You are on page 1of 6

Calculus Cheat Sheet

Precise Definition : We say lim f

for every e > 0

=

there is a d > 0 such that

(

x

)

x

Æ

a

L

whenever 0 <-< d then

x

a

f (x)

- L

<

e

Limits

Definitions

if

Limit at Infinity : We say lim f

x Æ•

(

x

)

= L

if we

.

can make f (x) as close to L as we want by

taking x large enough and positive.

“Working” Definition : We say lim f

x

Æ

a

(

x

)

=

L

if we can make f (x) as close to L as we want

by taking x sufficiently close to a (on either side of a) without letting x = a .

Right hand limit : lim f

x

Æ

a

+

(

x

)

=

L

. This has

the same definition as the limit except it requires x > a .

(

Left hand limit : lim f x

x

-

Æ a

)

= L

.

This has the

same definition as the limit except it requires x < a .

f

except we require x large and negative.

There is a similar definition for lim

x Æ-•

( x

)

= L

Infinite Limit : We say lim f

x

Æ a

(

x

)

= • if we

can make f (x) arbitrarily large (and positive)

by taking x sufficiently close to a (on either side of a) without letting x = a .

There is a similar definition for lim f

x

Æ a

(

x

)

= -•

except we make f (x) arbitrarily large and

negative.

lim f

x

Æ a

(

x

)

= L

Relationship between the limit and one-sided limits

lim f

x Æ

a

+

( x

)

=

lim f

x

Æ

a

+

lim

-

x

)

Æ

x

(

a

(

f

x

lim

-

)

x

Æ

a

=

f

L

x

(

)

lim f

x

Æ

a

(

+

)

lim f

x

Æ a

x

( x

lim

-

Does Not Exist

)

=

f

(

x

)

x

Æ

a

=

L

lim f

x

Æ a

( x

)

= L

Assume lim f

1. lim È Î

x

Æ a

x

Æ

a

cf

( x

)

2. lim È Î

x

Æ

a

f

(

x

)

(

)

x

˘ ˚ =

±

g

and lim g

c

lim

x

Æ

a

x

Æ a

f

( x

)

(

x

)

˘ ˚ =

lim

x

Æ

a

3. lim È Î

x

Æ

a

f

(

x

)

g

(

x

)

˘ ˚ = lim

x

Æ

a

f

( x

)

f

( x

( x

)

Properties

both exist and c is any number then, È f
(
)
lim f
(
x
)
x
x Æ
a
4. lim
Í
Î
˘ ˙ =
provided lim g
x
Æ a
g
(
x
)
lim
g
(
x
)
x
Æ a
˚
x Æ
a
)
± lim
g
(
x
)
n
n È
x
Æ
a
5. lim È
f
() x
=
lim
f
() x
˘
Î
˘ ˚
Î
˚
x Æ
a
x
Æ
a
lim
g
(
x
)
6. lim
È
Î
n f
( x
)
n lim
f
(
x
)
˘ ˚ =
x Æ
a
x
Æ
a
x
Æ
a
Basic Limit Evaluations at ± •

( x

)

0

Note : sgn (a) =1 if a > 0

1. xÆ• e

= •

and sgn (a) = -1 if a < 0 .

x

=

-

(

x )

= -•

lim

x

&

lim e
xÆ-

x Æ 0

= 0

0

lim ln

5. lim

n even :

x Æ±•

n

x

6. lim x

n odd :

x Æ•

7. lim

8.

9.

n even :

n odd :

n odd :

a x

x Æ±•

lim

x

Æ•

lim

n

a x

a x

x

Æ-•

n = •

= •

&

n +L+

2. lim ln( x

x Æ•

If

3. r

4.

If r > 0

then lim

>

)

= •

& 0 then lim

b

r

x Æ•

r

x

x Æ-•

lim

x Æ- •

b x

+

+

c

= -•

=

sgn

(

c

=

sgn

a

= -

sgn

a

)

a

(

(

)

x n

and

b

x

r

x

=

is real for negative x

0

+L+

b x

n

+L+

c x

+

d

)

Visit http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu for a complete set of Calculus notes.

