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Calculus Cheat Sheet Calculus Cheat Sheet

Limits Evaluation Techniques


Definitions Continuous Functions L’Hospital’s Rule
Precise Definition : We say lim f ( x ) = L if Limit at Infinity : We say lim f ( x ) = L if we If f ( x ) is continuous at a then lim f ( x ) = f ( a ) f ( x) 0 f ( x) ± ¥
x® a x ®¥ x ®a If lim = or lim = then,
x® a g ( x ) 0 x® a g ( x ) ±¥
for every e > 0 there is a d > 0 such that can make f ( x ) as close to L as we want by
whenever 0 < x - a < d then f ( x ) - L < e . Continuous Functions and Composition f ( x) f ¢ ( x)
taking x large enough and positive. = lim a is a number, ¥ or -¥
f ( x ) is continuous at b and lim g ( x ) = b then lim
x ®a g ( x ) x ®a g ¢ ( x )
x® a

“Working” Definition : We say lim f ( x ) = L


x® a
There is a similar definition for lim f ( x ) = L
x ®-¥
x® a
(
x® a
)
lim f ( g ( x ) ) = f lim g ( x ) = f ( b ) Polynomials at Infinity
p ( x ) and q ( x ) are polynomials. To compute
if we can make f ( x ) as close to L as we want except we require x large and negative. Factor and Cancel
p ( x)
by taking x sufficiently close to a (on either side x2 + 4 x - 12 ( x - 2)( x + 6) lim factor largest power of x out of both
of a) without letting x = a . Infinite Limit : We say lim f ( x ) = ¥ if we lim = lim x®±¥ q ( x )
x® a x ®2 x - 2x
2 x ® 2 x ( x - 2)
can make f ( x ) arbitrarily large (and positive) p ( x ) and q ( x ) and then compute limit.
x+6 8
Right hand limit : lim+ f ( x ) = L . This has
x® a
the same definition as the limit except it
by taking x sufficiently close to a (on either side
of a) without letting x = a .
= lim
x ®2 x
= =4
2
lim
3x2 - 4 (
= lim 2 5
)
x 2 3 - 42
x
3 - 42
= lim 5 x = -
3
( )
Rationalize Numerator/Denominator x®-¥ 5 x - 2 x
requires x > a .
2 x®- ¥ x - 2 x®-¥ - 2 2
3- x 3- x 3+ x x x
There is a similar definition for lim f ( x ) = -¥ lim 2 = lim 2 Piecewise Function
x ®a x®9 x - 81 x®9 x - 81 3 +
Left hand limit : lim- f ( x ) = L . This has the
x
except we make f ( x ) arbitrarily large and ì x 2 + 5 if x < -2
x® a
= lim
9- x
= lim
-1 lim g ( x ) where g ( x ) = í
( )
( x 2 - 81) 3 + x x®9 ( x + 9 ) 3 + x ( ) î1 - 3 x if x ³ -2
same definition as the limit except it requires x®-2
negative. x ®9
x<a. Compute two one sided limits,
Relationship between the limit and one-sided limits -1 1 lim g ( x ) = lim- x 2 + 5 = 9
= =-
lim f ( x ) = L Þ lim+ f ( x ) = lim- f ( x ) = L lim+ f ( x ) = lim- f ( x ) = L Þ lim f ( x ) = L (18 )( 6 ) 108 x®-2- x®-2
x® a x® a x ®a x ®a x ®a x® a
lim g ( x ) = lim+ 1 - 3 x = 7
lim+ f ( x ) ¹ lim- f ( x ) Þ lim f ( x ) Does Not Exist Combine Rational Expressions x®-2+ x®-2
x ®a x ®a x® a
1æ 1 1ö 1 æ x - ( x + h) ö One sided limits are different so lim g ( x )
lim ç - ÷ = lim çç ÷ x®-2

