Calculus Cheat Sheet
Precise Definition : We say lim f
for every e > 0
=
there is a d > 0 such that
(
x
)
x
Æ
a
L
whenever 0 << d then
x
a
f (x)
 L
<
e
Limits
Definitions
if
Limit at Infinity : We say lim f
x Æ•
(
x
)
= L
if we
.
can make f _{(}_{x}_{)} as close to L as we want by
taking x large enough and positive.
“Working” Definition : We say lim f
x
Æ
a
(
x
)
=
L
if we can make f _{(}_{x}_{)} as close to L as we want
by taking x sufficiently close to a (on either side of a) without letting x = a .
Right hand limit : lim f
x
Æ
a
+
(
x
)
=
L
. This has
the same definition as the limit except it requires x > a .
(
Left hand limit : lim f x
x

Æ a
)
= L
.
This has the
same definition as the limit except it requires x < a .
f
except we require x large and negative.
There is a similar definition for lim
x Æ•
( x
)
= L
Infinite Limit : We say lim f
x
Æ a
(
x
)
= • if we
can make f _{(}_{x}_{)} arbitrarily large (and positive)
by taking x sufficiently close to a (on either side of a) without letting x = a .
There is a similar definition for lim f
x
Æ a
(
x
)
= •
except we make f _{(}_{x}_{)} arbitrarily large and
negative.
lim f
x
Æ a
(
x
)
= L
Relationship between the limit and onesided limits
ﬁ
lim f
x Æ
a
+
( x
)
=
lim f
x
Æ
a
+
lim

x
)
Æ
x
(
a
(
f
x
lim

)
x
Æ
a
=
f
L
x
(
)
lim f
x
Æ
a
(
+
)
ﬁ lim f
x
Æ a
x
( x
lim

Does Not Exist
)
=
f
(
x
)
x
Æ
a
=
L
ﬁ lim f
x
Æ a
( x
)
= L
Assume lim f
1. lim È Î
x
Æ a
x
Æ
a
cf
( x
)
2. lim È Î
x
Æ
a
f
(
x
)
(
)
x
˘ ˚ =
±
g
and lim g
c
lim
x
Æ
a
x
Æ a
f
( x
)
(
x
)
˘ ˚ =
lim
x
Æ
a
3. lim È Î
x
Æ
a
f
(
x
)
g
(
x
)
˘ ˚ = lim
x
Æ
a
f
( x
)
f
( x
( x
)
Properties
both exist and c is any number then,
( x
)
0
Note : _{s}_{g}_{n} _{(}_{a}_{)} _{=}_{1} if a > 0
1. xÆ• ^{e}
= •
and _{s}_{g}_{n} _{(}_{a}_{)} _{=} _{}_{1} if a < 0 .
x
=

(
x )
= •
lim
x
&
lim _{•} e
xÆ
x Æ 0
= 0
0
lim ln
5. lim
n even :
x Æ±•
n
x
6. lim x
n odd :
x Æ•
7. lim
8.
9.
n even :
n odd :
n odd :
a x
x Æ±•
lim
x
Æ•
_{l}_{i}_{m}
n
a x
a x
x
Æ•
n = •
= •
&
n +L+
2. lim ln( x
x Æ•
If
3. r
4.
If r > 0
then lim
>
)
= •
&
0 then lim
b
r
x Æ•
r
x
x Æ•
lim
x Æ •
b x
+
+
c
= •
=
sgn
(
c
=
sgn
a
= 
_{s}_{g}_{n}
a
)
•
a
(
(
)
x n
and
b
x
r
x
=
is real for negative x
0
+L+
b x
n
+L+
c x
+
d
•
)
•
Visit http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu for a complete set of Calculus notes.
© 2005 Paul Dawkins
Calculus Cheat Sheet
Evaluation Techniques L’Hospital’s Rule
(
x
)
= f
(
a
)
f
( x
)
If lim
(
)
Æ a
x
f
g
( x
x
lim
x
Æ
a
g
( x
)
)
f
=
or
lim
0 x
¢ ( x
Æ a
)
= lim
x
Æ
a
g
¢
(
x
)
0
f
( x
)
Continuous Functions
If f _{(}_{x} _{)} is continuous at a then lim f
)
= ±• ±• then,
x
Æ
a
g
( x
Continuous Functions and Composition
Combine Rational Expressions
ˆ
¯ ˜
x
lim
1
Ê
Ë Á
1
1
Ê x
Á
Ë
Á