Calculus Cheat Sheet

Evaluation Techniques L’Hospital’s Rule

(

x

)

= f

(

a

)

f

( x

)

If lim

(

)

Æ a

x

f

g

( x

x

lim

x

Æ

a

g

( x

)

)

f

=

or

lim

0 x

¢ ( x

Æ a

)

= lim

x

Æ

a

g

¢

(

x

)

0

f

( x

)

Continuous Functions

If f (x ) is continuous at a then lim f

)

= ±• ±• then,

x

Æ

a

g

( x

Continuous Functions and Composition f ( x) is continuous at b and lim g
(
x
)
= b
then
x
Æ
a
lim
f
( g
(
x
))
=
f
(
lim
g
(
x
)
)
=
f
(
b
)
x
Æ a
x
Æ
a
Factor and Cancel
-
2
x
+
4
x
12
(
x
-
2
)(
x
+
6
)
lim
= lim
2
x
Æ 2
x
-
2
x
x
Æ
2
x
(
x
-
2
)
x + 6
8
= lim
=
=
4
x Æ 2
x 2
Rationalize Numerator/Denominator
3
-
x
3
-
x
3
+
x
lim
= lim
2
2
x
Æ
9
x
-
81 x
Æ
9
x
-
81 3 +
x
9
-
x
-
1
=
lim
=
lim
x
Æ
9
(
2
)(
)
x
Æ
9
)(
x
-
81
3
+
x
(
x
+
9
3
+
x
)
- 1
1
= = -
(
18 )(
6
)
108

Combine Rational Expressions

ˆ

¯ ˜

x

lim

1

Ê

Ë Á

1

1

Ê x

Á

Ë

Á

-

(

+

h

)

h

Æ

0

-

h

x

+

h

x

=

lim

1

h

Æ

0

h

x

(

x

+

h

)

ˆ

˜

¯ ˜

=

lim

h

Æ

0

1

Ê

Á

Á

Ë

-

h

h

x

(

x

+

h

)

ˆ

˜ ˜ ¯

=

lim

h

Æ

0

-

1

1

= -

x

(

x

+

h

)

2

x

a is a number, or -•

compute

Polynomials at Infinity

p ( x) and q (x) are polynomials. To

lim

x

Æ-•

p (

x

)

q

3

(

x

2

x

)

-

3 -

4

x

2

5

x

- 2

< -

-

2

2

lim

x Æ±•

p(x) and q (x) and then compute limit.

factor largest power of x out of both

4

5

x

-

2

2

x

=

lim

x

Æ-•

2

x

(

3 -

4

x

2

)

x

2

(

5

x

- 2

)

=

lim

x

Æ-•

= -

Piecewise Function

2 +

- 3

Compute two one sided limits,

(

)

Ï x

1

Ó

= Ì

lim g

x Æ- 2

(

)

x

where

g

x

5 if

if

x

x

x

lim

x Æ-

2 -

g

x

= lim

x

Æ-

2

-

x

lim

x Æ-

2 +

g

x

= lim 1

x

Æ-

2

+

lim g

x Æ- 2

5

=

=

9

7

(

(

)

)

2 +

3

-

x

One sided limits are different so

doesn’t exist. If the two one sided limits had

been equal then

lim g

x Æ- 2

(

x

)

(

x

)

would have existed

Some Continuous Functions

Partial list of continuous functions and the values of x for which they are continuous.

1. Polynomials for all x.

2. Rational function, except for x’s that give division by zero.

7. cos(x) and sin(x) for all x.

8. tan (x)

and sec(x) provided 3. n x (n odd) for all x. 4. n x (n even) for all

x 0 .

x

5. for all x.

e

x L

3

, ,
2

p

-

-

p

2

,

p

2

,

3

p

2

,

L

9. cot (x) and csc(x) provided

6. ln x

for x >

0 .

x L,-2p,-p,0,p,2p,L

3

2

Intermediate Value Theorem Suppose that f (x) is continuous on [a, b] and let M be any number between f (a) and f (b) .

Then there exists a number c such that a < c < b and f (c) = M .

Visit http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu for a complete set of Calculus notes.

Calculus Cheat Sheet

Derivatives

Definition and Notation

If y = f (x) then the derivative is defined to be f

¢ (

x

)

=

lim

f

(

x

+

h

)

-

f

(

x

)

h Æ 0

h

.