Properties h ®0 h x + h
è x ø h®0 h è x ( x + h ) ÷ø doesn’t exist. If the two one sided limits had
Assume lim f ( x ) and lim g ( x ) both exist and c is any number then, been equal then lim g ( x ) would have existed
x ®a x® a 1 æ -h ö -1 1 x®-2
= lim çç ÷ = lim =- 2
f ( x) h ®0 h x ( x + h ) ÷ h®0 x ( x + h )
1. lim éëcf ( x ) ùû = c lim f ( x ) é f ( x ) ù lim è ø x and had the same value.
x ®a x ®a 4. lim ê ú=
x® a
provided lim g ( x ) ¹ 0
x ®a g ( x )
û x® a ( x )
lim g x® a
ë
2. lim éë f ( x ) ± g ( x ) ùû = lim f ( x ) ± lim g ( x ) n Some Continuous Functions
5. lim ëé f ( x )ûù = é lim f ( x )ù
n
x ®a x ®a x ®a
x ®a ë x ®a û Partial list of continuous functions and the values of x for which they are continuous.
1. Polynomials for all x. 7. cos ( x ) and sin ( x ) for all x.
3. lim éë f ( x ) g ( x ) ùû = lim f ( x ) lim g ( x ) 6. lim é n f ( x ) ù = n lim f ( x )
x ®a ë û 2. Rational function, except for x’s that give
x ®a x ®a x ®a x ®a
division by zero. 8. tan ( x ) and sec ( x ) provided

Basic Limit Evaluations at ± ¥ 3p p p 3p


x ¹ L, - ,L
n
3. x (n odd) for all x. ,- , ,
Note : sgn ( a ) = 1 if a > 0 and sgn ( a ) = - 1 if a < 0 . 4. n x (n even) for all x ³ 0 . 2 2 2 2
9. cot ( x ) and csc ( x ) provided
1. lim e x = ¥ & lim e x = 0 5. n even : lim x n = ¥ 5. e x for all x.
x®¥ x®- ¥ x ®± ¥ 6. ln x for x > 0 . x ¹ L , -2p , -p , 0, p , 2p ,L
2. lim ln ( x ) = ¥ & lim- ln ( x ) = - ¥ 6. n odd : lim x n = ¥ & lim x n = -¥
x ®¥ x ®0 x ®¥ x ®- ¥
Intermediate Value Theorem
3. If r > 0 then lim
b
=0 7. n even : lim a x n + L + b x + c = sgn ( a ) ¥ Suppose that f ( x ) is continuous on [a, b] and let M be any number between f ( a ) and f ( b ) .
x ®± ¥
x ®¥ x r

4. If r > 0 and x r is real for negative x 8. n odd : lim a xn + L + b x + c = sgn ( a ) ¥ Then there exists a number c such that a < c < b and f ( c ) = M .
x ®¥
b
then lim r = 0 9. n odd : lim a xn + L + c x + d = - sgn ( a ) ¥
x ®-¥
x ®-¥ x

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Derivatives Chain Rule Variants


Definition and Notation The chain rule applied to some specific functions.

If y = f ( x ) then the derivative is defined to be f ¢ ( x ) = lim


h ®0
f ( x + h) - f ( x)
h
. 1.
d
dx ë
( n
) n-1
é f ( x )ùû = n éë f ( x ) ùû f ¢ ( x ) 5.
d
dx
( )
cos éë f ( x ) ùû = - f ¢ ( x ) sin éë f ( x ) ùû

If y = f ( x ) then all of the following are If y = f ( x ) all of the following are equivalent
2.
dx
e (
d f ( x)
)
= f ¢ ( x ) e f ( x) 6.
d
dx
( )
tan éë f ( x )ùû = f ¢ ( x ) sec2 éë f ( x ) ùû