(
+
h
)
h
Æ
0

h
x
+
h
x
=
lim
1
h
Æ
0
h
x
(
x
+
h
)
ˆ
˜
¯ ˜
=
lim
h
Æ
0
1
Ê
Á
Á
Ë

h
h
x
(
x
+
h
)
ˆ
˜ ˜ ¯
=
lim
h
Æ
0

1
1
= 
x
(
x
+
h
)
2
x
a is a number, • or •
compute
Polynomials at Infinity
p _{(} x) and q _{(}_{x}_{)} are polynomials. To
lim
x
Æ•
p (
x
)
q
3
(
x
2
x
)

3 
4
x
2
5
x
 2
< 

2
2
lim
x Æ±•
_{p}_{(}_{x}_{)} and _{q} _{(}_{x}_{)} and then compute limit.
factor largest power of x out of both
4
5
x

2
2
x
=
lim
x
Æ•
2
x
(
3 
4
x
2
)
x
2
(
5
x
 2
)
=
lim
x
Æ•
= 
Piecewise Function
2 +
 3
Compute two one sided limits,
(
)
Ï x
1
Ó
= Ì
lim g
x Æ 2
(
)
x
where
g
x
5 if
if
x
x
x
lim
x Æ
2 
g
x
= lim
x
Æ
2

x
lim
x Æ
2 +
g
x
= lim 1
x
Æ
2
+
lim g
x Æ 2
5
=
=
9
7
(
(
)
)
2 +
3

x
One sided limits are different so
doesn’t exist. If the two one sided limits had
been equal then
and had the same value.
lim g
x Æ 2
(
x
)
(
x
)
would have existed
Some Continuous Functions
Partial list of continuous functions and the values of x for which they are continuous.
1. Polynomials for all x.
2. Rational function, except for x’s that give division by zero.
7. cos(x) and sin(x) for all x.
8. tan _{(}_{x}_{)}
and sec(x) provided
3. ^{n} x (n odd) for all x.
4. ^{n} x (n even) for all
x 0 .
x
5. for all x.
e
x L
3
, ,
2
p


p
2
,
p
2
,
3
p
2
,
L
9. cot _{(}_{x}_{)} and csc(x) provided
6. ln x
for x >
0 .
x L,2p,p,0,p,2p,L
3
2
Intermediate Value Theorem Suppose that f _{(}_{x}_{)} is continuous on [a, b] and let M be any number between f _{(}_{a}_{)} and f _{(}_{b}_{)} .
Then there exists a number c such that a < c < b and f _{(}_{c}_{)} = M .
Visit http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu for a complete set of Calculus notes.
© 2005 Paul Dawkins
Calculus Cheat Sheet
Derivatives
Definition and Notation
If y = f _{(}_{x}_{)} then the derivative is defined to be f
¢ (
x
)
=
lim
f
(
x
+
h
)

f
(
x
)
h Æ 0
h
.
If _{y} _{=} _{f} _{(} _{x}_{)} then all of the following are
equivalent notations for the derivative.
f
¢ (
x
)
= y
¢ =
df dy
=
dx dx
=
d
dx
(
f
(
x
))
=
Df
(
x
)
If _{y} _{=} _{f} _{(} _{x}_{)} all of the following are equivalent
notations for derivative evaluated at x = a .
f
¢ (
a
)
= y ¢
x
= a
df
dy
=== Df
dx
x = a
dx
x
= a
(
a
)
If y = f _{(}_{x}_{)} then,
Interpretation of the Derivative
2.
f ¢
(a) is the instantaneous rate of
1. m
=
f ¢
(a)
is the slope of the tangent
line to y
equation of the tangent line at x = a is
given by y
=
=
f
at
(a)
x = a and
+ f ¢
(a)(x
the