If y = f ( x) then all of the following are

equivalent notations for the derivative.

f

¢ (

x

)

= y

¢ =

df dy

=

dx dx

=

d

dx (

f

(

x

))

=

Df

(

x

)

If y = f ( x) all of the following are equivalent

notations for derivative evaluated at x = a .

f

¢ (

a

)

= y ¢

x

= a

df

dy

=== Df

dx

x = a

dx

x

= a

(

a

)

If y = f (x) then,

Interpretation of the Derivative

2.

f ¢

(a) is the instantaneous rate of

1. m

=

f ¢

(a)

is the slope of the tangent

line to y

equation of the tangent line at x = a is

given by y

=

=

f

at

(a)

x = a and

+ f ¢

(a)(x

the

-

a)

.

f (x)

3.

change of f (x) at x =

If f (x) is the position of an object at

time x then f ¢

the object at x = a .

a .

(a)

is the velocity of

Basic Properties and Formulas If f (x ) and g ( x) are differentiable functions (the derivative exists), c and n are any real numbers, d
1.
(c f ) ¢ = c f ¢
(x)
5.
(
c
)
= 0
dx
¢
2.
( f
±
g
)
= f ¢
()x
±
g ¢
()x
(
n )
n
- 1
6. d
x
= n x
– Power Rule
dx
3.
( f g ) ¢ = f
¢
g
+
f g
¢ – Product Rule
d
7.
(
f
(
g
(
x
)))
=
f
¢
(
g
(
x
))
g
¢
(
x
)
¢
dx
Ê
f
ˆ
f
¢
g
-
f g ¢
4.
=
– Quotient Rule
Á
˜
This is the Chain Rule
2
g
g
Ë
¯
Common Derivatives
d
d
d
(
)
x
x
x
= 1
(csc
x
) =
- csc
x
cot
x
(
a
)
=
a
ln(
a
)
dx
dx
dx
d
d
d
2
x
x
(sin
x
) = cos
x
(
cot
x
)
= -
csc
x
(
e
)
= e
dx
dx
dx
d
d
1
d
1
(
- 1
(cos
x
) =
- sin
x
sin
x
)
=
(
ln
(
x
))
=
,
x
>
0
dx
dx
2
dx
x
1 - x
d
d
1
1
(
tan
x
)
2
d
=
sec
x
(
- 1
)
(
ln
x
)
=
,
x
0
cos
x
= -
dx
dx
x
dx
2
1 - x
d
d
1
(sec
x
) = sec
x
tan
x
d
1
(
log
(
x
))
=
,
x
>
0
(
- 1
tan
x
)
=
a
dx
dx
x
ln
a
2
dx
1 +
x

Visit http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu for a complete set of Calculus notes.

Calculus Cheat Sheet

Chain Rule Variants The chain rule applied to some specific functions.

d

1. (

dx

d

dx

d

(

(

Î È

e

f

f

(

(

x

x

)

)

)

˚ ˘

dx

(sin

n )

¢

=

(

n

f

( x

)

)

f (x)

Î È

˚ ˘

n

- 1

2.

= f

x

e

f

( x

)

˘ ˚

) =

)

f

¢ (

x

)

f

(

x

)

˚ ˘

=

f

(

x

)

3. ln È Î

dx

d

4. f

Î

È

¢ ()cos x

f

¢ (

x

)

Î È

f

()

x

˚ ˘

5. d

6.

dx

d

dx

7. d

dx

8. d

dx

(cos

(

tan

Î È

È

Î

f

f

(

(

x

x

)

)

˘ ˚

˚ ˘

) = -

)

=

f

f

¢ ()sin x

¢

()

x

sec

2

Î È

È

Î

f

f

()

x

˚ ˘

()

x

˚ ˘

(sec[ f (x)])

(

tan

- 1

È Î

f

( x

=

)

˘ ˚

f (x)sec[ f (x)]tan[ f (x)]

¢

)

=

f

¢ (

x

)

1 + È Î

f

(

x

)

˘ ˚

2

Higher Order Derivatives The n th Derivative is denoted as

The Second Derivative is denoted as

f

f

¢¢

¢¢

x

(

()

x

)

=

=

f

(

2

(

f

¢

)

(

x

)

())

x

=

¢

d

2

f

dx

2

a nd i s d e f i n e d a s

, i.e. the derivative of the

first derivative, f ¢

(x)

.

f

f

(

(

n

n

)

)

(

(

x

x

)

)

=

=

d

n

f

n

dx

f

(

(

n

-

and is defined as

1

)

(

x

))

¢

, i.e. the derivative of

the (n-1) st derivative, f

(

n

-

1

)

(

x

)

.