f ¢( x)
( ) ( sec [ f ( x)]) = f ¢( x ) sec [ f ( x)] tan [ f ( x )]
d d
equivalent notations for the derivative. notations for derivative evaluated at x = a . 3. ln ëé f ( x ) ûù = 7.
dx f ( x) dx
= ( f ( x) ) = Df ( x )
df dy d
f ¢ ( x ) = y¢ =
df dy
= f ¢ ( a ) = y ¢ x= a = = = Df ( a ) f ¢( x )
dx dx dx dx x =a dx x =a 4.
d
( )
sin éë f ( x ) ùû = f ¢ ( x ) cos éë f ( x ) ùû 8.
d
(
tan -1 ëé f ( x ) ûù = )
1 + ëé f ( x )ûù
2
dx dx
Interpretation of the Derivative
If y = f ( x ) then, 2. f ¢ ( a ) is the instantaneous rate of Higher Order Derivatives
The Second Derivative is denoted as The nth Derivative is denoted as
1. m = f ¢ ( a ) is the slope of the tangent change of f ( x ) at x = a . 2
d f dn f
line to y = f ( x ) at x = a and the 3. If f ( x ) is the position of an object at f ¢¢ ( x ) = f ( 2) ( x ) = 2 and is defined as f ( n) ( x ) = n and is defined as
dx dx
equation of the tangent line at x = a is time x then f ¢ ( a ) is the velocity of
given by y = f ( a ) + f ¢ ( a )( x - a ) . the object at x = a .
¢
f ¢¢ ( x ) = ( f ¢ ( x ) ) , i.e. the derivative of the ( n ) n-1 ¢
(
f ( x ) = f ( ) ( x ) , i.e. the derivative of )
first derivative, f ¢ ( x ) . the (n-1)st derivative, f ( n -1) x . ( )
Basic Properties and Formulas
If f ( x ) and g ( x ) are differentiable functions (the derivative exists), c and n are any real numbers, Implicit Differentiation
Find y¢ if e2 x -9 y + x3 y 2 = sin ( y ) + 11x . Remember y = y ( x ) here, so products/quotients of x and y
1. ( c f )¢ = c f ¢ ( x ) 5.
d
(c) = 0 will use the product/quotient rule and derivatives of y will use the chain rule. The “trick” is to
dx
(f ± g )¢ = f ¢ ( x ) ± g ¢ ( x ) differentiate as normal and every time you differentiate a y you tack on a y¢ (from the chain rule).
2.
6.
dx
( x ) = n x n-1 – Power Rule
d n
After differentiating solve for y¢ .
3. ( f g )¢ = f ¢ g + f g ¢ – Product Rule
7.
d
( )
f ( g ( x) ) = f ¢ ( g ( x) ) g¢ ( x) e2 x-9 y ( 2 - 9 y¢ ) + 3x 2 y 2 + 2 x 3 y y¢ = cos ( y ) y¢ + 11
æ f ö¢ f ¢ g - f g ¢ dx
11 - 2e 2 x -9 y - 3 x 2 y 2
4. ç ÷ = – Quotient Rule This is the Chain Rule 2e 2 x -9 y - 9 y¢e 2x - 9 y + 3x 2 y 2 + 2 x 3 y y¢ = cos ( y ) y¢ + 11 Þ y¢ =
ègø g2 2 x3 y - 9e2 x -9 y - cos ( y )
( 2 x y - 9e x
3 2 -9 y
- cos ( y ) ) y ¢ = 11 - 2e2 x - 9 y - 3 x 2 y 2
Common Derivatives
d
dx
( x) = 1
d
dx
( csc x ) = - csc x cot x
d x
dx
( a ) = a x ln ( a ) Increasing/Decreasing – Concave Up/Concave Down
Critical Points
d
dx
( sin x ) = cos x
d
dx
( cot x ) = - csc2 x
d x
dx
( e ) = ex x = c is a critical point of f ( x ) provided either Concave Up/Concave Down
1. If f ¢¢ ( x ) > 0 for all x in an interval I then
1. f ¢ ( c ) = 0 or 2. f ¢ ( c ) doesn’t exist.
d
( cos x ) = - sin x
d
( sin -1 x ) = 1 2 d
( ln ( x ) ) = 1x , x > 0 f ( x ) is concave up on the interval I.
dx dx 1- x dx
Increasing/Decreasing 2. If f ¢¢ ( x ) < 0 for all x in an interval I then
d
dx
( tan x ) = sec 2 x d
( cos x ) = - 1 2
-1
d
dx
( ln x ) = 1x , x ¹ 0 1. If f ¢ ( x ) > 0 for all x in an interval I then
f ( x ) is concave down on the interval I.
dx 1- x
f ( x ) is increasing on the interval I.
d
( sec x ) = sec x tan x d
( tan -1 x ) =
1 d
( log a ( x )) = x ln1 a , x > 0
dx
dx 1 + x2
dx 2. If f ¢ ( x ) < 0 for all x in an interval I then Inflection Points
x = c is a inflection point of f ( x ) if the
f ( x ) is decreasing on the interval I.
concavity changes at x = c .
3. If f ¢ ( x ) = 0 for all x in an interval I then
f ( x ) is constant on the interval I.

