesis. Adam and 89 is attended by side of the sacred Eve. . corresponding passages may be found which show that the same idea runs through o both narratives. which opens again where the gods are cursing the dragon and the Adam or man for this transgression. These details are also lost in the cuneilbrm text. Genesis. with attendant Cherubiai. lost. the tree two figures of cherubims. the representation is complete.OF THE GEEATION. or Grove. and so by disobedience b -ojight sin into the world. one on each emblem.

BABYLONIAN LEGEND 90 that the dragon It is quite clear dragon of Tiamat is of the sea or connected with the Fall hke the serpent in the book of Genesis. but by two monograms which probably mean the " scaly one. body covered with scales. is in there is any phonetic ex- "Cuneiform Inscriptions. be copies from the Chaldean works. which contained devices taken from these legends. and in fact is the The name of the dragon is not written phonetically. scales. covered with This description. sea-monster. The only passage where planation of the signs vol. might apply either to a fabulous dragon. however. or a fish." or animal equivalent of the serpent. legs terminating in claws. Our own like an eagle. of course. creature as given on the gems is this that of a griffin or dragon generally with a head like a carnivorous animal. but all represented events . 1. the early Babylonian seals. early sculptures none while at We know of these figures were chance devices." where we have turhuhtu 9. 32. stretched a serpent. for the place or den of the dragon. perhaps connected with the Hebrew The form of am. p. heraldic griffins are so strikingly like the sculptures of this creature that we might almost suspect them to In some cases. One striking Museum portant specimen of early type in the British collection has tree. a serpent. more closely ap- proached the Genesis story. and wings on the back. two fio-ures sittino^ one on each side of a holding out their hands to the the back of one is well that in these and im- fruit. ii.

It is clear that the drag-on for the Fall. he shall be disappointed in his desires 30). 27). and he an embodiment of the which was opposed spirit is of chaos or disorder to the deities at the creation of the world. and that the ^ods invoke on the head he shall have family quarrels shall submit to tyranny gods (line 25). FROM AN EARLT BaBTLONIAN CtLINDER. and Serpent BACKGROUND. is the creature of Tiamat. (line 23). he will anger the he shall not eat the fruit of his labour he shall pour out useless prayer 31). was known in early times in Babylonia. Creation. 29 No .OF THE CREATION. similar to that of Genesis. Seated Figure on each side. of the manity. thus evident that a form of the story of the Fall. is (lines have trouble of mind and body he shall commit future sin (line 28 and (lines (line 32). leads man in to sin. the living principle of the sea and of chaos. in the Chaldean account of the Sacred Tkee. (line 24). The dragon which. he shall and included in the curse human race all the evils which afflict huWisdom and knowledge shall injure him (line 22). and figures in their legenas it is . 9L or supposed events. (line 26).

idea of this part was that the first the powers of evil preceded the Creation think it . The second speeches. contains and shows the gods preparing for battle. it of these is K 4832. It is very fragmentary. which the gods and powers of and the punishment of the dragon Tiamat. Of the subsequent tablets of this include the war between evil. The first translate. there are several fragments. which war probably arose from the part played by Tiamat in the My fall of man. my anger me send to thee 4 of thee let 5 thou ascendest 6 thee to thy presence 7 their curse 8 in a circle 9 them make the vine? of them may they hear the renown cover them he set and 10 11 let may they also sit . mouth opened a word he spoke 1 his 2 his 3 satisfy . fragment. and it only reopens where the gods are preparing for war with the powers of evil. but again our narrative is broken.BABYLONIAN LEGEND 92 doubt subsequent lines continue these topics. . I now followed the account of the Fall. K 3473. too mutilated to contains speeches of the gods before the war. which are led by Tiamat. but I have no direct proof of this. war with series.

carrying weapons unyielding ... : great animal . .. 2... . their bodies were powerful and .) The third fragment.. 10. . .. K 3938. 17 the gods of 18 made her hands .. is on the same subject.... ..— OF THE CREATION. 5 6.. . Udgallu... delightful..... Urbat and ... her breast.. 4.. 27 fear shall cover them . 12 thee cliange to 13 he sent them 14 me he held me 15 he sinned 16 and angrily me .. 9. . her back . fear he made to carry .. days arranged. strong serpent . 8... 24 formerly thou 25 unyielding I 26 their bodies fill .... . their sight was very great . some lines of this give the following general meaning 1.. 19 and 20 destroyed not night and day 21 burning 22 they made division 23 the end of all hands his 93 a2:ainst all them hand Tiamat coming . five . ..... flowing? and first ... 7. 3. great serpents .. (Several other mutilated lines.

the gods said? 9. 12... burning 3.. 13. making god who should meet in war relates to the the dragon.. . the sword that was 10. may 6. the god Kingu subdued ... marcliiug in front before ... and he fix they .. his the gods collected hand appointed There are many more similar broken the other side fragments of a speech who desires lines. the K 3449.: BABYLONIAN LEGEND 94 11. carrying weapons thou .. 5.. the work 12..... upon war . of weapons to arm. This reads with some doubt on account of its mutilation 1. among 16.. from 4. in the temple .. 14. . or even to ascertain their order. All these fragments are not sufficiently complete to translate with certainty.. and on by some being Tiamat to make war. the great gods 8. saw made also the gods the saw bow which was strung 11. • heart 2... 15. the dwelling of the god 7. carried gods that also was made they placed Anu in the assembly of the .. The fourth fragment..

OF THE CREATION. this fragment appears to distinguish between the dra2:on of Tiamat or the sea monster... from BatLONIAN ClLINDEK. 1 he fixed 2 to his rio-ht not saparul. and he spake of the bow thus and 15. but I The sure of this distinction. Sixth Fragment. the final struggle between Tiamat and ^lerodach or and Bel. the bow lie fitted she 14. or sickle-shaped ahvays represented both inscriptions as a am hand he distributed . speed her heaven 17.. and place his throne 20 in heaven 21 The next fragment or collection of fragments gives Bel encountering the Dragon . and is weapon of Bel in the sculptures in this war. and Tiamat the female personification of the sea. from the choice of 19. . and establish the resting place of 18. 13. sword. Noble wood who against 95 said shall first thus draw thee? ? punishment the star of the bow in 16.

the four winds. the East. the seven winds the sword to silence the dragon of the sea. .. in a chariot 16.. . 12. the 11.. the storm. driving he rode: he took her and four fetters on her hands he fastened. 14.. 9. liis hand hurled. 8. He made the evil wind.BABYLONIAN LEGEND 96 and quiver S 4. .. . 13. her 17 unyielding. 10. 5 6. He brought out the winds he had created seven of them. fierceness filled his body...) .. unrivalled. seven winds. storming 18 with their sting bringing death 19 sweeping away knowledge 20 destruction and fighting 21 left 22 fear . he fixed not to come out of her wound. the dragon of the sea stretched out. . the wind the irregular wind.. 15. .. the hostile wind. He made 7. . of . the grove of his father the god Anu. hand (Several other fragmentary lines. the tempest. came after him. the North. and the his hand the sword he caused to hold before West. . On the South. he carried the thunderbolt his great weapon. the lightning he sent before him.

20. Tiamat on hearing 16. and firmly she encircled with her defences. 97 Reverse. upon them by thy weapons. to thee they shall be spoil. Tiamat attacked the just prince of the gods Merodach. 1 the god Sar 2 dwelling 3 before the 4 field weapon 5 above 6 struck to the god 7 them 8 cut into 9 said to his wife 10 him 11 evil? 12 thy evil thou shalt subdue. and quickly arose. strongly this and changed her resolution. 22. Tiamat called 18. the standards they raised in the conflict like a battle. 21. to break the thou shalt be delivered and the tribute to thy maternity shall be forced 13. 23. . and placed war prepared 19. and the gods for for them their weapons. Bel also drew out his H sword and wounded her. at once joined 17. I will stand by and made god a 15. she took a girdle? .OF TEE CEEAIION. 14.

. their strength removed... 43. shut in bonds. and her face was distorted. 27. trembled. 44. like a sword cast down. 47. his hand . Her allies stood over her astonished. life they fled from. wind her stomach filled. and broke up themselves... full of grief.. the force of the 30. 34. tered. the throwing of stones going .. 29 violently seized her stomach. her inside it broke. and her work he ended. 41. before she could shut her lips 28. 42. 37. feared. knowing their capture. and the gods her helpers who went beside her 36.. He 32. and the god Kingu again . 46. cast 48 Again the main difficulty arises from the frag- ... Her ranks he broke. Tiamat opened her mouth 26.. her assembly was scat- 33. 35. her The evil wind coming afterwards struck against face. when Tiamat their leader was conquered. and conquered her heart. to enter.. war surrounding they were fleeing not stand- ing? them and 39 their weapons he broke 40. sitting in darkness.. 31. imprisoned her. and her heart trembled. down the enemy. the evil wind he caused to swallow him. BABYLONIAN LEGEND 98 24. He part of the enemy under him . 45. and overcome at once the strength of their work was Avith terror. the expiring of her 38. 25.

and remark- but the connection so uncertain at present comment upon them until more complete.OF THE CREATION. It ap- them the dragon Tiamat. and goes forth armed with these weapons to fight the dragon. between the fragments that it is is better to reserve and the subse- fine.honour (fourth fragment. or Bel. it 99 being impossible even to decide the order of the fragments.Mi^D toR the Conflict with the Dragon: from Assyrian Ctlinder. does not correspond with anything in Genesis. AK. who has become her husband. and pears. is extra to the text is the Creation. and meets Merodach in battle. chaos and order. who will engage in Bel or Merodach volunteers. however. lines 15 to 20) to any of the gods battle with her. The description of the fight quent triumph of the god are very ably curious in their details. that the gods have fashioned for a sword and a Anu bow to fight proclaims great. This war between the powers of good and evil. Tiamat is encouraged by one of the gods Mekodach. mentary state of the documents. but rather finds its parallel in the war .

2000 to 1500 the Babylonians believed in a similar story to that in Genesis. man points to the These fragments of of the Creation and Fall agree so far as they are preserved with the Biblical account." strikingly like the This description is impression gathered from the fragments of the cuneiform story .C. Fight between Bel and the Dragon. and in a celestial war. called the devil and Satan.100 BABYLONIAN LEGEND OF CREATION- between Michael and the dragon 7 to 9. xii. essential dragon conquered by Michael. called " the great dragon. . FEOM Babylonian Cylinder. the dragon Tiamat who fought whose fate against the gods and led it was to be conquered closely corresponds in all the cuneiform account to sin. that old serpent. where the dragon is in Revelation. which deceiveth the whole world. and show that in the period from B.

Variations of storj. . — Poetical account of Creation. the last chapter I fragments of the have given the principal story of the Creation and Fall from the cunei- form inscriptions. spirits. in heaven. handed down from generation When after- such traditions and depend on being to generation by word of mouth. Composite animals. sometimes very widely. — Seven —War men. or " stories" repeated by word of mouth. traditions. OTHER BABYLONIAN" ACCOUNTS OF THE CREATION. — Seven wicked accounts originallj Variations. was actually There must . Cuneiform Account — — Tablet from Cutha.— CPIArTER VI. the Thus many different versions of a story and there can be no doubt that case this with the Creation legends. and wards committed to writing. according to the period and condition of the country. Destruction of N brothers. arise. — — Eagle-headed men. — Translation. they are liable to vary. are not reduced it appears from were " traditions" but the tablets that all these legends to writing. of Berosus.

2 his lord the strength of the 3 his host 4. is fol- stated to be copied from a tablet at Cutha. commencement. he destroyed. that man he enclosed... 37-50) supplies us with a totally different story.. pp. of Avhich the account of Berosus. his weapon.. host gods . a translation. The story of the Creation transmitted through Berosus (see chapter iii. and there is evidence of other stories. he took.. Legend of Creation from Cutha 1..) . differing entirely from the cuneiform account in the last chapter and from the Genesis account. lord of the lord of angels 5. upper region and the lower region . mutilated as usual. (Many lines . 8.. lord of lost at tablet.. and there were not left the carcasses and waste? .. with his flame. and some fragments of tablets from Kouyunjik belonging to the library of Assurbanipal give a copy.. .OTHEB BABYLONIAN ACCOUNTS 102 have been a belief leading features in the Creation and some of the story long of this before these Creation legends were committed to writing. which were at about the same time committed to writing. of another version having many lowing is points of agreement with the This legend. 6.. on a tablet nothing was then written. .. related to those ah*eady given.. 7.. who drank turbid waters and pure water did not drink.

Frcvi Nimroud Sculpture. .Eagle-headed Man.


. . their fifth brother 1 before them. 20. in the midst of the earth they grew up and became great. and increased in number. turned name.OF THE CREATION. . these the great gods created.. 15. 28. Seven kings brothers of the same family. 11! with the faces of ravens.. their life the mistress of the gods raised. lines lost. tah was his name. 19. 16. 18. ru was his name.. . their seventh brother Column (Many man . dada was evil . their sixth brother . the queen was 22. 10. . their his Milili. 14. their fourth brother 27. .. who went brother . name. 13. . second brother Midudu was his name. 24. 12. 25. 26. and in the earth the gods created for them a dwelling. their third brother 2.. their mother 21... come 103 from the earth nothing arose and I had not to it. Men with human beings the bodies of birds of the desert.. Tamat gave unto them strength. six thousand in number were their people.) his will his his name.. .. was II.. . tur was his name. . 9. their eldest Mimangab was 23. Banini their father was king. 17.

.. one of them did not return. 10. it hundred and twenty thousand men among I sent them. 7. let there my am not 16.. 11. 24. ninety thousand the same.. seven in width and seven in depth I arranged 3. . thus I said in 14. my 19. I take.OTHER BABYLONIAN ACCOUNTS 104 4.. . and . . one out and .. 17.. In the third year in the course of it. Thus made a I said in 27. . Anunitu Nebo ... .. my Now here 15. I rejoiced. Shamas the warrior. In the first year in the course of 20.21... Ishtar. sixty thousand seven hundred the same. I worshipped also the great gods 9... may I 18. In the second year in the course of it. 6. They were rooted out they were punished. heart. Zamama. .. my go as heart: gi'ound I trust in iron Bel may . I called the worshippers and sent. 25.. I 26. .. the gods listened to doings he did not give and 12 13. at this time my what rest. heart now here am is left ? I and . I gave them noble reeds? (pipes?) 8. 23.. I purified? On a tablet the evil curse 5. 22. let there not I and . I eat. in of man he carved ? them.

in the city of Cutha.) 1.. 31. and who else. who shall rebuild this house. swiftly I went... not the preserver of his people. saving of the people from night. . thou king. in the 4.) Fragment of Column 1.. and the ruler 30.. curses. am 29. meaning quite uncertain. in the temple of Sitlam. the spirits. I leave for thee.. have done may corpses and waste be left. blood 2 midst of them twelve men 3. 5. the gods 4.. ... those men.. this tablet I write to thee. 28. . I the king. prince.. whom God shall call. (Several lines lost at commencement. shall rule the kingdom. viceroy.. or any one 6..OF TEE CREATION. the powerful king 3. (Many more broken lines. them turned my heart Column IY. take them 5. . . 8. those men 7. I captured 6. to 2. death. Thus I said in I fled from me.. hand . 7. After them I pursued. I caused to pursue III. sanctuary of Nergal. When I not is tlie 105 preserver of his country. in the 9.

may thy supjDort be established. however. and do not turn away. the beings who and those with m^n's heads bird's heads and men's bodies. 17. 11. thy treasures. thy goods. and. from the SEAL OF A Syrian Chief. (A few more mutilated shall be multiplied. tliis tablet see. do not and fail. do not rebel. forms part of a relation similar to that of Berosus in his history of the Creation were and killed by the bird's bodies. 18. thy corn. 14. thy canals shall be full of water. lines. 13. 20. this tablet listen.c. and thy instruments.) Sacred Tkee. to the words of 12. 19. 16.OTHER BABYLONIAN ACCOUNTS 106 10. do not fear. and . . attendant TiGtrRES and Eagle-iieaded Men. light. then 15. thy forts shall be strong. ninth century b. thou in thy works shall be glorious. the first column. This is a very obscure inscription. thy silver. thy furniture.





agree with the composite monsters of Berosus, while
the goddess of chaos, Tiamat,



over them,



same again as the Tiamat of the Creation legends
and the Thalatth of Berosus.


relation in the second

the inscription



and does not correspond

The fourth column

with any known incident.

and third columns of

an address to any future king who


should read

the inscription which was deposited in the temple of

Nergal at Cutha.
It is probable that this

the work

legend was supposed to be

of one of the mythical kings of Chaldea,

describes the condition and history of the world


before his time.



another legend which appears to be con-

nected with these, the legend of the seven evil spirits,
which I have given in my former work, " Assyrian
Discoveries," p. 398.



the story of the

Seven Wicked Gods or



In the


the angels



days the evil gods

who were

in rebellion,

lower part of heaven

had been created,


they caused their


devising Avith wicked heads






in the





ruling to the river


There were seven of them. The


the second was a great animal

which any one








was a leopard ....
the fourth was a serpent ....
the fifth was a terrible .... which to ...
the sixth was a striker which to god and king

10. the third




did not submit,

was the messenger of the

14. the seventh





The seven of them messengers of the god Anu


their king


from city to city went round

17. the tempest of heaven

was strongly bound


18. the flying clouds of
19. the

heaven surrounded them,

downpour of the



in the bright


makes darkness, was attached

21. with a violent wind,





wind, they began,

Vul was their might,
hand of Vul they came,

22. the tempest of
23. at the right

from the surface of heaven hke lightning they

25. descending to the abyss of waters, at first they


In the wide heavens of the god

27. evil they set up,


the king

and an opponent they had





time Bel of this matter heard and

29. the account sank into his heart.

With Hea

the noble sage of the gods he took

counsel, and


31. Sin (the moon),

(the sun), and Ishtar

(Venus) in the lower part of heaven to control




With Anu to the government of the whole of
heaven he set them up.
33. To the three of them the gods his children,


day and night to be united and not to break


he urged them.


In those days those seven evil

37. in the lower part of heaven



38. before the light of Sin fiercely they came,
39. the noble

Shamas and Yul


god of the

atmosphere) the warrior to their side they turned


Ishtar with

41. they raised


the king into a noble seat

in the

government of heaven

they fixed.



The god


The god

4. Avhich

In those days the seven of them






head in the control to


at the




for the drinking of his noble


The god Sin the


mouth ....
.... mankind

of the earth

troubled and on high he

12. night

and day

minion he did not





fearing, in the seat of his do-


gods the messengers of





14. devised





another, and

they spake together, and




from the midst of heaven

like a


to the

earth they came down.

The god Bel

18. in heaven,

he saw and

Bel to his attendant the god Nusku said

20. "


of the noble Sin, his trouble

Attendant Nusku


account to the ocean


21. the

news of


child Sin





greatly troubled
22. to the




god Hea

in the ocean repeat."

Nusku the will of his lord obeyed, and
to Hea in the ocean descended and went.
To the prince, the noble sage, the lord,




Nusku the message

of his


at once re-



in the ocean that

message heard, and



his lips spake,


and with wisdom


mouth was





his son the

god Merodach




word he spake
30. "

Go my

son Merodach


31. enter into the shining Sin




greatly troubled
32. his trouble from heaven expel.

Seven of them the


having no

evil gods, spirits of death,


34. seven of

them the

35. descend

and sweep over the



evil gods,



the earth like a storm they

37. Before the

38. the


like a flood

hght of Sin fiercely

come down.
they came

Shamas and Vul the

their side they turned and

The end of this legend

warrior, to


is lost



probably recorded

the interference of Merodach in favour of Sin, the



In this story, which


differs again



supposed to place in the heaven the Moon,


Sun, and Venus, the representative of the

the others,

have no analogy with the other

this can

only be considered a poetical






of the


This legend



part of the sixteenth tablet of the

evil spirits


but the tablet contains other

matters as well, the legend apparently being only

quoted in



of the same sort on


another remarkable legend

another tablet of this series





The whole

"Cuneiform Inscriptions,"

of this series concerns the wanderings of

the god Merodach,

vol. iv. p. 15.


remove curses and

goes about the world seeking


in every difficulty

applying to his father Hea to learn
the influence of the evil

tunes were attributed.

spirits, to







Chapter VII.





— Obscurity of legend. — Translation. — Sin

— Speeches of Anu
Nebo. — Answer
Speech of Anu
—The Zu — Bird of

Anger of the gods.

of JSTebo.



of Zu.

—Vul's answer.
— Changes

prey. — Sarturda lord of

to Vul.





the legends of the gods, com-

panion stories to the accounts of the
Creation and Deluge, one of the most



the legend of the sin com-

mitted by the god Zu.


This legend stands alone





the stories,


actor being otherwise

unknown from cuneiform



have at

present only detected one copy of the story, and this

in so mutilated a condition that


cannot be con-

nected with any other of the legends.
similarity in style, I conjecture that
first tablet




From some
may form the

of the series which I have termed the

of the Gods."

I have,

however, no sufficient

evidence to connect the two, and for this reason

The first and fourth column are almost entu-ely lost. preceding the tablets of it the " AVars of the Gods. The single fragment preserved. is by talisman or There are besides the two words Jpar^:^ and some the mean some oracle in the possession of Bel. in the Museum collection. originally contained four columns of text. Zu. the is all a being is named three cases of an Preceding the name the determinative of divinity.THE SIN OF TEE GOD 114 give ZJT. giving additional difficulty in the trans- lation.. and the mutilation of Ouranus by his son Saturn." The principal actor in the legend name being found in Assyrian noun Zu. each column having about sixty lines of writing. there not being enough anywhere to translate from. from him by Zu. ticularly obscure. but there is not sufficient evidence to connect the stories. it and values possibly of c'ult par- tereti^ merely transcribing in my added that the inscription which characters which was robbed I diffi- have preferred translation. The Zu. and there are in the Assyrian account One several very difficult words. K tablet containing the account of the sin of 3454. sin of Zu has sometimes Zu to have been ranked The story of the minded me of the outrage of Ham re- on his father Noah. ordinary the um-sim-i. is I only transcribe it here phonetic may of these It must be seriously mutilated in parts. Za and Zi. belonging to the . from which I judge among the gods. here a separate place.

. three? streams? of water in front and 5.— : THE SIN OF THE GOB first Z 115 U. going II. the clothing of his divinity. lost. The desire? of majesty he conceived in his heart me carry away and the tereti of all the gods 12. all sent. of the gods of Zu? like Zu grew old and . Column I. 2 3. 10. work Bel finished? he slept in it. soldier of the temple of Hamsi. and he stripped also the father of the gods. 7. The desire? of majesty he conceived in his heart.. 3454. Column I. 4.. the fate? them he .. the 6. 9. such as " warrior. Let 13. his crown? Zu stripped.. may it burn. the umsimi of the gods. but not so as to prove these The titles following of this tablet to be his. The crown of his majesty. II." and the name of the god Zu occurs.. column. his 8. Zu stripped also the father of the gods. the venerable of heaven and earth. umsimi. with a of titles. . mentions some being who was the seed number or fii'stborn of Elu or Bel. Bel . the venerable of heaven and earth.. him . is a partial translation of the remains : K..

27. and spake 26. To Vul the powerful Hght the son of 34. 16. the majesty he carried off he cast away the parzi^ 22. spread out 20. may my throne be established. and made a commotion. 24. 21. 33. 15. and said to the gods 29. he waited until the head of the day. 30.. may I possess the parzi. When Bel poured out the beautiful waters 19.. also and spake him 35. To Vul his sons: may his name be renowned. the on the seat umsimi he took his crown? was placed. a speech to Anu he made to Imn. ZJT. his mouth opened. Zu fled away and in his country concealed himself. Anu 28. in his hand. the father. 18. And he hardened his heart to make war. Hero Vul let there not be opposition in thee . 25 he sent the glory of the gods was destroyed in . 23. the ruler Bel. let him slay Zu. in all the countries 31. a speech he made to Anu him. Then spread darkness. may I govern the whole of the seed of the angels. divinity .: TEE SIN OF THE GOD 116 14. 17. also and spake to him. the powerful light the son of 32. their king. Whoever will. in the vicinity of the house where he slept.

THE SIN OF TEE GOD ZV. Anu word he spake. and Zu fled away and country concealed in his himself. to his father the speech. 40. 45. and name. in his country concealed . (Sixteen lines lost here. they shall cry in the presence of the gods praise thy 43. 38. Father to a desert country do thou consign him. 42. part on Column Column 1. Vul answered 44. in the midst of thy brothers. 46. opening his mouth 50 like the venerable of heaven and earth 51 like mud 52 was. he carried 48. 117 36. May thy city be exalted like the temple.) III. slay Zli with thy weapon. fled away and III. and Zu himself. made 39 also fragrant with spices. in the four regions they shall fix thy city. parzi^ 49. first set up. part on this column. Let Zu not come among the gods thy sons. for the umsimi he took in his hand. the gods swept 53 I will not go he away said. 41. 47. 37. the majesty he cast away the off. May thy name be renowned in the assembly of the gods.

May thy city be exalted like the temple. also and spake to him not be opposition in thee. Hero Nebo let there 9.. Nebo answered 16. Father to a desert country do thou consign him. May thy name be renowned in the assembly of the gods. 22 opening heaven and earth liis mouth like the venerable of . 10. away powerful . the majesty he carried off he cast away the 18. To Nebo the 7. 14. 12. and name. Let Zu not come among the gods thy sons. parzi^ 21. slay 6. Zu with thy weapon. to his father the speech. 13.. for the umsimi he took in his hand. the gods swept 5 I will not go he said. Anu word he spake 17. a speech he made to him 8. opening his moutli like the venerable 2 of heaven and earth 3 like mud 4 was. in the four regions they shall fix thy city. made 11 also fragrant with spices. the child of Ishtar. and Zu fled away and in his country con- cealed himself.: TEE SIN OF THE GOD 1]8 : ZTT.. 20. they shall cry in the presence of the gods praise thy 15. 19.

And ZV. p.. 2. of noble face . to own heart a resolution he made. The god Sarturda (the lesser king) to a country a place remote [went].. I also 35.. and there is never counted would be no clue to his nature were it not for a curious tablet printed in " Cuneiform Inscriptions... Anu .. the land of Sabu [he dwelt].» ... iv. the strength of his knowledge 6.. His mother had not placed him and had not . tion: 1. lost. from which it appears that he was in the likeness of a bird of This tablet gives the following curious rela- prey. 5..." vol. his father had not placed him and with him did not [go]. thus the god . 36.. to .. he turned The god 38.. the will of his heart a resolution he did . 14..... and thus 37.... Column IV. Such are the fragments of the story so far as they can be translated at present. 39. 34.. In his 8.. . From not 7. . He heard also ... the likeness of a bu'd he changed. in 3... .THE SIN OF TEE GOD About ten 33.. The divine Zu here mentioned whose sin among spoken of is the gods. 119 lines lost here. 4..

the lion or giant bird. col.. 18." vol. made 12. 1. 11. Her appearance was like bright was adorned with brightness was fixed in . 10. Zu 14. in companionship he The goddess Enna. from the nest of the divine Zu bird he came. the bird with sharp beak. silver and gold. 13. darted. 20." This bird is called the cloud or storm bird. lines lost here. p. where he says his warriors " like the divine zu bird upon them scriptions.. the crown he placed on his head 1 2. the story recommences on reverse. the son of the bird. ukni stone. mountain he loved. the bird of prey. . . in the sit. 15. Zu bird) he changed... and indicates some ravenous bird which was it evidently deified by the . his wife forcibly he associated with. his nature is shown by a pas- sage in the annals of Assurnazirpal (" Cuneiform Ini. 107). the flesh eating bird. the lady of Tigenna. brightness Many was set in . ii. a female fashioned? of her mother in her like- ness. her girdle 19.THE SIN OF THE GOD 120 ZU. 16. the goddess of perfumes a female fashioned? of her mother in her likeness 17. 22. to the likeness of the divine storm bird (or 9. the wife of the divine Zu divine bird. This Zu Zu bird I suppose to be the same as the god of the inscriptions.