a)
.
f _{(}_{x}_{)}
3.
change of f _{(}_{x}_{)} at x =
If f _{(}_{x}_{)} is the position of an object at
time x then f ¢
the object at x = a .
a .
(a)
is the velocity of
Basic Properties and Formulas If f _{(}_{x} _{)} and g _{(} x) are differentiable functions (the derivative exists), c and n are any real numbers,
Visit http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu for a complete set of Calculus notes.
© 2005 Paul Dawkins
Calculus Cheat Sheet
Chain Rule Variants The chain rule applied to some specific functions.
d
1. (
dx
d
dx
d
(
(
Î È
e
f
f
(
(
x
x
)
)
)
˚ ˘
dx
(sin
n )
¢
=
(
n
f
( x
)
)
f (x)
Î È
˚ ˘
n
 1
2.
= f
x
e
f
( x
)
˘ ˚
) =
)
f
¢ (
x
)
f
(
x
)
˚ ˘
=
f
(
x
)
3. ln È Î
dx
d
4. f
Î
È
¢ ()cos x
f
¢ (
x
)
Î È
f
()
x
˚ ˘
5. d
6.
dx
d
dx
7. d
dx
8. d
dx
(cos
(
tan
Î È
È
Î
f
f
(
(
x
x
)
)
˘ ˚
˚ ˘
) = 
)
=
f
f
¢ ()sin x
¢
()
x
sec
2
Î È
È
Î
f
f
()
x
˚ ˘
()
x
˚ ˘
_{(}_{s}_{e}_{c}_{[} f (x)])
(
tan
 1
È Î
f
( x
=
)
˘ ˚
f (x)sec[ f (x)]tan[ f (x)]
¢
)
=
f
¢ (
x
)
1 + È Î
f
(
x
)
˘ ˚
2
Higher Order Derivatives The n ^{t}^{h} Derivative is denoted as
The Second Derivative is denoted as
f
f
¢¢
¢¢
x
(
()
x
)
=
=
f
(
2
(
f
¢
)
(
x
)
())
x
=
¢
d
2
f
dx
2
a nd i s d e f i n e d a s
, i.e. the derivative of the
first derivative, f ¢
(x)
.
f
f
(
(
n
n
)
)
(
(
x
x
)
)
=
=
d
n
f
n
dx
f
(
(
n

and is defined as
1
)
(
x
))
¢
, i.e. the derivative of
the (n1) ^{s}^{t} derivative, f
(
n

1
)
(
x
)
.
Implicit Differentiation
Find
will use the product/quotient rule and derivatives of y will use the chain rule. The “trick” is to differentiate as normal and every time you differentiate a y you tack on a y¢ (from the chain rule). After differentiating solve for y¢ .
y¢ if e
x

y
+
2
9
3
2
x y
=
sin
(
y
)
+
11 x . Remember
_{y} _{=} _{y} _{(}_{x}_{)} here, so products/quotients of x and y
e 
2 x  9 y 
( 2  
9 
y 
¢ 
) + 
3 
2 x 
y 
2 
+ 
2 
3 x 