Implicit Differentiation

Find

will use the product/quotient rule and derivatives of y will use the chain rule. The “trick” is to differentiate as normal and every time you differentiate a y you tack on a y¢ (from the chain rule). After differentiating solve for y¢ .

y¢ if e

x

-

y

+

2

9

3

2

x y

=

sin

(

y

)

+

11 x . Remember

y = y (x) here, so products/quotients of x and y

 e 2 x - 9 y ( 2 - 9 y ¢ ) + 3 2 x y 2 + 2 3 x 2 e 2 x - 9 y - 9 y ¢ e 2 x - 9 y + 3 x 2 y 2 + ( 2 x 3 y - 9 e 2 x - 9 y - cos ( y )) y ¢ =

y y

¢ = cos

2

3

x

11

¢ =

e

2

y y

-

2

x

(

)

y

cos

-

9

y

y ¢ + 11

(

-

)

y

3

y

x

2

¢+

y

2

11

y

¢ =

11 -

2

e 2

x

- 9

y

-

3 x

2

y

2

2

x

3 y

-

9

e 2

x

- 9

y

-

cos

(

y

)

Increasing/Decreasing – Concave Up/Concave Down

Critical Points

x = c is a critical point of f (x) provided either

1.

f ¢(c) = 0 or 2.

f ¢

(c)

doesn’t exist.

Increasing/Decreasing

1. If f ¢( x) > 0 for all x in an interval I then

f (x) is increasing on the interval I.

2. If f ¢( x) < 0 for all x in an interval I then

f (x) is decreasing on the interval I.

3. If f ¢( x) = 0 for all x in an interval I then

f (x) is constant on the interval I.

Visit http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu for a complete set of Calculus notes.

Concave Up/Concave Down

1.

f o r a ll x i n a n i nt e r va l I t he n

f ( x) is concave up on the interval I.

2. f ¢¢ ( x ) < 0 f o r a ll x i n a n i nt e r va l I t he n

I f

I f

f ¢¢ ( x ) > 0

f ( x) is concave down on the interval I.

Inflection Points

x = c is a inflection point of f (x) if the

concavity changes at x = c .

Calculus Cheat Sheet

Absolute Extrema

1. x = c is an absolute maximum of f (x)

if f (c) f (x)for all x in the domain.

2. x = c is an absolute minimum of f (x)

if f (c) £ f (x)for all x in the domain.

Extrema

Relative (local) Extrema

1. = c is a relative (or local) maximum of

x

f

( x) if f (c) f (x) for all x near c.

2. = c is a relative (or local) minimum of

x

f

( x) if f (c) £ f (x) for all x near c.

Fermat’s Theorem If f (x) has a relative (or local) extrema at

x

= c , then

x = c is a critical point of

f ( x) .

Extreme Value Theorem If f (x) is continuous on the closed interval

[a, b] then

1. a £ c, d £ b , 2. f (c) is the abs. max. in

[a,b], 3. f (d ) is the abs. min. in [a,b].

there exist numbers c and d so that,

Finding Absolute Extrema To find the absolute extrema of the continuous function f (x) on the interval [a,b] use the

following process.

1. Find all critical points of f (x) in

2. Evaluate f ( x) at all points found in Step 1.

3. Evaluate f (a) and f (b) .

4. Identify the abs. max. (largest function value) and the abs. min.(smallest function value) from the evaluations in Steps 2 & 3.

[a, b].

1

If x = c is a critical point of

st Derivative Test

f (x) then

x = c is

 1. rel. max. of f (x) if f ¢(x) > 0 to the left a of x = c and f ¢( x) < 0 to the right of x = c . 2. a rel. min. of f (x) if f ¢( x) < 0 to the left of x = c and f ¢( x) > 0 to the right of x = c . 3. not a relative extrema of f (x) if f ¢ (x) is the same sign on both sides of x = c . 2 nd Derivative Test If x = c is a critical point of f (x) such that f ¢(c) = 0 then x = c 1. ma xi mu m of f ( x ) if f ¢¢ ( c ) < i s a r e l a ti ve 0 . 2. mi ni mu m of f ( x ) if f ¢¢ ( c ) > 0 . i s a r e l a ti ve

3. may be a relative maximum, relative

mi ni mu m , o r ne it he r i f f ¢¢ ( c ) = 0

.