In of my Zu is translation of the legend very obscure. and causes Anu to god Anu request that call on his Zu while the sons of he may be expelled from sons in succession to slay company of the gods. who offends against Bel. but it quite is evident that his sin was considered to be great. I suppose to be the same as the divine bird of prey mentioned in the other inscriptions. In the legend of Sarturda Zu into a it is said that he changed Sarturda which bird. • Some ZV. Merodach. and he is be explained Amarda city of said to have been the deity wor- shipped by Izdubar." pp. The second legend. The Zu of the legend. as raises the anger of Bel. but in Nebo usually called son of is this inscription he is called son of on K 3454. and I am quite unable to see through the allusions in the text. 96. there being also in this doubtful words and mutilated pas- . .TEE SIN OF THE GOD Babylonians. otherwise have no mention in any other inscription of we this per- sonage. Zu In the story of the offence of there is another instance of the variations which constantly occur in the Assyrian inscriptions with respect to the relationship of the gods. the sin Anu. in is it the the which the god Sarturda as obscure as the first. changes into a Zu bird. 116. 121 excellent remarks on the nature of this bird are given byDelitzsch in his " Assyrische studien. may "the young king" was lord of the or Marad.

ZU. The idea of the gods sometimes changing themselves into animals was not uncommon in early times. although a celebrated god in early times.TEE SIN OF TEE GOD 122 sages. is seldom mentioned in the later inscriptions. Sarturda. The explanation of these legends must be left until the meanings of several words in them are better known. and there is no information anywhere as to the females or goddesses mentioned in the legend. .

gods.— Chapter VIII. The god whose exploits are principally recorded bears a name which I read with much hesitation as Lubara or Dabara and whom I conjecture on some doubtful grounds to be a form of the god Ninip. and the fifth tablet was a smaller one of two columns to contain the remainder of the story. . Ishtar. — Ann. — Plague. Itak goes Cutha. Itak. the worship. — —The Plague. Sin and of Speech — — Karrak. — Internal wars. Blessing's his to arrest PIE tablets recording this story (which I formerly called the " war of the gods ") are five in number. — Prayer Pestilence. From the indications presented by these fragments I believe the first four tablets had each four columns of writing. — Song of Lubara. — Goddess of Destruction of — warrior destruction of Babylonians. — — god and Duran. of Erech. Elu. but I have only dis- covered a few fragments of them. — Seven — God of people. — God Ner. to Syria. THE EXPLOITS OP LUBARA. Lubara. —The great destruction — Sin and — Shamas. — on Power and glory of Lubara.

serve to show that this deity was the god of pestilence. 13." p. " Cuneiform Inscriptions. 25. con- taining parts of three columns of writing. fragment of the translate.124 THE EXPLOITS OF The passages I LTTBABA. my have given in " History of Assurbanipal" and in "Assyrian Discoveries. shows Assyrian Dis- (" this name with the same meanino^. 343. 1. ii. Lubara has a companion deity named Itak who marches before him. and seven gods who follow him in his destructive course. j)." pp. 1. The whole of this series of tablets may be described by a and de- as a poetical picture of the destruction caused plague. or the personification of the plague. stroying everything before it." vol. that the people of the world had offended god of heaven. 340. My reading Lubara is taken from the passage. sweeping over district after district. and the passage Deluge table in the coveries. 339. It appears to eadr . and that deity ordered Lubara forth and strike the people with the pest. The fragment which appears the series is to me to come a very mutilated portion of a tablet. visitations from pestilence or famine being always supposed to be sent by the deity in punishment for some sin. first in and first the. column is perfect Only a enough characters on this are so to worn that the translation cannot be other than doubtful. 20). Anu to go It is evident here that exactly the same views prevailed in Babylonia as those among the Jews. 192. The point of the story in these tablets appears to be.

.. 14. like in . . like a slaughter in the house.. of the people of the nations their pit 6. 1. . the fifth time . . thy son name? like afterwards ? 13. but style to belong to this series. • • .... Lubara do thou go and said to . he said? to them also to Lubara the warrior of the gods may thy hand move of . seven I? say? strengthened above and below seeking . 3... slay 11. spake to him and he 2. against the seat devised 15. .. . . the god Anu commanding the slaughter. war not This passage appears to describe the forthcoming destruction.. ... 4. The next fragment appears from its he . 125 ... .. 3.. thy them and cast down their weapons. set the people of the dark races to ruin thou shalt 8.. name in the house.THE EXPLOITS OF LUBABA. Anu .. the all them Anu heard and 5... .. like he will strike thy heart also to make a destruction 7. . to capture he was turned 2. god Ner strike with the desolation of the and thy weapon against their swords may thy 9. an old man.... words of the account of the seven gods 4.. He 12. spake to him and he learned? at the doing of Hea . 1 is of a diiferent character. hand move 10.

THE EXPLOITS OF LUBABA. the gods of heaven and earth all there were who thus answered 6. he broke heaven he ascended.. dwelling . she thus body of the people he placed 17 the illness the goddess of Karrak made to cease The next portion of the legend is a considerable part of one of the tablets. . . 11 strong to later days to 12 sin of 13 triumphantly the net 14 to 15 4. . . extending from the horizon of heaven to the top of heaven 8 looked and his fear he saw 9 Anu who hand? 10 of Hea over him his calamity . the action of the gods of the various cities. probably the fourth.. e^c. made made . four columns of "writing being represented. COLUIMN I. beside the special purpose of the legend. thou dost not sweep away 1 his 2 thou turn est his troop 3 ...021 people he placed 16 the illness which was on the . mankind . 126 5. such as the peoples enumerated in the fourth column. are many all There curious points in this tablet.. his will 7 which was Hke the will of Anu who .

. fills war 10 . 127 and he said: Lubara is couching at his gate.. . 22. thou enterest 27 the palace.. over the corpses of chiefs and slaves 21. a tent bow made and he seeks Elu it his 12 18. Warrior Lubara. thou placest his seat. 4 thou enterest within 5 thou 6 an appointment has not 7 thy . he gathers 8 he draws out his sword 9 he 11. like is like a bird he 13 he destroys 14 great curse 15 strike their 16 the 17 taken flies hands fire his fierceness? covered? 19.. The people weapons. .. thou goest out to another thou destroy est the land. To the floor thou tramplest didst break through them and thou . thou art their curse. see thee and they reach their . 25. 26. 24. The wicked Babylonians watched it and 23. 28.TRE EXPLOITS OF LUBABA.. in his heart 20. Thou leavest also the land. callest.

of the people spoiled Anu and who sword are punished by Dagon. the people the king gathers. river. 34. like the spoiling of enemies to spoil he sends forth his soldiers. . 44. raising the 39. shaking the bow. SO. The collection of the goods of Babylon thou spoilest. 40. 128 29.. shalt not fear. The high priest the avenger of Babylon hardens his heart. To that city I send thee. 36.TEE EXPLOITS OF LVBAEA.. Small 35 and great at once cast down and of evil leaving fear ? thou dost not save any one. thou dost sweep into the 43. 38. in his heart he resolved.. The great lord Merodach saw and angrily spoke. 46 on an unsparing curse his face of the river fled not is set. and enters the city. 31. 45. do not tremble at a man. 37. Their swords thou takest. and their treasures thou openest. 42. thou man S3. Before the face of the people they do evil violently. 41. 32. . their corpses like the pouring down of thou dost cast down in the vicinity of the rain city.

. who make the people manhood turn to .. he does not lead the expedition? 18. 7. Of Erech the 5. 9.. his face over them day and night? 13. of Ishtar. . a deluge he did not 3. . lines lost.. the enemies she strikes and like corn Parra . E . who to raise the spirit of Ishtar trust 12. Anu and 4. the city of the ladies.. Their foundations.. 6. Against Shamas his tower thou destroyest thou dost cast . .. carrying swords. 15. 10. slay the house of heaven. their . in his .. on the waters she scatters.. 2.. . the festival Suti with the Suti are placed in . the priests. their 14. Samhati and Harimati. . 16.. make . seat of Death they Ishtar fear they are delivered into thy hands.. Dwelling 17. makers. carrying naklahi. to of Ishtar fear.. angry and troubled over the city of is Erech... The 8.. the high priest. of the lord of the earth 1 129 . hardened.THE EXPLOITS OF LUBABA. Ishtar countenance turn ... .. bows ... dupe^ and zur7n 11. The enemies whom thou destroyest do not return to .. Column Many II.

lines... Column Many III. .. a fire is fixed . 130 19. and of me thou dost not leave ... . house built now . who sin against thee also in Kutha. 4 5... The great god answered the speech The city of Duran to blood . to the Suti my 25.... do not give and 28.. 14 head of the king of Kutha? Two other mutilated lines. . like sick? before the waters their pit 23. me 24.. swear and the house country and father ..... just also of Kutha? Kutha. ... .. Afterwards may he waste to another ... 20. lines lost. I city Duran judge uprightly do not 27. this all and the portion . the upright people I leave 29. the people are in the midst of it like reeds are trembling 22.. evil? I . 12. 6.. . also of 13 of the god of Kutha. 7. . 10. who 21.. his seat also he lays waste? . 8. .THE EXPLOITS OF LUBAHA.. . .. . The warrior Lubara. who do not sin against thee also in Kutha. . the 1 2 3.. . and the unjust 11. the day he brought me fate I him. 9. I in 26..... Four other broken .. foundation and fixed .

the whole of them may they destroy. and afterwards may the people of Akkad together. 21. and thus spake the warrior Lubara: 9. to his might'.. house with house.. 1. to . Cossean with Cossean 12. 20.. . 8. . .. who . Itak to the land of Syria set his face. The planet Jupiter 2. The warrior Lubara him a word spake 19. gods may the side carried him. .. not rejoicing 4.. 3. he sea coast with the sea coast. increase..: THE EXPLOITS OF LUBABA. send and 7. Satu with Sutu 13. in the country close and may they destroy each other. 17. 131 Column IV. in the according to all to Itak who goes before word thou hast spoken do thy heart... 14. Elamite with Elamite 11. Assyrian with Assyrian. The 6. man with man. and fight against them. Goim with Goim Lulubu with Lulubu 15.. destroyed the seat of the king of the 5.. fearing and .. Go also Itak. 16. Subarta with Subarta. The warrior Lubara heard also the words Itak spoke to him then ... 10. . brother with brother. Country with country. and 18..

may .THE EXPLOITS OF LTJBAEA. 27. his after him.. Obverse.. in the mouth of a dog noble? and the place . 9. Lubara placed ? and in the is first sin .. the land of Akkad its Fifteen lines 28 strength . his 5.. also lifted 26.... like a flock of 10. I have before 1282.. 11........ and the seven warrior gods unequalled 23.. 12. marched 24... them .. am . the land of Syria he took for his country. hand he and destroyed the land... which could not be written on the fourth tablet. is only a smaller supplemental one to include the end of the story. . Lubara all of shake also I 7.... When 2.. like spoiling the country right and . like The next fragments of the story are on a muti- K lated copy of the last tablet... all . K. the country of Syria the warrior went. mouth opened and . against the setting much broken here. angry and sheep up of boundaries . This tablet... the whole of you ... he broke through the ranks? 28 . the forests of people ... . the angels and spirits 4. . my heart 8. 1. 132 22. as stated.... 1282.. .... the gods 3. To 25. 6.

. one of thy seven chiefs like 30. him... 2. to the midst spoil.. 12 all of them placed with him. 34.. mighty one of the . Merodach son of . his . ... For years untold the 1... 7.. 9 13.. they gather Four mutilated . also Lubara received and before . 29. of the night he sent ... his cities to ruins ..... 10... and mounds thou dost ..... lord ' 3. When Lubara was angry countries ... and like in the year Not any one and went not down against ... 8.. ... god Ner and . he set 4.. reduce thou dost 31... 32.THE EXPLOITS OF LUBABA.. 11 Itak went before him rejoicing ... commencement gods. the productions of the countries 35... Reverse. • .. within it . lines here.. his great spoil of 133 ... the . in the to the .. Any Lubara one who shall speak of the warrior . collecting his his face . the gods of the country strong thou removest afar off . Itak his adviser quieted him and stayed 6... 33... of the great also to sweep the glory .. .

the people of all the cities exalt and may establish . . The 21. tablet writer it flees from the wicked. 17. . the chastising sword not touch him whose face thou establishest. their ears I open. 26.. they proclaim. 23. may he not fall? . is where their goods are angry the seven gods turn him aside. when Lubara may may 25. 134 and that song 14.. Whoever my heroism shall recount. 24. That song 27. his may he not meet. 18.. name shall be proclaimed over the world. thou .. In the house the place placed. they fix the part for ever may they 28. shall be great in the land. an adversary 19.. shall not die by the chastisement.. Here we see a picture of Oriental feeling with reference to natural phenomenon or disaster to man- . Fifth tablet of the exploits of . the countries all of glorify my them may they hear... may they see.. and my name. higher than king and prince he shall raise his who studies and people. THE EXPLOITS OF LUBAEA. shall cry it out. 20. shall glorify guard continually wilt cover and 15 in his place... 22.. and heroism 29. The prophet who 16. In the places of the people the established my name places.

The next fragment exhibits the goddess of Karrak as healing the illness of some of the people. fragment shows the anger of command supposed sin and his Anu first at their sin or Lubara to The to take his weapon. and desolate the land Hke the God Ner.THE EXPLOITS OF LUBABA. or The Venus worship. kind. The next city belongs to Shamas. the Sippara. being either Larsa. It is supposed in lines 29-31 that the sin of the Babylonians arose from the chief j)riest or governor of the arming the troops and sending them out to plunder the people. character of this city is described. In the next and largest fragment the story becomes a little more connected. it commences with a tion of preparation for battle. beheved This god Ner was a legendary being in at the time of Izdubar. What record these Babylonians had been guihy of the is not perfect enough to show. and then the plague reaches Erech. chief nor slave. It is 135 supposed that some deity or angel stands with a sword over the devoted people and sweeps them into eternity. descrip- and goes on through speeches and actions to describe the course of Lubara and his plague over Babylon. 4102 being mentioned as struck with disease. slay the people. where he spares neither and enters even the palace. and city its progress visited is graphically described. For this the plague is sent. the women of pleasure Samhati and Harimati. the . who is mentioned name and being with Etana a as having a terrible dweller in Hades.

and exemption from the plague. was neglected. . priests and ceremonies. from come Elamites. Cosseans. with the seven warrior gods to destroy Syria. Subarti. next mentioned column. and good that should come who should spread On out his praise a song in honour of this the spread of a plague the Babylonians had no better it is evident that means of arresting it than to pray and praise the supposed terrible deity of the scourge. and then the in fourth the obscure third column describes a prophecy of Lubara that there should be internal war among the Mesopotamian peoples of the sea-coast. and Lulubu. Goim. of Duran comes forward and pleads to mind its uprightness and for his calling praying its Cutha is deity city. and the progress of the Then the great god the plague over the place. last tablet deals in generalities pointing the action of Lubara and when telling all the glories to those deity.136 TEE EXPLOITS OF LUBABA. Guti. all which troubles benefit should to the Akkadians or upper Babylonians. Then according to his wish Lubara sends Itak his servant. stroys The and Itak sweeps over the country and deit. Assyrians. that he might sheathe his sword of anger. justice.

Offers Sj^eech Ishtar. fox. ox. BABYLONIAN FABLES. speech in animals. — Anger of The eagle caught. — Speech of —Fable the horse and — They consort — Speech of the — His good of the — Contrast with the — Hunting the — —Further recount — Story of — East. birds. tablet. to imply any distinctive It is probable that all these stories even in Babylonia were equally believed in by the devout and the ignorant. eagle. as many of the others are equally fabulous and very similar in style. gods. are fragments of a series in Avhich the various animals speak and tinguish act. together. fortune. horse. — His show of sorrow. — Description. story. eagle. horse. — Power of —Common the — Serpent. treated as alle- . the name must not be taken character in this direction. of fox. ox. — Judgment of Shamas. — Eats the — Story of the — Speech of — Seven — Third —His cunning.— Chapter IX. to ox. — His punishment. traditions of the early history of man. I call these tablets " Fables " to dis- them from the others. — Shamas. but. and accounts of the Creation. — Story of the — Etana. serpent. tablets. jOMBINED with these stories of the gods. in Fables.

The it is fourth is a single tablet with two columns of a discussion between the horse and ox. I. where the trees answer Heabani. there are only four fragments. but the very mutilated condition of the various fragments gives as usual . the leading animal being the fox or jackal. it occurs in Genesis. The third writing. is a single fragment in which a calf speaks. The Story of the Eagle. and in the stories of Jotham and Joash. in I it of the acting animals and the serpent. where we have a speaking Numbers where Balaam's ass reproves his master. each creature dowed with by the power of speech. are the eagle The second Two having similar in is character. this may number belong to the same series as the fable of the eagle. These legends so in far a*s have discovered are four number. in . where the trees are made to speak again in the Izdubar serpent. 138 gories by the poets. but there is nothing to show the nature of the story. This story appears to be the longest and most curious of these legends. legends.BABYLONIAN FABLES. and I have no evidence as to the of tablets . and repudiated as fabulous In the " Fables " or stories in which the learned. animals play prominent parts. day is this idea en- was whole of Western found in various Egyptian is it in the and stories. The first contained at least four tablets each four columns of writing. common even in that Asia and Egypt.

he birds of heaven • • . I feel ? nest I leave ? of my go down and enter people ? Shamas has pronounced on me Shamas thy 10. the way pass • • . 16.. Go . commencement. 12. thy stroke? this 11. me not . the assembly 7..BABYLONIAN FABLES... and is as being an inhabitant of the infernal regions in the time of Izdubar... .. in thy sight? let sight ? in the earth . lines lost at 2. them as they come. . in .. 19 . my 6. placed . open also his heart 18. . The serpent I give 2527. ... I cut thee off? 17.. 15. command ? 3..... the sentence which 9. One of the actors named Etana who in the story is an ancient monarch mentioned as already dead. The sorrow of the serpent [shamas saw and] Shamas opened his mouth and word he spoke . Again the nest 5..... to the eagle 4. I 8........ I am unable to ascertain the order of the fragments of these legends and must translate K Many 1. doing evil the goddess 13. to Bau (Gula) was . 14. 139 considerable difficulty in attempting an explanation.

Reverse.. The 1..» thee me . The eagle opened his mouth . to the midst at his entering . 4. to enter to the food he sought 3.. .. the ... Elu . took him . he placed 12. them ....— BABYLONIAN FABLES.. eagle with .. • . May . the eagle young of the birds . his pinions to thirst Shamas the of .... Within the gate of Anu. .. ... he opened also his heart .. .. like also .... 140 Reverse. 5..... .. enclosed the feathers of his wings 7.. at pent the and work .. • .... Five other mutilated On words lines. warrior...... 13. like 4.. god? knew 2. . seat . his claws ? 8. fragment another are following the : Obverse.. him 1 issu to 2 god my Etaua kill 3. • few ... with the 16. . to cover the 5.. 15. .. he took also the serpent to 11.. 6... the anger of the birds of heaven 14.. the ser- .. 10. ...... dying of hunger and 9. 1. Etana the king 6.. father .... .

Shamas... in the series. 4 7. I sweep .... . is curious. the course . .. 15 K The next fragment.BABYLONIAN FABLES.. as con- some early legendary story taining an account of in .. and greatly I break ... . . will fix within the gate of I 5 6 sin.... 141 This tablet formed the third and from it we gain part of the title the tablets. government of them .. we 2. 9 the seven its ... I take also . K 2606.. 8..... 3... make me great .... Etana he gave them 7 sword 8. spirits ... 2606... placed 1 2 3.... me . placed . . .. 10. The 9.... the king him eagle to also to Etana 13. turned? and . Babylonian history. • • of ... I fear the serpent? . back bone . 12. . Yul and 11. do thou fix for 14..... .. • .. this brickwork 4 fixed 5 to the 6.. ....... I cover the throne ... opened .. in the midst . they took their counsel ...........

from of old he caused to wait 2.. 21..... he sought also 25. to rule the country 16.... the 27. the seven ... " The city they mouth opened and Shamas he spake The next fragment is a small portion probably of the fourth tablet. Third tablet of 3... 1.. . . 24... he took and 28. The eagle his mouth opened ...... Inninna to the neighbourhood 22. and the king flew 23. 1.... and a sceptre of ukni stone 15. .. 142 placed in the country 10 of 11 all 12 they them the angels .. Many lines lost. kingdom . encircled the sanctuary of . 13..BABYLONIAN FABLES. . . Elu 20.. the city of the angels Surippak? 19.. The his lord eagle his . and the king flew ... . in the wide country 26... ..... ......... the gods of the country Reverse.... over the cities they raised . Ishtar to the neighbourhood to ..... 17... . to . . In those days also 14. 18.. . gods over the people they raised ..

angrily I speak 7.. and a connected plot cannot be made out. The other fragments concern city. he . and the bird going to get the this... 4 5. According to the fragment K 2527. This fable has evidently some direct connection . which it The other birds then take oiFence.. mouth opened and ..... but the whole story is obscure at present... speech? .. After trap for some one. whose name is lost.. mouth of Shamas the warrior .... into the trap and until dying for is caught. 12. . the people of the birds The 9. there are seven spirits or angels j^rincipal actors in the matter... the serpent had committed some sin for which it was legend.... the people of the bh'ds 3. condemned by the god Shamas eagle . eagle his Why 10. to be eaten by the bat the eagle declined the repast. baits a the eagle. want of food to eat the serpent. Now it is the glad takes and tares open. 6. in the 8.. his ...... mouth opened and .. . falls eagle is left. the building of some Etana being king. meat. 143 2 ..BABYLONIAN FABLES. angrily he spake . and in these relations the eagle again appears. and desire that the eagle should be excluded from their ranks.. comest thou . Such are the principal fragments of this curious Etana 11.

... is perhaps part of the same story. in a firm command he set my feet. . the fragments are so disconnected that they must be given without any attempt at ar- rangement. . . thou knowest enticing ? and cunning. about the rising of the jackal also he sent me . Column 1.. 10.. of 2.. .. 7. 5... 9. again 13. The next fable. chains. he had raised life . . bTORY or THE FoX.. Shamas in thy sentence. . His memory was is in the cherished as belonging to one of the terrible monarchs who were inhabiting Hades.... .BABYLONIAN FABLES...... . lU with the mythical history of Babylonia. thou in that day also 8. the answer ? let him 12.. father .. let To not the people . for Etana mentioned as an ancient Babylonian monarch Izdubar legends. not escape.. 6. II. that of the fox. . his will he .. by his will is the destruction of life.. K 3641. 3. he had asked and .. . 4. 11. mother called .. thou . I. probably on account of their deeds.

1. To the powerful presence of Shamas he went 15. 16.. 10. and III... bowed his head in the presence of Shamas and wept. ... 7.. 9....) Column IV. With Shamas do not destroy this sentence me. . by wisdom and cunning let 145 them put to death the fox. . may may may may they keep thee and I will not Four other mutilated lines. they take hold of thee and not ... 5. The fox on hearing this. any one shall not cut thee off 4. 14. The next fragment has lost the commencement..... they fell thy limbs . Then wept the jackal . . he bowed his head .. 8.. (Columns II. do not turn back afterwards come shall not out..: BABYLONIAN FABLES. heart and fierceness of my face thou shalt fear before me.. 1 carried in his 2 before his .. taking the . and the sun shall not be seen. to . my forest.. 6. they bind thee and not .... thou hast fixed . by the anger of my . in his tears 17..^ and ends of all the lines. mouth . 11. 3... thou.. 12.. . . Go 2.. lost...

. I did not weave and unclothed J am not «.. of Bel .. 8 he 9 ^Jigiy also ....... . .. a good place 7 of the city of Nisin I 8 limbs and the bodies did not stand 9 life 10 my dog was brought ..... 146 3 thou knowest wisdom and 4 in . left ... 3 stranger I 4 I cauo'ht 5 from of old brother and I surrounded the also . ......... and 10 .. and not any one ... command. removed and . I did not end . ... . . .. The following fragment is in similar condition.. up .... 13 the dog is Why .... 1 2. of . mayest thou become old .... of the jackal all was it . 6 he begot me. 1 was placed 2 their ruler sought 3 let it not be ....BABYLONIAN FABLES.. ........ .. ... know .... ... ..... take days also the fox carried ... The limbs not ... 11 in those 12 the people he spoke. .. .... 5 in the field the fox G was decided under the ruler the 7 all down under him and laying .. me .... he fled .. The fourth fragment contains only also right and five legible lines...

.. height . the text. He had offended Shamas by some means and the god sen- tenced him to death.. a sentence which he escaped through powerful pleading on III.) 1 2. at the end of which the fox petitions Shamas to spare him. that of the horse single tablet with only date of the tablet and there no statement that is in the reign of Assurbanipal... The fable.. the Tigris situated the river 3456. is a two columns of text. The last fragment is a small scrap. fox in the forest 5 .. 3. (Several lines lost at commencement. of food .BABYLONIAN FABLES.. K 3456.. K tains about one third of the story. con- .. The incidental allusions in these fragments show was even then considered cunning. it is copied from an There are altogether four portions of but only one is perfect enough to be worth is earlier text. translating. rest ... he feared and did not throw down his 4 spoil 147 .. and the ox. and the animal in the story was evidently a watery specimen. The next his own behalf.. . .. Fable of the Horse and Ox. This largest fragment. as he brings tears to his assistance that the fox or jackal whenever anything is to be gained by it..

20. I am pondering mouth. and were prosperous. a boundless place 10.... He my appearance.. 13.. 14.... The ox opened his to the horse glorious in 17. 18.. 11. . in the side . between the ox and the horse friendship was made. he dried up rivers of waters. was in the flowers . the vallies 8.. 148 4...: BABYLONIAN FABLES. at the appearance 9. tliey 5. they disported in the ? ... the high places 7. a carpet he made...... the high places he despised. the country 6.. and spake and said war now upon the good fortune at my hand.. appearance . the tribes of beasts rejoiced in and afraid it companionship friendship. they rejoiced their 15.. in the flowers he rolled. 16. of the waste he turned earth were free within 12... and pleased their hearts. he raged in the floods. 21. made the timid .. ... . the vallies and springs he made for his country.. . 22... . they consorted over the friendship. destroyed abundance of food. floods ended . From the beginning of the year to the end of the year I ponder at 19.

. by speeches Most of these speeches are lost or only present in small fragments. I one not suited I 8. lord and prince do not . approach a child..... ? with a cloak priest. is After this comes a speech from the horse to the bull. 23. fate 2. . boundless place 25. ... .. The ox opened to the horse glorious 7.... and he him .... tiraicl portioned for his learned ceased broke the ropes and waited and the horse 27.. they catch thee thyself 29. over me any 5. and looks with contempt on the horse because he tamed. the sight of his A 24... 28. . is afraid.. drives horns make the 149 will not .. like 4. why .. . 1..... the 26.. am clothed and ..... . high seek 6..... in say I am his mouth and spake and noble and thou gatherest thy fighting said . .BABYLONIAN FABLES. and the story recommences on the reverse with the end of a speech from the horse. king... he ascends also . the rest of the tablet being occupied and answers betAveen the two animals.... strong brass 3. Here the ox gives a good picture of his state and enjoyment. he man .

. my weapon of masters over he causes to see servitude like 16 in thee 17. The ox opened 25. .. his . I reveal? ox the story . to the horse 31.... it is not .. not 18. thy splendour is subdued? .. 30.... in my inside I am firm .......... in •11. in crossing that river which does not .. ...BABYLONIAN FABLES. lation me and the lord of the chariot destroys deso- . 27. 10.... said . . .... my body I am firm . is .. the 15... 19.. strength? of the heart 24........ in the paths of thy country 26....... like .. . said his quiver .... the swords 22 23. the warrior draws out of 13. in thy appearance... Of the his mouth and spake and .. 12. hearing weapon 21.. 150 9. the horse . the my .. ... mouth and spake and ... 28. stories which thou tellest ... strength carries a curse 14.. 29.. .. he causes to go on the path over The horse opened to the ox . In 20......