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Extrema Related Rates


Absolute Extrema Relative (local) Extrema Sketch picture and identify known/unknown quantities. Write down equation relating quantities
1. x = c is an absolute maximum of f ( x ) 1. x = c is a relative (or local) maximum of and differentiate with respect to t using implicit differentiation (i.e. add on a derivative every time
f ( x ) if f ( c ) ³ f ( x ) for all x near c. you differentiate a function of t). Plug in known quantities and solve for the unknown quantity.
if f ( c ) ³ f ( x ) for all x in the domain.
2. x = c is a relative (or local) minimum of Ex. A 15 foot ladder is resting against a wall. Ex. Two people are 50 ft apart when one
2. x = c is an absolute minimum of f ( x ) The bottom is initially 10 ft away and is being starts walking north. The angle q changes at
f ( x ) if f ( c ) £ f ( x ) for all x near c.
if f ( c ) £ f ( x ) for all x in the domain. pushed towards the wall at 14 ft/sec. How fast 0.01 rad/min. At what rate is the distance
is the top moving after 12 sec? between them changing when q = 0.5 rad?
1st Derivative Test
Fermat’s Theorem If x = c is a critical point of f ( x ) then x = c is
If f ( x ) has a relative (or local) extrema at
1. a rel. max. of f ( x ) if f ¢ ( x ) > 0 to the left
x = c , then x = c is a critical point of f ( x ) .
of x = c and f ¢ ( x ) < 0 to the right of x = c .
We have q ¢ = 0.01 rad/min. and want to find
Extreme Value Theorem 2. a rel. min. of f ( x ) if f ¢ ( x ) < 0 to the left x¢ is negative because x is decreasing. Using
x¢ . We can use various trig fcns but easiest is,
If f ( x ) is continuous on the closed interval of x = c and f ¢ ( x ) > 0 to the right of x = c . Pythagorean Theorem and differentiating,
x x¢
x 2 + y 2 = 15 2 Þ 2 x x¢ + 2 y y¢ = 0 sec q = Þ sec q tan q q ¢ =
[a, b] then there exist numbers c and d so that, 3. not a relative extrema of f ( x ) if f ¢ ( x ) is
After 12 sec we have x = 10 - 12 ( 14 ) = 7 and
50 50
We know q = 0.05 so plug in q ¢ and solve.
1. a £ c, d £ b , 2. f ( c ) is the abs. max. in the same sign on both sides of x = c .

so y = 152 - 7 2 = 176 . Plug in and solve sec ( 0.5 ) tan ( 0.5 )( 0.01) =
[a, b] , 3. f ( d ) is the abs. min. in [a, b] . 2nd Derivative Test for y¢ . 50
If x = c is a critical point of f ( x ) such that 7 x¢ = 0.3112 ft/sec
Finding Absolute Extrema 7 ( - 14 ) + 176 y¢ = 0 Þ y¢ = ft/sec Remember to have calculator in radians!
To find the absolute extrema of the continuous f ¢ ( c ) = 0 then x = c 4 176
function f ( x ) on the interval [ a , b ] use the 1. is a relative maximum of f ( x ) if f ¢¢ ( c ) < 0 .
Optimization
following process. 2. is a relative minimum of f ( x ) if f ¢¢ ( c ) > 0 . Sketch picture if needed, write down equation to be optimized and constraint. Solve constraint for
1. Find all critical points of f ( x ) in [ a, b ] . 3. may be a relative maximum, relative one of the two variables and plug into first equation. Find critical points of equation in range of
2. Evaluate f ( x ) at all points found in Step 1. minimum, or neither if f ¢¢ ( c ) = 0 . variables and verify that they are min/max as needed.
3. Evaluate f ( a ) and f ( b ) .
Ex. We’re enclosing a rectangular field with Ex. Determine point(s) on y = x 2 + 1 that are
Finding Relative Extrema and/or 500 ft of fence material and one side of the closest to (0,2).
4. Identify the abs. max. (largest function field is a building. Determine dimensions that
value) and the abs. min.(smallest function Classify Critical Points
will maximize the enclosed area.
value) from the evaluations in Steps 2 & 3. 1. Find all critical points of f ( x ) .
2. Use the 1st derivative test or the 2nd
Minimize f = d 2 = ( x - 0 ) + ( y - 2 ) and the
derivative test on each critical point. 2 2

