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Basic Properties & Facts
Arithmetic Operations ab + ac = a ( b + c ) æaö ç ÷ a èbø = c bc a c ad + bc + = b d bd ab ba = cd d c ab + ac = b + c, a ¹ 0 a Exponent Properties a na m = a n+ m an 1 = a n m = m n am a a 0 = 1, a ¹ 0 a æaö ç ÷ = n b èbø 1 n =a an
n n n
Logarithms and Log Properties Definition y = log b x is equivalent to x = b y Example log 5 125 = 3 because 53 = 125 Special Logarithms ln x = log e x natural log log x = log 10 x common log where e = 2.718281828K Factoring Formulas x 2  a 2 = ( x + a )( x  a ) x 2 + 2ax + a 2 = ( x + a ) x 2  2 ax + a 2 = ( x  a )
2 2
Logarithm Properties log b b = 1 log b 1 = 0 log b b x = x log b ( x
r
æ b ö ab aç ÷ = ècø c a ac = æbö b çc÷ è ø a c ad  bc  = b d bd a+b a b = + c c c æaö ç b ÷ ad è ø= æ c ö bc çd ÷ è ø
Properties of Inequalities If a < b then a + c < b + c and a  c < b  c a b < c c a b If a < b and c < 0 then ac > bc and > c c If a < b and c > 0 then ac < bc and Properties of Absolute Value if a ³ 0 ìa a =í if a < 0 îa a ³0 a = a ab = a b a +b £ a + b a a = b b Triangle Inequality
b logb x = x
b
) = r log
x
log b ( xy ) = log b x + logb y æxö log b ç ÷ = log b x  logb y è yø The domain of log b x is x > 0
Factoring and Solving
Quadratic Formula Solve ax 2 + bx + c = 0 , a ¹ 0 b ± b 2  4 ac 2a If b 2  4ac > 0  Two real unequal solns. If b 2  4ac = 0  Repeated real solution. If b 2  4ac < 0  Two complex solutions. x= Square Root Property If x2 = p then x = ± p Absolute Value Equations/Inequalities If b is a positive number p =b Þ p =  b or p = b p <b p >b Þ Þ b < p < b p <  b or p>b
x 2 + ( a + b ) x + ab = ( x + a )( x + b ) x3 + 3ax 2 + 3a 2 x + a 3 = ( x + a ) x3  3ax2 + 3a 2 x  a 3 = ( x  a )
3 3
Distance Formula If P = ( x1, y1 ) and P2 = ( x2 , y2 ) are two 1 points the distance between them is d ( P , P2 ) = 1
(a )
n m
x3 + a 3 = ( x + a ) ( x2  ax + a 2 ) x3  a 3 = ( x  a ) ( x2 + ax + a 2 ) x 2 n  a 2 n = ( x n  a n )( x n + a n ) If n is odd then, x n  a n = ( x  a ) ( x n1 + ax n 2 + L + a n 1 ) xn + an = ( x + a)( x
n 1
= a nm =a b
n n
( x2  x1 )
2
+ ( y2  y1 )
2
( ab )
a
n
n
Complex Numbers i = 1
n
1 m
1 = n a
n
i = 1
2
a = i a, a ³ 0
æaö ç ÷ èbø
bn æbö =ç ÷ = n a è aø
a = a
n m
( ) = (a )
1 m
n
Properties of Radicals
n
( a + bi ) + ( c + di ) = a + c + ( b + d ) i ( a + bi )  ( c + di ) = a  c + ( b  d ) i ( a + bi )( c + di ) = ac  bd + ( ad + bc ) i ( a + bi )( a  bi ) = a 2 + b2
a + bi = a + b
2 2
 ax
n 2
+a x
2 n 3
L + a
n 1
)
3ö 29 æ çx ÷ = 2ø 4 è (5) Use Square Root Property 3 29 29 x =± =± 2 4 2 (6) Solve for x 3 29 x= ± 2 2
2
Solve 2 x 2  6 x  10 = 0
Completing the Square (4) Factor the left side
2
a =a
1 n
n
ab = a b
n n
Complex Modulus
m n
a = nm a
n
a na = b nb
n n
a n = a , if n is odd a n = a , if n is even
( a + bi ) = a  bi Complex Conjugate 2 ( a + bi )( a + bi ) = a + bi
(1) Divide by the coefficient of the x x 2  3x  5 = 0 (2) Move the constant to the other side. x 2  3x = 5 (3) Take half the coefficient of x, square it and add it to both sides 9 29 æ 3ö æ 3ö x 2  3x + ç  ÷ = 5 + ç  ÷ = 5 + = 4 4 è 2ø è 2ø
2 2
For a complete set of online Algebra notes visit http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu.