Finding Relative Extrema and/or Classify Critical Points

1. Find all critical points of f (x) .

2. Use the 1 st derivative test or the 2 nd derivative test on each critical point.

Mean Value Theorem

If f (x ) is continuous on the closed interval [a, b]

then there is a number a < c < b such that

f

¢

(

c

)

=

and differentiable on the open interval (a, b)

f (b) f (a)

-

b

-

a

.

If x

Newton’s Method

n is the n th guess for the root/solution of f ( x ) = 0 then (n+1) st guess is

provided

f ¢

(

x

n

)

exists.

x

n

+

1

=

x

n

-

f

(

x

n

)

f

¢

(

x

n

)

Visit http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu for a complete set of Calculus notes.

Calculus Cheat Sheet

Related Rates Sketch picture and identify known/unknown quantities.

and differentiate with respect to t using implicit differentiation (i.e. add on a derivative every time

you differentiate a function of t).

Write down equation relating quantities

Plug in known quantities and solve for the unknown quantity. Ex. A 15 foot ladder is resting against a wall.
The bottom is initially 10 ft away and is being
pushed towards the wall at
4 1 ft/sec. How fast
is the top moving after 12 sec?
x¢ is negative because x is decreasing. Using
Pythagorean Theorem and differentiating,
2
2
x 2
+ y
=15
2x x¢ + 2y y¢ = 0
After 12 sec we have
x =10 -12
(
1
4 )
= 7 and
2
2
so
y =
15
- 7
=
176 . Plug in and solve
for y¢.
7
7
(
-
1
)
+
176
y¢ =
0
y¢ =
ft/sec
4
4
176

Ex. Two people are 50 ft apart when one starts walking north. The angleq changes at

0.01 rad/min. At what rate is the distance between them changing when q = 0.5 rad? We have q ¢ = 0.01 rad/min. and

want to find

x¢ . We can use various trig fcns but easiest is,

 sec q = x ﬁ sec q tan q q ¢ = x ¢ 50 50

We knowq = 0.05 so plug in q ¢ and solve.

x ¢ = 0.3112 ft/sec

Remember to have calculator in radians!

sec (0.5)tan (0.5)(0.01) = x ¢

50

Optimization Sketch picture if needed, write down equation to be optimized and constraint. Solve constraint for one of the two variables and plug into first equation. Find critical points of equation in range of variables and verify that they are min/max as needed. Ex. We’re enclosing a rectangular field with
500 ft of fence material and one side of the
field is a building. Determine dimensions that
will maximize the enclosed area.
Maximize A = xy subject to constraint of
x + 2 y = 500 . Solve constraint
into area.
for x and plug
A
=
y
(
500
-
2
y
)
x
=
500
-
2
y
2
=
500
y
-
2
y
Differentiate and find critical point(s).
A¢ = 500 - 4 y
y = 125
By 2 nd deriv. test this is a rel. max. and so is
Finally, find x.
x = 500 - 2(125) = 250
The dimensions are then 250 x 125.

Visit http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu for a complete set of Calculus notes. Ex. Determine point(s) on
closest to (0,2).
y = x
2 +1 that are
2
2
2
Minimize
f
= d
=
(
x -0
)
+
(
y -2
)
and the
constraint is
y = x
2 +1. Solve constraint for
2
x
and plug into the function.
2
2
2
x
=
y
-
1
f
=+-
x
(
y
2
)
2
2
=
y
-
1
+
(
y
-
2
)
=
y
-
3
y
+
3
Differentiate and find critical point(s).
3
f ¢ = 2y - 3
y =
2
By the 2 nd derivative test this is a rel. min. and
so all we need to do is find x value(s).
2
x
=
3
-1 =
1
2
2
1
2 )
3
The 2 points are then (
2 , x = ±
1
2
1
and (
,
2 )
3
-
.
2

Calculus Cheat Sheet

Integrals

Definitions

Definite Integral: Suppose f (x) is continuous

on [a,b]. Divide [a,b] into n subintervals of

*

width D x and choose x from each interval.

i

Then

Ú

b

a

f

(

x

)

dx

=

lim

n

Æ•

Â

i

=

1

f

(

x

*

i

)

D

x .

Anti-Derivative : An anti-derivative of f ( x)

is a function, F ( x) , such that F ( x)

Indefinite Integral :

where F (x) is an anti-derivative of f (x) .