Mean Value Theorem Maximize A = xy subject to constraint of constraint is y = x 2 + 1 . Solve constraint for
If f ( x ) is continuous on the closed interval [ a , b ] and differentiable on the open interval ( a , b ) x + 2 y = 500 . Solve constraint for x and plug
x 2 and plug into the function.
into area.
f (b) - f ( a) x2 = y -1 Þ f = x2 + ( y - 2 )
2

then there is a number a < c < b such that f ¢ ( c ) = . A = y ( 500 - 2 y )


b-a x = 500 - 2 y Þ
= y - 1+ ( y - 2) = y2 - 3 y + 3
2
= 500 y - 2 y 2
Newton’s Method Differentiate and find critical point(s). Differentiate and find critical point(s).
A¢ = 500 - 4 y Þ y = 125 f ¢ = 2y - 3 Þ y = 32
f ( xn )
If xn is the n guess for the root/solution of f ( x ) = 0 then (n+1)st guess is xn+1 = xn -
th
By 2nd deriv. test this is a rel. max. and so is
nd
f ¢ ( xn )
By the 2 derivative test this is a rel. min. and
the answer where after. Finally, find x. so all we need to do is find x value(s).
provided f ¢ ( xn ) exists. x = 500 - 2 (125 ) = 250 x 2 = 32 - 1 = 12 Þ x = ± 12
The dimensions are then 250 x 125. The 2 points are then ( 1
2 )
, 32 and - ( 1
2 )
, 32 .

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Integrals Standard Integration Techniques


Definitions Note that at many schools all but the Substitution Rule tend to be taught in a Calculus II class.
Definite Integral: Suppose f ( x ) is continuous Anti-Derivative : An anti-derivative of f ( x )
( )
u Substitution : The substitution u = g ( x ) will convert ò a f ( g ( x )) g ¢ ( x ) dx = ò g (a ) f ( u ) du
b g b
on [ a , b ] . Divide [ a , b ] into n subintervals of is a function, F ( x ) , such that F ¢ ( x ) = f ( x ) . using
width D x and choose x from each interval. Indefinite Integral : ò f ( x ) dx = F ( x ) + c du = g ¢ ( x ) dx . For indefinite integrals drop the limits of integration.
*
i
¥
f (x )D x . where F ( x ) is an anti-derivative of f ( x ) . cos ( x3 ) dx cos ( x3 ) dx = ò
ò a f ( x ) dx = nlim å cos ( u ) dx
b 2 2 8
ò 1 5x ò 1 5x
* 2 2 5
Then Ex.
®¥
i 1 3
i =1
u= x Þ du = 3 x dx Þ x dx = du = 53 sin ( u ) 1 = 53 ( sin (8 ) - sin (1) )
3 2 2 1 8
3
Fundamental Theorem of Calculus x = 1 Þ u = 13 = 1 :: x = 2 Þ u = 2 3 = 8
Part I : If f ( x ) is continuous on [ a, b ] then Variants of Part I :
d u(x)
f ( t ) dt = u ¢ ( x ) f éëu ( x ) ùû
g ( x ) = ò f ( t ) dt is also continuous on [ a , b ] dx ò a
x b b
Integration by Parts : ò u dv = uv - ò v du and ò a u dv = uv - ò v du . Choose u and dv from
b
a a a
d b
f ( t ) dt = - v¢ ( x ) f éë v ( x )ùû integral and compute du by differentiating u and compute v using v = ò dv .
dx ò v( x)
d x
and g ¢ ( x ) = f ( t ) dt = f ( x ) .
dx ò a
ò xe
-x 5
Part II : f ( x ) is continuous on [ a , b ] , F ( x ) is d u( x)
f ( t ) dt = u ¢ ( x ) f [ u ( x) ] - v¢ ( x ) f [ v( x ) ]
Ex. dx
ò3 ln x dx
dx ò v( x)
Ex.
-x -x
an anti-derivative of f ( x ) (i.e. F ( x ) = ò f ( x ) dx ) u=x dv = e Þ du = dx v = -e u = ln x dv = dx Þ du = 1x dx v = x
ò xe dx = - xe + ò e dx = - xe - e + c
-x -x -x -x -x

ò3 ln x dx = x ln x 3 - ò3 dx = ( x ln ( x ) - x ) 3
5 5 5 5
then ò f ( x ) dx = F ( b ) - F ( a ) .
b
a
= 5ln ( 5 ) - 3ln ( 3) - 2
Properties
ò f ( x) ± g ( x) dx = ò f ( x) dx ± ò g ( x) dx ò cf ( x) dx = c ò f ( x) dx , c is a constant Products and (some) Quotients of Trig Functions
For ò sin n x cos m x dx we have the following : For ò tan n x sec m x dx we have the following :
ò a f ( x ) ± g ( x ) dx = ò a f ( x ) dx ± ò a g ( x ) dx ò a cf ( x ) dx = c ò a f ( x ) dx , c is a constant
b b b b b

