Trig Cheat Sheet
Definition of the Trig Functions
Right triangle definition For this definition we assume that
Unit circle definition
For this definition θ is any angle.
Facts and Properties
Domain The domain is all the values of _{θ} that can be plugged into the function.
sinθ , 
θ can be any angle 
cosθ , 
θ can be any angle 
tanθ ,
_{c}_{s}_{c} _{θ} _{,}
secθ ,
_{c}_{o}_{t} _{θ} _{,}
θ
⎛
⎜
⎝
≠ +
n
θ ≠ n π ,
θ
≠
⎛
⎜
⎝
n
+
θ ≠ n π ,
1
2
⎞
⎟
⎠
π
,
n
=
0,
n =±±0,
1,
1
2
⎞
⎟
⎠
π
,
n
=
0,
n =±±0, 1,
±± 1,
2, …
±± 1,
2, …
2, …
2, …
Range The range is all possible values to get out of the function.
cscθ ≥ 1 and cscθ ≤−1
_{−}_{≤}_{1}
_{−}_{≤}_{1} _{c}_{o}_{s}_{θ} _{≤} _{1} secθ ≥ 1 and secθ ≤−1
_{s}_{i}_{n}_{θ} _{≤} _{1}
−∞ ≤ _{t}_{a}_{n}_{θ} ≤ ∞
−∞ ≤ cotθ ≤ ∞
Period The period of a function is the number,
T, such that f _{(}_{θ} + Tf) =
is a fixed number and θ is any angle we have the following periods.
_{(}_{θ} _{)} .
So, if ω
sin (ωθ ) → 
T 
= 
cos(ωθ _{)} → 
T 
= 
tan (ωθ ) → 
T = 

csc(ωθ _{)} → 
T 
= 
sec(ωθ _{)} → 
T 
= 
cot (ωθ ) → 
T = 
2
π
ω
2
π
ω
π
ω
2
π
ω
2
π
ω
π
ω
© 2005 Paul Dawkins
Formulas and Identities
Tangent and Cotangent Identities
Pythagorean Identities
2
sin
tan
1
θ
θ
2
+
cot
+
+
cos
1
=
2
θ
=
2
θ
sec
csc
=
1
2
2
θ
θ
Even/Odd Formulas
sin
cos
tan
(
()
()
)
θ
−=
θθ
−
=−
sin
cos
θ
θθ
−
=−
tan
Periodic Formulas If n is an integer.
sin
cos
tan
(
()
()
θπ
2
θ
2
+=
n
)
sin
θ
θ
+=
π
n
cos
θπ
+=
n
tan
θ
csc
sec
cot
csc
sec
cot
)
()
(
θθ
−
=−
csc
θ
−=
sec
θ
()
θθ
−
=−
cot
(
()
)
θπ
2
θπ
2
+=
n
+=
n
csc
sec
θ
θ
()
θπ
+=
n
cot
θ
Double Angle Formulas
sin
cos
tan
(
(
(
θ
θ
2
2
θ
2
)
)
)
=
=
=
=
=
2sin
cos
2cos
1
θ
θ
cos
−
θθ
−
sin
2
θ
−
1
2sin
2
θ
2
2
2 tan
θ
1
− tan
2
θ
Degrees to Radians Formulas If x is an angle in degrees and t is an
angle in radians then
π 
t 
π 
x 
180 
t 

= 
t 
and 
= 

⇒= 
x 

180 
x 
180 
π 
Half Angle Formulas
sin
2
cos
2
tan
2
θ
θ
θ
=
=
=
1
(
1
2
1
(
2
1
−
−
cos
1
+
cos
(
cos
(
θ
2
θ
2
)
))
(
θ
2
))
1
+
cos
(
θ
2
)
Sum and Difference Formulas
sin 
( αβ ±= ) 
sin 
α cos β ± cos α 
sin 
β 

cos 
( 
α ± β ) 
= 
cos αβ cos ∓ sin α 
sin 
β 

tan 
( 
α ± β ) 
= 
tan α ± tan β 

1 
∓ tan α tan β 
Product to Sum Formulas
1
2
⎡ ⎣
1
2
⎣ ⎡
1
2
⎣ ⎡
1
2
sin
cos
sin
cos
α β
sin
=
α
cos
β
=
cos
cos
()()
αβ
−−
cos
αβ
+
(
(
()()
αβ
−+
cos
αβ
+
αβ
++
)(
sin
αβ
+−
)(
sin
αβ
−
αβ
−
)
)
⎤
⎦
⎤
⎦
⎤
⎦
⎤
⎦
α β
cos
α β
sin
=
=
sin
⎡ sin
⎣
Sum to Product Formulas
csc
tan
⎛⎞
⎜⎟
⎝⎠ 2
⎛⎞
⎜⎟
⎝⎠ 2
π
π
θθ
−=
sec
θθ
−=
cot
sec
cot
⎛⎞ −= ⎝⎠ ⎜⎟ 2
⎛⎞
⎜⎟
⎝⎠ 2
π
π
θθ
csc
θθ
−=
tan
© 2005 Paul Dawkins
Unit Circle
For any ordered pair on the unit circle _{(}_{x}_{,} y) : cosθ = x and sinθ = y
Example
cos
⎛⎞π 51
⎜⎟
⎝⎠
32
=
sin
⎛⎞π 5
⎜⎟
⎝⎠ 3
=−
2
© 2005 Paul Dawkins
Inverse Trig Functions
Law of Sines
=
sin
α
sin
β
=
sin
γ
abc
Law of Cosines
a b
2
=+− 2
c
22
b a
2
=+− 2
c
22
2
c a
=+− 2
22
b
bc
ac
ab
cos
cos
cos
α
β
γ
Mollweide’s Formula
a
+
b
cos
=
1
2
(
α
−
β
)
c
sin
1
2
γ
Law of Tangents
−
a
−
b
tan
1
2
(
α
β
)
a
+
c
tan
1
2
(
α
+
γ
)
© 2005 Paul Dawkins
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