.

¢

=

f

( x)

Ú

f (x) dx = F (x) + c

Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

Part I : If f ( x) is continuous on [a, b] then

g

(

x

and

)

g

=

¢

(

Ú

x

a

x

)

f

=

( )

t

d

dx

dt

Ú

x

a

is also continuous on [a, b]

f

( )

t

dt

=

f

(

x

)

.

Part II : f ( x) is continuous on[a, b] , F ( x ) is

an anti-derivative of f ( x) (i.e. F (x) =

Ú f (x)dx )

Variants of Part I :

d

dx

d

dx

d

dx

Ú

Ú

Ú

u

a

b

v

(

u

v

(

(

x

x

)

(

x

x

)

)

f

f

)

f

( )

t

( )

t

( )

t

dt

dt

dt

=

u

¢

= -

v

=

u

¢

(

¢

(

x

)

f

Î È

u

(

x

)

˚ ˘

()

x

f

Î È

v

()

x

˚ ˘

x

)

f

[

u

(

x

)

]

-

v

¢

(

x

)

f

[

v

(

x

)

] b
then
Ú
f
(
x
)
dx = F
(
b
)
- F
(
a
)
.
a
Properties
Ú
f
(
x) ± g
(x)
dx
=
Ú
f (x)dx ±
Ú
g ( x)dx
Ú
cf (x)dx = c
Ú
f ( x)dx
, c is a constant
b
b
b
b
Ú
f
()
x
± g
()
x
dx =
Ú
f
()
x
dx ±
Ú
g
()
x
dx
Ú
cf
( x
)
dx = c
Ú b
f
(
x
)
dx , c is a constant
a
a
a
a
a
a
b
b
Ú
f
(
x
)
dx = 0
f
(
x
)
dx =
f
( )
t
dt
Ú a
Ú a
a
b
a
b
b
Ú
f
()
x
dx = -
Ú
f
()
x
dx
Ú
f
(
x
)
dx
£
Ú
f
(
x
)
dx
a
b
a
a
b
a
If
f (x) g (x) on a £ x £ b then
Ú
f
()
x
dx
Ú
g
()
x
dx
a
b
b
If f (x) 0
on a £ x
£ b then
Ú
f
(
x
)
dx 0
a
If m £ f (x) £ M on a £ x £ b
then
m (
b - a
)
£
Ú
b ()
a
f
x
dx £ M
(
b - a
)
Common Integrals
Ú k dx = k x +c
Ú cosu du = sinu + c
Ú tan
u du =
ln
sec u
+ c
1
n
+ 1
Ú
x n
dx
= +
x
c n
,
-
1
Ú sin u du = - cosu + c
Ú sec
u du =
ln
sec
u
+
tan
u
+ c
n + 1
-
1
1
- 1
Ú
x dx
= Ú
1 dx
= ln
x
+ c
Ú sec
2 u du = tan u + c
du
=
1 tan
(
u )
+
c
x
Ú a
2
2
a
a
+ u
1
1
Ú
b dx =
a ln
ax
+
b
+ c
Ú sec u tan u du = secu + c
1
- 1
Ú
du
=
sin
(
+
c
ax +
u a )
2
2
a
-
u
Ú ln u du = u ln(u)- u + c
Ú csc u cot udu = - csc u + c
u
u
du =
+ c
2 u du = -cot u + c
Ú e
e
Ú csc
Visit http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu for a complete set of Calculus notes.

Calculus Cheat Sheet

Standard Integration Techniques Note that at many schools all but the Substitution Rule tend to be taught in a Calculus II class.

u Substitution : The substitution u = g ( x) will convert

Ú

b

a

f

(

g

(

x

))

g¢

()

x

dx =

Ú

(

g b

)

g

(

a

)

f

()

u

du

using

du = g¢( x) dx . For indefinite integrals drop the limits of integration.

 2 ( Ú 2 ) Ú ) 8 Ex. 2 cos x 3 ) dx 5 x 2 cos ( x = 3 5 dx = 5 cos ( u ) dx Ú 1 5x 3 u = x ﬁ 2 du = 3x dx ﬁ 2 x dx = 1 3 du 1 sin ( u 1 8 3 = 5 ( sin ( 8 ) - sin ( )) 1 x =1 ﬁ u =1 3 =1 :: x = 2 ﬁ u = 2