1. n odd. Strip 1 sine out and convert rest to 1. n odd. Strip 1 tangent and 1 secant out and
ò a f ( x ) dx = 0 ò a f ( x ) dx = ò a f ( t ) dt
a b b
cosines using sin 2 x = 1 - cos 2 x , then use convert the rest to secants using
the substitution u = cos x . tan 2 x = sec 2 x - 1 , then use the substitution
ò a f ( x) dx = - òb f ( x) dx
b a
ò f ( x ) dx £ ò f ( x ) dx
b b
2. m odd. Strip 1 cosine out and convert rest u = sec x .
a a
to sines using cos2 x = 1 - sin 2 x , then use 2. m even. Strip 2 secants out and convert rest
If f ( x ) ³ g ( x ) on a £ x £ b then ò f ( x) dx ³ ò g ( x ) dx
b a
the substitution u = sin x . to tangents using sec 2 x = 1 + tan 2 x , then
a b
3. n and m both odd. Use either 1. or 2. use the substitution u = tan x .
If f ( x ) ³ 0 on a £ x £ b then ò f ( x ) dx ³ 0
b

a
4. n and m both even. Use double angle 3. n odd and m even. Use either 1. or 2.
and/or half angle formulas to reduce the 4. n even and m odd. Each integral will be
If m £ f ( x ) £ M on a £ x £ b then m ( b - a ) £ ò f ( x ) dx £ M ( b - a )
b
integral into a form that can be integrated. dealt with differently.
Trig Formulas : sin ( 2 x ) = 2sin ( x ) cos ( x ) , cos 2 ( x ) = 2 (1 + cos ( 2 x ) ) , sin ( x ) = 2 (1 - cos ( 2 x ) )
a
1 2 1

Common Integrals
ò k dx = k x + c ò cos u du = sin u + c ò tan u du = ln sec u + c ò tan ò cos x dx
sin 5 x
3
Ex. x sec5 x dx Ex. 3

ò x dx = n+1 x + c, n ¹ -1 ò sin u du = - cos u + c ò sec u du = ln sec u + tan u + c ò tan x sec xdx = ò tan x sec x tan x sec xdx
n 1 n +1 3 5 2 4
ò cos x dx = ò cos x dx = ò cos x dx
5 4 (sin x) sin x 2 2
sin x sin x sin x
3 3 3

ò x dx = ò x dx = ln x + c ò sec u du = tan u + c ò a + u du = a tan ( a ) + c = ò ( sec2 x - 1) sec 4 x tan x sec xdx


-1 1 2 1 u
1 -1
(1- cos x ) sin x
=ò ( u = cos x )
2 2
2 2
dx
ò a x + b dx = a ln ax + b + c ò sec u tan u du = secu + c
3

ò a - u du = sin ( a ) + c = ò ( u 2 - 1) u 4 du
-1 cos x
( u = sec x )
1 1 1 u
(1-u )
= -ò du = - ò
2 2
2 2 1- 2 u + u du 2 4

ò ln u du = u ln ( u ) - u + c ò csc u cot udu = - csc u + c u 3 u 3


= 17 sec 7 x - 15 sec5 x + c
= 12 sec 2 x + 2 ln cos x - 12 cos2 x + c
ò e du = e + c ò csc u du = - cot u + c
u u 2

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Trig Substitutions : If the integral contains the following root use the given substitution and Applications of Integrals

ò a f ( x ) dx represents the net area between f ( x ) and the


formula to convert into an integral involving trig functions. b
Net Area :
a 2 - b 2 x 2 Þ x = ab sin q b 2 x2 - a 2 Þ x = ab sec q a 2 + b 2 x 2 Þ x = ab tan q
x-axis with area above x-axis positive and area below x-axis negative.
cos 2 q = 1 - sin 2 q tan 2 q = sec 2 q - 1 sec 2 q = 1 + tan 2 q

