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Trig Cheat Sheet

Definition of the Trig Functions

Right triangle definition For this definition we assume that

π 0 < θ < or 0°< θ < 90° . 2 hypotenuse opposite θ
π
0 < θ <
or 0°< θ <
90° .
2
hypotenuse
opposite
θ
adjacent
opposite
hypotenuse
sin
θ =
csc
θ =
hypotenuse
opposite
θ adjacent
hypotenuse
cos
=
sec
θ =
hypotenuse
adjacent
opposite
adjacent
tan
θ cot
=
θ =
adjacent
opposite

Unit circle definition

For this definition θ is any angle.

y (x, y) 1 y θ x x y 1 sin θ = = y
y
(x, y)
1
y
θ
x
x
y
1
sin
θ =
= y
csc
θ =
1
y
x
1
cos θ =
= x
sec
θ =
1
x
y
x
tan θ =
cot
θ =
x
y

Facts and Properties

Domain The domain is all the values of θ that can be plugged into the function.

sinθ ,

θ can be any angle

cosθ ,

θ can be any angle

tanθ ,

csc θ ,

secθ ,

cot θ ,

θ

≠ +

n

θ n π ,

θ

n

+

θ n π ,

1

2

π

,

n

=

0,

n =±±0,

1,

1

2

π

,

n

=

0,

n =±±0, 1,

±± 1,

2,

±± 1,

2,

2,

2,

Range The range is all possible values to get out of the function.

cscθ 1 and cscθ ≤−1

1

1 cosθ 1 secθ 1 and secθ ≤−1

sinθ 1

−∞ ≤ tanθ ≤ ∞

−∞ ≤ cotθ ≤ ∞

Period The period of a function is the number,

T, such that f (θ + Tf) =

is a fixed number and θ is any angle we have the following periods.

(θ ) .

So, if ω

sin (ωθ )

T

=

cos(ωθ )

T

=

tan (ωθ )

T =

csc(ωθ )

T

=

sec(ωθ )

T

=

cot (ωθ )

T =

2

π

ω

2

π

ω

π

ω

2

π

ω

2

π

ω

π

ω

© 2005 Paul Dawkins

Formulas and Identities

Tangent and Cotangent Identities

sin θ cos θ tan θ = cot θ = cos Reciprocal Identities θ sin
sin
θ
cos
θ
tan
θ
=
cot
θ
=
cos
Reciprocal Identities
θ
sin
θ
1
1
csc
θ
=
sin
θ
=
sin
θ csc
θ
1
1
sec
θ
=
cos
θ
=
cos
θ sec
θ
1
1
cot
θ
=
tan
θ
=
tan
θ cot
θ

Pythagorean Identities

2

sin

tan

1

θ

θ

2

+

cot

+

+

cos

1

=

2

θ

=

2

θ

sec

csc

=

1

2

2

θ

θ

Even/Odd Formulas

sin

cos

tan

(

()

()

)

θ

−=

θθ

=−

sin

cos

θ

θθ

=−

tan

Periodic Formulas If n is an integer.

sin

cos

tan

(

()

()

θπ

2

θ

2

+=

n

)

sin

θ

θ

+=

π

n

cos

θπ

+=

n

tan

θ

csc

sec

cot

csc

sec

cot

)

()

(

θθ

=−

csc

θ

−=

sec

θ

()

θθ

=−

cot

(

()

)

θπ

2

θπ

2

+=

n

+=

n

csc

sec

θ

θ

()

θπ

+=

n

cot

θ

Double Angle Formulas

sin

cos

tan

(

(

(

θ

θ

2

2

θ

2

)

)

)

=

=

=

=

=

2sin

cos

2cos

1

θ

θ

cos

θθ

sin

2

θ

1

2sin

2

θ

2

2

2 tan

θ

1

tan

2

θ

Degrees to Radians Formulas If x is an angle in degrees and t is an

angle in radians then

π

t

π

x

180

t

 

=

t

and

=

 

⇒=

x

180

x

180

 

π

Half Angle Formulas

sin

2

cos

2

tan

2

θ

θ

θ

=

=

=

1

(

1

2

1

(

2

1

cos

1

+

cos

(

cos

(

θ

2

θ

2

)

))

(

θ

2

))

1

+

cos

(

θ

2

)

Sum and Difference Formulas

sin

(

αβ

±=

)

sin

α

cos

β

±

cos

α

sin

β

cos

(

α

± β

)

=

cos

αβ

cos

sin

α

sin

β

tan

(

α

± β

)

=

tan

α

±

tan

β

 

1

tan

α

tan

β

Product to Sum Formulas

1

2

⎡ ⎣

1

2

⎣ ⎡

1

2

⎣ ⎡

1

2

sin

cos

sin

cos

α β

sin

=

α

cos

β

=

cos

cos

()()

αβ

−−

cos

αβ

+

(

(

()()