It is uncertain if is. (Colophon) Palace of Assurbanipal. is unfortunate. The of Ishtar. and the horse ultimately offers to a story. the ox choosing the story called " noble Ishtar tell is the ox When the probably some story of the same cha- ". any other tablet followed this . ox. appears from these fragments that the story de- when scribed a time and the ox and horse The . it however. . praised himself. . probable that there was one containing the story told indication think. Although there is no show the date of this fable. commencing the discussion. told and matter. and her adventures formed the subject of many It narratives.BABYLONIAN open 32. the answer of the horse recommences it is lost. tar . king of nations. king It . fell into a friendly conversation. it belonged to about as the other writings given in this loss of the tablet containing the story by the horse to the ox. to by the by the horse. . I should style same date the volume. "When 151 the noble Ish- . but where the story appears that the ox objects to the horse drawing the chariot from which he (the ox) hunted. racter as Ishtar's descent into Hades. is evident that Ishtar was a very celebrated god- dess. Some of the words and forms in these fables are exactly the same as those used bar and Creation legends^ and in the Izdu- in all these stories the . (that first of) FABLES. the animals associated together.

similar to the others. 152 deity Shamas more prominently tlian is usual The last fable is a mere fragment figures in the mythology. is not enough of this to make . it worth There translation. containing a story in which the calf speaks.BABYLONIAN FABLES.

drought. —Not noticed by Berosus.— Chapter X. FRAGMENTS OF MISCELLANEOUS TEXTS. sons. — Birs Nimrud. or Atarpi-nisi. very little being preserved except Column III. —Mother and daughter quarrel. HAVE included in this chapter a num- ber of stories of a similar character to those of Genesis. — Dream. It is very mutilated. This on a tablet in six columns. — Tower of Babel. of tlie world.. — Dispersion. Sinuri. — Sin Atarpi. — Assyrian representations. and there is only one copy. — Frag—Destruction of Tower. ISTusku. — Orders Zamn. — Hea. —Babil. —Locality mentary Babylon. and there are numestory is rous repetitions throughout the text. the text differs . — Calls his — Riddle of wise man. — Divining by fracture of reed. — Building. — Punisliment of world. lating to the tower of Babel. The inscrip- tion has originally been a long one. but which directly connected. text is not are and a fragment The first and re- principal the story of Atarpi. — Obscurity of legend. air. — Incantation. — — Nature and universal presence of — Gods. —Famine. probably extend- ing to about 400 lines of writing. tablet.

above angry at. Their wickedness I . This is followed by the statement that these things came to pass. or Atarpi the man " who had " couch beside a his river. he will bring down upon them is and distress. Where the story next opens.: FEAGMENT8 OF 154 from the generality of these obscure and inscriptions. be small. . . in their 8. and that the mother shuts the door of the house. The man named Zamu have some connection affair. angry at the sin of the world. let food be exhausted. . answers. 1. other reasons. sometimes called Atarpi-nisi. stomach let am shall not he turns. 5. being very In consequence of this and difficult. and turns her daughter adrift. We are first told of a quarrel between a mother and her daughter. and was pious to the gods. and at the close we are told of doings of a with the Atarpi. and Atarpi then invoked the god Hea to remove these He I evils. judge the people. but took no notice of these things. and announces his resolve to destroy the people. poison. Hea After this the story reads called his assembly he said to the gods his sons 2 I made them shall not stretch until before 3. I only give an outline of most of the story. the god Elu or Bel calls together an assembly of the gods his sons. their punishment 6. 4. Vul drink up his rain. I will look to 7. and relates to them stating that he also that disease.

This will serve to show the style of the tablet. 21. let 155 the lower regions be shut up. blackness spread fields. 16. may may distress be spread over the people. the plowed fields brought forth thorns. The ground was hardened which had been overflown. let the 13. and floods not carried in the streams. let the overspread the 12. in their 18. was broken off. growth of corn 11. favour be broken off. ground be hardened which was over- 10. Above Vul drank up 19. 24.MISCELLANEOUS TEXTS. fields bring forth thorns. cultivation be broken up. good was not given. may blackness fields. and it 14. and the floods not be carried in the streams. distress 25. and cultivation 23. was spread over the people. the was broken up. let the flown. and good not be given. stomach food he exhausted. food did not rise. food not arise not produce. 15. 22. the his rains. favour it did not produce. 20. plowed may the cease. 9. The instrument of punishment was apparently a . 17. lower regions were shut up. He looked also to judge the people. the over the growth of corn ceased.

his Nusku 4.156 . . mouth and spake and gate thy weapons take speech? .. curse the goddess 1.. 2407. • puts a ..) is .. me . your king has sent? has sent . be- man who riddle to the gods... K K . words even in this passage. in the 6. which 2407. Here the story is again lost. the connection of which with the former part is obscure.. directing another person to cut something into portions. round them. Nusku open thy 5.. to her face also 3. I 2. which in the house 2. .. The next text is a single fragment. . Anu opened . and where it recommences some one is making a speech. in the secret j)lace is ... made out detached fragments of this tablet. longing to a curious story of a wise (Many 1. lines lost. Anu 8. then to build brickwork After this comes a single fragment. and place seven on each side. their At . but it evidently belongs to the mythical portion of Babylonian history. present no satisfactory story can be of the said to assembly of the great gods the will? . . 7..... FRAGMENTS OF famine from want of but there are some obscure rain...

. .. which in the ditch of the house open. which like a bull. to you a mutilated passage containing and actions of the gods who con- sider the riddle. 7.. which 6.. which 4. which barks like a dog. and all the gods he sent to: Friends are ye I After this there the names..: MISCELLANEOUS TEXTS. lays in the vicinity . and Sinuri spake . which into the breast of a man into the breast of a woman enters. which growls 12 like a bear. flutters like a which brays sail.. which enters. like a sheep. titles. It is evident that it is air or wind which the wise man means in his riddle. Sar-nerra heard the word which the wise son of man 14. 15.. which is in the foundation of the on the the of floor? 157 house . house stands.. 10. who uses a divining rod to ascertain the meaning of a dream. 3. for this is its sounds imitates the cries of everywhere.. which roars 9. which by the sides of the house goes down . and in animals. down 8. 2.. 5.... 13. Sinuri with the cut reed pondered with his and thus said right hand he broke it..... Next we have another single fragment about a person named Sinuri. is am unable ? . which . asked.. like which bleats an ass.. 1... 11. .

there was no reference to it in the work of Berosus. and early writers had to quote from writers of more than doubtful authority in order to confirm it. There is also . howdescribed as belonging to this story. which in the evening. but I do not know. So in far as qM Building. thou judgest (or divinest). shrub of ? Shamas at thou. be good it be evil There are some more obscure and broken no indication as One to the story to which it lines. 5. Judge. Now the plant of Nusku. Book of Tower of of the most obscure incidents in the Genesis undoubtedly the building of the is )>/'^' Men engaged Babel. may its evil not happen to me. no representation on any of the Babylonian gems which can with any certainty be I have. if it may its good not be lost to me. we can judge from the fragments of his copyists. which thou knowest. 4. divine con- cerning this dream.FRAGMENTS OF 158 3. 6. fkom Ijabilonian Cylinder. 7. If 8. has come. or in the morning. but belongs. at midnight.

either in Berosus or the inscriptions. There is no proper proportion between the supposed structure and the men. from Babylonian Cylinder. and I would not urge more than a possible con- nection with the myth. picked out three which I think may from a 159 series of these carvings be distorted representations of the event. ever. the story ever .MISCELLANEOUS TEXTS. the same attitude. In these and some others of the same sort. and there Men engaged near. The utter absence of any allusion to the tower. figures have their hands on ing them. led me to doubt at one time if formed part of the Babylonian history. in much a god always represented is in Building tall piles. as if erect- .

on having one of the Assyrian fragments cleaned. Column principal part I. their strong place (tower) all the day they founded . but have been unable to find any more of this tablet. except two minute fragments which add nothing to the text. that con- it tained a mutilated account of part of the story of the tower. . his heart 5 Babylon brought to subjection. evil.FBAGBIENTS OF 160 Early year I was astonished to this find. [small] and great he confounded their speech. entirely he made an end. 9. was 4 of him. is was evil. his heart 2 . ment preserved belongs four to six columns of writing.. 7 8. It is evident it from the wording of the fragment that was preceded by at least one tablet. to their strong place in the night 11. of which fragments of The four remain.. 10. . I have since searched through the whole col- lection.. father of him. against the father of all the gods was wicked. them? the 1 I. the beginning of \^ Column 3. describing the The frag- to a tablet containing from sin of the people in building the tower. [small] and great he confounded their speech. 12. In his anger also word thus he poured out: . 6. Babylon brought to subjection.

9. in 3.. 14.. I...MISCELLANEOUS TEXTS.. Sar-tul-elli 2. 13.. .. he carried him . entirely is a third portion on the same tablet be- longing to a column on the other side. like cities . or Y.. either the third or the fifth.. He said. he blew and 3.... their counsel was confused the course he broke 15 fixed the sanctuary- 16 There is a small fragment of connection with Column Column II. .. [to] scatter abroad he he gave this? 161 set his face command.. Nin-kina . In 2. his There . front carried Anu . . 7. 1. for III.. a long time in the 4........... ... number(?) 11. . 8. 1. but the not apparent. .... My son I rise and ... like his heart also 5.. Reverse Column . .. is Column II. In those days also .. Nunanner went 5. which carried wisdom 10. .. . Bel-sara his father . 6.. .. . ... to 4. heaven and earth M ...

.. that path they 7. 11.. in the day the god destroyed in the night. the supposed site of the Tower of These fragments are so remarkable that it is Babel. of the gods . he saw them and the earth . at their misfortune and . the place mentioned being The building or work is called tazimat or tazimtu.. first art we have the anger of the gods unfortunate In the ] at the sin of the world. fiercely 8... that what they built Babylon.. very much they grieved . 10....... Bitterly they 14. a word meaning strong..... 9. the gods looked . 15.FRAGMENTS OF 162 6.. most we have not the remainder of the tablet.. of stopping not . 12.. .... and there is a curious relation. violence (?) . . went they approached to the presence wept at Babi View of the Biks Nimeud... lines 9 to 11... . 13.

s Syrian 6th and this I have never seen the meaning. but I have not ventured on the re- In the case of the storation. as the is site of the tower. View of the Babil Mound at Babylon. this opinion held by Sir Henry Rawlinson and authorities of weight.MISCELLANEOUS TEXTS. most other This ruin has been examined . 163 The remainder of the fragment and the two frag- ments of the other columns agree with the story as far The as their mutilated condition allows. the site of the Temple of Bel. The whole account that I think it is better to at present so make no fragmentary detailed compa- more of the text is obtained. end of the 13th line of the third fragment has the may beginning of a name Babi. risons until various notices which have to me to near Babylon. of the first fragment word with 8th lines have translated the word I "speech" with a prejudice. The come down to us seem point to the great pile of Birs Nimrud. which fractured be completed Babil or Babel.

and Rawlinson's " Ancient Monarchies.FRAGMENTS OF 164 by Sir Henry Rawlinson. that the tower con- stages of brickwork on an earthen in Stages. 272 feet each way. this stage is supposed to ." p." vol. the height of the earthen platform was not ascertained. The temple was devoted to the seven planets. 544. each stage being of a different colour.. details of his operations here are given in " Jour. Sir Henry discovered by excavation sisted of seven Tower platform.. the bricks blackened with bitumen. from an Assyrian Bas-relief. was the first stage. Asiatic Soc. which was an exact square. xviii. and 26 feet high.

but to the whole and is the The country. supposed by Sir H. and 26 feet high. was probably dedi- The fourth stage. the level of the plain. representing the of Babylon this tower is probably the Borsippa . stage of the building set in the centre of the stage rested. In the Babylonian and Assyrian sculptures there are occasionally representations of towers similar in style to the is supposed Tower of Babel.3II80ELLANE0U8 TEXTS. one of these given on the stone of Merodach Baladan I. and the Moon. was not was placed 30 154 feet feet pile in front. feet. oppo- site p. only other ruin which has any claim to represent the tower is of Babylon. These stages were probably devoted Each Mercury. faced supposed to be devoted third stage. have given views of both ruins as the possible alternative sites. The second have been devoted to the planet Saturn. but the top was too ruinous to decide these measurements. 165 26 feet high. most imposing on which from the The ruin 12 feet from the back. 236 of " Assyrian Discoveries. I the Babil which is mound within the enclosure the site of the Temple of Bel. city pile. it and at present rises above. and is cated to Mars. the sixth 62. stage was a square of 230 with orange-coloured bricks The to Jupiter.. and the seventh 20 feet square." another occurs on the sculptures at Nineveh. 146 feet square. 15 feet high. 188 feet square. fifth stage is supposed to have been 104. . Rawlinson to have been originally The plated with gold. and was probably devoted to the Sun. Venus. faced with red bricks. .

MISCELLANEOUS TEXTS. but the by Nebuchadnezzar . consists of seven stages. and in the similar Baby- lonian representation figured o^^posite page 236 of " Ass}Tian Discoveries. before probably presented the appearance shown in the Assyrian sculpture. 166 which is supjiosed to represent the Birs Nimrucl now top stages were only built his time it Tower of Babel." .

of Izdubar. the most complete account being in my "Assyrian Discoveries. — In—Twelve troduction. Translation.— Chapter XT. N"otices tablets. — Surippak. I have published the most perfect portions in various forms since. Lenormant in his " Les Premieres Civilizations. ings of Izdubar. — Adventures of Account of Deluge. Tablet. Ishtar. of — First Identifications. — Elamite Conquest. —Destruction of and wander— tyrant Humbaba. are principally of interest in from their containing the Chaldean account of the Deluge. but . —Nimrod. I believe.— conclusion. Babylonian cylinders. — Dates. the history of Mmrod. — Ark — — Extent of Legends. Illness — Description of Deluge and — — Kingdom Nimrod. THE IZDUBAR LEGENiDS. ^^^^^^^HESE legends. Fox Talbot in the "Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archaeology. which I discovered 1872." The Izdubar legends the Biblical hero give. — Izdubar." These legends have also been commented upon by M." and by Mr. —Meeting of Heabani and Izdubar. — Description. They record the adven- whom I whose name cannot at tures of a famous sovereign of Babylonia provisionally call Izdubar. City. —Age of Legends. Traditions.

and the war between Tiamat the sea-dragon and the god Merodach. is 2000. Since little monarch who bears the allusions fix his place The age history. but it is when many similar tablets were written. age of the kings of These Akkad and them may be older than B. and 2000. their antiquity as traditions The is earhest evidence in the carvings Among much greater than that. The some of principal incidents represented on these seals are the struggles of Izdubar and his companion Heabani with the lion and the bull.C.C. Noah journey of Izdubar in search of or Hasisadra in his ark. .C. B. 1600. of the legends of Izdubar in their present form unknown. seals belong to the of Ur. we have of these traditions probably on early Babylonian cylindrical known the earliest is seals. the Hasisadra. devices on these seals we have scenes from the legends of Izdubar.THE IZDUBAB LEGENDS. there He closest fame and actions to the Nimrod of the Bible. very been thrown on the age and exploits Among all the references and nothing exact or satisfactory to scheme of Babylonian the in discovery first light has of Izdubar. but may As fairly be placed about B. There is a fragment of one document in the British Museum which claims to be copied from an omen tablet belonging to the time of Izdubar probably not earlier than himself. these stories were traditions in the country be- fore they were committed to writing. 168 present be plionetically rendered. to be the in his the is appears to me resemblance of his history. and from the story of the Creation.

and none of them are complete . the fragments of our present copies All belong.c. p. but it is least four a fortunate circum- stance that the most perfect tablet is which describes the Deluge. which must have been written at least eighteen hundred years before the Christian era." vol. being the most important of the this the eleventh. have I i. copied from an original. The legends of Izdubar are inscribed on twelve tablets. honour also given to several other Babylonian kings. This tablet. in the seventh century B. In this tablet Surippak name forming or ark city. suit the period The geographical between fore the rise of Babylon. this ship another reference to the Flood legends. as I have before stated. of which there are remains of at editions. described the successive steps in the discovery of these legends. is called the notices on this tablet 2000 and 1800. as a god . Izdubar is of tablets relating^ to series and on a tablet containing prayers to this last showing that he was him an deified. in the tablet printed in "Cuneiform Inscriptions.THE IZDUBAB LEGENDS. 46. king of Assyria. and tion may now pass on to the descrip- and translation of the various fragments. also mentioned in a witchcraft.C. There is an 169 inciclental notice of Izclnbar and his ship. wooden but in the time of Assurbanipal. All the tablets are in fragments. In chapter series. was written is lists of ii. which contains objects. to the reign of Assurbanipal. in allusion to the story of his Avanderings. long be- b. the mutilated condition of many of them From it is im- .

Pa7't I. we have fragments in my of present account.THE IZDUBAU LEGENDS. third initial line preserved.000 there being of cuneiform text. columns lost. about 240. uncertain. 170 possible at present to gain an accurate idea of the whole scope of the legends. I have conjecturally divided the fragments into groups corresponding roughly with the subjects Each of the tablets. fifth and sixth columns lost. which exhibits be seen by the following my present knowledge of the fragments. —Number about 240. Tablet I. column twenty-six lines preserved. third fifth and and sixth . probably column lost. The of writing. however. — Meeting of Heahani and Izdubar. II. First second column — Introduction. lines lines divisions I have adopted will summary. and each column had generally from forty to in all fifty about 3. birth and parentage of Izdubar. probably — Number of lines First and second columns fourth columns about half preserved. Part Tablet IT. Probable subjects: conquest of Babylonia by the Elamites. fourth column doubtful fragment inserted. and is it uncertain if the whole twelve tablets. the have to lost order even of some of the tablets cannot be deter- mined. of lines uncertain. six tablet when complete contained columns of writing. and many parts which are be supplied by conjecture. lost.

Most of column. Part IV.TEE IZDUBAB LEGENDS. fifth and sixth columns conjecturally restored from tablet lost. second. VI. —Destruction of Tablet IV.— Number of lines about 260. the tyrant probably about 260. third and fourth columns partly preserved. — Number of Part III. third. fifth and Tablet first sixth columns nearly perfect. Most of column preserved. . Tablet first Y. and sixth columns.— Number of lines about 210. Izdubar and Heabani slay the tyrant Humbaba. second. and part of second column preserved. fragments of Humbaba. and fifth columns lost. Tablet VII. sixth fragment. second column column partly preserved. fifth. and third columns. fourth. second column nearly perfect. —Number of First line of first lines probably about 240. third and fourth of descent of Ishtar into Hades. column preserved. column fourteen and fifth First lines preserved. Probable subjects : dream of Izdubar. lines About one-third of doubtful first. fragment of sixth column. third. —Adventures of Ishtar. Probable subjects : contests with wild animals. Heabani invited comes to Erech. fourth.— Number of lines about 270. fourth columns nearly column a perfect. 171 Tablet III. and explains the dream.

Probable subjects : description of Deluge.THE IZDUBAB LEGENDS. destruction of her bull. — Number of lines Conjectured fragments of third columns. and his identity with the Izdubar of these legends. con- jectured fragments of sixth column. Portions about 270. 172 Probable subjects Isbtar : her Izdubar. sixth column perfect. fourth and fifth probably about and second. of first — Number of lines about 200. two lines of fifth column. hell. dreams. loves amours. Tablet XII. death of Heabani. wanderings of Izdubar in search of the hero of the Deluge. Tablet IX. 270. Illness Tablet VIII. . of — Number of — Number of lines columns preserved. conclusion. cure of Izdubar. — and wanderings of Izdubar. lines six columns nearly perfect. first. her ascent to heaven. All Part VI. ill- ness of Izdubar. of all six all six lines about 190. his lamentation over Heabani. Portions four columns preserved. In this chapter I give under the head of the tablet an account of my latest conclusions first on the subject of the personality of Nimrod. columns lost. Portions columns preserved. —Description of Deluge. Tablet X. her descent to Part V. Probable subjects : discourse to trees. and Tablet XL — Number of 294.

Tablet The opening words of 173 I." This makes the legends the story of a curse or misfortune which befell the great Babylonian king Izdubar. is a two columns of It is probable that this account of the parentage and part contained the previous history of Izdubar." one meanings. but the expressions in the are obscure. having its meaning. history there is In the subsequent portions of the very little information to supply the loss of this part of the inscription. several now the unknown.THE IZDUBAB LEGENDS. There are two principal or key words. that the but it appears mother of Izdubar was named Dannat. naqbi and kugar meaning of kugar quite is ambiguous. and. lost. they happen as usual to form the title of the series." which conceived to be . is fits is being I have before it has another the character "curse" or "mis- meaning. . forming the introduction to the story. now that the fragments are put together and arranged in order. " Of the mis- this will read as the title fortune seen to happen to Izdubar. and naqbi "channel" or " water-course. this meaning fortune. title from want of any context to explain them. it appears that this is a correct description of the contents of these curious tablets. think better of the legends. which I meaning here Taking but . After the heading and opening line there considerable blank in writing being entirely the story. the first tablet are pre- served. the opening line of the legends.

strong in war and who gained dominion in hunting. giant of that many so heroes thus doubtful.TEE IZDUBAB LEGENDS. of these. had divine fathers. appears as a mighty is man a leader. and Erech. the Lord. and Izdubar by his prowess established a dominion over makmg The have thus the first X. Erech. in the land of Shinar. with the kingdom of Nimrod. like Izdubar. whose character as hunter. and any of our in was a common idea of Samas. of antiquity. : wherefore even as Nimrod the mighty hunter before And the beginning of his kingdom was Babel. 9. and at agrees Babylon." All these cities were ultimately within the dominion of Izdubar." present fragments. according to Genesis " And Gush begat 10. is It men who distinguished themselves very much. Babylonia. parentage. but he He tablet. is who in his behalf. and Galneh. where we read of the 8. although born of earthly whose mothers. and Accad. that antiquity. whole of the Euphrates valley was at this a The time divided into petty kingdoms. Akkad. 174 which only a is title meaning "lady" or " wife of His father the chief. and king corresponds with that of . and site many Nipur. empire in Asia. he began to be a mighty one in the earth. centre of the empire of Izdubar appears to in laid the region of Shinar. leader. named not is referred to in the third is most probably represented to be a is the most likely deity supposed to interfere very much god. : Nimrod : He was a mighty hunter before the Lord it is said.



x. I think it Nimrod has will be useful to notice the various accounts of this hero." to his : : As my indentification of Izdubar with met with some objection. The next passage in Genesis after the one de- scribing Nimrod's dominion also in my opinion refers Nimrod." instead of " Out of that land went forth Assur. different hypotheses and the propounded with respect to his identification. and the name of Shamas. 175 Nimrod. his Accord- a " son of Gush. the same is most probably represented name as his father. 12) Out of that land he went forth to Assyria. where he laid the foundations of that state . or Samas the sungod. commencing his reign in Shinar or his Babylonia. The two passages already quoted from Genesis afford the only reliable information with respect to Nimrod outside the cuneiform inscriptions. Our version makes Assur the moving party here. 11." that is a and he distinguished himself prowess being so great that name passed into a proverb.THE IZDUBAE LEGENDS. but I prefer to read with the margin. ing to Genesis Nimrod was Cushite. and Calah. and Resen. between Nineveh and Calah the same is a great city. He afterwards became king. and relates the extension of kingdom into Assyria. and still later extended his empire into Assyria. " Out of that land he went forth to Assyria." These verses " will then read (Genesis. or Ethiopian. who may read Kusu. and builded Nineveh. as a mighty hunter. as that of the father of Nimrod. and Rehobothair.

in his history. and they at once assumed that the Evechous of Berosus was the Nimrod of the Bible. rod is Nineveh. The fame of Nim- again alluded to in the Bible. made by the early chronolohas caused them to overlook his name and true gists. that he was a prime mover number Josephus declares in building the Tower of . and Resen. and looking at the Berosus they found that after the list of Flood according to him Evechous first reigned in Babylonia.400 years. where Assyria is called the land of Nimrod. four ners and five sosses. and has thus lost to us his position in the series of Belonging to the first Babylonian sovereigns. and as Evechous has given to him the extravagant reign of four ners or 2. of later who have made us familiar with a traditions of Nimrod. idea but his account of the giant hunter has this appears to be. that a had grown up among early Christian writers that the Biblical Nimrod was the first kino. this identification gives little hope of finding an historical Nimrod. been false The reason of lost. Rehobothair. of Babylonia after the Flood. and his son and successor. cities. 176 by the foundation of the four leading Calah.700 years. centuries of the Christian era are the works of various Jewish and Christian writers.THE IZDUBAB LEGENDS. After the date of the later books of the Old Testament we know nothing of Nimrod for some time it is probable that he was fully mentioned by Berosus . or 2. It is most probable that this false identification of Nimrod with Evechous. epoch in the list of Berosus. Chomasbelus.

and although his history has been lost worthless stories and replaced by absurd and Nimrod remains the most pro- still minent name in the traditions of the country. and that he reigned at Later writers make Babylon during the dispersion. and reigned Flood. an enemy 177 of God. falling in battle there when attempting' to enforce his authority over Haic. him it in was necessary to any chronological Africanus and Eusebius held that he was the Evechous of Berosus. and the most important ruins are even From now called after his name. Moses of Khorene identified the great god of Babylon.TEE IZDUBAB LEGENDS. that one writer actually identified N . and as Nimrod was always the time of the early Christian writers to to-day. the inventor of idol worship. everything good or evil is attributed to him. said to have extended his dominions to the foot of the Armenian mountains. king of Some other writers identified Armenia. him contemporary with Abraham. but so wide a door was open to conjecture. Nimrod with Ninus^ the mythical founder of the city of Nineveh. general known as a famous sovereign find a definite place for scheme. have been taken up by the Arabs. These remained the principal identifications before modern research took up the matter . in Syria. Babel. At the city of Orfa. he Abraham is said to have cast into a burning fiery furnace because would not bow down he These traditions to his idols. and a furious worshipper of fire. and he first after him with is the Bel. down men have been busy framing systems of chronology.

pretending to be a literary production of the early Chaldean period. One of the most curious theories about Nimrod. What grounds there may be I do not know .TEE IZDZfBAB LEGENDS. name is un- me. has Part held little by tion of inquirers as fixing the position of favour. name of first Nimrod and he endeavoured of the second and father seriously attempted to in the cuneiform inscrip- to find the name god of the great Chaldean in that triad. whose called known to In lost. suggested in modern times. but it any of its statements for some of the possible that is book may be compiled from traditions now this work. argued with considerable force in favour of these Canaanites being the Arabs of Berosus. the of Assyrian discovery. gained I Nimrod Arab the leader of the dynasty. Nimrod heads a list of Babylonian kings Canaanite^ and a writer. the king first of Babylonia before the Flood. was certainly Cushite. tion to the question of the identity Sir Henry Rawlinson. and. there tion to identify him with and not.^ 178 Mmrod with the Alorus of Berosus. as called a Cushite in Genesis. The discovery of the cuneiform inscriptions threw a new hght on the subject of Bab} Ionian history. think. 1550 to 1300.C. and soon after the decipherment of the inscriptions atten- was directed age of Nimrod. fix the tions. who of Arabia reigned about B." This work is a comparatively modern forgery. any sec- Nimrod. however. been is was a great tempta- This idea. (See . was grounded on the " Book of Nabatean Agriculture.

of these. is Kaptii. when this was written (1871)." and his character as a warrior and hunter-god but even Nergal if this is Nimrod was similar to that of deified under tlie Nimrod. 2286. 153." also suggested (" Ancient god Nergal was a deifi- Henry rightly explains Ne?'- p. Sir Henry Kawlinson Monarchies." vol. and he was evidently worshipped dawn of Babylonian history. and suggests that he may have reigned a century or two before B. 179 p." p. Canon Rawlinson. makes some judicious remarks on the chronological position of Nimrod. the conclusions of Canon Rawlinson were the most satisfactory that had been advanced since the discovery of tify At the time the cuneiform inscriptions. and supposes him to have founded the Babylonian monarchy. he also recognizes the historical character of his reign. the at represented beside which.) i. 117. theories have been started. brought forward . some new Since this time. Sir gal as meaning "great man. in the first volume of his "Ancient Monarchies. but he does not himself iden- him with any king known from the inscriptions. Elu. cuneiform characters on was grounded do not bear identification the phonetic values then supposed.THE IZDTIBAB LEGENDS. with the idea of identifying Nimrod one . brother of Sir Henry.C. in fact he as one of the creators of the time has shown that the which the world . and Bel. The names of this deity are really Enu. name of does not explain his position or epoch. 136) that the cation of Nimrod. and following. however. Rawlinson's " Ancient Monarcliies.

This identification failing. makes the word name. and vol. and therefore they could not have supposed him to be a deified Flood. ought to be found somewhere in the cuneiform text. TBI] 180 by Professor Oppert. ii. His absence from previous histories. but I first inclined to the mistaken idea that he might be murabi. I until I discovered the was entirely Deluge tablet conjectured that the hero whose called Izdubar in name by dark I provisionally was the Nimrod of the jecture which I have strengthened in the 1872. Ham- as this line of kings appeared to be connected with the Cosseans. 1. 136.IZDUBAB LEGENDS. Considering that Nimrod was the most famous of the Babylonian kings in tradition. but." vol. Nimrod with Merodach. a con- fresh evidence from time to time. part 2. whose name Eastern in and tradition. I figures so king whose reign was after the have always felt that prominently Nimrod. p. the first Arab king of Berosus. I then Bible. Another theory brought forward by the Rev. H. the god of Babylon. beside other objections. we have the fact that Merodach was considered by the part iii. identifies Babylonians to have been one of the creators of the world. it is evident that no his- tory of the country can be complete without some notice of him. whose reign is clearly stated in Genesis. Sayce and Josef Grivel. but such an explanation a geographical evidently quite is insufficient to account . and .for the traditions attached to the name. p. 243. A. " Transactions of Society of Biblical Archa3ology.


which have been pro-

the unsatisfactory theories


to account for

which surround




show the

serve to


his identification.