òx ó ( 23 cos q ) dq = ò sin122 q dq
16 16
Ex. dx
2
4- 9 x2 õ 4 sin 2 q ( 2cosq )
9
Area Between Curves : The general formulas for the two main cases for each are,
x = sin q Þ dx = cos q d q
2 2
y = f ( x) Þ A = ò
b
- éëlower function ùû dx & x = f ( y ) Þ A = ò
d
- éëleft function ùû dy
3 3 = ò 12 csc dq = -12 cot q + c
2
a
é ù
ë upper function û
c
é right function ù
ë û

4 - 9x = 4 - 4 sin q = 4 cos q = 2 cosq


2 2 2
Use Right Triangle Trig to go back to x’s. From If the curves intersect then the area of each portion must be found individually. Here are some
x 2 = x . Because we have an indefinite substitution we have sin q = 2 so,
3x sketches of a couple possible situations and formulas for a couple of possible cases.
Recall
integral we’ll assume positive and drop absolute
value bars. If we had a definite integral we’d
need to compute q ’s and remove absolute value
bars based on that and,
ì x if x ³ 0 4 -9 x2
x =í From this we see that cot q = . So,
î- x if x < 0
3x

òx
4 4- 9 x 2
16
dx = - +c
4 - 9x 2 = 2 cos q . A = ò f ( y ) - g ( y ) dy
d
A = ò f ( x ) - g ( x ) dx
b
A = ò f ( x ) - g ( x ) dx + ò g ( x ) - f ( x ) dx
In this case we have 2 x c b
4 -9 x2
a c a c
P( x )
Partial Fractions : If integrating ò Q( x) dx where the degree of P ( x ) is smaller than the degree of Volumes of Revolution : The two main formulas are V = ò A ( x ) dx and V = ò A ( y ) dy . Here is
Q ( x ) . Factor denominator as completely as possible and find the partial fraction decomposition of some general information about each method of computing and some examples.
the rational expression. Integrate the partial fraction decomposition (P.F.D.). For each factor in the Rings Cylinders
denominator we get term(s) in the decomposition according to the following table.
(
A = p ( outer radius ) 2 - ( inner radius ) 2 ) A = 2p ( radius ) ( width / height )

Factor in Q ( x ) Term in P.F.D Factor in Q ( x ) Term in P.F.D


Limits: x/y of right/bot ring to x/y of left/top ring Limits : x/y of inner cyl. to x/y of outer cyl.
Horz. Axis use f ( x ) , Vert. Axis use f ( y ) , Horz. Axis use f ( y ) , Vert. Axis use f ( x ) ,
A1 A2 Ak
ax + b
A
( ax + b )
k
+ +L+ g ( x ) , A ( x ) and dx. g ( y ) , A ( y ) and dy. g ( y ) , A ( y ) and dy. g ( x ) , A ( x ) and dx.
ax + b ax + b ( ax + b )2 ( ax + b )
k

Ax + B A1 x + B1 Ak x + Bk
+L +
( ax + bx + c ) Ex. Axis : y = a > 0 Ex. Axis : y = a £ 0 Ex. Axis : y = a > 0 Ex. Axis : y = a £ 0
k
ax 2 + bx + c
2
ax 2 + bx + c ( ax 2 + bx + c )
k
ax + bx + c
2

ò
7 x2 +13 x 7 x 2 +13 x +C A( x 2 +4)+ ( Bx +C ) ( x -1)
Ex. ( x -1)( x 2 + 4 )
dx ( x -1)( x 2 + 4 )
= A
x -1 + Bx
x2 + 4
= ( x -1)( x 2 + 4 )

ò 7 x2 +13 x
( x -1)( x 2 + 4 )
dx = ò 4
x -1
+ 3 x +16
x2 + 4
dx Set numerators equal and collect like terms.
7 x 2 + 13 x = ( A + B ) x 2 + ( C - B ) x + 4 A - C
=ò 4
x -1 + 3x
x2 +4
+ 16
x2 +4
dx Set coefficients equal to get a system and solve
= 4 ln x - 1 + 32 ln ( x 2 + 4 ) + 8 tan -1 ( x2 ) to get constants.
A+ B = 7 C - B = 13 4A- C = 0 outer radius : a - f ( x ) outer radius: a + g ( x ) radius : a - y radius : a + y
Here is partial fraction form and recombined.
A=4 B=3 C = 16 inner radius : a - g ( x ) inner radius: a + f ( x ) width : f ( y ) - g ( y ) width : f ( y ) - g ( y )

An alternate method that sometimes works to find constants. Start with setting numerators equal in
These are only a few cases for horizontal axis of rotation. If axis of rotation is the x-axis use the
previous example : 7 x 2 + 13 x = A ( x 2 + 4 ) + ( Bx + C ) ( x - 1) . Chose nice values of x and plug in. y = a £ 0 case with a = 0 . For vertical axis of rotation ( x = a > 0 and x = a £ 0 ) interchange x and
For example if x = 1 we get 20 = 5A which gives A = 4 . This won’t always work easily. y to get appropriate formulas.