© 2005 Paul Dawkins
For a complete set of online Algebra notes visit http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu.
© 2005 Paul Dawkins
Functions and Graphs
Constant Function y = a or f ( x) = a Graph is a horizontal line passing through the point ( 0, a ) . Line/Linear Function y = mx + b or f ( x ) = mx + b Graph is a line with point ( 0,b ) and slope m. Slope Slope of the line containing the two points ( x1 , y1 ) and ( x2 , y2 ) is y2  y1 rise = x2  x1 run Slope – intercept form The equation of the line with slope m and yintercept ( 0,b ) is y = mx + b Point – Slope form The equation of the line with slope m and passing through the point ( x1 , y1 ) is m= y = y1 + m ( x  x1 ) Parabola/Quadratic Function y = a ( x  h) + k
2
Common Algebraic Errors
Error 2 2 ¹ 0 and ¹ 2 0 0 32 ¹ 9 Reason/Correct/Justification/Example Division by zero is undefined! 32 = 9 ,
Parabola/Quadratic Function x = ay2 + by + c g ( y ) = ay2 + by + c The graph is a parabola that opens right if a > 0 or left if a < 0 and has a vertex æ æ b ö b ö at ç g ç  ÷ ,  ÷ . è è 2a ø 2a ø Circle 2 2 ( x  h) + ( y  k ) = r2 Graph is a circle with radius r and center ( h, k ) . Ellipse =1 a2 b2 Graph is an ellipse with center ( h, k ) with vertices a units right/left from the center and vertices b units up/down from the center. Hyperbola
( 3)
2
= 9 Watch parenthesis!
(x
2 3
)
¹ x5
(x
2 3
)
= x2 x2 x 2 = x6
a a a ¹ + b+c b c 1 ¹ x 2 + x3 x2 + x3 a + bx ¹ 1 + bx a  a ( x  1) ¹  ax  a
( x  h)
2
( y  k) +
2
1 1 1 1 = ¹ + =2 2 1+ 1 1 1 A more complex version of the previous error. a + bx a bx bx = + =1+ a a a a Beware of incorrect canceling!  a ( x  1) =  ax + a Make sure you distribute the ““!
( x + a)
2
¹ x2 + a 2 x+ a
n
( x + a)
2
= ( x + a )( x + a ) = x 2 + 2 ax + a 2
x2 + a2 ¹ x + a x+a ¹
( x + a)
n
¹ x n + a n and
2 2
x+a ¹
n
x+n a
5 = 25 = 3 2 + 4 2 ¹ 3 2 + 4 2 = 3 + 4 = 7 See previous error. More general versions of previous three errors. 2 ( x + 1) = 2 ( x2 + 2 x + 1) = 2 x 2 + 4 x + 2
2 2
( x  h)
2
2
f ( x) = a ( x  h) + k
2
The graph is a parabola that opens up if a > 0 or down if a < 0 and has a vertex at ( h, k ) . Parabola/Quadratic Function y = ax 2 + bx + c f ( x ) = ax 2 + bx + c The graph is a parabola that opens up if a > 0 or down if a < 0 and has a vertex æ b æ b öö at ç  , f ç  ÷ ÷ . è 2a è 2a ø ø
a b Graph is a hyperbola that opens left and right, has a center at ( h, k ) , vertices a units left/right of center and asymptotes b that pass through center with slope ± . a Hyperbola

( y  k)
2
2
=1
2 ( x + 1) ¹ ( 2 x + 2 )
( 2x + 2)
2
¹ 2 ( x + 1)
2
= 4 x2 + 8x + 4 Square first then distribute! See the previous example. You can not factor out a constant if there is a power on the parethesis!  x2 + a2 = (  x2 + a2 )2 Now see the previous error. æaö ç1÷ a æ a ö æ c ö ac = è ø = ç ÷ç ÷ = æ b ö æ b ö è 1 øè b ø b ç ÷ ç ÷ ècø ècø æaö æaö ç ÷ ç ÷ è b ø = è b ø = æ a öæ 1 ö = a ç ÷ç ÷ c æ c ö è b ø è c ø bc ç ÷ 1ø è
1
( 2x + 2)
 x2 + a2 ¹  x2 + a2 a ab ¹ æbö c çc÷ è ø æaö ç ÷ ac èbø ¹ c b
( x  h) = 1 b2 a2 Graph is a hyperbola that opens up and down, has a center at ( h, k ) , vertices b units up/down from the center and asymptotes that pass through center with b slope ± . a
2 2
(y k)
For a complete set of online Algebra notes visit http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu.
© 2005 Paul Dawkins
For a complete set of online Algebra notes visit http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu.
© 2005 Paul Dawkins
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