Nimrod was an ethnic or
geographical name, which was slightly favoured by
Sir Henry Rawlinson, and has since been urged by
Professor Oppert, is quite untenable, for it would be
supposition that

impossible on this theory to account for the traditions

which spread abroad with regard to Nimrod.

The idea that Nimrod was Bel, or Elu, the second
god in the great Babylonian triad, was equally impossible for the same reason, and because the worship
of Bel was, as


have already stated, much more

ancient, he being considered one of the creators of

the universe and the father of the gods.

Bel was

the deification of the powers of nature on earth, just


wsis a deification of the

Nimrod was Merodach,

the god of Babylon, and

to his identification with Nergal,



Similar objections apply to the supposition


powers of nature

who was

Of course Nimrod was


the man-

deified like

several other celebrated kings, but in

a deified king invested as one of the

and represented
only come




such a process could

a nation entirely forgot

lost its original

My own

as a creator





opinion that he was the


no case was
supreme gods

Izdubar was


hero I have

founded on the

discovery that he formed the centre of the national
historical poetry,

and was the hero of Babylonian



cuneiform history, just as Nimrod


stated to have

been in the later traditions.

subsequently found that he agreed exactly in

character with Nimrod; he was a giant hunter, ac-

cording to the cuneiform legends, wdio contended

with and destroyed the

lion, tiger, leopard,

and wild

bull or buffalo, animals the most formidable in the


chase in any country.


first in


over the region which from other sources

we know


have been the centre of Nimrod's kingdom.



dominion to the Armenian mountains,

the boundary of his late conquests according to tra-

and one principal scene of


his exploits


triumphs was the city of Erech, which, according to

was the second


There remains the

of this



capital of


name Izdubar,

fact that the cuneiform

undeciphered, the

applied to him, being, as I have


stated, a niakeshift, only

adhered to because some

scholars were reluctant to believe he





was Nimrod,

better to continue the use of a

name which did not


prejudice the question of his

and could consequently be used by

spective of their opinions.

My own

all irre-



however, that when the phonetic reading of the characters





name Nimrod.

will turn out to correspond


plying this reading to the characters, but


it is


work hke the
believe that the translations and notes

possible to give the proofs in a popular



have already evidence for ap-



given in this book will lead to the general admission
of the identity of the hero I call Izdubar with the

Nimrod, and when

this result is estab-

lished I shall myself abandon the provisional


Izdubar, which cannot possibly be correct.


the time of the opening of this story, the great

and the

city of the south of Babylonia,

capital of

was Uruk or Aruk, called, in
Erech was
the Genesis account of Nimrod, Erech.
devoted to the worship of Ann, god of heaven, and
this part of the country,

his wife, the

goddess Anatu, and was ruled at this

who was

time by a queen named Istar or Ishtar,

supposed to be daughter of

Ann and

had been the wife of the

chief of Erech,




of the Greeks),





like her





the death of Dumuzi, Ishtar had

ruled at Erech, and accordino; to the accounts had

indulged in a dissolute course of


which was the

scandal of the whole country.


I provisionally place

the Izdubar legends,




fragment of

This fragment con-


of part of the third column of a tablet,

believe of the first tablet





gives an account

of a conquest of Erech by some enemy, which hap-

pened during the time of Istar and Izdubar.
fragment reads:
1. his


2. his

went down

3. in



to the river,

the river his ships were placed.


.... and wept





placed, the city of


Ganganna was power-








she asses


Like animals the people feared,




doves the slaves mourned.

The gods


Erech Suburi

11. turned to flies


spirits of

13. turned to Sikkim


in droves,

and went out

For three years the

resist the


Erech Suburi
city of

in companies.

Erech could not


15. the great gates

were thrown down and trampled



the goddess Istar before her enemies could


her head.

mouth opened and

17. Bel his

18. to Ishtar the




queen a speech he made:

midst of Nipur



have placed,





Babylon the house of







hands have given.

he looked at the sanctuaries




in the


the great gods.

Here we have a graphic account of the condition
of Erech, when the enemy overran the country, and
the first question which occurs is, who were these



original idea

was that they were

a tribe



who held Erech for a short time, and were
out by Izdubar, whose exploit and subsequent

assumption of the crown of Erech were related in
the remainder of the

" Assyrian Dis-

first tablet (see

coveries," p. 169), but this conjecture has not

confirmed by



subsequent investigations; in fact

appears that Izdubar did not assume the crown



until long after the events recorded

Izdubar did not become king until

It appears that

after he



this tablet.


Humbaba, and this
conclusion that it was Hum-

the tyrant

directly to the

baba, or at least the race to which he belonged, that

conquered and tyrannized over Erech and probably
over the whole of Babylonia.

The name of Humbaba,
sionally written,

it is


evidently Elamite and composed


of two elements, "

or Hubaba, as

Humba," the name

of a celebrated

Elamite god, and "ba," a verb, usually a contraction


for ban, bana,


whole name meaning



meaning "



make," the

made [me]."
Elamite names compounded with Humba








Humba-undasa, an Elamite general
opposed to Sennacherib; Humba-nigas, an Elamite

an early chief;

monarch opposed




Tul-humba, an Elamite

city, &c.


notice of foreign dominion,

and particularly

of Elamite supremacy at this time, may, I think,
form a clue from which to ascertain the approximate
age of Izdubar but I would first guard against the



impression that the Elamites of this age were the

same race as the Elamites known in later times. It
is probable that new waves of conquest and colonization passed over all these regions between the time
of Izdubar and the Assyrian period, although the same
deities continued to

be adored

in the countries.

Looking; at the fras^ments of Berosus and the no-

Greek and Roman authors, the question noAV
is there any epoch of conquest and foreign

tices of

dominion which can approximately be fixed upon as
the era of Izdubar?



think there

earlier part of the

following dynasties
the Flood





of Berosus gives the

more properly, periods from


86 Chaldean kings reigned from the Flood

down to

the Median conquest, 34,080 or 33,091 years.

Median kings who conquered and held Babylon,
234, or 224, or 190 years.

11 other kings, race and duration unknown.

49 Chaldean kings, 458 years.


last of these dynasties, the

as I have already pointed out in

49 kings, reigned,
p. 25,

from about

2000 to 1550, and throughout their time the
Izdubar legends were known, and allusions to them
The time of Izdubar must therefore be
are found.

before their period, and, as he headed a native rule
after a period of conquest, the only possible place for

him, according to our present knowledge,


at the

head of the 11 kings, and succeeding the Medes of

This position for Izdubar or Nimrod,



if it

turn out correct, will guide us to several valuable
conclusions as to Babylonian history.




far as the

concerned, which Berosus calls Median,

most probable that these kings were Elamites




tainly we have no knowledge of the Arian Medes

being on the Assyrian frontier until several centuries





generally conceded that Berosus, in

them Medes, has only expressed their Eastern
Alio win 2^ them to be Elamites, or inhabitants of Elam, there remains the question, to what


race did they belong



later Elamites are believed to

Turanians or Arians
tain that


have been either

but we are by no means cer-

no new race had come into the country since

the time of Izdubar.

There was a constant stream

immigration from the east and




gradually but surely altered the character of several
of the races of Western Asia.

In Babylonia
this sort took

itself it is believed that a



early times,

change of



Turanian population having been conquered and enslaved by Semitic tribes, and there has always been
a difficulty as to where the Semitic peoples originated.

The Semitic race was already dominant in Babytwo thousand years before the Christian era,
and before this time there is only one conquest recorded—that of Babylonia by the Medes or Elamites,


I think it is


likely that

from Elam the

of and translations in my is as years back I pub- which I gave the texts " History of Assurbanipal. from early Babtlonian Cylinder. inscriptions a period of 1635 is In these mentioned as ending . at tion is came from this direc- they were probably driven westward by the advance of the Arians. that the Semitic race . 188 Semites The usual theory came. referring to the goddess Nana. first Semitic race came from Arabia but this that the is quite un- no known conquest of Babylonia likely. In the Book of Genesis Elam son of Shem first may the time that book was written. and these latter in their progress may have the Semites obliterated nearly all the traces of whom they dispossessed. is this direction previous to the sixteenth century before the Christian era. Migration of Eastern Tribe . counted as the or Semitic nation." pp. The next question which to the date of these events. also called Uzur-amat-sa. 234 to 251. strikes an observer Some lished a curious inscription. and 1 think this indicate a knowledge. the Ishtar of Erech.TEE IZDUBAB LEGENDS. as there is from .

This date and the circumstances of the Elamite conquest form. ravages Erech. Puttino.C. the dates being understood as round numbers. and as exceeding his predecessors in the injury he did to the country. by the Assyrians. hundi. Izdubar or Nimrod slays Humba-ba. thus making the At date B. mentioned in the fragment of the first tablet of the Izdubar legends. A fragment which refers to " Cuneiform Inscriptions. about B. Elamites overrun Babylonia. p. Kudur-nanhundi. iii. as following one of the other monarchs of this line. Kudur-nanhundi." vol. 645. the capital of 189 Elam. I conjecture the following to be of this somewhere about the chronology.C. 2280. relates the by the Elamites. . who. who plundered Erech. that time an image of carried into captivity from Erech initial Nana was by the Elamite king. B.C. B. 2280. at the capture of Shushan.C.C. destruction wrought in the country and gives Kudur-nanhundi this period in 38. 2450. was probably one of Humba-ba was the later kings of this dynasty. B. a clue to the age of Izdubar. 2250. recounts the very event alluded to by Assurbanipal. Kudur-nanI think. appears to have then ruled over and oppressed the land of Babylonia. king of Elam. according to these inscriptions.THE IZDUBAR LEGENDS. and restores the Chaldean power. too-ether the detached notices period. and the last. It is possible that the ravaging of the city of Erech.

2. No name compounded been found than earlier B. uzur. according to Stephen. " Cuneiform Inscriptions.— THE IZDUBAB LEGENDS.002 years before Semiramis and the Trojan war. 38. as these later were supposed to . yet the other mutilated notices of this Elamite monarch are combined with names of Babylonian monarchs who do not appear to be anything like so ancient. One of these. Several of these dates are connected either directly or Nimrod. Philo-biblius. No. The following are some of these notices : Simplicius relates that Callisthenis. made the foundation of Babylon 1. said in the inscription. who first by implication with formed a united empire over these regions.903 years before the taking of Babylon make series of by Alexander. the friend of Alexander.C. to be Bel-zakir- is in this form has yet 1500. 190 There is one serious objection to this idea. there are many independent notices which seem to point to somewhere about the twenty-third century before the Christian era for the foundation of the Babylonian and Assyrian power." vol. This would 1903 + 331=b. sent to Aristotle from Babylon a stellar observations reaching back 1.c. p.C. Al- 2280 appears to be given in the inscription of Assurbanipal for the ravages of Kudurthough the date nanhundi. contemporary with Kudur-nanhundi. Although the dates transmitted through ancient authors are as a rule vague and doubtful. B. iii. 2234.

..C. These three instances are given in Rawlinson's " Ancient Monarchies.. at to thee .C. Bel thy father sent 3. thus 4.. I will give a small fragment. . it in the twenty-third B. he rejoiced at 6. in the midst of those forests its fragrance and ......THE IZDUBAB LEGENDS. Before parting with the consideration of the tablet. 149.. These and other notices probably point to about the same period.C. the time when Nimrod united Babylonia into one monarchy... Ctesius and Cephalion in the make twenty-second century Auctor Barbarus makes century its foundation early B. same date. to about the Berosus and Critodemus are said by Pliny to have made the inscribed stellar observations reach to 480 years before the era of Phoroneus. to be about the middle of the eighteenth 480 years before it.. fii'st first heard me . . 1. AVhen 5... 2. and founded Nineveh in Assyria. century 191 This comes B.C. the latter date was supposed century B.. comes also to abput the same date.. . Diodorus makes the Assyrian empire commence a thousand years or more before the Trojan war. . have been in the thirteenth.." p. ally insert here for • which I provisionwant of a better place.

... take first tablet we have as yet .. .. May est Of slialt thou rejoice the latter part of the no knowledge. .192 TEE IZDUBAB LEGENDS. Go and thou 8. 7..

—Friendship with Heabani. —His wisdom.— Chapter XII. of Izdubar. — Speech of Hea- Dream life. — His solitary —Zaidu. —Might and fame of Izdubar. — The midannu or —Festival — Dream of Izdubar. — Izdubar's Tempt bani. prominently for- ward. story Izdubar to be the second In this section of the comes. N this chapter I have included the frag- ments of what appear %i7^ and third tablets. — Heabani. Izdubar. — His journey to Erech. petition. I have already noticed the supposed parentage of Izdubar . the notice of his mother Dannat appears in one of the tablets given in this chapter. is always represented with a marked physiognomy. and meets with Heabani. tiger. MEETING OF HEABANI AND IZDUBAR. in the Babylonian and Assyrian sculptures. at Erech. and his peculiarities can be seen by noticing the photograph from a Babylonian gem at the beginning of the book. Heabani. —Harimtu and Samhat. the engraving from an Assyrian sculpture o .

The fragments of the second and third tablets assume by their notices that Izdubar was already known as a mighty hunter. and it appeared a little later that he claimed descent from the old Babylonian kings. calling Hasisadra his " father. is every other in represented. So marked and is this. tinct The deity of Izdubar was Sarturda. In all these instance where Izdubar man as a and cases. from which I suppose he was a native of the district of Amarda Marad. fragment. that I cannot help the impression of its being a representation of a dis- and probably Ethiopian type. It it is K I "vvhich oo89. He thought he saw the stars of heaven fall to the ground." Tablet I have recovered a believe to belong II. standing over him a terrible being. aspect of his face was fierce. This or district was probably the Amordacia or Mardoca^a of Ptolemy. and he had a curious dream.MEETING OF HEABANI 194 and the engraving in the last chapter. and he He the was armed with . he is indicated with masses of curls over his head and a large curly beard. but I do not know where it was situated. different in cast to the usual Babylonian type. single to this tablet. and it fourth columns of appears from this that Izdubar was then at Erech. where that god was worshipped. and in their descent then saw they struck upon his back. in page 239 showing Izdubar and Heabani struggling with wild animals. contains part of the third and writing.

they ennoble his family. like tlie The greater claws of lions. . jDrobably it of the second tablet. . Thinking that the dream portended it.. . part of . . seat thee into the houses of the gods may he cause thee to enter 10 seven wives 11 cause illness in his stomach 12 went up alone 13 his heaviness to his friend 14 a dream I dreamed in 15 the stars of heaven 16 I stood my fell to sleep the earth still 17 his face 18 his face 19 like the claws of a lion. 4 may 5 at the 6 7 may he may he 8 in his kill I . head of his feast may he set thee array thee in jewels and gold enclose thee . is himself. of the description the occupied columns dream and I. may he . claws. 1 9..: AND IZDUBAB. some men fate to to explain reward to any one who can interpret Here the fragment Column K 3389 comes ru 2 he and the princes 3 in the vicinity send him.. 20 the strength in was terrible me were his claws . in III. II. 195 lost. Izdubar calls on all the wise and offers a the dream.

. Nebuchadnezzar in the Book of Daniel. and where our narrative reopens the god Samas is persuading him to accept the offer. After this fragment and story. . bears some resemblance to that of Izdubar. of dream of The conduct the follows. seals to have always drawn with the of an ox.. go to the city of Erech that he the we have and interpret Heabani appears. from the representations on and other objects on which he been a satyr or faun. should abandon his solitary at the request that life he for the friendship of Izdubar. with of reference to his dreams. and his wives being increased. the hero.MEETING OF BEABANI 196 21 he slew 22 me 23 over 24 corpse The first me . said to have lived in a cave among the wild animals of the forest.. feet He and is tail He is is figured. his his any one who should These included the ennobling interpret the dream. and with horns on his head. application ao^ain a would appear that it was made to a hermit in blank in the this interval named Heabani would dream of Izdubar. part of this fragment appears to contain the honours ofiered by Izdubar family. of to recognition assemblies. in his being invested with jewels of honour. and was supposed to possess wonderful knowledge both of nature and human Heabani was angry affairs. much A description mutilated.

he shall cause thee to recline on a grand couch 12... and spake and from heaven said to him and the female Samhat (delightful) 5 opened his mouth thou shalt choose 6. and he 17. the kings of the earth shall kiss 15.. and Izdubar 11. and the anger of 20 after thee shall take all his heart .. they shall array thee in trappings of divinity 7. on a beautiful couch he 13. Heabani heard the words of Shamas the warrior 19. 18. 1 me 2 on my back 3. And Shamas 4. and these seem to show that Izdubar had some power . he shall clothe thy body in raiment and . was appeased was appeased Here we are still dealing with the honours which Izdubar promises to the interpreter of his dream. and Izdubar thou shalt call and incline him towards thee make 10. he shall will cause thee to sit friendship unto thee shall seat thee on a comfortable seat a seat on the left 14. he shall enrich thee shall make thy feet and the men of Erech he silent before thee . they shall make thee become great 9. 197 Column IV.: AND IZDUBAB. they shall give thee the insignia of royalty 8. 16..

Column knows all things and difficult wisdom of all things 1 2 3 the knowledge that 4 which is is seen and that hidden bring word of peace to 5 6.. .. far better preserved than the two gives the account of the successful Heabani mission to bring opening with a to Ur..... I. appear have been an independent king... lost. (Many Imes . . contain negotiations for bringing Heabani to Erech.. Tablet This tablet previous ones is it .. road he will come and I rest and .. III. 14 leave . the subject being continued on the thu'd tablet.MEETING OF HEABANI 198 at to Erech at this time ...... and two columns of that the next it is probable now this tablet...) . lost. . 7 on tablets and 8 and tower of Erech Suburi 9 beautiful that rests ... he does not.. broken account of the wisdom of Heabani.. from a far off .. 10 which 11 I strove 12 god? who from like all with him not to leave 13 carry . however.

this.. Daughter of a warrior. wife of 14. 199 II. retiring in com- panionship Hke a woman. hast made 16.... . there 7. thou makest to be sons and family 6.. again making his strength. . he changed and the city of Erech the 2:od .AND IZDUBAB. Column 1. Izdubar did not leave Dannat. lord 5. their mio. their might 4. . . the son to his ? and wise mother 13. Izdubar did not leave. Aruru . 3. made firm 12. Daughter of a warrior. the gods of heaven. covered his body. Izdubar did not leave 2. heard and Aruru strong and great. . .. he their ruler and 11. he the ruler also of Erech 10. one day his heart 17. begotten of the seed of the soldier Ninip 20.. thou 15.. the strength of Anu in the midst Aruru put in her hands. Aruru on hearing made 19. the son to his father day is ? not any other like thee depth made and night 9. 21 .. she bowed her breast and lay on the ground Heabani she made a warrior. in the 8.

My father 3. .. the first him day the second day and the third in the front of that field the same 30.MEETING OF HE A BAN I 200 were concealed 22. and firmly 8. and firmly with the beast 7.. like the soldier of 5. the land of Anu 4. with the gazelles he eat food in the night 25. his feet in the front of the field and I did not approach it . the features of his aspect like the corn god 23. I feared march over the country . shall 6. with the creeping things of the waters his heart delighted 27. up before him and he and his beast entered into his house and up and overcome courage grew before him face was terrible 32 fear dried 33 his 34 his Column III... Zaidu opened his mouth and spake and said to 2. with the beasts of the field he consorted in the day 26. in front of that field confronted 29. in clothing clothed like the god Ner 24.. 1. possessing knowledge of inen and countries. Zaidu catcher of men 28. the courage of Zaidu dried 31. in the first leader who shall go .

33. 12. Anu .... Izdubar 15 ascend his 16 his 17 thy face 18 the might of a field might man 19 20 like a chief 21 field 22 to 24 three lines of directions 25.. and firmly 35.. shall march over the country . 9..... was not able my hands to reach to the covert. I my ascended on hands to the .... the first leader 30. 34.. he filled the cave which he had 201 dug 10 11. did not approach 36. I feared his feet and I ..AND IZDUBAE.. .... According to the advice of his father 26. shall go . I ascended on 39.... he took the road and in the midst of Erech he halted Izdubar 28 29. .. and firmly with the beast . I . . who . he filled the cave it which he had dug 37 38... like the soldier of 32. in the land of . I did not reach to the 13 and said to Zaidu 14 Erech. 31.. Zaidu went 27.

details of the actions of the female hat and Heabani. the land where the creeping things of the water rejoiced his heart. directions to the female to entice Heabani. 2. they took the road. 4. 51. 1.: MEETING OF UEABANI 202 40. Sam- . in front of the field how 4o to 45. and Sam- hat he took. Zaidu went and with him Harimtu. and went along the path. the land where the beast drank of drink. 49. 48. Izdubar to him also said to Zaidu 41. with the beasts he drank of drink. And he Heabani had made for himself a mountain 3.. Column IV. day and the second day in front of sat. with the creeping things of the waters his heart rejoiced. the first the field they in their places sat. with the gazelles he eat food. and Samhat 42. On the third day they reached the land where the flood happened. and 47. and when the beast . take.. Zaidu and Harimtu 50. go Zaidu and with thee the female Harimtu. 5. Samhat the enticer of men saw him 7 to 26. 46. 6.

and if he is Erech a able he will destroy it. who mighty giant. And Heabani 203 approached Harimtu then. . also like a bull towers over the chiefs. who before had not enticed him. I desire thy company to the midst of Erech Suburi. 37. Harimtu. She spake to him and before her speech. 44. Why to dost thou associate with • the creeping things in the desert? 35. 27. and was 28. 43. tiger. I join to my Harimtu companionship. Harimtu bent down her face. wisdom of his heart flew away and dis- appeared. 34. 46. 40.. 41. And 29. to the temple of Elli-tardusi the seat of and Anu Ishtar. him also she said to Heabani: Famous Heabani like a god art thou. who 39.: AND IZDUBAB. and he turned and 30. 38. to the temple of Elli-tardusi the seat of and Anu Ishtar. and Harimtu spake. Column Y. 1... . the dwelling of Izdubar the mighty giant. 36. I will bring to the midst of 2. and he listened attentive. Heabani to her also said to Samhat 42. 31. sat at the feet of 33. the dwelling of Izdubar the 45. I will meet him and see his power. the also like a bull towers over the chiefs. and his ears heard 32.

MEETING OF EEABANI 204 3. . went before him 16. . A dream I dreamed my in 26 the stars of heaven 27 struck upon 28 of heaven over 29 did not rise over my sleep back me it said to his . made submission . body who day and night fiUs his . day they made a festival city 9 10 daughter 11 made 12 13 becoming great mingled and 14 Izdubar rejoicing the people rejoicing 15. A prince thou becomest glory thou hast 17 18. he has 23. In tlie desert it is begotten. to dream 24. has great strength. Izdubar his dream revealed and mother 25. everything there 5 Heabani went in that is I know to the midst of Erech Suburi the chiefs 7 8. it . . 19 destroy thy terror 20 the 21 and Hea have given god Samas loves him and intelligence to his ears come from the mountain the midst of Erech he will ponder thy 22. before thee 4 6. .

AND IZDUBAB.. 30 205 stood over him and over him 31 32 33 . and he declared that he would bring a Midannu^ most probably a tiger. because they were on the one side obscure. Tlie whole of this tablet is curious. his 34 . and in very fragmentary condition the dream of the monarch. and on the other hand appeared hardly adapted for general reading. princess 35 . and IV. me know 36 I 37 to Izdubar 38 of heaven 39 over thy back 40 over thee 41 did not rise over 42 my 43 thee There is it one other mutilated fragment of this and the next column with part of a relation respecting beasts and a fragment of a conversation between Izdu- bar and his mother. Samhat and Harimtu prevailed upon Heabani to come to Erech and see the exploits of the giant Izdubar. I have omitted some of the details in columns III. to It appears that the females .. and it certainly gives the successful issue of the attempt to bring Heabani to Erech.

in the Assyrian texts as a fierce carnivorous animal allied to the lion and leopard it is . after the description of the which followed the arrival of Heabani.HEABANI AND IZDUBAB. In the festivities called fifth Midannu. Mindinn. and to trial of the strength of Izdu- see if he could destroy The Midannu is mentioned it. prominently in the earlier part of who these . and Mandinu. here omitted probably stated that speech was figures legends. at least one line being lost. made by the mother here is The portion the following of Izdubar. part of the original story being probably omitted here. some there appears a break between lines 15 and 16. I believe that the Assyrian copy defective. in order to make bar. 206 Erech. column.

— Chapter XIII. I have already stated my opinion that Humbaba was an Elamite. — Izdubar king. Humbaba. — Forest region. where there were these two of the specie called Survan. am even have the correct order. DESTRUCTION" OF THE TYRANT HUMBABA. to forest. and . HAVE witli had considerable writing this chapter arranged the matter and such is if I now difficulty three times. forest. —Hnmbaba.C. conquered and held Babylonia for about two ce. relate the contest fifth between Izdubar and Humbaba. — Entrance to — Meeting Death of Humbaba. — Petition Shamas. between 2450 and 2250. words are very vaguely used in the inscriptions. and that he was the last of the dynasty which. according to Berosus. Elamite dominion. Humbaba midst of a region of erini also trees B. and in have fact I the wretched broken con- dition of the fragments that I uncertain in . now quite The various detached fragments belong to the fourth and tablets in the series. tion.— Conversa— Journey to — Dwelling of Humbaba. held his court in the trees.ituries.

and the new fragments have given sufiicient aid to enable me now to present them in some sort. adornments deemed neces- sary to give interest to the narrative.DESTRUCTION. yet of it us in spite of lished my its has interest for it mutilated condition. but some of these useless until to complete them.ends for. disfigured by the poetical was unalthough it was leo. I at first placed in this division a story made up fragment of the from three parts of a tablet. When pub- I none of these Discoveries " fragments were in condition for publication. In the case of the fourth tablet fragments of to trees.- .OF THE 208 appear to refer rather to the quality and appearance of the trees than to the exact species." tion used Eri7ii is Lebanon is In one inscrip- said to be the country of survan^ in allusion to its cedar trees. six I think I have columns. we have further frao. but I have since joined and restored some of them." and for a tall fine tree ash. " Assyrian as dynasty and the described the overthrow of a accession of Izdubar to the throne. it is used for the pine. I : survan I have translated " cedar. itself. but it is quite possible that any further accession of new fragments would alter the arrangement I have here given. cedar. and have here translated the word " pine. Izdubar This section of the doubtedly of great importance. and con- taining a discourse of Heabani to some sequent investigation has caused me fragment and place it frao-nients are ments all but sub- withdraw this in the space of the eighth tablet.

which led me to the opinion Izdubar was not yet king of Babylonia. to Heabani: he goes to the great palace the breast of the great queen 15 knowledge. 3 me. shalt direct after the manner of a king 12. 2 thy .. . [Izdubar] opened his mouth and spake. Humbaba.. everything he knows 16 17 establish to our feet hand 18 his 19 I to the great palace the great queen 20 (Probably over twenty lines lost here. for the attack on that p ..TYRANT HUMBABA. his carcass the birds of prey surround me and we 10 to 11 thou may him they destroy will appoint thee king.. him thy presence the battle 7 all 8 may 9 that. 13.) which gives part of the conversation between Heabani and Izdubar previous to It was this fragment. 20D Tablet IY.. return 4 the birds shall rend 5 in 6 of the forest of pine trees .. and said 14.. 1 mu . Column I.

in thy heart thou hast given him protection. In the day of the year he 20... 16.. she not . to .. and every one who is evil whom thou hatest 19.. hands hast thou established Izdubar. when the son . him 17.. and he goes 12. enter 1 2 he raised 3 the ornaments of her 4 the ornaments of her breast 5 and her crown 6 of the earth he opened . will may . all.. 18... May 21. to.. Why In the presence of Shamas altar. on the remote path to Humbaba. Humbaba of [whom his city may] he destroy.. 11. an expedition he knows not he will ride for long he will go and will return. I divided he ascended to the city 7. she not return at to fix ... . 13. . he 8. DESTBUGTION OF THE 210 Heabani promises 10 and 11) that they will (lines make Izdubar king when they have and given and his corpse to slain the vultures Humbaba (lines 4. 9). A battle he 1 4. 15.. .: . to take the course to the forest of pine trees. 8. knows not he Avill confront. he he built an lifted his 10. . . . he went up to the presence of Shamas he made a sacrifice? 9. Column II.