Visit http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu for a complete set of Calculus notes. © 2005 Paul Dawkins Visit http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu for a complete set of Calculus notes. © 2005 Paul Dawkins
Calculus Cheat Sheet

Work : If a force of F ( x ) moves an object Average Function Value : The average value
of f ( x ) on a £ x £ b is f avg = ò f ( x ) dx
1 b

in a £ x £ b , the work done is W = ò F ( x ) dx


b
b-a a
a

Arc Length Surface Area : Note that this is often a Calc II topic. The three basic formulas are,
b b b
L = ò ds SA = ò 2p y ds (rotate about x-axis) SA = ò 2p x ds (rotate about y-axis)
a a a
where ds is dependent upon the form of the function being worked with as follows.

( ) ( dxdt ) ( )
2 2
dx if y = f ( x ) , a £ x £ b dt if x = f ( t ) , y = g ( t ) , a £ t £ b
dy 2 dy
ds = 1 + dx
ds = + dt

1+ ( ) ds = r 2 + ( ddrq ) d q if r = f (q ) , a £ q £ b
2 2
ds = dx
dy
dy if x = f ( y ) , a £ y £ b
With surface area you may have to substitute in for the x or y depending on your choice of ds to
match the differential in the ds. With parametric and polar you will always need to substitute.

Improper Integral
An improper integral is an integral with one or more infinite limits and/or discontinuous integrands.
Integral is called convergent if the limit exists and has a finite value and divergent if the limit
doesn’t exist or has infinite value. This is typically a Calc II topic.

Infinite Limit
¥
f ( x ) dx = lim ò f ( x ) dx ò ¥ f ( x ) dx = lim ò f ( x ) dx
t b b
1. ò a t ®¥ a
2.
- t ®-¥ t
¥ ¥
ò ¥ f ( x ) dx = ò ¥ f ( x ) dx + ò f ( x ) dx provided BOTH integrals are convergent.
c
3.
- - c

Discontinuous Integrand
1. Discont. at a: ò f ( x ) dx = lim+ ò f ( x ) dx 2. Discont. at b : ò f ( x ) dx = lim- ò f ( x ) dx
b b b t

a t ®a t a t ®b a

ò f ( x ) dx = ò f ( x ) dx + ò f ( x ) dx provided both are convergent.


b c b
3. Discontinuity at a < c < b :
a a c

Comparison Test for Improper Integrals : If f ( x ) ³ g ( x ) ³ 0 on [ a, ¥ ) then,


¥ ¥ ¥ ¥
1. If ò f ( x ) dx conv. then ò g ( x ) dx conv. 2. If ò g ( x ) dx divg. then ò f ( x ) dx divg.
a a a a
¥
Useful fact : If a > 0 then òa dx converges if p > 1 and diverges for p £ 1 .
1
p
x

Approximating Definite Integrals


f ( x ) dx and a n (must be even for Simpson’s Rule) define Dx = b -n a and
b
For given integral òa
divide [ a , b ] into n subintervals [ x0 , x1 ] , [ x1 , x2 ] , … , [ xn -1 , xn ] with x0 = a and xn = b then,

ò f ( x ) dx » Dx éë f ( x ) + f ( x ) + L + f ( x ) ùû , xi is midpoint [ xi -1 , xi ]
b
* * * *
Midpoint Rule : 1 2 n
a

Dx
ò f ( x ) dx » 2 ëé f ( x ) + 2 f ( x ) + +2 f ( x ) + L + 2 f ( x ) + f ( x ) ûù
b
Trapezoid Rule : 0 1 2 n -1 n
a

Dx
ò f ( x ) dx » 3 ëé f ( x ) + 4 f ( x ) + 2 f ( x ) +L + 2 f ( x ) + 4 f ( x ) + f ( x )ûù
b
Simpson’s Rule : 0 1 2 n -2 n -1 n
a

Visit http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu for a complete set of Calculus notes. © 2005 Paul Dawkins