2 
e 2 x  9 
y  
9 
y 
¢ e 
2 x 
 
9 
y 
+ 
3 
x 
2 y 
2 
+ 

( 
2 x 3 y 
 9 
e 
2 x 
 
9 
y 
 
cos 
( 
y 
)) 
y ¢ = 
y y
¢ = cos
2
3
x
11
¢ =
e
2
y y

2
x
(
)
y
cos

9
y
y ¢ + 11
(

)
y
3
y
x
2
¢+
y
2
11
ﬁ y
¢ =
11 
2
e 2
x
 9
y

3 x
2
y
2
2
x
3 y

9
e 2
x
 9
y

cos
(
y
)
Increasing/Decreasing – Concave Up/Concave Down
Critical Points
x = c is a critical point of f _{(}_{x}_{)} provided either
1.
f ¢(c) = 0 or 2.
f ¢
(c)
doesn’t exist.
Increasing/Decreasing
1. If f ¢( x) > 0 for all x in an interval I then
f _{(}_{x}_{)} is increasing on the interval I.
2. If f ¢( x) < 0 for all x in an interval I then
f _{(}_{x}_{)} is decreasing on the interval I.
3. If f ¢( x) = 0 for all x in an interval I then
f _{(}_{x}_{)} is constant on the interval I.
Visit http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu for a complete set of Calculus notes.
Concave Up/Concave Down
1.
f o r a ll x i n a n i nt e r va l I t he n
f _{(} x) is concave up on the interval I.
2. f ¢¢ _{(} x _{)} < 0 f o r a ll x i n a n i nt e r va l I t he n
I f
I f
f ¢¢ _{(} x _{)} > 0
f _{(} x) is concave down on the interval I.
Inflection Points
x = c is a inflection point of f _{(}_{x}_{)} if the
concavity changes at x = c .
© 2005 Paul Dawkins
Calculus Cheat Sheet
Absolute Extrema
1. x = c is an absolute maximum of f _{(}_{x}_{)}
if f _{(}_{c}_{)} f _{(}_{x}_{)}_{f}_{o}_{r} all x in the domain.
2. x = c is an absolute minimum of f _{(}_{x}_{)}
if f _{(}_{c}_{)} £ f _{(}_{x}_{)}_{f}_{o}_{r} all x in the domain.
Extrema
Relative (local) Extrema
1. = c is a relative (or local) maximum of
x
f
_{(} x) if f _{(}_{c}_{)} f _{(}_{x}_{)} for all x near c.
2. = c is a relative (or local) minimum of
x
f
_{(} x) if f _{(}_{c}_{)} £ f _{(}_{x}_{)} for all x near c.
Fermat’s Theorem If f _{(}_{x}_{)} has a relative (or local) extrema at
x
= c , then
x = c is a critical point of
f _{(} x) .
Extreme Value Theorem If f _{(}_{x}_{)} is continuous on the closed interval
_{[}_{a}_{,} b] then
1. a £ c, d £ b , 2. f _{(}_{c}_{)} is the abs. max. in
_{[}_{a}_{,}_{b}_{]}_{,} 3. f _{(}_{d} _{)} is the abs. min. in _{[}_{a}_{,}_{b}_{]}_{.}
there exist numbers c and d so that,
Finding Absolute Extrema To find the absolute extrema of the continuous function _{f} _{(}_{x}_{)} on the interval _{[}_{a}_{,}_{b}_{]} use the
following process.
1. Find all critical points of f _{(}_{x}_{)} in
2. Evaluate f _{(} x) at all points found in Step 1.
3. Evaluate _{f} _{(}_{a}_{)} and _{f} _{(}_{b}_{)} .
4. Identify the abs. max. (largest function value) and the abs. min.(smallest function value) from the evaluations in Steps 2 & 3.
_{[}_{a}_{,} b].
1
If x = c is a critical point of
^{s}^{t} Derivative Test
f _{(}_{x}_{)} then
x = c is
1. rel. max. of f _{(}_{x}_{)} if f ¢(x) > 0 to the left a 

of x = c and f ¢( x) < 0 to the right of x = 
c . 

2. a rel. min. of f _{(}_{x}_{)} if f ¢( x) < 0 to the left 

of x = c and _{f} ¢( _{x}_{)} _{>} _{0} to the right of x = c . 

3. not a relative extrema of f _{(}_{x}_{)} if f ¢ (x) 
is 

the same sign on both sides of x = c . 

2 ^{n}^{d} Derivative Test 

If x = c is a critical point of f _{(}_{x}_{)} such that 

f ¢(c) = 0 then x = c 

1. ma xi mu m of f _{(} x _{)} if f ¢¢ _{(} c _{)} < i s a r e l a ti ve 
0 . 

2. mi ni mu m of f _{(} x _{)} if f ¢¢ _{(} c _{)} > 0 . i s a r e l a ti ve 
3. may be a relative maximum, relative
mi ni mu m , o r ne it he r i f f ¢¢ _{(} c _{)} = 0
.
Finding Relative Extrema and/or Classify Critical Points
1. Find all critical points of f _{(}_{x}_{)} .
2. Use the 1 ^{s}^{t} derivative test or the 2 ^{n}^{d} derivative test on each critical point.
Mean Value Theorem
If f _{(}_{x} _{)} is continuous on the closed interval _{[}_{a}_{,} b]
then there is a number a < c < b such that
f
¢
(
c
)
=
and differentiable on the open interval _{(}_{a}_{,} b)
f (b) f (a)

b

a
.
If x
Newton’s Method
n is the n ^{t}^{h} guess for the root/solution of f _{(} x _{)} = 0 then (n+1) ^{s}^{t} guess is
provided
f ¢
(
x
n
)
exists.
x
n
+
1
=
x
n