(About ten Here we that see 211 lines lost here..... which 10.. reads 1 neighbourhood of Erech 2 strong and .. . for .) Izdubar.. 3. .... . to the rising of .. ..... god Sakim . Izdubar to enter .. and may also to belong to this refer to preliminaries for sacrificing to Ishtar. with a view also to gain her aid in the enterprise. .. to 3. 1... . and that 5. III. in the gate of the house 14 Column . to the 11. .. .ANT HTTMBABA. . for a long time had been made .... . impressed with the had undertaken.. to 12. .. ... and the collection 6.. makes a Shamas to aid him in his task.. he burst open the road 4.. ... the people were ended 8. . goddess Ishtar the bed Izdubar like the Heabani opened the great gate of the house of assembly 13.TYB.. city .. the corpse of 2. like of a king 9. placed the people together 7... . magnitude of the task he prayer and sacrifice to The next fragment appears column....... . This fragment of Column II..

. Five more mutilated being .. of the starting of Izdubar on his expedition accompanied by his friend Heabani. the road knows knows not . Column IV. When ... which is surrounded by a forest of pine and cedar... .. the whole ... Uncektain Fkagment.... The sequel shows they arrive at the palace or residence of Heabani. the sister 9. .. 5. the next column I have placed a fragment... wandering he fixed to 8... the rest of the column lost.. of the gods lifted . lost. the sister of the gods faithful 7. the position and meaning of which are quite unknown... I Heabani .. and the daughters of the gods grew 10... . . of which he she not return . .. may he 9. 1.... him 7.. . Heabani strong not rising 4... . . may 6. . to fix destroy also 10.. . now .. ..— DESTBUGTION OF THE 212 4..... 5. with thy song? 6. the angels . lines.... .. the expedition which he 8.... .. . .. he lifted to Somewhere here should be the story. Heabani was 3. he was heavy 2. This fragment shows Izdubar still invoking the Under gods for his coming expedition...

I have only discovered fi'agments of this which opens with a description of the retreat tablet. Izdubar to him also [said to Heabani] Here we see Humbaba waiting but the rest of the column principally is lost . 1.. more certain than the appears to refer to the conquest of last. of Humbaba. Humbaba it or Hubaba. opens. for the intruders. containing fragments of six lines. to weapon make men fear him . with a gate for entrance. 3. the sharp 2. 213 being enclosed by some barrier or wall. Y.TYRANT HZTMBABA. and when the next tablet. Humbaba poured 4. them still No. it appears to have consisted of speeches by Izdubar and Heabani on the magnificent trees they saw. A single fragment of Column YL. The fifth tablet is Tablet Y. and in the path of he stood and his forest [waited] 7. Heabani and Izdubar open where the story reopens on the fifth this gate column. and the work before them. the sharp a tempest out of his weapon make men to fear mouth him [he took] 6. COLUJMN Y. shows at the gate. they had not yet entered.. he heard the gate of the forest [open] 5. ...

its Humbaba went the place where his step was placed.. tree. in stood and surveyed the forest perceived lie height. . He 2.. full of pleasure. . Izdubar opened his mouth and spake. 1.. He saw the land of the pine trees. 14 like it kaspu . ... of the forest he perceived its approach. on a straight road and a good path.. . and said to [Heabani] 31 . of pine trees. 5. the sanctuary of the angels.... • . the choice of the forest. 6. it My : friena .. (About 10 (7 miles) . 8..DESTBUGTION OF THE 214 Column I. with their slaughter .. . .) he looked 30. an excellent its shadow.. the seat of the gods... 25 29. in front of the seed the pine tree carried ? its fruit. lines lost here.. . . 4. . . .. ... . 3. 26 he made and he 27 drove to 28 he opened and . 10 the pine heaped 11 for one 12 cedar two-thirds of 13 grown . good was 9. 7.

38 . he did not .. 7.. they performed it. (Seven lines lost. 34. to an end may they seat 37 and day also 40 on his 41 slay him. he made 32 with him .) 17.. and 35 like I take her also they .. . 39 his heart prejoared for war... in entering to the house thou shalt not fear... make weight their will they established they entered into the forest 45 Column II.... . heavy ..TYRANT EUMBABA. his corpse falling appoint the people may the birds of prey surround of them he shall 42 43 goi^ig ke took the 44. . .. knowledo.. he did not come 9. thy hand ....... .e of war 33 who made fio-htino... 215 he did not speak before her." .... Humbaba 8. that year 36. (Five lines mutilated... took my friend first ..) 6. they passed through the forest .

. off his regalia. Humbaba . that Izdubar and his friend to the palace of monarch and carried Humbaba. 216 18. ..... 4 the head of 5 his 6 tablet of the story of fate of It appears ..: DESTBUGTION OF HUMBABA. . IV.... and Y.. . and a small portion of Column YI. his moutli .. the killed the death of the oppressor being the signal for the proclamation of Babylonian freedom and the reign of Izdubar... It appears.. (Many other broken lines. but much is wanted to connect the frao-ments..... 3 120 . . when the matter is stripped of the marvellous incidents with which the poets have surrounded went privately it.. . The conclusion of this stage of the story and triumph of Izdubar are given at the commencement of the sixth tablet. 19 Humbaba 20 one by one and in . wliich reads .. Heabani opened .. from the various mutilated fragments of this tablet that Izdubar and Heabani conquer and slay Humbaba and take his goods.. Heabani weapon he sharpened ...... .) There are a few fragments of Cobimns III.. 1 cedar to 2 he placed and .

. —Lament Tammuz. feast. Tablet YI. weapon. — Amours —His — —Ascends Heaven. — Tammuz. — The — —Her descent Hades. gates. Column 1 2. for this section I and seventh have included the sixth tablets.— Chapter XIY. of Ishtar. THE ADVENTURES OF ISHTAR. The sixth tablet the former ones. his I. he sharpened his weajxtn. — The by Izdubar. Slain bull. — —Izdubar's triumph. to Tshtar's curse. —Release Triumpli of Izdubar. —Her — Izdubar's answer. Like a bull his country he ascended after him. is in better condition than and allows of something any of like a con- nected translation. tar. tion. which both pri- marily refer to the doings of Ishtar. N to curses. refusal. — marriage. oifer of promises. — Sphinx. Ishtar's despair. Her Ishtar's love. of Ish- Ishtar's anger.. — Descrip—The seven —The —Uddusunamir.

5. shalt drive in a chariot of ukni stone and gold. lifted For the favour of Izdubar the princess Ishtar her eyes take thee Izdubar as husband. The tribute of the mountains and plains they shall bring to thee. He destroyed him and his memorial was hidden. be under thee kings. taxes 18. the yoke. 13. A rival weak may there . they shall give thee. The country he wasted. of which the body is gold and splendid its pole. 19 mules be swift 20 in the chariot strong not 21 in not be. to Bitani in the country where the pine trees grow. and princes. 17. thou shalt be husband and 10. to the river 16.: THE ADVENTURES OF ISHTAB. Izdubar his crown put on (the fastening of the crown he took). 6. 218 3. the fastening of the crown he took. 14. 12. I will 8. May Bitani at thy entrance 15. 4. Thou me shall be thy bond. may thy herds and flocks bring forth twins. Thou shalt acquire days of great conquests. thy oath to 9. There shall Euphrates kiss thy feet. 11. lords. 7. I will be thy wife.

38. for ever let not praise thee . . courage beauty .. 219 .... Izdubar opened his mouth and spake. carry her body glorious . . 2. 42. . Which alone ... The wild eairlc also thou didst love and .. tower of stone let not be placed . ... and 23... 3. . ended wind and showers palace .. 37. .: TEE ADVENTURES OF ISHTAE. her side to Dumuzi the husband of thee.... he ascended . said to the princess Ishtar 24 to thee thy possession 25 26 body and rottenness baldness and famine 27 instruments of divinity 28 instruments of royalty 29 storm oO he poured 31 was destroyed 32 thy possession 33 sent in 34... 22. 43. 41.... .. after 44. 36. her lord let them not marry thee . carry her grand . .. 39.. ... 40. 4. I take also the torch ? Column 1.. land of the enemy body . II... country after country mourn his love... 35... cover her he said . destroy thee ..

24. his dogs tore his wounds. 21.. Isullanu thy cruelty resisted. and didst love also Isullanu the husbandman of thy father. 12. didst strike him and to a leopard thou didst change him. who 22. Thou didst love also a ruler of the country. 220 thou didst strike him. he stood in the forest and begged for his wings. 23. 9. shaking and tumultuous was his love. After seven kaspu (fourteen hours) his love was not sweet. 7. of eaten food for beauty ? and charms eat. To his mother Silele he was weeping for love. 18. he poured out to the end and extent his love. also thou didst turn cruel. To me why dost thou come 28. break 6. didst love also a horse glorious in war. thou didst draw out by sevens his claws. and continually thou didst break 16. 15. ? . 25. his own 19. Thou 8. Every day he 17. and every day delighted continually was subject to thy order. and thy hand was brought out and thou didst strike? . his weapons.. propitiated thee with offerings. Thou 13. Isullanu said to thee: 27. 26. In thy taking him in thy portion. mother thou wilt not be and I do not 29. THE ADVENTURES OF ISHTAB. Thou didst love also a lion complete in might... and his wings thou didst 5. 10. 14. 11. city drove him away. Thou 20.

dost love. beauty and and mouth and spake. hearest this 32.. and Ishtar went to the presence of Anu her 37. thou didst place him the midst of the in . he goeth not 35. said to the princess Ishtar: 5. thy beauty and thy charms. Ishtar on her hearing this. 36. was angry and to heaven she ascended. trembling and faintness overcome Thou . my beauty.. 80. said to opened her mouth and spake. Column Izdubar despises 2.. father. 39. Anu opened his III. ... and like to them thou [wilt serve me].: : THE ADVENTURES OF ISHTAB. he riseth not up. 1.. and to a 221 me pillar? thou didst change him. And me thou .. 6. 31.. tliou diclst strike him. ground 34. and 4. Father. 8.. Izdubar hates me. Ishtar 9. my 3. my charms. to the presence of and Anatu her mother she went said 40. 33. Ishtar 38... 7. My daughter thou shalt remove and Izdubar will count thy beauty.. and Anu her father .

11. of . I is filled u 15 16.. My . ... her father I will strike 30 .) Column IV... 222 10. over 17.... Ishtar opened her mouth and spake. 22 which is 23. ..: THE ADVENTURES OF I8ETAB. . Izdubar 12. and 18.. and 24. will join . . break him (Some lines lost here... (Some lines lost. I 14. create a divine bull Ann .. 19 thou shalt join 20 of noble 21 maslii .. and father... . said to Anu names magnified 25 26 I will 27 of noble names 28 reducer 29 of foods . will strike . when he 13... .. .. opened his mouth and spake. said to the princess Ishtar: ....) 1 warriors 2 to the midst 3 three hundred warriors .

.. bull 223 And Izdubar like a might and . .. to Vul and Nebo tai'ka . 8... ..... 2. Heabani took hold ....... joy . . ... said to Izdubar 15. .. his tail divine .... the 13.... may it ......) . . Friend we.. . overthrow 17.. his mioht o Heabani pierced .. in of Heabani divisions he parted in the midst of 6. it made. two hundred warriors 9. ... by also Heabani 26 Column V.... divine bull by head he took hold his .... will stretch out 16... . then we will and the might 18.... the length of his tail ....: TEE ADVENTURES OF ISHTAB. 1.... . . the divine Heabani struck? 11.. 10. his horns . (Three lines lost.. the hands 22 23 24 bull he . 25 . 12. to the midst 4 slay 5 two in 7... Heabani opened his mouth and spake. and 1 4. the third division and . um .

.. I answer it. 30 23. 18.. 15.. and the win2:ecl bull has slain. 20. Samhati and Harimati. 6. the curse I will turn against thy side. 22. I as in this have heard thee.. manas of zamat stone within them. 10. And ... to the presence of 5. from the city he destroyed. ... of the divine bull and before her threw it 13.. 21. 4... TEE ADVENTURES OF ISHTAB. and over the member of the divine bull a mourning she made. 19. the sharpness of the points was destroyed.. Ishtar gathered her maidens 17.. Shamas . 11. . 7. 24. and : in the middle of his horns vicinity of the .. Izdubar called on the people .. and the weight of his horns the young men took. Ishtar ascended unto the wall of Erech Suburi. he placed at the side the bulk 8. all of them. Heabani heard the speech of 12. 6 gurs its mass together. 224 3. the heart he had extended to the presence of Sha- mas . 9. 16.. I will take thee and 14... destroyed the covering and uttered a curse curse I Izdubar who dwells here. and he cut off the member Ishtar.

31. in the river Euphrates they and they took and went 29. the chiefs reclining on couches at night. if I but I have provisionally placed here part of a remarkable Q . 25. slept." I have found any other portion of am uncertain this tablet. Heabani spake and the dream he explained. " the chiefs. among the chiefs. 11. Izdubar is 1. 3. Any one of ability among Any one noble among men. 10. and said to Izdubar. Erech riding. able 5 placed hearing 6 vicinity. To the ark of his god Sarturda he dedicated 26. Izdubar to the inhabitants of Erech 32 a proclamation made. 9. 2.. noble among men. Heabani lay down. 12. round the 30. not of the inhabitants 7 him. TEE ADVENTURES OF ISHTAB. Izdubar is 4. and the assembly of the city of it at his fire. he took it in and worshipped 27. washed 28. Tablet VII. Column VI. " Friend the gods take council." 8. marked 225 their hands. Izdubar in his palace made a rejoicing. chiefs of Erech it. The seventh why do tablet opens with the words. and a dream he dreamed.

. like death . with the female Samhat Samhat . It appears that this goddess. goods of the house of thy fullness 11. failing in lier heaven to avenge herself on Izdubar resolved to descend to hell. .. him. . . .. .... . search out.. . Column people? for his slight.. the female 7 ends and 8 kej)t 9 like them weep he takes will expel thee by the great jailor going down they were angry? for thee 10. 226 fragment.THE ADVENTURES OF I8HTAB. destroy his hand ap- proached 2 raise in thy presence 3 like before 4 Zaidu shall accomplish the wish of his heart 5. Columns I. 1 attempt in to the fragments recom- III. of thy depression 12 for the females 13 let 14 sink them bow 15 down those who 16 she 17 placed in thy house 18 occui:)y are collected thy seat let . Avith a continuation of the story of Ishtar. if possible. good 6 thee. and IL are mencing on column III.. to new modes of attacking lost.

I my wings. treasured up a crown. Column IY. recommences . which never returns: their nourishment and mud. whom the gods Anu and Bel have given names. [To Hades the country unseen] I turn myself. • 227 thy resting place 19 20 thy feet 21 may they destroy 22 thee may 23 they gave many After they invoke lines destroyed. 2.for liofht. to the road the course of 6. 1. I descend. water. with those wearing crowns who from days of old ruled the earth. descend to the house of darkness. for 12. and In the house 11. chiefs also Its is are like birds covered with feathers 9. me is my friend which I will enter. the place where dust is the house entering which there their food 8. light is never seen. To the house in which the dwellers Ion g. To 5. 10. the story in the fourth column. to the dwelling of the god Irkalla 4. no exit. 13. I spread' like a bird 3.: THE ADVENTURES OF ISHTAB. they drink stagnant . The food is made carrion. in darkness they dwell. 7. to terrible 14.

evident that in the third column speaking to Ishtar trying to persuade her not to descend to Hades. 22. who and hate. I will approach her 24. which and unconquered ones. some one is It is is will bring again lost. To Hades the land of . revels is suffering all the pangs of jealousy in the dark details of the description of the lower regions. . . it is the dwelling of Etana. There can be no doubt that is this part of the legend closely connected with the beautiful story of the Descent of Ishtar into Hades on a tablet which I published in the " Daily Telegraph. 1. and she Here the story being absent. the mistress of the fields the mother of the queen of the lower regions before her submits.. and declares her determination to go there. The descent of Ishtar into Hades from K. deep of the great gods. and there is not any one that stands against her in her presence. dwell the chiefs 17. dwell the monsters of the 19. In the house my friend 16. . and she 23. 18.TEE ADVENTURES OF ISHTAB. . I will enter. and YI. dwell the bards and great men. .. will see me me to her columns V. while in the fourth column the goddess. and with the story here that it so closely connects itself I give it as part of the sequel to this tablet. 228 1 5." in fact I think that tablet to have been an extract from this part of the Izdubar legends. the queen of the lower regions Ninkigal 20 21. the dwelling of Ner.

. Stay lady his dead shall triumph. The keeper 22. their nourishment and mud. house entering which there is no exit. over the 12. and called 23. I will strike the hinges and I will burst open the doors up the dead devour ers of the 19. open thy gate that 16. 15. TEE ADVENTUBE8 OF ISRTAU. 3. on her arrival at the gate of Hades. If mitted I may : enter. over the living the 21. 5 to the 6. 18. . spake. 17. to the door and bolts is scattered dust. thou openest not the gate and I am not ad- .. . its is is never seen in darkness they dwell. Ishtar 13. I will raise 20. inclined also the 4. command keeper of the gate a she called 14. living. the place where dust their food 9. to 7. I will strike the door and the door posts I will shatter. 11. 8. Light 10. the road the course of which never returns. are like also chiefs birds covered with feathers. Islitar 2.229 daughter of Sin her[ear^ ^Vv^-^wiL to the house of darkness the dweUing of the Irkalla. mouth opened and to the princess Ishtar: do not do this. clined daughter of Sin (the moon) her '^aji god in- . . to the house which on entering it they long for light. Keeper of the waters open thy gate.

\Let her mqurnv miscarry^let her mournj are not born in their proper time.. and enclose her former 39. like the bite of .. 45. with 33. . Ninkigal on her hearing this 29.. gate he passed her through and drew and he took away the great crown of her head. of the great vaults 28. rejoicing at thy presence. visitors. 42.. 25. . The second gate he passed her through and . it . Why keeper crown of my head. 35. Will her heart support it.for the children who who from the wives fors bosom of their husbands . who 36.THE ADVENTURES OF 230 24. . 37.. let me go and IS H TAB. . Go keeper open thy gate 38.. The keeper entered and 26. . The keeper went and opened The first may Hades is his gate. like on entering lady 41. in. this water thy 27 called to Ninkigal: sister Ishtar rvcV-«'-*c^UAjLA. 32. 43. . the city of Cutha be .. the goddess of the lower regions does thus with her visitors.Lo^ .al. like the cutting off of >30.\JLet her mourn for the .^40. this water I . . like food eaten like jugs of water drank t(y^ Ii!4. husbands who forsake eir wives. itiA*i *Uitw*. will her spirit uphold it. 44. On Entering hast thou taken away the great lady. thy speech repeat to the queen Mnkio. the palace of her the depart.. an insect 31.. .

46. 55. the goddess of the lower regions does thus with her visitors. her in. 50. the goddess of the lower regions does thus with her visitors. 48. The fifth gate he passed her through and drew and he took away the binding girdle of her waist. Why keeper my waist. Why keeper hast thou taken away the earrmgs ears. . the goddess of the lower regions does thus with her visitors. of 49. 231 and he took away the earrmgs of her ears. and he took away the necklace of her neck. and he took away the ornaments of her breast. 57. Why keeper hast my neck. and he took away the bracelets of her hands and her feet. On thou taken away the orna- entering Lady. The sixth gate he passed her through and drew her in. On entering Lady. On thou taken away the necklace entering Lady. hast thou taken away the binding girdle of 56. 51. drew her in. On entering lady. The third gate he passed her through and drew her in.THE ADVENTURES OF ISHTAB. my of 47. 52. Why keeper hast of my breast. the goddess of the lower regions does thus with her visitors. The fourth gate he j^assed her through and drew her in. 54. ments 53.

When scended a long time Ishtar to Hades had de- . 76. 75. 232 AVhy keeper hast thou taken away the braceof my hands and my feet. 63. 64. take her out to . mouth opened and 67. Why ing cloak of 62. After Ishtar the lady [to 77. would not would not approach unite. On keeper hast thou taken away the cover- my body. 61. command she me and called: [take Ishtar from] 69. and the . diseased head strike her with. spake. 58. Go Simtar at her she swore. with the cow ass the female ass 78. Ninkigal saw her and at her presence and 65. her body. lets 59.THE ADVENTURES OF ISETAB. and the female slave would not approach the vicinity of the master. diseased eyes strike her with. 72. the goddess of the lower regions does thus with her visitors. the bull Hades had descended]. the regions does thus with her visitors. and he took away the covering cloak of 60. diseased side strike her with.. entering lady. Ninkigal her 68. Ishtar did not consider 66.. diseased heart strike her with. 71. The seventh gate he passed her through and drew her in. 73. On goddess of the lower entering lady. diseased feet strike her with. to her the whole of her [strike with disease]. Ishtar 70. . 74. to Simtar her attendant a was angry. .

(set]his face 1. 10. 7. Hea wisdom of his heart considered. may arrival. she 5..\ . and the ass the female ass would not approach. Ninkigal see thee and rejoice at thy . : THE ADVENTURES OF ISHTAB. the female slave ceased in her gift.. may the seven gates of Hades be opened at thy presence 15. -. into the presence of 4.. The master ceased 9. 13. . a long time Ishtar to Hades had de- scended. in his command. and the female slave would not approach the 8.Sa. The master ceased 79. . II.. in his 80. . Samas 3.|rU . 233 command. in the presence of . CoLUjm Papsukul the attendant of the gods.ah. and made Uddusu-namu. Hea the king he went in tears Ishtar to the lower regions has descended. Oa them Wned . has not returned. -^•'^^1^ . the female slave ceased in her gift.^-^JvcJ. against 2. full (the sun) 71 went and ^.. When 6.'L Vj^ his father he wept. 12. vicinity of the master...the [s|)hinxTi V Go Uddusu-namir towards the gates of Hades in the set thy face 14.. 11. with the cow the bull would not unite.

24. May a slab of stone be thy seat May bondage and want strike thy 29. Ninkigal on her hearing 21. 26. he struck the palace of judgment. 234 16. bring out the spirit. the stone slab he pressed 37. 22. May the drains of the city be thy drink. on the flowing stream set thy mind. this. throne 34. 18. he brought out the spirit and seated it on the 36. to Simtar her attendant a 31. That her heart be satisfied. 55. 27. beat her breasts and wrung her hands. and comfort would not take go Uddusu-namir may the great jailor keep thee. and her anger be removed 17. . 20. appease her by the names of the great gods. Simtar went. Go refuge spake. and seat it on the golden 32. 25. Raise thy heads. the waters in the midst mayest thou drink. 19. . golden throne. Over Ishtar pour the water of life and bring her before me.. : TEE ADVENTURES OF ISHTAE. she turned at this 23. the stone slab press 33. May the shadow of the dungeon be thy resting place. upon with the pa-stone. Ninkigal her mouth opened and 30. 28. when command over the flowing stream shall be given. command she called : Simtar strike the palace of judgment. upon with the jDa-stone. May food of the refuse of the city be thy food.

beautiful waters pour out beautiful boxes .. 52. . When her freedom she would not grant to thee 45. in splendid clothing dress him. The second gate he passed her out of. 46. she struck. her brother was slain? .. 44. The sixth gate he passed her out restored to her the earrings of her ears.. 38. to Dumuzi the husband of her youth. to her comfort. The first gate he passed her out of.girdle of her waist... and Belele give appease her grief. The seventh gate he passed her out of. 48. May Samhat 51. Precious stones like eyes are not 53. On Ishtar he poured the water of 235 life and brought her. 40. and he restored to her the great crown of her head. 39. 41.THE ADVENTURES OF ISHTAB. The fifth gate he passed her out of. and he restored to her the binding. .. 47... The third gate he passed her out of. bracelets? of jewels place .. and he restored to her the bracelets of her hands and her feet. and he restored to her the ornaments of her breast. 50. The fourth gate he passed her out of. Precious stones like birds' eyes are not better than thee. and he restored to her the necklace of her neck.. Belele gave her comfort. 43. and he of. 54. 42... and he restored to her the covering cloak of her body. 49. to her also turn.

One story. the of the strange and dark features of the Babylonian religion was the Ishtar or Venus worship. the opening of the sixth tablet we have scene of the contest with Humbaba. and princes. There were. Humbaba. with him adorned me. slaying head of the the Izdubar. In the day that Dumuzi adorned me. greatest but power. lords. in several places. men mourners and 57. mourners. and just as they had bowed to Humbaba. but it her does not appear that she accomplished her vengeance against Izdubar At final after yet. 236 me 55. We now come to a curious part of the romance of Izdubar and Ishtar. merely these generally submitted to the local rulers.TEE ADVENTURES OF I8ETAB. so they were ready now to submit to Izdubar. with women 58. takes the crown from the monarch and places it on his own head. halls of the palace of Erech and feasted with his heroes. thus signifying that he assumed the empire. they cut? This remarkable text shoAvs Ishtar threat and descending fulfilling to Hades. with bracelets of emeralds. with only brother thou didst never wrong rings of rubies. which was an adoration of . The kingdom promised to Izdubar when he started to encounter Humbaba now became and he entered the his by right of superior force. him adorned me. on a bier may they and gashes ? mq-y raise. my 56. as we are informed kings.

. the ruler of Erech. basis for the story queen whose favour but we have to remember that these Izdubar legends were not intended for history. was now one of the foremost Certainly Ishtar Ishtar worship. originally a seat of the worship of Anu. but Izdubar refused for historical . sible there SITE OF may have been some in a tradition of some dissolute this represented in the legends as living at the time. 237 power of nature. accompanied by the reproductive ceremonies which were a reproach to the country. and widow in it is pos- THE TeMPLE OF ISHTAR. romance. is cities as being the of Dumuzi. and BOWARETEH MoUND AT WaRKA (KRECH). The city of Erech.TEE ADVENTURES OF ISHTAB. or to make an attack upon the superstition by quoting Izdubar's supposed defiance may of the goddess. and the whole story of Ishtar be only introduced to show the hero's opposition to this worship.

On western boundary his dominions stretched the along the region of the Euphrates. thirteenth to sixteenth lines of the first column appear to mark out the ultimate boundaries of the empire of Izdubar. Bitani by boundary eastern the the mountain ranges which separated Assyria and Babylonia from Media. and the limits mark somewhere about the extent assigned to the kingdom of Nimrod by tradition. extending over high and low. figured similar representations. which also bounded part of the west. and the Arabian desert. the author has here typified the universal power of love. perhaps to Orfa. that Heabani laid hold of the bull by . on the The struggle with a Babylonian numerous cylinder. There is is represented bull." this animal I have supposed to be the winged bull so often depicted on Assyrian sculpture. seem to and refer to no struggle with a winged bull on the Izdubar cylinders. It would appear from the broken fragments of column IV. a city which has In the course of the Ishtar. beyond which nothing was known. The subsequent men and lines animals. represented here.THE ADVENTURES OF 238 The I SETAE. this incident. he calls to and traditions of still Nimrod. answer Izdubar gives to mind the various amours of I cannot avoid the impression that Ishtar. and the south was the Persian Gulf. The northern boundary was Armenian the mountains. but I am now inclined to think that this bull without wings. show Ishtar obtaining from her father the creation of a bull called " the divine bull .

" to. is it. clear difficulties. Fox Talbot. The was tablet with the descent of Ishtar into Hades- first tions noticed by Mr. and it he meaning of the words. 239 and Hea- represented holding the bull tail. the close of the sixth tablet the story is again only portions of the third and fourth columns is thrown by the remarkable of the next tablet being preserved. Fox Talbot in the " Transac- of the Royal Societ}^ of Literature. head and IS H TAB. an extract from the seventh tablet of the Izdubar legends. and re-translated by Mr." but was entirely abroad as to the After this I published a short notice of "North British Review. it in the up some of the has been subsequently translated by Lenormant and Oppert. I think it probable that this tablet was in great part IZDDBAR AND HeABANI IN CONFLICT WITH THE LlON AND BuLL. but light on this portion of the narrative tablet describing the descent of Ishtar into Hades.TEE ADVENTURES OF head and the tail while Izdubar killed bani in the engraving by its At lost. These translations and various notices .