αβ

−+

cos

αβ

+

αβ

++

)(

sin

αβ

+−

)(

sin

αβ

αβ

)

)

α β

cos

α β

sin

=

=

sin

sin

Sum to Product Formulas

⎛ αβ + αβ − ⎞ sin α + sin β = 2sin ⎟⎜ ⎞⎛
αβ
+
αβ
sin
α
+
sin
β
=
2sin
⎟⎜ ⎞⎛ cos
2
⎠⎝
2
αβ
+
αβ
sin
α
sin
β
=
2cos
⎞⎛ ⎟⎜ sin
2
⎠⎝
2
⎠ ⎟
cos
α
+
cos
β
=
2cos
⎜ ⎝
αβ
+
αβ
2
⎟⎜ ⎞⎛ cos
⎠⎝
2
⎠ ⎟
αβ
+
αβ
cos
α
cos
β
=−
2sin
2
⎟⎜ ⎞⎛ sin
⎠⎝
2
⎠ ⎟
Cofunction Formulas
⎛⎞
π
⎛⎞
π
sin
−=
θ
cos
θ
cos
−=
θθ
sin
⎜⎟
⎜⎟
⎝⎠
2
⎝⎠ 2

csc

tan

⎛⎞

⎜⎟

⎝⎠ 2

⎛⎞

⎜⎟

⎝⎠ 2

π

π

θθ

−=

sec

θθ

−=

cot

sec

cot

⎛⎞ −= ⎝⎠ ⎜⎟ 2

⎛⎞

⎜⎟

⎝⎠ 2

π

π

θθ

csc

θθ

−=

tan

© 2005 Paul Dawkins

Unit Circle

y ( 0,1) π ⎛ 1 3 ⎞ , ⎛ ⎜ ⎟ 1 3 ⎞
y
(
0,1)
π
1
3
,
1
3
2
2
,
2
2
2
π
2
2
2
π
90°
,
2
2
3
2
2
,
3
2
2
π
120°
60
°
3
π
3
1
4
,
2
2
4
3
1
45°
π
,
135°
2
2
5
π
6
6
30°
150°
π
180°
0
( 1,0)
(−1,0)
x
360°
210°
7
π
330°
11
π
6
225°
6
3
1
3
1
,
315°
, −
5
π
2
2
2
2
240°
7
π
4
300°
4
π
270°
2
2
4
π
,
5
2
2
2
2
3
3
,
π
3
2
2
2
1
3
1
3
,
,
2
2
2
2
(0,−1)

For any ordered pair on the unit circle (x, y) : cosθ = x and sinθ = y

Example

cos

⎛⎞π 51

⎜⎟

⎝⎠

32

=

sin

⎛⎞π 5

⎜⎟

⎝⎠ 3

=−

3
3

2

© 2005 Paul Dawkins

Inverse Trig Functions

Definition Inverse Properties − 1 − − 1 y = sin x is equivalent to
Definition
Inverse Properties
− 1
1
y
= sin
x
is equivalent to
xy
=
sin
cos cos
(
1 (
x ))
= x
cos
( cos
(
θ ))
=
θ
− 1
y
= cos
x
is equivalent to
xy
=
cos
(
1
(
))
1
sin sin
x
=
x
sin
(
sin
(
θ
))
=
θ
− 1
y
= tan
x
is equivalent to
xy
=
tan
tan tan
(
1 (
x ))
1
= x
tan
(
tan
(
θ
))
=
θ
Domain and Range
Alternate Notation
Function
Domain
Range
− 1
π
π
sin
x
= arcsin
x
− 1
y
= −≤1
sin
x
x ≤1
y
− 1
2
2
cos
x
= arccos
x
− 1
y
= −≤1 x
cos
x
≤1
0 ≤ y ≤ π
− 1
tan
x
= arctan
x
π
π
− 1
y
= tan
x
−∞< x <∞
−<<
y
2
2
Law of Sines, Cosines and Tangents
c
β
a
α
γ
b

Law of Sines

=

sin

α

sin

β

=

sin

γ

abc

Law of Cosines

a b

2

=+− 2

c

22

b a

2

=+− 2

c

22

2

c a

=+− 2

22

b

bc

ac

ab

cos

cos

cos

α

β

γ

Mollweide’s Formula

a

+

b

cos

=

1

2

(

α

β

)

c

sin

1

2

γ

Law of Tangents

a

b

tan

1

2

(

α

β

)

= a + b tan α + β ) 1 2 ( b − c
=
a
+ b
tan
α +
β
)
1 2 (
b
− c
tan
β γ
)
1 2 (
=
b + c tan β + γ ) 1 2 ( a − c tan
b
+ c
tan
β +
γ
)
1 2 (
a
− c
tan
α γ
)
1 2 (
=

a

+

c

tan

1

2

(

α

+

γ

)

© 2005 Paul Dawkins