f
(
x
n
)
f
¢
(
x
n
)
Visit http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu for a complete set of Calculus notes.
© 2005 Paul Dawkins
Calculus Cheat Sheet
Related Rates Sketch picture and identify known/unknown quantities.
and differentiate with respect to t using implicit differentiation (i.e. add on a derivative every time
you differentiate a function of t).
Write down equation relating quantities
Plug in known quantities and solve for the unknown quantity.
Ex. Two people are 50 ft apart when one starts walking north. The angleq changes at
0.01 rad/min. At what rate is the distance between them changing when q = 0.5 rad?
We have q ¢ = 0.01 rad/min. and
want to find
x¢ . We can use various trig fcns but easiest is,
sec 
q 
= 
x 
ﬁ 
sec 
q 
tan 
q q 
¢ = 
x ¢ 
50 
50 
We knowq = 0.05 so plug in q ¢ and solve.
x ¢ = 0.3112 ft/sec
Remember to have calculator in radians!
sec (0.5)tan (0.5)(0.01) =
x ¢
50
Optimization Sketch picture if needed, write down equation to be optimized and constraint. Solve constraint for one of the two variables and plug into first equation. Find critical points of equation in range of variables and verify that they are min/max as needed.
Visit http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu for a complete set of Calculus notes.
Calculus Cheat Sheet
Integrals
Definitions
Definite Integral: Suppose f _{(}_{x}_{)} is continuous
on _{[}_{a}_{,}_{b}_{]}_{.} Divide _{[}_{a}_{,}_{b}_{]} into n subintervals of
*
width D x and choose x from each interval.
i
Then
Ú
b
a
f
(
x
)
dx
=
lim
n
Æ•
•
Â
i
=
1
f
(
x
*
i
)
D
x .
AntiDerivative : An antiderivative of f _{(} x)
is a function, F _{(} x) , such that F _{(} x)
Indefinite Integral :
where F _{(}_{x}_{)} is an antiderivative of f _{(}_{x}_{)} .
.
¢
=
f
( x)
Ú
f _{(}_{x}_{)} dx = F _{(}_{x}_{)} + c
Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
Part I : If f _{(} x) is continuous on _{[}_{a}_{,} b] then
g
(
x
and
)
g
=
¢
(
Ú
x
a
x
)
f
=
( )
t
d
dx
dt
Ú
x
a
is also continuous on _{[}_{a}_{,} b]
f
( )
t
dt
=
f
(
x
)
.
Part II : f _{(} x) is continuous on[a, b] , F _{(} x _{)} is
an antiderivative of f _{(} _{x}_{)} (i.e. F _{(}_{x}_{)} =
Ú f (x)dx )
Variants of Part I :
d
dx
d
dx
d
dx
Ú
Ú
Ú
u
a
b
v
(
u
v
(
(
x
x
)
(
x
x
)
)
f
f
)
f
( )
t
( )
t
( )
t
dt
dt
dt
=
u
¢
= 
v
=
u
¢
(
¢
(
x
)
f
Î È
u
(
x
)
˚ ˘
()
x
f
Î È
v
()
x
˚ ˘
x
)
f
[
u
(
x
)
]

v
¢
(
x
)
f
[
v
(
x
)
]
Calculus Cheat Sheet
Standard Integration Techniques Note that at many schools all but the Substitution Rule tend to be taught in a Calculus II class.
u Substitution : The substitution u = g _{(} x) will convert
Ú
b
a
f
(
g
(
x
))
g¢
()
x
dx =
Ú
(
g b
)
g
(
a
)
f
()
u
du
using
du = g¢( x) dx . For indefinite integrals drop the limits of integration.
2 
( 
Ú 
2 
) 
Ú ) 
8 

Ex. 
2 
cos 
x 
3 
) dx 
5 x 
2 
cos 
( x = 3 5 
dx 
= 
5 
cos 
( 
u 
) 
dx 

Ú _{1} 5x 3 u = x ﬁ 
2 du = 3x dx 
ﬁ 2 x dx = 
1 3 
du 
1 
sin 
( 
u 
1 8 
3 = 5 ( sin 
( 
8 ) 
 
sin 
( )) 1 

x =1 
ﬁ 
u =1 
3 
=1 
:: x = 2 
ﬁ u = 2 

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