The story of the descent of Ishtar into Hades is one of the most beautiful myths in the Assyrian inscriptions tion. Fox Talbot. and various papers on these subjects by Mr. 1874.. with cording to some. 240 of the Deluo^e tablets will be found in " Les Premieres Civilisations " of Francois Lenormant. latter part of the tablet is obscure. a small pamphlet on the Descent of Ishtar. custom of lamenting for and appears Dumuzi or . and my own August i. although she of Sin (the The moon is same the in here called daughter god) description of the region of Hades is most graphic. of the and iii. and vividly portrays the sufferings of the prisoners there ." 19. but there are several the story. more than one head. we It is evident that are dealing with the goddess as the Ishtar. it much attencommented upon by various has. 1873. .. to deliver Ishtar. daughter of Anu. in the " Transactions Society of Biblical Archaeology. to the Cerberus of the classics. translation in the " Daity Telegraph. which had three heads ac- half bitch and half man.. Izdubar legends. Paris. THE ADVENTURES OF ISHTAB. to refer to the Tammuz. The fifty heads according to others.. in described as a composite animal. in some respects. and appears to correspond." vols. as there who is no indication is difficulties in some cases as to Uddusu-namir. received so and been so fully scholars. by Pro- fessor Oppert. however. created by Hea acts or speaks. ii. that little need be said on the subject here.

The conversation. Tablet VIIL I am uncertain again this tablet of the . The paradise. F the three tablets in this secti'^n. put the satis- factory. the first one is very uncertain. 176. and the trees. of — Journey of Izdubar. and sixth columns of a tablet which may belong to it. ment present Tvorth translating at but the only frag- given in "Assyrian Discoveries. — — — His dream. ^^. to the story of Humbaba. — — — adra. if I have discovered any of I provisionally place first." is one p.— Chapter XY. — The Desert of Mas. AND WANDERINGS OF IZDUBAR. ILLNESS Heabani Heabani. — — of Deatli Scorpion men. here some fragments second. thu'd. and is together from two separate sources other two are more complete and . but as . UrWater of death. as I have there stated.— -Ragmu. I have In some portions of these fragments there are references. — Illness Izdabar. Siduri and Sabitu.sisharasi.

there is not another like thy tree . in 20. to his friend 2 and 3 .. 5 father . .. . .. . 15. .. thy name . .. . it Column 1. carried door . 9 . . 10.. thy 22. Izdubar . 4... Izdubar my 8. .. of . with the . his speech he made 7. it . ... . 14.. the door ... him . .. . .. its . joined 11. Heabani 12. it is I see . . . Heabani 21. has not aroused her hearing 24.. . raised ...ILLNESS AND WANDERINGS 242 the fragment appears to refer to the ilhiess of Izdubar I think belongs here.... 26.. I.. 16... . said to 13. .. I join his mouth opened and spake and .. the door on 23. .... and the pine tree a bush .. ....... . 17 and 18 19... 6. for twenty kaspu (140 miles) 25. in the .. sides does not . . .

I 31. thy contents. . .. in the collection of everything 41. . fourth and fifth columns appear to be entirely absent. . thy 30.OF IZDUBAE. the whole of the trees bush 45. . third. . 49. .. 27. I . . . 40. .. The Izmanubani tree was angry made a likeness ? 48. for I have his face.. . .. . the cedar. may .. not strong is . .. 43. the inscription reappearing on a fragment of the sixth column.. . thy shadow ? . for I 33. thy 29.. thou also 39. . . is . the pine tree. is . not great . . not agreeabla 46. Six gars (120 feet) feet) is 243 thy height. . two gars (40 is . for he took .. . . • fill 34 35. . in its cover 38. . . make which know thy and entrance like this good this is thee in the city of Nipur is in . . . 37. . thy . take . . . 32. a ofreat destruction . . like the tree The second. . thy circuit. . 28. in thy land Izmanubani 44. . . and thy smell 47. 42. . 36. thy breadth mass .

the dream he made it and .. The mountain was subdued.ILLNESS AND WANDERINGS 244 CoLmm (Many 1... . Column III. the . .. . .. He said to his friend 7. the mountain like corn of the field . in the presence of made a halt? Shamas he dug out a 16. ... him down and . . 4..... .. h-^ 5. . at thirty kaspu he 15. .. . For twenty kaspu he journeyed a stage 14. .. They nimgi struck 5. .. 3. brought? forth 6....) The dream which I saw .. mountain was subdued. the 19. of his helpers to thy 12. Izdubar ascended to over 17. 1. 8.. . 2. II. the dream made it and . 2. he pit . turban? cast . lines lost.. ... 9. .. ...... . in the storm to 13. . 4. dream was deceptive all the mountain which thou didst see when we captured Humbaba and we 11. by the 18. ... in the vicinity . good omen of the dream 10. . ... . 3. . he struck .. like .. side of his house he approached .. made ? the mountain .. Heabani the dream .... .. .

. and in the midst of his limbs he died. he struck 21. god of the earth and desired death. Friend thou dost not ask 1 1 thou dost not inquire of 12. . He invoked will not depart. . 245 Izdubar at the destruction set up . and it it turned to a palm tree. It disappeared. 4. the dream which in that evening not is . My 2. 14. . which Heabani 5. 9. . . 1 6. 22. Heabani lay down also one day friend . the I saw entirely disappeared. the fire sank. OF IZDUBAB. the lightning struck 18. He spake and said to his friend 7.: . The fourth and lost. . God 13. me why I am naked. 17. the third day and the fourth day which . Friend I saw a third dream. and the dream which 15. 19. . . . 8. and kindled a fire. me why I am spoiled. was proceeding. .. . . And Heabani the dream considered and said . 6. . the end 3. .. and in the desert thy lord to Izdubar. the day he dreamed the dream. why do my limbs burn. . 10. Column VI. . Anatu the injurer of men upon him struck. 20. 1. . . fifth columns of this tablet are This part of the legend appears to refer to the illness of Izdubar. and came out the shadow of death. A storm came out of the darkness.

my me then in the midst of fight and 13. the 7. have inserted them pending further discoveries as to their true j)osition. ninth 6. fifth. . but from the In the first mutilation of the text I so. . column Heabani appears to be addressing certain trees. The fragment of the sixth column shows Heabani unable to interpret a dream. . . but no this part of the story is preserved. 15. . Heabani praises one tree and sneers at another. . when Heabani was troubled 8. . it is possible that the fragments are of diff'erent tablets.. is 12. and they are supposed to have the power of hearing and answering him. I in It must here be noted that this the eighth tablet are my grounds making for extremely doubtful. . . . Heabani in that evenino. . it does not appear why he acts conjecture he was seeking a charm to open the door he mentions. . while Izdubar asks his friend to fight. . . Izdubar asked also 11. the eleventh and twelfth 9. . . . but they and I fill up an evident blank in the story here. friend hostile to . . eighth. 10. . the friend who . Avhich added fragment of to the misfortunes of Izdubar . . After this happened the violent death of Heabani. in battle .. and that according to the story this charm was known to the trees. I turn to battle 14.ILLNE88 AND WANDERINGS 246 sixth. . seventh.

. 3. and all the narrative is clearer from this point. 13 14 Sin. a dream I saw. and joyfully I went.. 7.. and they sent peace unto me. 8.. 9. his girdle . 1 Izdubar over Heabani his seer 2. dream. 10. I had no judgment like Heabani Weakness entered into my soul death I feared. For the advice of Hasisadra. were bound to 17. to his hand. . life.. . he struck . 247 Tablet IX. 5. their fruit ? . the neighbourhood of the mountains I took at night. son of Ubaratutu The road I was taking. . . 11. 6. not a single column of the inscription being entirely lost. bitterly lamented. . to and lay down on the ground. and into the presence of the gods came supplication 12. . and lay down on the ground.. I bowed on my face. Column I. and to Sin (the moon god) I prayed. somewhat better state than the others. and I feared. he he broke struck my . The ninth tablet commences with the sorrow This tablet is in a of Izdubar at the death of Heabani. like the time 18.. 4. OF IZDUBAE. jDrecious stones 16.. erred in 15.

threw ... .. 5. he 21. 20... 3.. 9.. terribleness. 8.. . Of the country hearing him .. the rising of the sun and the setting of the guarded the sun. Their crown was at the lattice of heaven.. under 6.. and . (About six lines lost here.. 4. they 10.. the former 23..) The second column shows Izdubar in some fabulous region.. This passage is as : Column II.. new name . their appearance was like death. Here he sees composite monsters with their feet resting in hell. he was guarded name . gate. . Izdubar saw them and fear and terror came into his face. the might of his fear shook the forests.. .. 2. to . hell their feet burning with were placed. whither he has wandered in search of Hasisadra.. 7.. the 24. and heads reaching heaven. At sun... To the mountains of Mas in his course .. 22. The scorpion-man guarded the 1... their These beings are supposed to guide and direct the sun at its foUows rising and setting.. he carried 25. who each day guard the rising sun.— ILLNESS AND WANBEBINGS 248 19.

. not Izdubar 10. 16. for twelve 11.. 7. 11. . Summoning 249 he approached be- his resolution fore them.. and said to Izdubar 8. . . of the country it there which is mouth and spake . Who his comes of his female asked: to us with the affliction of god on body To the scorpion-man his female answered: The work of god is laid upon the man.) 5. : 18 distant road 19 come 20 of which the passage The to rest of this my presence column column begins he is telling lost.. to the rising sun field. 12.OF IZDUBAE. Column (1 and III. 15. The monster opened 3. The scorpion-man of the hero asked. is converses with the monsters is difficult. and not a cultivated 12. 2 lost. The scorpion-man 13. 4.... to seek Hasisadra. He Hasisadra my father who is established in the assembly death and life [are known to him] 6.. In it Izdubar and where the third them his purpose. 17 of the gods the word he said 14. Do 9.. his of the gods is kaspu (84 miles) [is the journey] completely covered with sand.

. 4...... to the setting sun ... he was not able to look behind him. muti- and doubtful. in prayer . 2 This kaspu he went is . 7.. the monster . . lands of Mas . the road of the sun 8.. and there was not a cultivated 8... 6. . there are column. to tlie setting sun 14. . and then is. 4 kaspu he went 7.. he brought out . the monster describes by Izdubar there are now wanting... go Izdubar . In this mutilated passage. field.. 15. 1 9.ILLNESS AND WANDERINGS 250 .. Izdubar . the bottom of the fourth column five lines lost at the top of the fifth the narrative reopens..... 10. Column Y. column.. Column IY. until we come to the fourth the journey to be taken many lines . .. 11... 3.. 2. which was completely covered with sand. again thou ... however.. 5. 1... 13... the text lated . he was not able to look behind him.. and kaspu he went there was not a cultivated field.... which was completely covered with sand... 6.

he was not able to look behind him. 17... and there was not a cultivated field. of the trees of the gods in equal. which was completely covered with sand... 14. 10 .. turned? . it forest was Emeralds 32.. 13.. 11. and was not a cultivated field. to the appearance 31.. 19. 5 kaspu he went 251 .... 20. him 26 meeting 27 4 kaspu 28 shadow of the sun 29 beautiful situation 30.. which was completely covered with sand. 16.. the covered. it .. he was not able to look behind him.. he was not able to look behind him.. and there was not a cultivated field.. 6 kaspu he went .. 7 kaspu he went ... 10. to the north behind him kaspu? he went? . 9. 15.. he was not able to look behind him. 18. and there was not a cultivated field. 9 kaspu he went 22 his face 23 a field 24 to look 25. which was completely covered with sand.OF IZDUBAB. which was completely covered with sand.. 8 kaspu he went .. 12.. carried as branches its fruit were encircled to the points . there 21.

. (About six hnes 1. gugmi a bustard it caught? . but the general meaning is clear. asgege which . Fragments of several hnes of this column are preserved.. In the next column the wanderings of Izdubar are continued.. and the other Sabitu. ukni stone? not striking the sea . its nest of stone . which ^ opens ... the fruit Some it it carried as shoots? carried to the sio.. beautiful jet stone. 2. like . and he carried 8. one named Siduri. the sea was . that This tablet brings Izdubar to the region of the were lars^e of the words in this fragment are obscure... the goddess Ishtar the pine tree he carried 7 10... but too mutilated to translate ments are with certainty. .— .. Izdubar [saw this] in his travelling 12. jet stones Hke worms? and caterpillars . 4... ka stone . ILLNESS AND WANDERINGS 252 33...... may he raise 11.. 9. 3...... 6..) . and he comes to a country near the sea.. lost.. The frag- : Column YI. His further adventures are given on the tenth tablet. but his way is then barred by two women. Ukni stones 34. 5....

Izdubar struck with disease 6. Siduri and Sabitu 1. There 15.. 19.. And 18. spake within her heart. I will strike the The say rest of this . And is this is : message no one upright in .. . he struck his hands and made he Izdubar having ears heard her .. and they commence together a it man journey by water in a boat on the second column.. covered with stripes of 5... her gate she 17. What 14. is lost... Sabitu afar off pondered.. having the brand of the gods on his there was shame of face on . who in the land beside the sea dwelt .OF IZDTfBAE. and a resolution made... 12. 10. Within herself also she considered 13. Sabitu 21. 253 Tablet X.. .. 8. was set... thy gate thou closest 22. ... ... him and shut her place? shut. and shut her place? Sabitu saw 16. illness covering his . . . column . affliction in . 11.... but I am able to described the meeting of Izdubar with a boatnamed Urhamsi. making a dwelling. .. 2. 9. making 4. Izdubar to her also said to Sabitu: why dost thou shut thy place? 20.. . . dwelt also 3. to go on the distant path his face 7... .

affliction .. Izdubar to him also said to Urhamsi 10 my hand has not . I give two fragments only here. ILLNESS AND WANDERINGS 254 Very little of column tliis is preserved .... and thy heart 4. and then we have some fragments of the bottom of the column.. . ... 1 Urhamsi 2.... ....... him also said to Izdubar to .. Here again there are many wanting lines. .. 1 said to Izdubar 2 and 3 the ship 4 of death 5 wide 6 ends 7 to the river his lower part 8 ship 9 in the vicinity 10 boatman 11 he burned 12 to thee Here there are many lines lost. 11 shame of face on . 9 ... there 5.. my heart is not ...... on . Why Column II. should I curse thee 3. . thou goest on the distant path is tried shame of is face 6 burning and 7 thus thou 8. then recommencing the story proceeds on the third column.

what brings 6. . 1. the friend Avhom I loved 2. . 12... why ....... he took and made a burden of it.. . Column 265 III. . and carried [to the ship] 18. five . he went down to the forest and a spear of . if am not like him .. On . in the place of the stones hidden and they 13. and carry it 14. . . this.. the ship the waves took and they 20... to the forest and a spear of five gar capture and make a burden of it. gar 17.. carried to cross the sea. I 3. . .. a journey of one month and .. Take Izdubar the axe in thy hand . Izdubar on his hearing 1 1... Again Ur-hamsi 5. go down 16. OF IZDUBAB... Izdubar to him also said to Ur-hamsi 4. 15. took the axe in his hand it .. me if it . Ur-hamsi to him also said to Izdubar 8... fifteen days. . ... thou hidest in the place of the stones thou ceases 10. took Urhamsi the waters of death . . Thy hand Izdubar 9.. Izdubar and Urhamsi rode in the ship 19. the third day in their course 21.. . if not carried [to cross the sea] 7.. . (matters) to ..

. 14. 12.. Here there certain. and the fourth lifting the spear 6. lifting the spear 7... I the ship is is a blank...... ninth. is 19.. on the one hundred and twentieth time Izdu- bar finished the spear 9. I man hidden is not come to . Izdubar lifting the spear 8. . and seventh time Izdubar was . the 18.. the third time.. still not ended the voyage 17. sixth. lii'ting fifth.. . the the spear . of . on his win2:s a cord he CD . wonder he is not . wonder . the extent of which is and where the narrative recommences unit is . Hasisadra afar off pondered...ILLNESS AND WANDERINGS 256 lY. I 20.. Let not hand 4. COLUiATN 1.. the eleventh and twelfth time. waters the was .. Within himself also he considered: 15. the eighth.. death enclose thy the second tnne.. Urliamsi to liim also said to Izdubar 2..... and he broke his girdle to 10... time Izdubar was 5. me and .. the tablets? Izdubar 3... spake within his heart and a resolution made... wonder he is not .. and tenth time Izdubar was ... Why 16.... Izdubar seized the 11. 13.. .

Composite Figures. name Ragmu-seri-ina- first my desired III.. 257 on a small fragment of the third and fourth column of another It appears copy. 4.. and Hasisadra (Noah) in the Ark from an Early Babylonian .OF IZffUBAB.. the name Ragmua Izdubar spoken is namari occurs. to pass in going to reach Hasisadra. by whom Izdubar had Cylinder.. bright star . but there is I have conjectured was the wife of Hasisadra or no ground possible that this individual for this opinion. . for friend is connection with Hea- when he to Erech.. informing to.. weapon . It is curious that. that the lines lost record the meeting between Izdubar and a person named Ragmu-seri-ina-namari.. whenever the story re-opens Izdubar of his bani and his offers to him come is him to .. that individual this Noah. free thee . the full Where Ragmu 2. it is was the gatekeeper or Izdubar. used. while. Column 1. 3. guard.... (fragment).. whenever Izdubar speaks to this being.

.. I will on the cause thee to on a c^omfortable kings of the earth shall kiss thy I will enrich thee make sit feet.. seat left.. I wept hand me me leopard of the desert Column Y. the 4.. Ragmu-seri-ina-namari on his hearing this 8. me to my .ILLNESS AND WANDERINGS 258 Column IV. his fetters loosed I after thee will The speech of the column are take body all in raiment lost. and . 5. 2. 1 . the rest of (fragment). with another speech 7. 1. 1. and the men of Erech I will silent before thee. Ragmu to Izdubar and Column V. (fragment). 2 3 bitterly I spoke 4 my 5 ascended to 6 to . 2 Izdubar opened his mouth and said to my presence? Ragmu . . 3. and 6.... ... the narrative recommencing on Column Y. On a beautiful couch I will seat thee. . . . I will clothe thy 7. of Izdubar.

the same.. he was cut oiF and given to 21. and he did not strike . he broke? and destroyed his defence? 20.. field to the face of the earth . . . And .. like a lion? he tore? him 17. we ascended the mountain.. Again why did his fingers lay hold to slay the lions. We conquered also Humbaba who in the forest of pine trees dwelt! 11.. feared and thou wouldst all the difiiculty. 9. he 19.OF IZDUBAB.. 15.. is again mutilated. mountain. Thou wouldst have not have 13..... 12. 3 not strong 4 my 5 lay clown in the 6 of the 259 face field. No my friend . he did not succeed in slaying the same 14.. his heart failed.. Ragmu-seri-ina-namari on hearing this Here the record informs Heabani. over him I wept. the leopard of the field. one else was with us.. We took it and the city we destroyed. he covered also my friend like a corpse in a grave. Heabani 8. 10. was cast down . like a lioness? placed 18. pour out? . Izdubar further Ragmu what Where he did in conjunction with the story reopens on Column VI.. 7. 16.

. 1... . a . : .. I Avas 2. treasure 3.ILLNESS AND WANDERINGS 260 Izdubar relates part of their adventure with Hum- baba. and where we again meet the story Izdubar has spoken to Hasisadra and is receiving his answer. 4. angry . whenever was collected Whenever brothers fixed . 1. great flood... Whenever hatred is in . 5.. Whenever the river makes a . Column VI... taking 2 to thee 3 thou art great 4 all the account 5 forest of pine trees 6 went night and day 7 the extent of Erech Suburi 8 he approached after us he ojDened the land of forests 9 10 we ascended 11 in the midst like thy mother 12 cedar and pine trees 13 with our strength 14 silent 15 he of the 16 by her 17 the Euphrates field side Here again our narrative is lost. Whenever a house was built.

she has fixed 15. 246. of 11. half men. or that which lion.. The man or servant on approaching death. the spirit of the great 13. 261 8. 259. in the first place appear how Heabani was that he was I find to killed be incorrect. Whenever 10. able to make I find the a correction monsters seen by Izdubar were composite beings. is implied in the passage p.. also it occurs on a fragment of a tablet which I found at Kouyunjik the star of . The present division of the legends has peculiar difficulties .. gods takes The goddess Mamitu maker of fate. 9. In the ninth tablet to my former I am translation . The word for scorpion has been some time ago discovered by Professor Oppert. to them their fate brings. mouth . his hand.. and I find in the description of these beings . and either that he was My killed. as seems suggested by the fragment in he its an attempt to slay a p. half scorpions. by the poisonous it now fell in own does not it original idea. 7.. death and of death the day is life not known. This statement of Hasisadra closes the tenth tablet and leads to the next question of Izdubar and its answer. which included the story of the Flood.. the face that bowed before Shamas from of old was not . reviling within the death the image has not been seen. insect tambukku^ appears most likely killed in a quarrel with Izdubar. Spoiling and death together exist 6. 12. OF IZDUBAB. 14..

which I now at the direction of passage in pp. iii. No. 1. on the sixth column the frag- ments appear to refer to some bird with magnificent Composite Figures (Scorpion Men). I do not. p." vol. Inscriptions. believe to relate that Izdubar Urhamsi made a spear from one of the trees of the forest before going across the waters of death which separated the abode of Hasis- adra from the world of mortals. of course." The land of Mas or desert of Izdubar travels in this tablet is Mas over which the desert on the west of the Euphrates. understand the passage. feathers like precious stones. in is which. This in it explaining a curious tablet printed assists in "Cuneiform should naturally appear. from an Assyrian Cylinder. seen by Izdubar on his journey. I have altered my translation of the 255. This tablet speaks which has been misunderstood. of the appearance of comets. it does not appear what he . as from the mutilated condition of the inscription attacked with it. 52. however. 262 the scorpion said to belong to tlie eighth month. one of which has a tail "like a lizard (or creeping thing) and a scorpion. 256.WANDERINGS OF IZDUBAB.

— Sin of the world. legends. and certainly the most important on account of the Flood. This tablet series. gods. Eleventh —The — tablet. Destruction of —Fear the — End Deluge. HE is eleventh tablet of the Izdubar series the one which first attracted attention. sacrifice. Tablet XL Column 1. of gods. cities. — Command —The — The Flood. of adra.— Chaptee XYI. return. of of descent. scarcely any its containing the story of is the most perfect in the line being entirely lost. of people. ark. nation. of gods. tions. —Burial — Comparison with — Syrian —Points —Connection of —Mount — Duration —Ten genera—Age of Izdubar. of of warrior. birds. Nizir. ark. this I. contact. of deluge. —The descent from the — Resting of —The —The —Translation of Hasis— Speeches —Lament over Heabani. —His Resurrection Heabani. —Early to build the ark. Izdubar after adra afar off. Its contents. manner also said to Hasis- . Genesis. — Care Izdubar. building. THE STORY OF THE FLOOD AND CONCLUSION".

lord of Hades.: : TEE 8T0BY OF THE FLOOD 264 2. the gods within 13 their servant. 12. thy ceasing 6. 15 the god Bel. how thou hast done.. presses? of thee. make war come up after thee.. why 4. 8 /^ . . city Surippak the city where thou standest placed. me from thee.. 10. 11. and thou repeatest not 5. 24. I 7. 21 make 22 I 23 cause to go in? the seed of a ship after this destroy? the sinner and life . and in the assembly heart to of the gods ahve thou art placed.. Hasisadra after this manner also said to Izdubar 9... and the god . 18. .. The ship which thou 25. 17.. its length.. 600? cubits shall be the measure of and shalt make. life all of it to the midst of the ship. I his will was hearing and he spake 20. Be revealed to thee Izdubar the concealed story.... 16 the god Ninip. ... and the judgment of the gods be related to thee. it ... 3. I consider the matter. their will he revealed in the midst 19. the great gods 14 the god Anu. and to me Surippakite son of Ubaratutu . not The . that city is ancient .. .. thou repeatest not to my to me from thee.

. me . 41. 31.. 40. thy female and the young men. 27. into me and woman servants. Any 48.. thy wealth. like caves . when I shall have made. Adrahasis his 46. -s 26. closed the ship . 32.: : : AND CONCLUSION. I will gather 44. I perceived 29. into the deep launch . the beasts of the field. 43. and they shall be enclosed in thy do6r.. it. . 60? cubits the amount of its 265 breadth and its neight. • \ 42. 34 he has turned from 35 fixed over 36 37. . 30. 38. slaves. me his servant 33 thou shalt say unto them. . and "" f' W*^- -r*^ .. it enter and the door of the ship turn. young and old will deride me. Hea opened his mouth and spake and said to 28. . on the earth fixed one the ship will not make . . 39. thy furniture. Into the midst of it thy grain. . and said to Hea my lord The ship making which thou commandest me. . I will and send to thee. 45. the flood which I will send to you.. said to Hea mouth opened and spake. and thy goods. thy . . . . the animals of the field all... his lord 47. above and below ... .

over .. they con- structed boxes 13. I placed its roof. I 10... which making which thou commandest me . . Planks against the waters within it I placed....... measures of boxes I had distributed to the boatmen. Column -V^ . saw rents and the wanting parts I added... examined its exterior on the seventh time -^ examined on the eighth time. THE 8T0BY OF THE FLOOD 266 may 49 I 50 on the ground the ship 51. 4.. I rode in it . To . it.. 1. the ship 52. in II. ... see also tlie sliip it it measured it . Two 15. I enclosed on the sixth time . in its circuit 14 measures day fifth . . 16 17 18. 14. I placed in the boxes the offering they sacri- ficed. strono: 2. . 3 measures of bitumen I poured over the 9. . 6. men carrying its baskets. . I it. interior I 7. 14 measures 5. 3 measures of bitumen I poured over the v^inside. on the 3. 3 .. sacrificed oxen dust and wine in receptacle of goats I collected like the waters of a river. also .. were . outside. its frame. 12... 11. its 8. . .

that flood happened. all I possessed the strength of it 27. All I possessed the strength of sessed the strength of pos- it silver. material of the ship 21 completed. all I possessed the strength of life. to rain {or 35. enter to the midst of the ship and shut thy door. which he spake saying in the night: I will cause tt will rain) from heaven heavily. 32.AND CONCLUSION. it and shut my . 267 19. gold. the sons of the people 30. they went in two-thirds of it. 26. strong and 22 23. 29. I collected in boxes with my hand I placed. it the seed of the whole 28. the reed oars of the ship I caused to bring above and below. I caused to go up.. A flood all of them. I caused to go servants and my up into the ship. Shamas made and 31. In the day I celebrated his festival 36. 37. all my male female servants.. the beast of the field. 24 25. food like the dust of the earth also 20. he spake saying in the night it : I will cause to rain heavily. of 34. 33. the day of watching fear I had. all I it. the animal of the field.. Shamas . I entered to the midst of the ship door.

know In heaven 5. 48. the throne bearers went over mountains and plains. and Nebo and Saru went in front. they did not the people. 45. Ninip went in front and cast down. it swej)t. Column III. 1.. 44. Ragmu-seri-ina-namari 41. The bright earth to a waste was turned. the gods feared the tempest and 6. 40. 43. Brother saw not his brother. arose. 47. the strong deluge over the people. . the palace I gave with its goods. from the horizon of heaven extending and wide.. 7. 46. in their glory they swept the earth Vul the flood reached to heaven.. the destroyer Nergal overturned. it earth 3.. destroyed all life . the surface of the earth like 2. TEE 8T0BY OF TEE FLOOD 268 To 38. Vul in the midst of it thundered.. 4.. they ascended to the heaven of ^nu. from the face of the . the spirits carried destruction. The gods like dogs fixed in droves prostrate. 42. close the ship to Buzur-sadirabi the boat- man 39. of 50. sought refuge . 49.. reached to heaven.

the wind. thus : 16. 28. 27. On day the seventh in its course was calmed j^ the storm. and nights 20. 21.AND G0NGLV8I0N. 17. the gods in seats seated in lamentation. Spake Ishtar 9. which had destroyed 23. covered were their lips for the coming 19. The like an earthquake. sea he caused to dry. were weeping with her. over- whelmed. All to corruption are 11. like reeds the corpses floated. were devoted 13. Six days evil. 12. quieted. and all the deluge 22. it passed. have begotten I 15. deluge. uttered Rubat her speech like a child. tears. mankind turned to corruption. making a tossing. passed. 18. 10. and storm. As I prophesied in the presence of the gods evil. like the young my people and of the fishes they The gods concerning the spirits fill the sea. . I perceived the sea 25. 269 : turned and then I in the presence of the gods prophesied evil. 29. and the whole of 26. and the light broke over my face. I opened the window. 8. 24. over my I sat down and face flowed my ) wept. and the wind and deluge ended. to evil my all people and I pro- phesied 14.- ^y^^^ injLcui .

the The ship. tain of Nizir the same. The swallow went and turned. and it returned. The fifth. I sent forth a it did not find. and 39. and did not return. and swallow and it left. the mountain of Nizir the same. it left. a resting-place 40. 47. and 44. and wandered away. and the second day. it swam. for twelve measures the land rose. it and The raven went.30. 45. the decrease of the water saw. and was not able. the moun- third day. I built an altar on the peak of the mountain. 46. 37. 31. I the seventh day in the course of sent forth a dove and it it The dove left. . On 38. and find. The and the fourth day. I libation. went the ship. mountain of Nizir stopped the 33. I perceived the shore at the boundary of the sea. went and turned. 35. ^^" "^^ ^^^ country of Nizic ' ajCUAk rJWC TEE STOBY OF THE FLOOD 270 to pass over 34. the moun- it it first tain of Nizir the same. it did eat. day. it returned. a resting-place it did not 42. and sixth. I sent forth a raven 43. I sent the animals forth to the poured out a four winds. and 41. 36. by sevens herbs I cut.

not leave them. 52. Who then will ask Hea. 11. Hea his the matter he has done? all things. and Hea knew 12. the gods good savour. 2. The gods gods 50. From 7. mouth opened and spake. and simgar. may Elu not come to my altar. and went Elu with anger filled to the gods and spirits 8. collected at its like flies over the sacrifice gathered^^^ From of old also Rubat in her course The great brightness of Anu had created. at the bottom of them 271 I j^laced reeds. of those would not leave Column TV. the warrior Bel 13. and 6. the glory my neck I in those days I desired that for ever I might gods on the charm round 53. saw the people he had consigned to the deep. " Thou prince of the gods warrior. and said to"^ . my 5. pines. let not a man be saved from the deep. 3. 4. 49. 9. When collected at its savour.: : : AND CONCLUSION. the 51.. for he did not consider and had made a deluge. of old also Elu in his course ship. 1. Ninip his mouth opened. and spake and said to the warrior Elu 10. Let not any one come out alive. 48. May the gods come to my altar.

He took my hand 25. to be like the gods are carried away. . I did not peer into the 22. . and his wife. THE STOBY OF TEE FLOOD 272 14. . Adrahasis a pestilence dream they judgment of the gods. 23. he established in a covenant. Instead of thee making a deluge. crease and men be reduced 18. AVhen his judgment was accomplished. Bel went up to the midst of the ship. and in a remote place remote place at the of the rivers they seated me. the faithhim not be destroyed. may lions in- 16. raise and to bring my wife to my side 26.. They took me. . may a famine happen and the country be destroyed making a deluge. in the presence of Hasisadra and the people thus: 28. him not be cut off. and gave this blessing. instead of thee making a deluge. . sent. when thou angry a deluge thou makest art doer of sin did his 15. 27. then shall dwell Hasisadra in a [ ^ at the 30. the sin. he caused to and raised me up. instead of thee Jncrease and men be destroyed. 24. he made a bond.'' 21. the doer of evil did his evil. may 20. and the judgment of the gods he heard. the just prince let ful let 17. may leopards and men be reduced 19. 29. mouth mouth of the rivers. When Hasisadra. instead of thee increase making a deluge. and the people.

37. Column V. like sitting 273 nights. 1. the and let the country. first the sabiisat of his Jcurummat^ 50. road that he came may he return in peace. 36. the seventh in a mantle she clothed him and man go fme. clothe him. His wife to him also said to Hasisadra afar off: man be sent away. 51. Hasisadra to her also said to his wife 44. this be done six days 34. this do his kurmnmat place on his head. second the mussuhat^ third the radbat^ fourth she opened his zikaman. 41. great gate open and may he return to his 40.: AND GONCLUSION. for the health way 35. the 42. his seat. the gods have chosen and seven on the edge of like a also. 39. sixth the bassat. 31. 49. 33. And the day when he ascended the side of the ship. And the day when he ascended the side oi the 47. which thou seekest and askest. his 48. 46. Hasisadra to her also said to his wife announce that the chief who grasps at health the way like a storm shall be laid upon him. fifth the cloak she placed. she did. hurummat she placed on his head. When whom the to tliee 32. The cry of a man alarms thee. let . I 38. storm shall be laid upon him. 43. 45. ship.

4. separated thee. Who filled his is beside the man whom thou comest 21. Izdubar to him also said to Hasisadra afar off: Hasisadra 14 thee to may we not come. Urhamsi also. illness has destroyed the strength of his limbs. thy kurummit. disease has body 22. fifth the cloak she placed. also said to to thee we Urhamsi the cross to pre- serve thee.. sixth the bassat^ 12. fourth she opened the zikaman^ 11. In this off: way thou wast compassionate over me. 10. Izdubar to him also said to Hasisadra afar 3. 13. 5. 17 his 18. 15 collected 16 dwelling in death. : THE STORY OF THE FLOOD 274 2. Hasisadra to him also said to Izdubar. 8 ^. 20. second the mussukat^ third the radbaf. made me. . and thou hast. the of support. 7 thy kurummat. Hasisadra to back? dies him boatman 19. seventh in a cloak I have clothed thee and let thee go free. joyfully thou hast restored me. before.

may health cover his skin. Izdubar 37. Urhamsi carried him. 23. hanging down to cover the cloak of his body. 35. he is satisfied. 31. away. 26. may he may he not cast off. That he may go to his country. and the sea carry it away. His wife to him also said to Hasisadra afar off: 39. 29. 36. 38. he cast off his illness. 24. that he may take his road. may it turn. his disease in the water to beauty 25.AND CONCLUSION. 34. where they placed them they rode. may he cast off his illness. Izdubar goes away. but leave. he per- forms 40. that he might take his road. 275 to cleanse take him. and health covered his it skin. 27. he restored the hair of his head. the he hanging cloak he did not cast off. carry him Urhamsi. hanging to cover the cloak of his body. 33. may it restore the hair of his head. his disease in the water to beauty turned. that which thou hast given him. the hanging cloak alone 30. . but alone left. and the sea carried 32. and returns to his country. and Urhamsi rode in the ship. That he might go to his country. 28. to cleanse he took him.

.. and the judgment of the gods be related to thee. in his heart take .. .: THE STORY OF TEE FLOOD 276 41. he carried the spear? of Izdubar. and to . 52... he carried the account 3.. And 42. its renown when like the Amurdin tree the account a hand shall take Column VI. . 43. 48. up the great stones . an account and turn to. . 50. to 5.. Be revealed to thee Izdubar concealed the story. thou art satisfied.. piled 4. .. they dragged 2.. and the ship touched the shore. Izdubar thou goest away. Izdubar to him also said 6.. and . this account . 47. this in his hearing heard... 51.. and thou re- turnest to thy country... This account like bitumen 49. Urhamsi: 7. 1.. he collected great stones .. thou perform est which 45.. .. ........ that I have given thee...... may 9 it man they bring him to Erech Suburi speech 10. Izdubar... 46.. his mule . . to . Hasisadra to him also said to Izdubar 44.. If a 8. I will give .

. the bricks of its casing are not made. the instrument 24. and over Urhamsi 18. for 23 in and he .. 25. 27.... the sea not to its wall then could I get... his face coursed his tears. midst of Erech Suburi.. Izdubar to her also said to Urhamsi the boat- man: 28.. men . . heart troubled. they returned to the . and Izdubar saw the hole 13. the cylinders are scattered. For 30 kaspu (210 miles) they made the ascent. 11. I my misfortune is my have not done good to 21. Then my turning.. . At my misfortune Urhamsi 19.. and the 22.. in his return 16. Izdubar approached 17. at 20. Erech Ascend Urhamsi will over where the wall go 29. 26. : AND CONCLUSION.. stage... noble of said to . And they left the ship by the shore. 15.. 14. 277 For 10 kaspu (70 miles) they journeyed the for 20 kapsu (140 miles) they journeyed the stage 12. 30. my own self.. and of its foundation is not laid to thy height.. 20 kaspu (140 miles) they journeyed the stage. they came to the midst of Erech Suburi. lion of the earth does good. 20 kaspu (140 miles) then I opened .

in the house of the . . to happiness thou 4.. able to correct some of these. and find the Avords tamhuklcu and mikke do not refer to the author or manner of the death of Heabani... 1 measure the boundary of the temple of plantations. who most probably died in attempting to imitate the feat of Izdubar when he destroyed the The fragments Column 1.. measure the 1 Nantur the house of 32. measure of Ishtar.. a cloak shining 5...— THE 8T0BY OF THE FLOOD 278 31.." several next tablet line of the . .. is house of the After this the story left. The noble banquet thou dost not 7.. . share. the assembly they do not call thee . like a 6. is account in first " Assyrian Discoveries" there are several errors which were unavoidable from the I am now state of the twelfth tablet. 1. Izdubar 2. of this tablet are Tammabukku : I. . again lost for reappears Izdubar my . 3 measures tos-ether the divisions of Erech The opening reads was circuit of the city. . preserved. to to ...) ... mourning for and where it Heabani. misfortune also . was (Several lines lost... lion. In is . . . When 3.. 1 it : " : Tammabukku in the lines.

thy child whom thou hatest thou dost not strike 18. 1 7. part. 5. 10. his 4. 11. stature as his mantle covers him. the spoil defies thee 12. 279 The bow from the ground thou dost not lift. darkness. darkness. thy wife whom thou hatest thou dost not strike Thy child whom thou lovest thou dost not kiss. on the ground thou dost not stretch. 20. darkness. 16. whom he hated he struck. mother Ninazu. the third person being used instead of the second. and a repetition of the lamentation. 2. her feet like a This is deep well enclose him. Her noble 7. child whom he loved he kissed. his 3. her feet like a deep well enclose him. an appeal to one of the gods on behalf of Heabani. the slain feet : thou dost not wear. whom thou lovest thou dost not kiss. 15. it The next appears to have contained the remainder of this lament. his Avife the mio'ht of the earth has taken him. mother Ninazu. 8. The arms of the earth have taken Thy 14. the bottom of the column has him lost all the first upper column. darkness 6. 9. child whom he hated he struck. Shoes on thy 13. wife thee. darkness. what the bow has struck escapes thee The mace in thy hand thou dost not grasp. Her noble stature as his mantle covers 21. : AND conclusion. darkness. The fragments commence the middle of this 1.: . at . 19.

a sting 7.. the resting place of Nergal the unconquered did not take 4... .. The resting place of Nergal the unconquered did not take him...... . wound . 12.. Sin.. . 14. .. .. 11. .. the resting-place .. to the house of Bel alone he -vvent. Asakku did not take earth him.. the earth took him. not him . fly . 15. .. (About 12 hues containing repetition of this lost. .. . COLTOIN III.. Father Bel the matter do not despise 6. 1.. Simtar did not take him. the earth took him. Heabani who to 9. a deadly 8. 10. Simtar did not take him fly . 10. Ninsun for his servant Heabani wept 13.. Father . Heabani who to 2. a deadly wound to the earth has struck me.. THE 8T0BY OF TEE FLOOD 280 8. passage. ni son of . Then Heabani from the 9. . Simtar . of Nergal .. . " Father a Bel. .) 23. In the place of the battle of heroes they did not strike him.. In the place of the battle of heroes they did .. Then . the earth took him. sting to the earth has struck me.. 5. Simtar did not take him 3.

.. . 27. the earth covers what I have seen I will tell thee.. terrible my friend.. Merodach son of Hea 32.. . 35 36.. resting place of Nergal tlie 281 tlie unconquered 25. AND CONCLUSION. thou 5 sittest 6 may you 7 in 8. the spirit (or ghost) of and Heabani like glass (or transparent) from the earth arose and thou explainest. he pondered and repeated CoLmm my this IV.: : . .. 9 10 . weeping sit may you weep youth also thy heart rejoice become old. 34. Father Hea .. the noble warrior 33. To 28. the divider the earth opened... To his father . When friend.. I will not tell. 31.. Merodach . my 1. . Terrible 2 may the earth cover what th ou hast seen. the worm entering in youth also thy heart rejoice full of dust . I will not tell 4. 29... . the divider 30..... 24... the spirit .. in tlie place of tlie battle of heroes tliey did not . 3. friend. terrible. Noble warrior Merodach the noble warrior . 26.

is column there are only remains lost.... He who a couch reclining and in battle is slain. . 8 his 9 Eridu? and Nipur which thou trusted 2 3 4 .. 6 may he mourn 7 Kisu and Harriskalama... which is perfect. 3. pure water drinking. Here there are about thirty lines missing.. 5 . On 2. thou seest and I see. poured out . . ... . 1. the story recommencing with Column VL. Cutha The rest of Column IV..... .. and I conjecturally fragment which appears to belong to part of the narrative.. and of the next of the two first lines.. for him and for . like a 2.. 1... lines being lost. city of Babylon r^ . may he mourn for my fault ... geographical names I 1 it this very curious from the It is contains. Column VI. . Column V. ..... may he mourn ... like good prince who . .THE STOBY OF THE FLOOD 282 he passed over 11 12 I see Here there about twenty insert a is a serious blank in the inscription. which he was blessed .

11. 8. 6. and his wife over him weeps. which evidently refers to the same event as the Flood of Noah in Genesis. iii.AND CONCLUSION. and vol. His spoil on the ground 9. The main is feature the description of the Flood in the eleventh tablet. tablet of the legends of Izdubar. ii. His father and his mother carry his head. This passage closes this great national work. Like the ancient copy written and made in the tents is placed is after. this ancient people. of the spoil account thou seest and 10. The captives conquered come 12. not taken. In my Biblical two papers The Transactions of the Archaeological Society. 283 4. thou seest and I see. 5. . in this part of the Izdubar legends manners. importance in relation to the and customs of civilization. which 13. 7." vol. in " . I see. clear. The twelfth 14. the food eaten. is is uncovered. His friends on the ground are standing. which even in its present mutilated form is of the greatest Hasisadra or Noaii and Izdubar from an Early Babylonluj Cylinder.

are points which I shall not require to notice. There is only one point which I think should not be avoided in this matter : section of scholars that the in some form. "Assyrian Discoveries. a subject on is. not competent to pronounce an inde- pendent opinion. and some of them so unmistakably coloured I feel I could not take by prejudice. and I have made similar I comparisons in my work. that up any of the prevailing views without being a party to the controversy. and the views of Biblical scholars on the matter are so widely at variance. I think all will admit a connection of some sort between the Biblical narrative and those of Berosus and the cuneiform texts. and I must confess I do not think we are at present in a position to form date. judgment upon them. which I am criticism however. matter independent sources . .THE STOBY OF THE FLOOD 284 have given some comparisons with the Biblical account and that of Berosus. from two principal termed the Jehovistic narrative." but I have myself to acknowledge that these comparisons are to a great extent superficial. The authorship and dates of the original documents and the manner. it is Book taken one is the view of a large of Genesis contains. but between Chaldea and Palestine was a a wide extent of country inhabited by different nations. and extent of their combination. the other the Elohistic. a thorough comparison of the Biblical and Babylonian accounts of the Flood being only possible in conjunction with a critical examination both of the Chaldean and Biblical Biblical texts.

who races 285 The Aramean and Hittite once inhabited the region along the Eu- phrates and in Syria have passed away.AND GONCLUSION. the maritime regions being mostly in the hands of the Philistines and Phoenicians. while the Babylonians worshipped gods and lords many. the creator and lord of the Universe. it was only natural each nation should in accordance with its own ideas. in relating the coloiu' mythology. while Palestine was a hilly region with no great rivers. the Jews believing in one God.the severe simplicity of the Jewish them same stories. every city having its local deity. and . difference There was a total between the religious ideas of the two peoples. and their mythology and traditions are until future researches on the sites of their which their cities shall reveal the position in tions stood towards those of Babylonia we shall not be able to clear tradi- and Palestine. well watered and flat. Chaldea was essentially a mercantile and maritime country. in a poetical AVith such differences that. There are some differences between the accounts in Genesis and the Inscriptions. unknown. and these being joined by complicated relations marked system. which was in contrast to . their history has been lost. but when we consider the differences between the two countries of Palestine and Babylonia these variations do not appear greater than we should expect. whose territories these two formed a connecting link between extremes. and the Jews were shut out from the coast. up the connection between the two.

The great value of the inscriptions describing the Flood consists in the fact that they form an inde- pendent testimony in favour of the Biblical narrative at a much earlier date than principal points in the their and any other evidence. in the ark Coming of flood . 10. . . . Chap. Command to build the Bible 1. THE STORY OF THE FLOOD 286 would naturally in each case be laid upon points with which they were familiar. The Food taken . Coated within and with- in ark . Deluge vi. ark 2. . it . to be saved 5. Sin of the world 3. . Threat to destroy 4. Seed of life . Size of the ark 6. . . tablet. Animals to go 7. — Genesis. . Building of ark 8. out with bitumen 9.. two narratives compared in order will serve to show the correspondences differences between the two. and we may also notice that the cuneiform account does not always coincide even with the account of the same events given by Berosus from Chaldean sources. . Thus we should stress expect beforehand that there would be differences in the narrative such as we actually find. .

21 happen Chap.49 Col.&c. ix. vii. Chap. A deluge not There 1. 15. viii. (in v. V.19-21 v. With regard there is to those who were saved in the ark again a clear difference between the two .1-15 v. 1. 7—12 1. while these are given in Genesis as fifty cubits and thirty cubits respectively.. . 6 20 20. 48 1.l2.17. 24 IV. . Col. 19. again the 4 v. 384-4 45 46 . The sacrifice The savour of the 23. 18. . Chaldean measures are effaced it is evident that in the inscription the breadth and height of the vessel are stated to be the same. v. triarch 1.. 20 offering v. 47. .. 11. 1. 1.. 21 1. 9 Chap. . Leaving the ark 14.27 19 21. 18. Sending forth of the birds 17. 1. . 33 1. Building the altar 22.. End 13. . Translation 13 v. 1. v. Deluge tablet. Covenant and blessing of the .AND CONCLUSION. but with reference is the size of the ark there for although the is in to certainly a discrepancy... Bible — 287 Genesis. v. Destruction of people Duration of deluge 12. Opening of window mountain Ark rests on a 16. no unexpected or material difference four of these points.. III. of deluge . Chap. pa- Genesis 1.24.21-26 v. v. 11 to . 28 of Enoch) first v. 17-20 v. 26 1.

tain on not necessarily There is fixing exactly the mounthe place men- ao.TEE STOBY OF THE FLOOD 288 accounts. 216. 217). days for the point the inscription this flood. being east of Assyria. may be remarked.ain a difference as to the which the ark rested . however. making a total duration of one year and ten days." and might be a . was north of It is evident that different mountain of the ark in and there is not positive the earlier traditionary spot. derived from an old Babylonian Avord Urdu^ meaning " highland. while Ararat. Nizir. tioned in the cuneiform text. wliile the in- scription includes his servants. were saved. meaning " many. proof as to which The word Ararat is is Bible." and number. or pilots . probably between latitudes 35° and 6° (see " Assy- rian Discoveries. often an ambiguous word. Forty is. the mountain mentioned in Assyria. the Bible stating all tliat only eight persons. traditions have the })laced the totally different positions. and seven days gives seven for the resting of the ark on the mountain. friends. near Lake Van. and boatmen but certainly the most remarkable difference between the two is with respect to the duration of the On deluge. that those scholars two distinct who documents being included Plere it believe in in Genesis. while the Bible gives the commencement of the flood on the 17th day of the second month and its termination on the 27th day of the second month in the following year. hold that in the Jehovistic narrative the statement is that the flood lasted fort}^ days. which is certainly nearer to the time specified in the cuneiform text. of the family of Noah." pp.

but there is again a curious point in connection with the close of the Chaldean legend. other similar differences will serve neither of the two documents is to this show and that copied directly from the other. shows some similar points. and Enoch is said. It is a curious fact that the dynasty of gods. In the account of sending forth the birds there is a difference in detail between the Bible and the Inscriptions which cannot be explained away. and I think quite possible that when Genesis was written of Armenia was not intended by this term. view it the land My own more southern part of the mountains east of Assyria was the region of the original tradition. This dynasty has sometimes seven. Some of the other differences are evidently due to the ojDposite religious systems of the two countries. some connection Enoch and Noah in ancient or confusion between tradition both are holy men. and that the other sites are subsequent identiis that the fications due to changes in geographical names and other causes.AND CONCLUSION. sometimes ten . to have predicted the Flood. Noah. this is the transla- tion of the hero of the Flood. 28D general term for any billy country. with which Egyptian mythical history commences. the three generations before the Flood. like appears to have been There . In the Book of Genesis seventh patriarch Enoch not it is who is Noah but translated.

there is the same name for the seventh and tenth reign. both being called Horus. and Chaldean kings. which gives ten reigns. which is the length of life of the seventh patriarch Enoch after the birth of his son. . show the three lists. the Egyptian gods. and the seventh reign is stated at 300 years.TEE STOBY OF THE FLOOD 290 reigns. I here Egypt. the Jewish patriarchs. and in the Turin Papyrus of kings.




e.g., and the
upon it, the sacred tree, and composite
beings, show similar stories and ideas to have pre-

a Syrian chief in the ninth century

vailed there to those in Babylonia.

One question which



be asked, and asked in


" Did either of the



Jews or Baby-

borrow from the other the traditions of these
early times, and if so, when ?"




one point in connection with this question

worth noticing


even on the showing

these traditions are not fixed to

near Palestine, but are,

of the Jews themselves, fixed to the neighbourhood
of the Euj^hrates valley, and Babylonia in particular
this of course is clearly stated in the





Eden, according even to the Jews, was by the

Euphrates and Tigris; the
rancha, and

Sippara were

founded before the Flood.


of Babylon,


supposed to have been
Surippak was the city of

the ark, the mountains east of the Tigris were the
resting-place of the ark,

tower, and


of the

Babylon was the


of the

Chaldees the birthplace of

Abraham. These facts and the further statement
that Abraham, the father and first leader of the
Hebrew race, migrated from Ur to Harran in Syria,
and from there

to Palestine, are all so



was the
and that the Jews

in favour of the hypothesis that Chaldea



of these stories,

received them originally from the Babylonians

on the other




there are such striking differences



some parts of tlie legends, particularly in the
names of the patriarchs before the Flood, that it is

evident further information


required before at-

tempting to decide the question.

Passing to the

next, the twelfth and last tablet, the picture there

and the curious story
at the bidding
from the

given, the lament for Heabani,

of his ghost rising

of Merodach, serve to


this as

important in

relation to the Babylonian religion as the eleventh





to the

book of Genesis.

the spirit of one of the diseases, and



the attendant of the goddess of



Asakku would
Heabani, while he was equally

trouble appears to be that Simtar and

not receive the soul of

repudiated by Nergal and shut out from the region

appointed for warlike heroes.


soul of Heabani

was confined to the earth, and, not resting there, intercession was made to transfer him to the region of
I at one time added to this tablet a
the blessed.
fragment Avhich then appeared to belong and which
I interpreted to refer to Heabani's dwelling in hell

and taking
covery of a

both the



way from there to heaven. The disnew fragment has forced me to alter





considerably weakens

and position of
in the



seventh tablet.



argument that the Baby-

lonians had two separate regions for a future state,

one of



the other of joy.

column I have provisionally
placed a curious fragment where Izdubar appears




mourn with him for his friend.
remarkable for the number of cities

to call on his cities to

This tablet


mentioned as already existing in the time of Izdubar.


this notice

with other parts of the legends,

the statements of Berosus and the notice of the cities

Nimrod in Genesis, we get the following list
known cities in the Euphrates valle}^


of the




11. Sippara.



12. Kisu.



13. Harriskalama.











16. Assur.






18. Rehobothair.



19. Resen.

10. Calneh.



20. Calah.

far as the various statements go, all these cities

and j^robably many others were

in existence in the

time of Nimrod, and some of them even before the



the fact, that the Babylonians four thousand

years ago believed their cities to be



such an-

shows that they were not recent foundations,

their attainments at that time in the arts

sciences proves that their civilization

known ages


had already

The epoch of Izdubar must
be considered at present as the commencement of
the united monarchy in Babylonia, and as marking


of progress.

of the series of great conquests in Western

Asia, but



back we have to go from our




known monuments

to reach his era

we cannot


It is

probable that after the death of Izdubar the

empire he had founded


to pieces,

and was only

when Urukh, king of Ur, extended
power over the country and founded the Chaldean
or Southern Sumerian dynasty.
partially restored


Every nation has
on the revival of





was only natural

his empire that the Babylonians

should consecrate the


to give


of the king,

who had

them that unity without which

they were powerless as a nation.

Chapter XYII.


— Correspondence of names. — Abram.
— Sargon. — His

— Concealed
Age of Nimrod. — Doubtful
— Gai-den

of Eden. — Cannes. — Berosus. — Izdubar legends. — Urukh of Ur.
— Babylonian
— Egyptian names. —Assyrian
Notices of Genesis.

TIr of Clialdees.










through various cuneiform

inscriptions are other notices, names, or

passages, connected with the



Although the names of the


Genesis patriarchs are not in the inscriptions giving
the history of the mythical period, the corresponding

personages being, as
different names, yet

have shown

(p. 290), all under
some of these Genesis patriarchal


names are found detached

The name Adam

in a


in the inscriptions.

in the Creation legends,


general sense as man, not as a proj^er name.

Several of the other names of antediluvian jmtriarchs

correspond with Babylonian words and roots, such
as Cain with gina and kinu, to " stand upright," to be



" right,"

Enoch withEmukor Enuk," wise," and Noah
with niih, " rest," or " satisfaction " but beyond these
some of the names appear as proper names also in
Babylonia, and among these are Cainan, Lamech, and

Tubal Cain.

found as the name of a Babylonian town


Kan-nan the meaning may be " fish canal," its people
were sometimes called Kanunai or Canaanites, the
same name as that of the original inhabitants of

In early times tribes often migrated and


names to their new homes
it is possible that there was some connection of this
sort between the two Canaans.
carried their geographical


Lamech has already been pointed out by Palmer
(" Egyptian Chronicles," vol.
p. 56), in the name of
the Deified Phoenician patriarch Diamich this name is


found in the cuneiform texts as Dumugu and Lamga,
two forms of a name of the moon.
Tubal Cain, the father or instructor of all metal
workers, has been compared with the name of Vulcan,
the god of smiths, the two certainly corresponding
both in name and character.
The corresponding


Babylonian mythology, the god of

melter of metals, &c.,

has a

name formed


of two

characters which read Bil-kan.


names of patriarchs after the Flood
names of towns in Syria, but not in

of the

are found as



these are



Ragu, Serug,

and Harran.

The name






no doubt




of the


Assyrian inscriptions in the time


found in the

of Esarhaddon.

After the captivity of the ten tribes, some of the
Israelites prospered in Assyria,

and rose

to positions

of trust in the empire. Abram was one of these, he
was sukulu rabu or " great attendant " of Esarhaddon,
and was eponym in Assyria, B.C. 677. Various other


Hebrew names





are found in Assyria about this time,

including Pekah, Hoshea, and several compounded with
the two Divine

names Elohim and Jehovah, showing

that both these names were in use among the Israelites.

The presence of proper names founded on the Genesis
stories, like Abram, and the use at this time of these
forms of the Divine name, should be taken into consideration in discussing the evidence of the antiquity

of Genesis.

" This period in Babylonia is supposed to have been one of foreign and Arabian dominion.Hittite and Arabian names are found in the inscriptions of the time. Some of the other Gbnesis names are found very much earlier. by which lonian city of Ur is life of Abraham. 1550. After the time of Abraham the book of Genesis is . of 1850) coincides with the date to generally given for the (Genesis kingdom title I of the have no doubt the Baby- There meant. In the reign of Hammurabi. about B. among the witnesses to some documents at Larsa in Babylonia. king of Elam. Now although evidence has been found confirming the existence of a powerful monarchy in Elam at this age. mentioned in Genesis xiv. and factory proof of the correctness of the proper mentioned in this chapter. but in its infancy. satis- is yet and even the outlines of the chronology unknown. evidence of a northern stated is Ur Ur and is not the slightest a northern land o the Chaldees at this period. and other . 2000 Chaldees. B.C.C. 298 It is a curious fact that the rise of the Ur (cir. we must remem- ber that our knowledge of Babylonian history are names no direct record of these conquests has been discovered.CONCLUSION. king of Babjlonia. In the Babylonian records we might expect to find some notice of the wars of Chedorlaomer. appears a man named " Abulia son of Ishmael. who have come out of 31) to xi. the first which appears on a contemporary monument being Ishmael.

In the city of Azupiranu which by the side of the river Euphrates 4. with bitumen exit she sealed up. 3. or legi- timate king. is of great interest in connection with the early history of the Jews. 6. one story which has a strik- ing likeness to that of Moses in the ark. and desiring to strengthen his claim to the throne put out the story given in this tablet to connect himself with the old line of kings. and which. and ascending the may have been assumed on Sargon throne. me on the river which did not . She launched drown me. of Sargon signifies the right. although not within the period covered by Genesis. true. in forth an ark of rushes. and and of the has no it connection with Babylonian history and traditions there remains. B. My mother was a princess.C. however. curious story is This found on fragments of tablets from Kouyunjik. situated mother the princess difficulty she my is me in me conceived me .: . affidrs immediate vicinity. a brother of my father ruled over the country. Sargina or Sargon who I. 2. GONGLZrSION'. am Sargina the powerful king the king of Akkad I. concerned with the countries in its 299 of Palestine. my father I did not know. his was probably of obscure origin. and reads as follows 1. was a Babylonian monarch reigned at the city of The name Akkad about 1600. my brought She placed 5.

10.CONOLUSION. 45 ? my husbandry Ishtar prospered me. and.. After this follows an address to any king who should at a later time notice the inscription. is supposed to have happened about 1600. . and I have . Akki the water husbandman carrier as his placed me. to Akki the water carrier brought me. In the body of various fragments my present work of the Legends I have given the describing the Creation. 18. for every action. and in 12. Durankigal bowed. as we know that the fame of Sargon reached Egypt. 15. years the kingdom I have ruled. Akki the water carrier as his child brought uj). has a tendency to be repeated. &c. 300 The river 7. when in Exodus once performed. 11. time of Nimrod. me Akki the water carrier in tenderness of bowels me. Flood.C. over rugged countries with chariots of bronze I rode. This story B. it carried me. I rule? over the chiefs of the lower countries To the sea Dilmun submitted. &c. 13. it is quite likely that this account had a connection with the events related ii. lifted 9. coast three times I advanced. 8. rather earlier than the supposed age of Moses. &c. 17. the people of the 14 dark races I governed. I govern the upper countries 16.

I have also put forward some theories to account for various difficulties in the stories. as well as I can at present. and to connect together the fragmentary accounts. The most hazardous of these theories is the one which makes Izdubar or Nimrod reign in the middle of the twenty. the grounds for my present conclusions what are them. however. . I never lose sight myself of the fact. my views respect- These theories and conclusions. although not always correct. we have no clue whatever to the age and position of the most famous hero in Oriental tradition. and res]3ecting their principal points of contact with the Bible narrative of Genesis. both in the decipherment of the broken fragments and in the various theories 1 ing them. it will similar reasons to those if any one be only for which caused me to propose namely. . this. because.CONCLUSION.third century before the Christian era. have. I have founded this theory on several plausible. failing it. but probably merely superficial grounds accepts my view on this point. new and I have projected respect- my own opinions many have no doubt that any accession of material would change again ing the parts affected by it. assisted the inquiry. and . on their way. I have changed times. that apart from the more perfect and main parts of these texts. and have more accurate knowledge of the texts for in cuneiform matters we have often had to led to the certainly advance through error to truth. 301 indicated.

2250. Making the date of Nimrod so recent as B. probable that the traditions on which these legends were founded arose shortly the death of Izdubar dition . and in some cases. 2000. now too general a tendency to repudiate the earlier part of history. poems and by some writers. early resolved into elaborate descriptions of natural phe- nomena.C. because in belief. highly probable that legends were written about B. I think. in fact. it similar in is many such additions to historical narra- tives. I have only left from 200 to 250 years between his time and the age of the oldest Looking these at the fact that it is known monuments. after every tra- in fact springs when up the circum- to the supernatural element introduced into the story. 302 my In thing low theory for the position of certainly clear is in the chronology I : as it have Nimrocl. the . every nation The are. one possible is him placed as make to him. but I would not reject nature to those events which may have order to illustrate a current romance of the happened. the intervening period of two centuries does not appear I think it too great.GONCLTJSION. the writer has introduced the supernatural. because of its evident inaccuracies and the marvellous element generally combined with stories of almost it. especially in the East. or add to the story. if this were true. There is. I think that which has any foundation within a generation of the time With regard stances happened.C.

and they accounted for the great problem of humanity presence of evil in the world —the —by making out that proceeded from the original chaos. the sj^irit of con- fusion and darkness. as far as is to preserved. the signs of the zodiac. it According there was a chaos of watery matter before the Creation. myth would have taken to create as that of the philosophers The stories who it 303 a genius as great explain it. which was the origin of things..OONGLUSION. account of the present animals. Beside the in certain features they all agreed. The all and which was even older than the gods. After another blank we have moon a frag- . the and the sun. with the Biblical account. and head of their the some . and myths given in the foregoing pages have. and we come The all have then a considerable blank. very different values are genuine traditions for natural At — some phenomena. which we can only conjecture. substantially agrees. and from this We things were generated. compiled to account some jDure romances. given in Chapter Y. history and traditions the Babylonians placed an account of the creation of the world . it. the planets or wandering stars. the con- tents of this it fifth after to the creation of the heavenly orbs. probably. although different forms of this story were current. tablet in the series relates how God created the constellations of the stars. and. principal Babylonian story of the Creation. they related the creation of legions of monster forms which disappeared before the human epoch.

or chaos on one side and the gods on The gods have weapons forged and Merodach undertakes against the dragon. the animal of Tiamat. and instructed in his various religious duties. and calls evils and troubles of humanity. I have given as far as possible and comments on these texts. that the oris^inal taming: of domestic curious here animals was back that all knowledge of even then so far lost." . called Adam. This is powers of followed by a war between the dragon and evil. and curses him. fect. Our next fragments refer to the creation of mankind.CONCL USION. and the " animals of the city. which is described ends of course in the triumph of the principles of good. the other. and so far as I know the Creation tablets end here. and to meet the requirements of those who desire to study them in the cuneiform character I have arranged to translations publish copies of the principal fragments of the Creation tablets in the " Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archa3ology. 304 ment. for them. with spirit. to lead the heavenly host The war. were considered different creations to the " animals of the desert. In Chapter V." it was or domestic animals." or wild animals. the offends against his god. who down on the his head all sj)irit of chaos. the first I recoa'nized tion of wild which and domestic animals relates the crcait is . as in the Bible he is made per. but afterwards he joins with the dragon of the deep.

the ibur rivers in each case. of the fifth tablet. as Sir Henry Rawlinson in respect to the geography name which render the identi- There are coincidences of the region and fication its very probable believes. two. its name. the known fertility of the region. describing of man. . some- times Gan-dunu. describing the conflict between the gods and the spirit of chaos. the Euphrates and Tigris. principal feature in the second account scription of the eagle-headed of leaders — this men with is The the de- their family legend clearly showing the origin of the eagle-headed figures represented on the Assyrian sculptures. Besides this account of the Creation I have given other fragments bearing upon the same events. III. certainly identical. Obverse and reverse of the the fall tablet. IV.— conclusion: The fragments are I sas have selected for this purpose : I. these differing considerably from the longer account. describing the beginning of the world. Obverse and reverse of the principal fragment. X all tend . describing the IL Fragment creation of the heavenly bodies. and other considerations. Fragment of the chftos at the first tablet. It is probable that some of these Babylonian le- gends contained detailed descriptions of the Garden of Eden. which was most likely the district of Karduniyas. so similar to Gan-eden (the Gar- den of Eden).

. and . and was my my I have given in Chapter IX. In the history of Berosus mention composite being. and have so far given evidence that Berosus has truly described this mythological figure. The fables which form a series now appearing others. or only known by mere fragments or allusions. have made us familiar with the figure of Oannes. Besides this. has not yet been recovered. this is also these legends. to be separate from the only excuse for inserting them here desire to exhibit as clearly and fully as possible the literature of the great epoch which pro- duced the Genesis tablets. but at in no direct connection known between gem the tree and the Fall. is who was supposed to have appeared out of the sea and to have taught to the Babylonians all their The Babylonian and Assyrian sculptures learning. which is one of the most common emblems on the seals and larger sculptures. like the made of a named Cannes. half man. 306 towards view the that is it the Paradise of Genesis. which must have been one of the Babylonian stories of the Creation. as an ornament on dresses mentioned several times present there is a sacred tree .CONCLUSION. although the render even used is engravings very probable that there was a legend of it kind one in Genesis. early times still there are evidently many stories of unknown. There are evidences of the belief in the tree of life. half fish. but fact that the it is a curious legend of Oannes.

Cannes. . From Nimroud Sculpture.


and the Flood becomes the starting point for the modern world in both histories. and the close of this period is known from the well descriptions of the Deluge in the Bible. it is Median conquest. doubtful if If these they formed a and they could scarcely cover a longer .000 years. force us to discard the idea that the details are historical. and hereafter turn out of great importance story of the sin committed one . -wheTi came backwards and forwards to the earth. includinof writina. Two may of these stories are very curious. Berosus in his history has given an account of ten Chaldean kings who reigned before the Flood.080 years after the Flood down to the kings are historical. and the inhabitants of the world were very clearly divided into the good and bad. the Deluge tablet. is the by the god Zu. The enormous reigns given by Berosus to his ten kings.CONCLUSION'. so far as I can judge. and various arts were known. but the stories are only fables with a moral attached. and the other the story of Atarpi. Ac'cord- ing to Berosus 86 kings reigned for 34. and According to Berosus several of the Babjdonian cities were built before the Flood. and have little celestial visitors connection with Babylonian history. although there may be some foundation for his statement of a The zation before the Deluge. Most of tlie 807 other stories.. making a total of 432. are fixed to the great period before the Flood. civili- details given in the Flood leave no doubt that inscriptions describing the both the Bible and the Babylonian story describe the same event. continuous line. the work of Berosus.

must be received with mere than the of the Deluge usual grain of We can and a suggestion as to the date salt.000 years. and that he readily found the means of uniting the country under one sceptre. owed a great portion of his fame in the first instance to his Humbaba. 308 The Median period than 1. In a fragmentary inscription with a list of Babylonian kings. or Nimrod. the progress of which must have received a rude shock- when the country was overrun by the uncivilized Eastern borderers. however. it make will 2450. unfortunately too mutilated to make much use of it.CONCLUSION. probable that Izdubar. that there was a civilized race in Babylonia before the Median Conquest. which weakened them and laid them open to foreign invasion. conquest took place about the round number period. as the people saw the evils of disunion.o.C. but our information about this period about so scanty that nothing can be said is this dynasty. during which the country suffered very I think it much from them. slaying . some names are given which appear to belong to the 86 kings of Berosus. see.000 years for or Elamite if we allow the previous the Flood fall about B. 1. 3500. and. of the It is probable from the fragments of Berosus that the incursions and dominion of the Elamites lasted about two hundred years. Among the fragmentary notices of this period is the portion of the inscription describing the building Tower of Babel and the dispersion. b.

to be an instrument of her . the conquest and sacking of the city of Erech being one of the incidents in the story. his authority from the Persian Gulf to the Armenian mountains. and after named Heabani is persuaded by Zaidu. and two females. a rihu or She was queen and goddess of Erech. Nimrod commence with brought upon Babylonia by The legends of Izclubar a description of the evils 309 or foreign invasion. an Elamite. the daughter according to some authorities of Anu. and here he was visited by the who slew him and carried off his regalia. to come to Erech and interpret the dream of Izdubar. Izdubar was now proclaimed king. Humbaba dwelt in a thick forest. and ruler. god. Ishtar. Izdubar and Heabani it. w^as and according widow of to others of Sin. surrounded by a wall. He refused. Heabani. Dumuzi. angry at his answer. brings to Erech a midannu slays and Izdubar After these things. a famous hunter. offering him her hand and kingdom. having heard the fame of Izdubar. reaching up to the time of the Flood. and. heaven and petitioned her father Anu to create a bull for her. and extended two friends. according to others of the moon Elu or Bel. who tyrannized over Babylonia. Izdubar. ascended to and the goddess. a hunter. friends. he has a dream. they Humbaba.CONCLUSION. become or tiger to test his strength. called Nana and Uzur-amatsa. start to attack having invoked the gods. now comes much trouble a hermit forwarxl . his court and palace being at Erech. fell in love with Izdubar. wlio claimed descent from a long line of kings.

310 created collected Izdubar. passing across a great waste of sand. earth. ultimately Anatu. mourning his double kingdom and wanders is now affliction. and. after an adventure with whom he found a . on Anu complied. and after this wandered where gigantic composite monsters held and controlled the rising and setting sun. passing through summon She descends which are vividly described. and which Izdubar and Heabani a band of warriors and went a against Heabani took hold of the animal by while Izdubar slew its head and it. ushered into is The world of love goes wrong in the absence of Ishtar. advice of Ilasisadra his ancestor. from these learned the road to the region of the blessed. satisfying her vengeance by striking Izdubar with a loathsome disease. Ishtar on this cursed Izdubar. the friend of Izdubar. Izdubar. it. her miother. and abandons his into the desert to seek the who had been transand now dwelt with the gods. Heabani. he arrived at a region where splendid trees were laden with jewels instead of fruit. tail. and descended to Hell or Hades to attempt once more to unearthly powers against Izdubar.CONCLUSION. killed. its seven gates. named Siduri and Sabitu. against v^engeance {he bull. to the infernal regions. Izdubar then met two females. and on the petition of the gods she is once more brought to the the presence of the queen of the dead. and. lated for his piety Izdubar now had to the region a dream.

delivering his life as a country his from foreign dominion. and on his intercession with the gods the ghost of Heabani arises from the ground where the body had lain. probable that Izdubar was. and wonderful manner. as I have already Nimrod. which he had to cross in order to reach the region. and founded Nineveh. an . illustrate. where he mourned anew for friend Heabani. He then extended his empire into Assyria. described to him the Dehige. and after a brief period. are very striking. and slaying the usurper. The details of this and especially the story. he found it surroimded by the waters of death. It is stated. fell The empire to pieces at his but the Assyrian colonies grew into a power- ful state. On arriving at the other side. founded by Nimrod probably death . with monumental era. Here the legendary and Babylonia revived whom commenced the traditional age ends. and that he commenced afterwards hunter. and then Hasisadra. boatman named Ur-liamsl.CONCLUSION. Avho engaged him in conversation about Heabani. Izdubar was met by one Ragmu. Izdu1)ar was afterwards cured of his illness and returned with Urhamsi to Erech. m^Iio Sll undertook to navigate him to the region of Hasisadra. taking up the conversation. Coming near the dweUing of the blessed. which he colonized. king of Ur. accounts of the regions inhabited by the dead. in a the riligious views of the people. under Urukh.

and among the are many specimens carved with scenes from hundreds earliest the seals first B. seals. will were is becomes general. and early example fine is photographed as the frontispiece of the present work. 41.C. 1500. fact that the legends known. cuneiform legend of the it it engraved on a hard is jasper cylinder in bold style. down at to B. other . 99 are from Assyrian One very seals. 239. while those in pp. 262.C. The numerous which to be one of the serve to show the at that time well ture of the country. and part of the litera- . 89. It is worth while here to pause. may be ranged 2000. 158. a change the on in the illustrations to the present work. various dates some of these are probably .C. 95. 159.C. have collected from these early Babylonian seals. and consider the evidence of the existence of these legends from this time doAvn to the seventh century We have the some of these there are in Genesis legends than older : European museums. 312 about this time the stories appear to have been com- mitted to writing. 257. and example of early Babylonian similar cylinders of the on them relief is which from about inscriptions I art. 1600 or 1700.CONCLUSION. 283 are from Babylo- nian seals. 188. 100. 39. The character and which accompanies style shows this most ancient specimens. a remarkable Many same period are known bolder than on the later B. 91. The specimens engraved in pp. others B.

in the period B. On 990. thty depicted in the temples the struggle . In the meantime Egypt supplies a few notices bearing on the subject. After B. showing later. 2000 and 1850.C. Our copy dated in the seventh century graphical notices on it bc. that Christian era one of the Egyptian poems likens a hero to the Assyrian chief.C. Surippak is called the ark city. we come again to numerous references to the Genesis legends. A little 1100 to 800. 46 of "Cunei- form Inscriptions. Kazartu. which show knowledge of them was still kept Nearly thirteen hundred years before the serve to up. the revival of the Assyrian empire. about B. The Assyrians carved the sacred tree and cherubims on their walls.C. showing a knowledge of the story of his voyage to find Hasisadra. between B. and these continue through almost every reign down to the close of the empire. There 313 another curious illustration of the legends is of Izclubar in the tablet printed.C0NGLU8I0N. 1500. we have in Egypt many persons named after Nimrod.C. and we lose sight of all evidence of these legends for some centuries." has already been suggested that the it reference here is to the fame of Nimrod. the literature of Babylonia is unknown." is vol. In this tablet and mention is made of the ship of Izdubar. a knowledge of the mighty hunter there. Kazartu probably means a and one. ii. p. a great hunter. '^ strong/' " powerful. show that the of this tablet but the geooriginal must have been written during the supremacy of the city of Ur.

tlie fio-ure of Oannes and the eagle-headed man. no doubt. and at the important evidence which perfect copies of would undoubtedly give.C. . the paintings on the vases and the carving on their were taken from series of their myths and legends. yield much . Looking.CONCLUSION. Search in Babylonia would. and for the present we have be contented with our Assyrian copies. among the ancient Babylonians and Assyrians. Heabani with the lion Nimrod strus-ales strangling a Nimrod of and and the bull even on their stone vases. and that all I have here written will one day be superseded by newer texts and fuller these works and more perfect light. 314 between Merodach and tlie dra2:on. In this earlier copies of all these works. at the world-wide interest of the subjects. way we have continued evidence of the existence of these legends down to the time of Assurbanipal. the engraver. and the painter. Just as the sculptures of the Greek temples. who caused the present known copies to be made for his library at Nineveh. myths and legends belonging gem« so the to the valley of the Euphrates furnished materials for the sculptor. . but that search has not yet been instituted. 673 to 626. they decorated their portals with figures of and carved the lion. there can be no doubt that the subject of further search and discovery will not slumber. to however. B.

. Berosus. 2Gi>. 44. 293. Age Assurbanipal. 109. story 1. 45. Arrangement E. 50. Alexander the Great. 168. 17. Accad or Akkad. 38. of. 49. Apason. Amillarus. 47. Ardates. Anu. Assur-nazir-pal. 296. Amempsin. Alorus. 48. 55. Adrahasis. 99. 45. 293. seals. 6. 154. 116. 163. Atarpi. 46. 3. Alaparus. 53. 46. Ammcnon. 6. 46. 14. 8. Aus. 1. 21. Ark. 50. 265. 47. Babylonian cit'os. 37. Anomentus. Bel. 53. 293. 20. Abydenus. legends. Belat. 42. Arnold. Amarda. 31. 46. 33. Assorus. 265. 6. 293. Babylonia. Armenia. Alexander Polyhistor. 23. Athenajum. Animals. Assur. Anatu. 46. 293. of tablets. 25. Antiquity of legends. INIr. 155. Babylon. Apollodorus. 49. Anus. Babel. sources of literature. 58. 42. Belus.. 45. 50. 48. 76. 23. 54. 31. creation of. 272. 22. of documents. Assyrian excavations. 53. ^BRAM. 45. Babil mound.INDEX. 46. 50. 46.

12. Eagle. 295. 194. Coming Davkina. Dsesius. 265. Bull. predicted.3. Comparison of accounts of creation. Hades. commencement Conquest of Babj'lon. 11. month. Contents of library. 40. 88. Date of Nimrod. Calah. 208. 47. Chronology. 50. of end Humbaba. 227-229. 17. 46. destruction of. Destruction Corey raean mountains. S38. 816 Bil-kan. 186. Deluge. Birs Nimrud. 4. Chaos. 291.17. tablet. 257. of stars. 306. Delitzsch. 293. 44. of deluge. Eagle-headed men. Creation of animals. 267. 293. 61. 15. to 38-50. Composite creatures. 47. 26. dynasties. 57.. 48. 56. Daily Telegraph. 41. Dache. fable of sun. destruction wrought b}^ 268. Change in Assyrian language. 50. 105.INDEX. 302. 167. 268. Clay records. of. 72. 305. 70. 65. Copies of texts. Dreams of Izdubar. 3. creation of. of. 216. Calneh. 24.. 90. 15. 7. 24. Dannat. 275. of. Dr. 1. 269. 77. of man. translations Descent of. 184. 69. 121. Conclusion. 27. 106. 76. '' Chaldean account of deluge. 22-4. Eden. Borsippa. 138. Description of Hades. 46. Cronos." 6. 25. 101. 16. Cure of Izdubar. 50. Creation. made by deluge. of Erech. 102. 48. Daos. 293. 103. 49. Constellations. 227. 10. 34. 267. of Izdubar legends. 293. . 269. 199. Cutha. 1. Cedars. 22. 284-289. 23. Death of Heabani. 189-191. 91. Dragon. 45. Davce. 16. 303. 78. 245. Damascius. 170. Dachus. astrology. 5. 1G2. 7. Daonus. of deluge. 49. 169. 70. of moon. 69. collection. Eagle. Cory.

Fables. 218. 167. legend of. 279. ox. Humbaba. Exploits of Lubara. 122. Evil spirits. Expedition to Assyria. 17. 293. 307. 251. fiible of. 264. 187. 5. Euedoraclius. Ganganna. amours Euedoreschns. meets scorpion men. 245. 129. 66. 1. Heabani. 26. Horse and Erech. returns to Erech. 17. 264. friendship with Heabani. 308. Forest of Humbaba. Heabani comes Eneuboulus. tablets. 56. 18. 47. 260. 198. 108. 213. Mr. 214. of. 3. 194. 45. 141. 174. 109. 239. 69-71. Ismi-dagan. Harriskalama. Etana. Generation of the gods. Eneugamus. 293. 53. 129. mourns Hea. Fall. meets Urhamsi. Fox. Genesis. Fifth tablet of the creation. Euedocus. Itak. 50. Hammurabi. 11. 262. descent to Hades. 173. loves Izdubar. 1.27. Fragments of struck with disease. Esarhaddon. 817 Elamltcs. 54. 277. 24. to Erech. meets Sabitu and Siduri. in Hades. Ishmael. 26. 216. 33. 248. stones. i cured of his illness. 13. 194. Izdubar. wanderings of. 185. 254. 227. 253. 193. 218. dream 7. 204. 293. as exploits of. God Zu. of. 168. 11. 140. legends. 217. 47. 231. 62. 8. 113. 47. 173. 167. Hasisadra. of. 221. Ishtar. Humbaba. 309-311. anger 27. 275. for of. hears the story of the flood. 18. 137. travels over desert. parentage. 293. return 235. 207. Filling the ark. 298. 47. Heabani. same Flood. 111.INDEX. 170. fable of. 203. Nimrod. 17. First tablet of the creation. 220. 183. minus. History of Izdubar. 32. 267. Talbot. conquers Fox loved by Ishtar. 193. sees Hasisadra. 144. 147-150. 124. 19.. 247. . Eridu. 256.

45. Nipur. creation Moon. 53. trees. 81. 51. of. 33. 25. in Genesis. 77. 4. 312-314. 118. Local mythology. 59. Pine Miscellaneous texts. 78. Pentateuch. 30. 32. 4. 8. 53. tlie Nebuchadnezzar. 23. La^'ard. Otiartes. Megalarus. Larsa. rebels. 301. Nimrod. 20. 251. Merodach. 45. 35. . Omoroca. Lecture on Lenorniant. 207. Prof. Prometheus. Position of inscribed fragments. 83-87. 36. 70. 278-280. INlr. Larancha. 2. 30. Libraries. Karrak. 2S4. " North Briti-h Review. exploits of. 4G. 50. 293. creation fall of. IMummu-tiama*. Nergal. 46. 239. 112. 80. 2. 11. 153. JSTabubalidina. 261. 19. 53. Odacon. 53. M. Man. 48. of. 45.INDEX.. 19. Names Kudur-mabuk. Mythology. 105. Literary period. 52. creation of. Nebo. 2G. 14. 70. Jove. 174-183. Lament of Izdubar. Lubara. 63-65. Oppert. 20. 46. 39. Literature. Patriarchs. 300. Minyas. Moses. Pantibiblon. 270. Nicolaus Daniasccnus. 293. 31. 57. 167. Mythological tablets. Cannes. 48. Babylonian and Notices of legends. rian. 306." 239. 50. 46. 290. Kissare. 58. Paradise. 293. Library of Assurbanijial.. Niuip.. Natural history. 41. 318 Jewish traditions. 17. Assy- Nusku. 295. F. 166. 48. 123-136. Moymis. 46. 49. 293. Nizir. 79. Mamitu. 239. 29. deluge. 45. 59. 25. 49. Kisu. Planets. Koujunjik. Language of inscriptions. pure. Nineveh.

Quoen, great, 209.


Stars, creation of, 69,

Story of Ishtar, 151.

Eagmu, 257.

Snmir, 25.


Rawlinson, Sir H.

2, 3, 8, 86,

88, 1G4, 165, 178, 179.
Eehobotliair, 293.

Sun, creation



Surippak, 203.
Sibyl, 49.

Kcscn, 293.
Resurrection of Heabani, 281.

Eeturn of Izdubar


Erech, 277.

Riddle of the wise man, 156, 157.

Table of gods, 60.
Tablets, mutilation

Tablets upon

of, 9.

evil spirits,


Tauth, 49.
Thalassa, 41.

Sabitu, 253.

Thalatth, 14, 41.


Tiamat, 14, 99, 107.

Sargon, 26, 32, 299."

Tiglath Pileser, 32.

saved in aik, 299.
Sarturda, 119, 194.

Tisallat, 14.

Satan, 14.

Titan, 48, 49.

Sayce, Rev. A.

IT., 8.

Scorpion men, 249.

in stages,


of Babel, 8, 9, 13, 48, 158-

164, 165.


Semitic race, 188.

Traditions collected, 28.

Senaar, 49.

Sending out


of Genesis, 29.



Tugulti-ninip, 24.

Sennacherib, 32.
Serpent, 139, 140.


evil spirits,

17, 107.

Uddusu-namlr, 240,
Ur, 25, 30.

Siduri, 253.

Urhamsi, 254, 274, 275.

Sin, 53, 59.

Urukh, 25, 30, 294,

SinofZu, 113.
Sinuri, 157, 158.

Sippara, 43, 45, 293.

Vul, 53, 55, 108, 109, 116, 717.


Sisithrus, 47.

Shahiianesor IF., 32.

in heaven,





Shamas, 53, 59, 109, 197.
Society of Biblical Archaeology, 5,

283, 304.



Xisuthrus, 42, 43, 44, 46.
Zaidu, 200.


Zirat-banit, 58.



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From the Atlantic Monthly.
"Easily comprehensible, and yet always pointing out tlie sources of

fuller investigation, it is ample,
both to satisfy the desire of those who wish to get the latest results of philosophy, and to stimulate the curiIt is by far the best and clearest summing up of the present
osity of whoever wishes to go further and deeper.
condition of the science of language that we have ever seen, while the liveliness of style and the variety
and freshness of illustration make it exceedingly interesting."



Max Muller, M.A., Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford. Reprinted from the
Vol. I. Essays on the
Second Revised I^ondon Edition, with copious Index.
Vol. II. Essays on Mythology, Traditions, and
Science of Religion.
Customs. Vol. III. Literature, Biography, and Antiquities. IV. MisFour vols., crown Svo, clolh, per vol., $2.50; the set in half


Front the Neiv York F.vening Post.


reader will find in these volumes a body of combined entertainment and instruction such as has
hardly ever been brought together in so compact a form."


ON the




crown Svo, half


$4.50; cloth


Frotn the Chicago Fvening Journal.


thoroughness of


method, the vigor and clearness of its discussions, and the extensive learning
it the high character which commands for such a production the rank

into the text of the work, give

ind authority of a standard."




on Dec.


1873, ^y

With an Introductory Sermon by Arthur Penrhvn
M. A.
Stanley, D.D., Dean of Westminster. One vol., i2mo, cloth,

Max Muller,



or all of the whove



postpaid, on receipt of the price, by the Publishers^








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